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Fluid Mechanics

Contents

1 Apparent viscosity 1
1.1 Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2 Power-law fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

2 Net positive suction head 3


2.1 NPSH in a Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.2 NPSH in a Turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.3 NPSH design considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.4 Relationship to other cavitation parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.5 Some general NPSH Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

3 Non-Newtonian fluid 7
3.1 Types of non-Newtonian behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.1.1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.1.2 Shear thickening fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.1.3 Shear thinning fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.1.4 Bingham plastic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.1.5 Rheopectic or anti-thixotropic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.2.1 Oobleck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.2.2 Flubber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2.3 Chilled caramel topping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2.4 Silly Putty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.2.5 Plant resin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.2.6 Ketchup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.2.7 Dry granular flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

i
ii CONTENTS

4 Pitot tube 13
4.1 Theory of operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.2 Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.3 Industry applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

5 Pressure measurement 20
5.1 Absolute, gauge and differential pressures — zero reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
5.2 Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5.3 Static and dynamic pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5.3.1 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.4 Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.4.1 Hydrostatic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.4.2 Aneroid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
5.4.3 Spinning rotor gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5.5 Electronic pressure sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5.5.1 Thermal conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5.5.2 Ionization gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.6 Dynamic transients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.7 Calibration and standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.8 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5.9 European (CEN) Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5.10 US ASME Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5.11 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5.12 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5.13 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

6 Pump 42
6.1 Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
6.1.1 Positive displacement pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
6.1.2 Impulse pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
6.1.3 Velocity pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
6.1.4 Gravity pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
6.1.5 Steam pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
6.1.6 Valveless pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
6.2 Pump repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
6.3 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
6.3.1 Priming a pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
6.3.2 Pumps as public water supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
6.3.3 Sealing multiphase pumping applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
CONTENTS iii

6.4 Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
6.5 Pumping power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
6.6 Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
6.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
6.8 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

7 Reynolds transport theorem 66


7.1 General form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
7.2 Form for a material element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
7.3 A special case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
7.3.1 Interpretation and reduction to one dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
7.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
7.5 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
7.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
7.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

8 Rheopecty 69
8.1 Confusion between rheopectic and dilatant fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
8.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

9 Specific speed 70
9.1 Pump specific speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
9.2 Net suction specific speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
9.3 Turbine specific speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
9.3.1 English units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
9.3.2 Metric units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
9.3.3 Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
9.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
9.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

10 Terminal velocity 74
10.1 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
10.2 Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
10.2.1 Derivation for terminal velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
10.2.2 Terminal velocity in a creeping flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
10.2.3 Finding the terminal velocity when the drag coefficient is not known . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
10.3 Terminal velocity in the presence of buoyancy force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
10.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
10.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
10.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

11 Thixotropy 82
11.1 Natural examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
iv CONTENTS

11.2 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
11.3 Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
11.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
11.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
11.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

12 Time-dependent viscosity 85
12.1 Thixotropic fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
12.1.1 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
12.2 Rheopectic fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
12.2.1 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
12.3 Hysterisis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
12.4 The marker and cell method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
12.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
12.6 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
12.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

13 Water hammer 89
13.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
13.2 Cause and effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
13.2.1 Related phenomena . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
13.3 Water hammer from a jet of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
13.4 Water hammer during an explosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
13.5 Mitigating measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
13.6 The magnitude of the pulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
13.6.1 Instant valve closure; compressible fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
13.6.2 Slow valve closure; incompressible fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
13.7 Expression for the excess pressure due to water hammer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
13.8 Dynamic equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
13.9 Column separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
13.10Simulation software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
13.11Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
13.12See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
13.13References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
13.14External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
13.15Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
13.15.1 Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
13.15.2 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
13.15.3 Content license . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Chapter 1

Apparent viscosity

tic
Shear stress (τ) [Pa]

s
m pla
ha
B ing

n t
ta
η₂
la
Di

η₁ η₄

t onian
New

η₃

Shear rate (γ̇ ) [s-1]


The apparent viscosity of a fluid depends on the shear rate at which it is measured. The apparent viscosity of a dilatant fluid is
higher when measured at a higher shear rate (η₄ is higher than η₃), while the apparent viscosity of a Bingham plastic is lower (η₂ is
lower than η₁).

1
2 CHAPTER 1. APPARENT VISCOSITY

Apparent viscosity (sometimes denoted η)[1] is the shear stress applied to a fluid divided by the shear rate ( η = γ̇τ
). For a Newtonian fluid, the apparent viscosity is constant, and equal to the Newtonian viscosity of the fluid, but for
non-Newtonian fluids, the apparent viscosity depends on the shear rate. Apparent viscosity has the SI derived unit
Pa·s (Pascal-second, but the centipoise is frequently used in practice: (1 mPa·s = 1 cP).

1.1 Application
A single viscosity measurement at a constant speed in a typical viscometer is a measurement of the apparent viscosity
of a fluid. In the case of non-Newtonian fluids, measurement of apparent viscosity without knowledge of the shear
rate is of limited value: the measurement cannot be compared to other measurements if the speed and geometry of
the two instruments is not identical. An apparent viscosity that is reported without the shear rate or information about
the instrument and settings (e.g. speed and spindle type for a rotational viscometer) is meaningless.
Multiple measurements of apparent viscosity at different, well-defined shear rates, can give useful information about
the non-Newtonian behaviour of a fluid, and allow it to be modeled.

1.2 Power-law fluids


In many non-Newtonian fluids, the shear stress due to viscosity, τxy , can be modeled by

( )n
du
τxy = k
dy
where

• k is the consistency index


• n is the flow behavior index
• du/dy is the shear rate, with velocity u and position y

These fluids are called power-law fluids.


To ensure that τxy has the same sign as du/dy, this is often written as

n−1
du du du
τyx = k =η
dy dy dy
where the term

n−1
du
η = k
dy
gives the apparent viscosity.[1]

1.3 See also


• Fluid Dynamics
• Rheology

1.4 References
[1] Fox, Robert; McDonald, Alan; Pritchard, Philip (2012). Fluid Mechanics (8 ed.). John Wiley & Sons. pp. 76–83. ISBN
978-1-118-02641-0.
Chapter 2

Net positive suction head

This article is about net positive suction head. For the fire hose coupling thread, see Glossary of firefighting equip-
ment § N.

In a hydraulic circuit, net positive suction head (NPSH) may refer to one of two quantities in the analysis of
cavitation:

1. The Available NPSH (NPSHA): a measure of how close the fluid at a given point is to flashing, and so to
cavitation.

2. The Required NPSH (NPSHR): the head value at a specific point (e.g. the inlet of a pump) required to keep
the fluid from cavitating.

NPSH is particularly relevant inside centrifugal pumps and turbines, which are parts of a hydraulic system that are
most vulnerable to cavitation. If cavitation occurs, the drag coefficient of the impeller vanes will increase drastically
- possibly stopping flow altogether - and prolonged exposure will damage the impeller.

2.1 NPSH in a Pump


In a pump, cavitation will first occur at the inlet of the impeller.[1] Denoting the inlet by i, the NPSHA at this point
is defined as:
( )
V2
N P SHA = ρg pi
+ 2gi − pρgv
where pi is the Absolute Pressure at the inlet, Vi is the average velocity at the inlet, ρ is the fluid density, g is the
acceleration of gravity and pv is the vapour pressure of the fluid. Note that it is equivalent to the sum of both the static
and dynamic heads – that is, the stagnation head – from which one deducts the head corresponding to the equilibrium
vapor pressure, hence “net positive suction head”.
Applying First law of thermodynamics for control volumes enclosing the suction free surface 0 and the pump inlet i,
under the assumption that the kinetic energy at 0 is negligible, that the fluid is inviscid, and that the fluid density is
constant:
p0 pi Vi2
ρg + z0 = ρg + 2g + zi + hf
Using the above application of Bernoulli to eliminate the velocity term and local pressure terms in the definition of
NPSHA:
N P SHA = p0
ρg − pv
ρg − (zi − z0 ) − hf
This is the standard expression for the Available NPSH at point. Cavitation will occur at the point i when the Available
NPSH is less than the NPSH required to prevent cavitation (NPSHR). For simple impeller systems, NPSHR can be
derived theoretically,[2] but very often it is determined empirically.[3] Note NPSHA and NPSHR are in absolute units
and usually expressed in “m abs” not “psia”.

3
4 CHAPTER 2. NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD

A simple hydraulic pumping circuit. Point 0 is the free suction surface, and point i is the inlet of the impeller.

Experimentally, NPSHR is often defined as the NPSH3 , the point at which the head output of the pump decreases
by 3% at a given flow due to reduced hydraulic performance. On multi-stage pumps this is limited to a 3% drop in
the first stage head.[4]

2.2 NPSH in a Turbine


The calculation of NPSH in a reaction turbine is different to the calculation of NPSH in a pump, because the point at
which cavitation will first occur is in a different place. In a reaction turbine, cavitation will first occur at the outlet of
the impeller, at the entrance of the draft tube.[5] Denoting the entrance of the draft tube by e, the NPSHA is defined
in the same way as for pumps:
( )
V2
N P SHA = ρg pe
+ 2ge − pρgv [6]
Applying Bernoulli’s principle from the draft tube entrance e to the lower free surface 0, under the assumption that
the kinetic energy at 0 is negligible, that the fluid is inviscid, and that the fluid density is constant:
pe Ve2 p0
ρg + 2g + ze = ρg + z0 + hf
Using the above application of Bernoulli to eliminate the velocity term and local pressure terms in the definition of
NPSHA:
N P SHA = p0
ρg − pv
ρg − (ze − z0 ) + hf
Note that, in turbines minor losses ( hf ) alleviate the effect of cavitation - opposite to what happens in pumps.

2.3 NPSH design considerations


Vapour pressure is strongly dependent on temperature, and thus so will both NPSHR and NPSHA. Centrifugal pumps
are particularly vulnerable especially when pumping heated solution near the vapor pressure, whereas positive dis-
placement pumps are less affected by cavitation, as they are better able to pump two-phase flow (the mixture of
gas and liquid), however, the resultant flow rate of the pump will be diminished because of the gas volumetrically
displacing a disproportion of liquid. Careful design is required to pump high temperature liquids with a centrifugal
pump when the liquid is near its boiling point.
2.4. RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER CAVITATION PARAMETERS 5

The violent collapse of the cavitation bubble creates a shock wave that can carve material from internal pump compo-
nents (usually the leading edge of the impeller) and creates noise often described as “pumping gravel”. Additionally,
the inevitable increase in vibration can cause other mechanical faults in the pump and associated equipment.

2.4 Relationship to other cavitation parameters


The NPSH appears in a number of other cavitation-relevant parameters. The suction head coefficient is a dimensionless
measure of NPSH:
gN P SH
CN P SH = n2 D 2
Where n is the angular velocity (in rad/s) of the turbomachine shaft, and D is the turbomachine impeller diameter.
The Thomas cavitation number is defined as:
N P SH
σ= H
Where H is the head across the turbomachine.

2.5 Some general NPSH Examples


(based on sea level).
Example 1: A tank with a liquid level 2 metres above the pump intake, plus the atmospheric pressure of 10 metres,
minus a 2 metre friction loss into the pump (say for pipe & valve loss), minus the NPSHR curve (say 2.5 metres) of
the pre-designed pump (see the manufacturers curve) = an NPSHA (available) of 7.5 metres. (not forgetting the flow
duty). This equates to 3 times the NPSH required. This pump will operate well so long as all other parameters are
correct.
Remember that (+ or -) flow duty will change the reading on the pump manufacture NPSHR curve. The lower the
flow, the lower the NPSHR, and vice versa.
Lifting out of a well will also create negative NPSH; however remember that atmospheric pressure at sea level is 10
metres! This helps us, as it gives us a bonus boost or “push” into the pump intake. (Remember that you only have 10
metres of atmospheric pressure as a bonus and nothing more!).
Example 2: A well or bore with an operating level of 5 metres below the intake, minus a 2 metre friction loss into
pump (pipe loss), minus the NPSHR curve (say 2.4 metres) of the pre-designed pump = an NPSHA (available) of
(negative) −9.4 metres. NOW we add the atmospheric pressure of 10 metres. We have a positive NPSHA of 0.6
metres. (minimum requirement is 0.6 metres above NPSHR), so the pump should lift from the well.
Now we will try the situation from example 2 above, but will pump 70 degrees Celsius (158F) water from a hot spring,
creating negative NPSH.
Example 3: A well or bore running at 70 degrees Celsius (158F) with an operating level of 5 metres below the intake,
minus a 2 metre friction loss into pump (pipe loss), minus the NPSHR curve (say 2.4 metres) of the pre-designed
pump, minus a temperature loss of 3 metres/10 feet = an NPSHA (available) of (negative) −12.4 metres. NOW we
add the atmospheric pressure of 10 metres and we have a negative NPSHA of −2.4 metres remaining.
Remembering that the minimum requirement is 600 mm above the NPSHR therefore this pump will not be able to
pump the 70 degree Celsius liquid and will cavitate and lose performance and cause damage. To work efficiently, the
pump must be buried in the ground at a depth of 2.4 metres plus the required 600 mm minimum, totalling a total
depth of 3 metres into the pit. (3.5 metres to be completely safe).
A minimum of 600 mm (0.06 bar) and a recommended 1.5 metre (0.15 bar) head pressure “higher” than the NPSHR
pressure value required by the manufacturer is required to allow the pump to operate properly.
Serious damage may occur if a large pump has been sited incorrectly with an incorrect NPSHR value and this may
result in a very expensive pump or installation repair.
NPSH problems may be able to be solved by changing the NPSHR or by re-siting the pump.
If an NPSHA is say 10 bar then the pump you are using will deliver exactly 10 bar more over the entire operational
curve of a pump than its listed operational curve.
Example: A pump with a max. pressure head of 8 bar (80 metres) will actually run at 18 bar if the NPSHA is 10 bar.
6 CHAPTER 2. NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD

i.e.: 8 bar (pump curve) plus 10 bar NPSHA = 18 bar.


This phenomenon is what manufacturers use when they design multistage pumps, (Pumps with more than one im-
peller). Each multi stacked impeller boosts the succeeding impeller to raise the pressure head. Some pumps can have
up to 150 stages or more, in order to boost heads up to hundreds of metres.

2.6 References
[1] Frank M. White Fluid Mechanics, 7th Ed., p. 771

[2] Paresh Girdhar, Octo Moniz, Practical Centrifugal Pumps, p. 68

[3] Frank M. White Fluid Mechanics, 7th Ed., p . 771

[4] http://www.pumps.org/content_detail.aspx?id=1770

[5] Cavitation in reaction turbines, http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/Webcourse-contents/IIT-KANPUR/machine/ui/Course_home-lec31.


htm

[6] Frank M. White Fluid Mechanics, 7th Ed., p. 771


Chapter 3

Non-Newtonian fluid

A non-Newtonian fluid is a fluid that does not follow Newton’s Law of Viscosity. Most commonly, the viscosity
(the measure of a fluid’s ability to resist gradual deformation by shear or tensile stresses) of non-Newtonian fluids is
dependent on shear rate or shear rate history. Some non-Newtonian fluids with shear-independent viscosity, however,
still exhibit normal stress-differences or other non-Newtonian behavior. Many salt solutions and molten polymers are
non-Newtonian fluids, as are many commonly found substances such as ketchup, custard, toothpaste, starch suspen-
sions, maizena, paint, blood, and shampoo.
In a Newtonian fluid, the relation between the shear stress and the shear rate is linear, passing through the origin,
the constant of proportionality being the coefficient of viscosity. In a non-Newtonian fluid, the relation between the
shear stress and the shear rate is different and can even be time-dependent (Time Dependent Viscosity). Therefore,
a constant coefficient of viscosity cannot be defined.
Although the concept of viscosity is commonly used in fluid mechanics to characterize the shear properties of a
fluid, it can be inadequate to describe non-Newtonian fluids. They are best studied through several other rheological
properties that relate stress and strain rate tensors under many different flow conditions—such as oscillatory shear or
extensional flow—which are measured using different devices or rheometers. The properties are better studied using
tensor-valued constitutive equations, which are common in the field of continuum mechanics.

3.1 Types of non-Newtonian behaviour

3.1.1 Summary

3.1.2 Shear thickening fluid

The viscosity of a shear thickening fluid, or dilatant fluid, appears to increase when the shear rate increases. Corn
starch dissolved in water (“oobleck”, see below) is a common example: when stirred slowly it looks milky, when
stirred vigorously it feels like a very viscous liquid.

3.1.3 Shear thinning fluid

A familiar example of the opposite, a shear thinning fluid, or pseudoplastic fluid, is wall paint: The paint should flow
readily off the brush when it is being applied to a surface but not drip excessively. Note that all thixotropic fluids
are extremely shear thinning, but they are significantly time dependent, whereas the colloidal “shear thinning” fluids
respond instantaneously to changes in shear rate. Thus, to avoid confusion, the latter classification is more clearly
termed pseudoplastic.
Another example of a shear thinning fluid is blood. This application is highly favoured within the body, as it allows
the viscosity of blood to decrease with increased shear strain rate.

7
8 CHAPTER 3. NON-NEWTONIAN FLUID

t ic
s
la
Shear stress (τ) [Pa]
p
m
gha
n
Bi ia
n
o n
t
e w
N

Classification of fluids with shear stress as a function of shear rate.

3.1.4 Bingham plastic

Fluids that have a linear shear stress/shear strain relationship require a finite yield stress before they begin to flow (the
plot of shear stress against shear strain does not pass through the origin). These fluids are called Bingham plastics.
Several examples are clay suspensions, drilling mud, toothpaste, mayonnaise, chocolate, and mustard. The surface
of a Bingham plastic can hold peaks when it is still. By contrast Newtonian fluids have flat featureless surfaces when
still.

3.1.5 Rheopectic or anti-thixotropic

There are also fluids whose strain rate is a function of time. Fluids that require a gradually increasing shear stress to
maintain a constant strain rate are referred to as rheopectic. An opposite case of this is a fluid that thins out with time
and requires a decreasing stress to maintain a constant strain rate (thixotropic).
3.2. EXAMPLES 9

3.2 Examples
Many common substances exhibit non-Newtonian flows. These include:[5]

• Soap solutions, cosmetics and toothpaste

• Food such as butter, cheese, jam, ketchup, mayonnaise, soup, taffy, and yogurt

• Natural substances such as magma, lava, gums, and extracts such as vanilla extract

• Biological fluids such as blood, saliva, semen, mucus and synovial fluid

• Slurries such as cement slurry and paper pulp, emulsions such as mayonnaise, and some kinds of dispersions

3.2.1 Oobleck

Demonstration of a non-Newtonian fluid at Universum in Mexico City

An inexpensive, non-toxic example of a non-Newtonian fluid is a suspension of starch (e.g. cornstarch) in water,
sometimes called “Oobleck”, “ooze”, or “magic mud” (1 part of water to 1.5–2 parts of corn starch).[7][8][9] Uncooked
10 CHAPTER 3. NON-NEWTONIAN FLUID

Oobleck on a subwoofer. Applying force to oobleck, by sound waves in this case, makes the non-Newtonian fluid thicken.[6]

cornflour has the same properties. The name “oobleck” is derived from the Dr. Seuss book Bartholomew and the
Oobleck.[7]
Because of its properties, oobleck is often used in demonstrations that exhibit its unusual behavior. A person may
walk on a large tub of oobleck without sinking due to its shear thickening properties, given the individual moves
quickly enough to provide enough force with each step to cause the thickening. Also, if oobleck is placed on a large
subwoofer driven at a sufficiently high volume, it will thicken and form standing waves in response to low frequency
sound waves from the speaker.

3.2.2 Flubber

Main article: Flubber (material)

Flubber is a non-Newtonian fluid, easily made from polyvinyl alcohol–based glues (such as white “school” glue)
and borax. It flows under low stresses but breaks under higher stresses and pressures. This combination of fluid-
like and solid-like properties makes it a Maxwell fluid. Its behaviour can also be described as being viscoplastic or
gelatinous.[10]

3.2.3 Chilled caramel topping

Another example of this is chilled caramel ice cream topping (so long as it incorporates hydrocolloids such as
carrageenan and gellan gum). The sudden application of force—by stabbing the surface with a finger, for exam-
ple, or rapidly inverting the container holding it—causes the fluid to behave like a solid rather than a liquid. This
is the “shear thickening” property of this non-Newtonian fluid. More gentle treatment, such as slowly inserting a
spoon, will leave it in its liquid state. Trying to jerk the spoon back out again, however, will trigger the return of the
temporary solid state.[11]
3.3. SEE ALSO 11

3.2.4 Silly Putty


Main article: Silly Putty

Silly Putty is a silicone polymer based suspension which will flow, bounce, or break depending on strain rate.

3.2.5 Plant resin


Main article: Pitch (resin)

Plant resin is a viscoelastic solid polymer. When left in a container, it will flow slowly as a liquid to conform to the
contours of its container. If struck with greater force, however, it will shatter as a solid.

3.2.6 Ketchup
Ketchup is a shear thinning fluid.[2][12] Shear thinning means that the fluid viscosity decreases with increasing shear
stress. In other words, fluid motion is initially difficult at slow rates of deformation, but will flow more freely at high
rates.

3.2.7 Dry granular flows


Under certain circumstances, flows of granular materials can be modelled as a continuum, for example using the
μ(I)_rheology. Such continuum models tend to be non-Newtonian, since the apparent viscosity of granular flows
increases with pressure and decreases with shear rate.

3.3 See also


• Bingham plastic

• Caramel

• Complex fluid

• Dilatant

• Dissipative particle dynamics

• Generalized Newtonian fluid

• Herschel–Bulkley fluid

• Navier–Stokes equations

• Newtonian fluid

• Pseudoplastic

• Quicksand

• Rheology

• Superfluids

• Weissenberg effect

• Thixotropy

[13]
12 CHAPTER 3. NON-NEWTONIAN FLUID

3.4 References
[1] Tropea, Cameron; Yarin, Alexander L.; Foss, John F. (2007). Springer handbook of experimental fluid mechanics. Springer.
pp. 661, 676. ISBN 978-3-540-25141-5.

[2] Garay, Paul N. (1996). Pump Application Desk Book (3rd ed.). Prentice Hall. p. 358. ISBN 978-0-88173-231-3.

[3] Rao, M. A. (2007). Rheology of Fluid and Semisolid Foods: Principles and Applications (2nd ed.). Springer. p. 8. ISBN
978-0-387-70929-1.

[4] Schramm, Laurier L. (2005). Emulsions, Foams, and Suspensions: Fundamentals and Applications. Wiley VCH. p. 173.
ISBN 978-3-527-30743-2.

[5] Chhabra, R.P. (2006). Bubbles, Drops, and Particles in Non-Newtonian Fluids. (2nd ed.). Hoboken: Taylor & Francis Ltd.
pp. 9–10. ISBN 1420015389.

[6] This demonstration of oobleck is a popular subject for YouTube videos, such as this.

[7] Oobleck: The Dr. Seuss Science Experiment

[8] “Outrageous Ooze”. Exploratorium.

[9] Rupp, Rebecca. “Magic Mud and Other Great Experiments”. The Complete Home Learning Source Book. pp. 235–236.

[10] Glurch Meets Oobleck. Iowa State University Extension.

[11] Barra, Giuseppina (2004). The Rheology of Caramel (PhD). University of Nottingham.

[12] Cartwright, Jon (2 September 2011). “Microscopy reveals why ketchup squirts”. Chemistry World. Royal Society of
Chemistry.

[13] Wikipedia

3.5 External links


• Classical experiments with Non-Newtonian fluids by the National Committee for Fluid Mechanics on YouTube
Chapter 4

Pitot tube

Aircraft use pitot tubes to measure airspeed. The example, from an Airbus A380, combines a pitot tube (right) with a static port and
an angle-of-attack vane (left). Air-flow is right to left.

A pitot (/ˈpiːtoʊ/ PEE-toh) tube is a pressure measurement instrument used to measure fluid flow velocity. The pitot
tube was invented by the French engineer Henri Pitot in the early 18th century[1] and was modified to its modern
form in the mid-19th century by French scientist Henry Darcy.[2] It is widely used to determine the airspeed of an
aircraft, water speed of a boat, and to measure liquid, air and gas flow velocities in industrial applications. The pitot

13
14 CHAPTER 4. PITOT TUBE

Simple Pitot
tube

Static
source

Pitot-static
tube

Types of pitot tubes

tube is used to measure the local flow velocity at a given point in the flow stream and not the average flow velocity in
the pipe or conduit.[3]
4.1. THEORY OF OPERATION 15

Pitot tube on Kamov Ka-26 helicopter

4.1 Theory of operation


The basic pitot tube consists of a tube pointing directly into the fluid flow. As this tube contains fluid, a pressure
can be measured; the moving fluid is brought to rest (stagnates) as there is no outlet to allow flow to continue. This
pressure is the stagnation pressure of the fluid, also known as the total pressure or (particularly in aviation) the pitot
pressure.
The measured stagnation pressure cannot itself be used to determine the fluid flow velocity (airspeed in aviation).
However, Bernoulli’s equation states:

Stagnation pressure = static pressure + dynamic pressure

Which can also be written

( )
ρu2
pt = ps +
2
Solving that for flow velocity:


2(pt − ps )
u=
ρ

NOTE: The above equation applies only to fluids that can be treated as incompressible. Liquids are treated as
incompressible under almost all conditions. Gases under certain conditions can be approximated as incompressible.
See Compressibility.
16 CHAPTER 4. PITOT TUBE

where:

• u is flow velocity to be measured in m/s;


• pt is stagnation or total pressure in pascals;
• ps is static pressure in pascals;
• and ρ is fluid density in kg/m3 .

The dynamic pressure, then, is the difference between the stagnation pressure and the static pressure. The dynamic
pressure is then determined using a diaphragm inside an enclosed container. If the air on one side of the diaphragm
is at the static pressure, and the other at the stagnation pressure, then the deflection of the diaphragm is proportional
to the dynamic pressure.
In aircraft, the static pressure is generally measured using the static ports on the side of the fuselage. The dynamic
pressure measured can be used to determine the indicated airspeed of the aircraft. The diaphragm arrangement de-
scribed above is typically contained within the airspeed indicator, which converts the dynamic pressure to an airspeed
reading by means of mechanical levers.
Instead of separate pitot and static ports, a pitot-static tube (also called a Prandtl tube) may be employed, which has
a second tube coaxial with the pitot tube with holes on the sides, outside the direct airflow, to measure the static
pressure.[4]
If a liquid column manometer is used to measure the pressure difference pt – ps , or ∆p ,

∆p
∆h =
ρl g
where:

• ∆h is the height difference of the columns in meters.


• ρl is the density of the liquid in the manometer;
• g is the acceleration due to gravity in m/s2

Therefore,


2(∆h ∗ (ρl g))
V =
ρ

4.2 Aircraft
Main article: Pitot-static system

A pitot-static system is a system of pressure-sensitive instruments that is most often used in aviation to determine an
aircraft’s airspeed, Mach number, altitude, and altitude trend. A pitot-static system generally consists of a pitot tube,
a static port, and the pitot-static instruments.[5] Errors in pitot-static system readings can be extremely dangerous as
the information obtained from the pitot static system, such as airspeed, is potentially safety-critical.
Several commercial airline incidents and accidents have been traced to a failure of the pitot-static system. Examples
include Austral Líneas Aéreas Flight 2553, Northwest Airlines Flight 6231, and one of the two X-31s.[6] The French
air safety authority BEA said that pitot tube icing was a contributing factor in the crash of Air France Flight 447 into
the Atlantic Ocean.[7] In 2008 Air Caraïbes reported two incidents of pitot tube icing malfunctions on its A330s.[8]
Birgenair Flight 301 had a fatal pitot tube failure which investigators suspected was due to insects creating a nest
inside the pitot tube; the prime suspect is the Black and yellow mud dauber wasp.
Aeroperú Flight 603 had a pitot-static system failure due to the cleaning crew leaving the static port blocked with
tape.
4.3. INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS 17

4.3 Industry applications

Pitot tube from an F/A-18

In industry, the flow velocities being measured are often those flowing in ducts and tubing where measurements by an
anemometer would be difficult to obtain. In these kinds of measurements, the most practical instrument to use is the
pitot tube. The pitot tube can be inserted through a small hole in the duct with the pitot connected to a U-tube water
gauge or some other differential pressure gauge for determining the flow velocity inside the ducted wind tunnel. One
use of this technique is to determine the volume of air that is being delivered to a conditioned space.
The fluid flow rate in a duct can then be estimated from:

Volume flow rate (cubic feet per minute) = duct area (square feet) × flow velocity (feet per minute)
Volume flow rate (cubic meters per second) = duct area (square meters) × flow velocity (meters per
second)

In aviation, airspeed is typically measured in knots.


In weather stations with high wind speeds, the pitot tube is modified to create a special type of anemometer called
pitot tube static anemometer.[9]

4.4 See also

4.5 References
Notes
18 CHAPTER 4. PITOT TUBE

Weather instruments at Mount Washington Observatory. Pitot tube static anemometer is on the right.

[1] Pitot, Henri (1732). “Description d'une machine pour mesurer la vitesse des eaux courantes et le sillage des vaisseaux”
(PDF). Histoire de l'Académie royale des sciences avec les mémoires de mathématique et de physique tirés des registres de
cette Académie: 363–376. Retrieved 2009-06-19.

[2] Darcy, Henry (1858). “Note relative à quelques modifications à introduire dans le tube de Pitot” (PDF). Annales des Ponts
et Chaussées: 351–359. Retrieved 2009-07-31.

[3] Geankoplis, C.J. (2003). Transport processes and separation process principles (includes unit operations) (4th ed.). New
Jersey: Prentice Hall.

[4] “How Aircraft Instruments Work.” Popular Science, March 1944, pp. 116.

[5] Willits, Pat, ed. (2004) [1997]. Guided Flight Discovery - Private Pilot. Abbot, Mike Kailey, Liz. Jeppesen Sanderson.
pp. 2–48–2–53. ISBN 0-88487-333-1.

[6] NASA Dryden news releases. (1995)

[7] “Training flaws exposed in Rio-Paris crash report”. Reuters. 5 July 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.

[8] Daly, Kieran (11 June 2009). “Air Caraibes Atlantique memo details pitot icing incidents”. Flight International. Retrieved
19 February 2012.

[9] “Instrumentation: Pitot Tube Static Anemometer, Part 1”. Mount Washington Observatory. Retrieved 14 July 2014.

Bibliography

• Kermode, A.C. (1996) [1972]. Mechanics of Flight. Barnard, R.H. (Ed.) and Philpott, D.R. (Ed.) (10th ed.).
Prentice Hall. pp. 63–67. ISBN 0-582-23740-8.

• Pratt, Jeremy M. (2005) [1997]. The Private Pilot’s Licence Course: Principles of Flight, Aircraft General
Knowledge, Flight Performance and Planning (3rd ed.). gen108–gen111. ISBN 1-874783-23-3.
4.6. EXTERNAL LINKS 19

• Tietjens, O.G. (1934). Applied Hudro- and Aeromechanics, based on lectures of L. Prandtl, Ph.D. Dove Pub-
lications, Inc. pp. 226–239. ISBN 0-486-60375-X.
• Saleh, J.M. (2002). Fluid Flow Handbook. McGraw-Hill Professional.

4.6 External links


• 3D animation of the Pitot Tube Differential Pressure Flow Measuring Principle

• How 18th Century Technology Could Down an Airliner (wired.com)


Chapter 5

Pressure measurement

Example of the widely used Bourdon pressure gauge

Many techniques have been developed for the measurement of pressure and vacuum. Instruments used to measure
and display pressure in an integral unit are called pressure gauges or vacuum gauges. A manometer is a good
example as it uses a column of liquid to both measure and indicate pressure. Likewise the widely used Bourdon

20
5.1. ABSOLUTE, GAUGE AND DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURES — ZERO REFERENCE 21

gauge is a mechanical device which both measures and indicates, and is probably the best known type of gauge.
A vacuum gauge is an absolute pressure gauge used to measure the pressures lower than the ambient atmospheric
pressure.
Other methods of pressure measurement involve sensors which can transmit the pressure reading to a remote indicator
or control system (telemetry).

5.1 Absolute, gauge and differential pressures — zero reference


Everyday pressure measurements, such as for vehicle tire pressure, are usually made relative to ambient air pressure.
In other cases measurements are made relative to a vacuum or to some other specific reference. When distinguishing
between these zero references, the following terms are used:

• Absolute pressure is zero-referenced against a perfect vacuum, using an absolute scale, so it is equal to gauge
pressure plus atmospheric pressure.
• Gauge pressure is zero-referenced against ambient air pressure, so it is equal to absolute pressure minus
atmospheric pressure. Negative signs are usually omitted. To distinguish a negative pressure, the value may be
appended with the word “vacuum” or the gauge may be labeled a “vacuum gauge.” These are further divided
into two subcategories: high and low vacuum (and sometimes ultra-high vacuum). The applicable pressure
ranges of many of the techniques used to measure vacuums have an overlap. Hence, by combining several
different types of gauge, it is possible to measure system pressure continuously from 10 mbar down to 10−11
mbar.
• Differential pressure is the difference in pressure between two points.

The zero reference in use is usually implied by context, and these words are added only when clarification is needed.
Tire pressure and blood pressure are gauge pressures by convention, while atmospheric pressures, deep vacuum pres-
sures, and altimeter pressures must be absolute.
For most working fluids where a fluid exists in a closed system, gauge pressure measurement prevails. Pressure
instruments connected to the system will indicate pressures relative to the current atmospheric pressure. The situation
changes when extreme vacuum pressures are measured; absolute pressures are typically used instead.
Differential pressures are commonly used in industrial process systems. Differential pressure gauges have two inlet
ports, each connected to one of the volumes whose pressure is to be monitored. In effect, such a gauge performs
the mathematical operation of subtraction through mechanical means, obviating the need for an operator or control
system to watch two separate gauges and determine the difference in readings.
Moderate vacuum pressure readings can be ambiguous without the proper context, as they may represent absolute
pressure or gauge pressure without a negative sign. Thus a vacuum of 26 inHg gauge is equivalent to an absolute
pressure of 30 inHg (typical atmospheric pressure) − 26 inHg = 4 inHg.
Atmospheric pressure is typically about 100 kPa at sea level, but is variable with altitude and weather. If the absolute
pressure of a fluid stays constant, the gauge pressure of the same fluid will vary as atmospheric pressure changes. For
example, when a car drives up a mountain, the (gauge) tire pressure goes up because atmospheric pressure goes down.
The absolute pressure in the tire is essentially unchanged.
Using atmospheric pressure as reference is usually signified by a g for gauge after the pressure unit, e.g. 70 psig,
which means that the pressure measured is the total pressure minus atmospheric pressure. There are two types of
gauge reference pressure: vented gauge (vg) and sealed gauge (sg).
A vented gauge pressure transmitter for example allows the outside air pressure to be exposed to the negative side of
the pressure sensing diaphragm, via a vented cable or a hole on the side of the device, so that it always measures the
pressure referred to ambient barometric pressure. Thus a vented gauge reference pressure sensor should always read
zero pressure when the process pressure connection is held open to the air.
A sealed gauge reference is very similar except that atmospheric pressure is sealed on the negative side of the di-
aphragm. This is usually adopted on high pressure ranges such as hydraulics where atmospheric pressure changes will
have a negligible effect on the accuracy of the reading, so venting is not necessary. This also allows some manufac-
turers to provide secondary pressure containment as an extra precaution for pressure equipment safety if the burst
pressure of the primary pressure sensing diaphragm is exceeded.
22 CHAPTER 5. PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

There is another way of creating a sealed gauge reference and this is to seal a high vacuum on the reverse side of
the sensing diaphragm. Then the output signal is offset so the pressure sensor reads close to zero when measuring
atmospheric pressure.
A sealed gauge reference pressure transducer will never read exactly zero because atmospheric pressure is always
changing and the reference in this case is fixed at 1 bar.
To produce an absolute pressure sensor the manufacturer will seal a high vacuum behind the sensing diaphragm. If
the process pressure connection of an absolute pressure transmitter is open to the air, it will read the actual barometric
pressure.

5.2 Units
The SI unit for pressure is the pascal (Pa), equal to one newton per square metre (N·m−2 or kg·m−1 ·s−2 ). This special
name for the unit was added in 1971; before that, pressure in SI was expressed in units such as N·m−2 . When
indicated, the zero reference is stated in parenthesis following the unit, for example 101 kPa (abs). The pound per
square inch (psi) is still in widespread use in the US and Canada, for measuring, for instance, tire pressure. A letter
is often appended to the psi unit to indicate the measurement’s zero reference; psia for absolute, psig for gauge, psid
for differential, although this practice is discouraged by the NIST.[1]
Because pressure was once commonly measured by its ability to displace a column of liquid in a manometer, pressures
are often expressed as a depth of a particular fluid (e.g., inches of water). Manometric measurement is the subject
of pressure head calculations. The most common choices for a manometer’s fluid are mercury (Hg) and water; water
is nontoxic and readily available, while mercury’s density allows for a shorter column (and so a smaller manometer)
to measure a given pressure. The abbreviation “W.C.” or the words “water column” are often printed on gauges and
measurements that use water for the manometer.
Fluid density and local gravity can vary from one reading to another depending on local factors, so the height of a
fluid column does not define pressure precisely. So measurements in "millimetres of mercury" or "inches of mercury"
can be converted to SI units as long as attention is paid to the local factors of fluid density and gravity. Temperature
fluctuations change the value of fluid density, while location can affect gravity.
Although no longer preferred, these manometric units are still encountered in many fields. Blood pressure is mea-
sured in millimetres of mercury (see torr) in most of the world, and lung pressures in centimeters of water are still
common, as in settings for CPAP machines. Natural gas pipeline pressures are measured in inches of water, expressed
as “inches W.C.” Scuba divers often use a manometric rule of thumb: the pressure exerted by ten meters depth of sea
water (“10 msw”) is approximately equal to one atmosphere. In vacuum systems, the units torr (millimeter of mer-
cury), micron (micrometer of mercury),[2] and inch of mercury (inHg) are most commonly used. Torr and micron
usually indicates an absolute pressure, while inHg usually indicates a gauge pressure.
Atmospheric pressures are usually stated using hectopascal (hPa), kilopascal (kPa), millibar (mbar) or atmospheres
(atm). In American and Canadian engineering, stress is often measured in kip. Note that stress is not a true pressure
since it is not scalar. In the cgs system the unit of pressure was the barye (ba), equal to 1 dyn·cm−2 . In the mts system,
the unit of pressure was the pieze, equal to 1 sthene per square metre.
Many other hybrid units are used such as mmHg/cm2 or grams-force/cm2 (sometimes as [[kg/cm<sup>2</sup>]]
without properly identifying the force units). Using the names kilogram, gram, kilogram-force, or gram-force (or
their symbols) as a unit of force is prohibited in SI; the unit of force in SI is the newton (N).

5.3 Static and dynamic pressure


Static pressure is uniform in all directions, so pressure measurements are independent of direction in an immovable
(static) fluid. Flow, however, applies additional pressure on surfaces perpendicular to the flow direction, while having
little impact on surfaces parallel to the flow direction. This directional component of pressure in a moving (dynamic)
fluid is called dynamic pressure. An instrument facing the flow direction measures the sum of the static and dynamic
pressures; this measurement is called the total pressure or stagnation pressure. Since dynamic pressure is referenced
to static pressure, it is neither gauge nor absolute; it is a differential pressure.
While static gauge pressure is of primary importance to determining net loads on pipe walls, dynamic pressure is used
to measure flow rates and airspeed. Dynamic pressure can be measured by taking the differential pressure between
5.4. INSTRUMENTS 23

instruments parallel and perpendicular to the flow. Pitot-static tubes, for example perform this measurement on
airplanes to determine airspeed. The presence of the measuring instrument inevitably acts to divert flow and create
turbulence, so its shape is critical to accuracy and the calibration curves are often non-linear.

5.3.1 Applications
• Altimeter

• Barometer

• MAP sensor

• Pitot tube

• Sphygmomanometer

5.4 Instruments
Many instruments have been invented to measure pressure, with different advantages and disadvantages. Pressure
range, sensitivity, dynamic response and cost all vary by several orders of magnitude from one instrument design to
the next. The oldest type is the liquid column (a vertical tube filled with mercury) manometer invented by Evangelista
Torricelli in 1643. The U-Tube was invented by Christiaan Huygens in 1661.

5.4.1 Hydrostatic
Hydrostatic gauges (such as the mercury column manometer) compare pressure to the hydrostatic force per unit area
at the base of a column of fluid. Hydrostatic gauge measurements are independent of the type of gas being measured,
and can be designed to have a very linear calibration. They have poor dynamic response.

Piston

Piston-type gauges counterbalance the pressure of a fluid with a spring (for example tire-pressure gauges of compara-
tively low accuracy) or a solid weight, in which case it is known as a deadweight tester and may be used for calibration
of other gauges.

Liquid column (manometer)

Liquid column gauges consist of a column of liquid in a tube whose ends are exposed to different pressures. The
column will rise or fall until its weight (a force applied due to gravity) is in equilibrium with the pressure differential
between the two ends of the tube (a force applied due to fluid pressure). A very simple version is a U-shaped tube
half-full of liquid, one side of which is connected to the region of interest while the reference pressure (which might
be the atmospheric pressure or a vacuum) is applied to the other. The difference in liquid level represents the applied
pressure. The pressure exerted by a column of fluid of height h and density ρ is given by the hydrostatic pressure
equation, P = hgρ. Therefore, the pressure difference between the applied pressure Pa and the reference pressure P 0
in a U-tube manometer can be found by solving Pa − P 0 = hgρ. In other words, the pressure on either end of the
liquid (shown in blue in the figure) must be balanced (since the liquid is static) and so Pa = P 0 + hgρ.
In most liquid column measurements, the result of the measurement is the height, h, expressed typically in mm,
cm, or inches. The h is also known as the pressure head. When expressed as a pressure head, pressure is specified
in units of length and the measurement fluid must be specified. When accuracy is critical, the temperature of the
measurement fluid must likewise be specified, because liquid density is a function of temperature. So, for example,
pressure head might be written “742.2 mmH " or “4.2 inH2 O at 59 °F” for measurements taken with mercury or
water as the manometric fluid, respectively. The word “gauge” or “vacuum” may be added to such a measurement to
distinguish between a pressure above or below the atmospheric pressure. Both mm of mercury and inches of water
are common pressure heads which can be converted to S.I. units of pressure using unit conversion and the above
formulas.
24 CHAPTER 5. PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

If the fluid being measured is significantly dense, hydrostatic corrections may have to be made for the height between
the moving surface of the manometer working fluid and the location where the pressure measurement is desired
except when measuring differential pressure of a fluid (for example across an orifice plate or venturi), in which case
the density ρ should be corrected by subtracting the density of the fluid being measured.[3]
Although any fluid can be used, mercury is preferred for its high density (13.534 g/cm3 ) and low vapour pressure.
For low pressure differences, light oil or water are commonly used (the latter giving rise to units of measurement such
as inches water gauge and millimetres H2 O. Liquid-column pressure gauges have a highly linear calibration. They
have poor dynamic response because the fluid in the column may react slowly to a pressure change.
When measuring vacuum, the working liquid may evaporate and contaminate the vacuum if its vapor pressure is too
high. When measuring liquid pressure, a loop filled with gas or a light fluid can isolate the liquids to prevent them from
mixing but this can be unnecessary, for example when mercury is used as the manometer fluid to measure differential
pressure of a fluid such as water. Simple hydrostatic gauges can measure pressures ranging from a few Torr (a few
100 Pa) to a few atmospheres. (Approximately 1,000,000 Pa)
A single-limb liquid-column manometer has a larger reservoir instead of one side of the U-tube and has a scale beside
the narrower column. The column may be inclined to further amplify the liquid movement. Based on the use and
structure following type of manometers are used[4]

1. Simple Manometer

2. Micromanometer

3. Differential manometer

4. Inverted differential manometer

McLeod gauge

A McLeod gauge isolates a sample of gas and compresses it in a modified mercury manometer until the pressure is
a few millimetres of mercury. The technique is slow and unsuited to continual monitoring, but is capable of good
accuracy. Unlike other manometer gauges, the McLeod gauge reading is dependent on the composition of the gas
since the interpretation relies on the sample compressing as an ideal gas. Due to the compression process, the McLeod
gauge completely ignores partial pressures from non-ideal vapors that condense, such as pump oils, mercury, and even
water if compressed enough.

Useful range: from around 10−4 torr [5] (roughly 10−2 Pa) to vacuums as high as 10−6 Torr (0.1 mPa),

0.1 mPa is the lowest direct measurement of pressure that is possible with current technology. Other vacuum gauges
can measure lower pressures, but only indirectly by measurement of other pressure-controlled properties. These
indirect measurements must be calibrated to SI units via a direct measurement, most commonly a McLeod gauge.[6]

5.4.2 Aneroid

Aneroid gauges are based on a metallic pressure-sensing element that flexes elastically under the effect of a pressure
difference across the element. “Aneroid” means “without fluid,” and the term originally distinguished these gauges
from the hydrostatic gauges described above. However, aneroid gauges can be used to measure the pressure of a
liquid as well as a gas, and they are not the only type of gauge that can operate without fluid. For this reason, they
are often called mechanical gauges in modern language. Aneroid gauges are not dependent on the type of gas being
measured, unlike thermal and ionization gauges, and are less likely to contaminate the system than hydrostatic gauges.
The pressure sensing element may be a Bourdon tube, a diaphragm, a capsule, or a set of bellows, which will change
shape in response to the pressure of the region in question. The deflection of the pressure sensing element may be
read by a linkage connected to a needle, or it may be read by a secondary transducer. The most common secondary
transducers in modern vacuum gauges measure a change in capacitance due to the mechanical deflection. Gauges
that rely on a change in capacitance are often referred to as capacitance manometers.
5.4. INSTRUMENTS 25

Bourdon

“Eugene Bourdon” redirects here. For the professor of architectural design, see Eugene Bourdon (architect).
The Bourdon pressure gauge uses the principle that a flattened tube tends to straighten or regain its circular form
in cross-section when pressurized. Although this change in cross-section may be hardly noticeable, and thus involv-
ing moderate stresses within the elastic range of easily workable materials, the strain of the material of the tube is
magnified by forming the tube into a C shape or even a helix, such that the entire tube tends to straighten out or
uncoil, elastically, as it is pressurized. Eugene Bourdon patented his gauge in France in 1849, and it was widely
adopted because of its superior sensitivity, linearity, and accuracy; Edward Ashcroft purchased Bourdon’s American
patent rights in 1852 and became a major manufacturer of gauges. Also in 1849, Bernard Schaeffer in Magdeburg,
Germany patented a successful diaphragm (see below) pressure gauge, which, together with the Bourdon gauge, rev-
olutionized pressure measurement in industry.[7] But in 1875 after Bourdon’s patents expired, his company Schaeffer
and Budenberg also manufactured Bourdon tube gauges.
In practice, a flattened thin-wall, closed-end tube is connected at the hollow end to a fixed pipe containing the fluid
pressure to be measured. As the pressure increases, the closed end moves in an arc, and this motion is converted into
the rotation of a (segment of a) gear by a connecting link that is usually adjustable. A small-diameter pinion gear is
on the pointer shaft, so the motion is magnified further by the gear ratio. The positioning of the indicator card behind
the pointer, the initial pointer shaft position, the linkage length and initial position, all provide means to calibrate the
pointer to indicate the desired range of pressure for variations in the behavior of the Bourdon tube itself. Differential
pressure can be measured by gauges containing two different Bourdon tubes, with connecting linkages.
Bourdon tubes measure gauge pressure, relative to ambient atmospheric pressure, as opposed to absolute pressure;
vacuum is sensed as a reverse motion. Some aneroid barometers use Bourdon tubes closed at both ends (but most
use diaphragms or capsules, see below). When the measured pressure is rapidly pulsing, such as when the gauge is
near a reciprocating pump, an orifice restriction in the connecting pipe is frequently used to avoid unnecessary wear
on the gears and provide an average reading; when the whole gauge is subject to mechanical vibration, the entire case
including the pointer and indicator card can be filled with an oil or glycerin. Tapping on the face of the gauge is not
recommended as it will tend to falsify actual readings initially presented by the gauge. The Bourdon tube is separate
from the face of the gauge and thus has no effect on the actual reading of pressure. Typical high-quality modern
gauges provide an accuracy of ±2% of span, and a special high-precision gauge can be as accurate as 0.1% of full
scale.[8]
In the following illustrations the transparent cover face of the pictured combination pressure and vacuum gauge has
been removed and the mechanism removed from the case. This particular gauge is a combination vacuum and pressure
gauge used for automotive diagnosis:

• the left side of the face, used for measuring manifold vacuum, is calibrated in centimetres of mercury on its
inner scale and inches of mercury on its outer scale.
• the right portion of the face is used to measure fuel pump pressure or turbo boost and is calibrated in fractions
of 1 kgf/cm2 on its inner scale and pounds per square inch on its outer scale.

Mechanical details Stationary parts:

• A: Receiver block. This joins the inlet pipe to the fixed end of the Bourdon tube (1) and secures the chassis
plate (B). The two holes receive screws that secure the case.
• B: Chassis plate. The face card is attached to this. It contains bearing holes for the axles.
• C: Secondary chassis plate. It supports the outer ends of the axles.
• D: Posts to join and space the two chassis plates.

Moving Parts:

1. Stationary end of Bourdon tube. This communicates with the inlet pipe through the receiver block.
2. Moving end of Bourdon tube. This end is sealed.
3. Pivot and pivot pin.
26 CHAPTER 5. PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

4. Link joining pivot pin to lever (5) with pins to allow joint rotation.

5. Lever. This is an extension of the sector gear (7).

6. Sector gear axle pin.

7. Sector gear.

8. Indicator needle axle. This has a spur gear that engages the sector gear (7) and extends through the face to
drive the indicator needle. Due to the short distance between the lever arm link boss and the pivot pin and the
difference between the effective radius of the sector gear and that of the spur gear, any motion of the Bourdon
tube is greatly amplified. A small motion of the tube results in a large motion of the indicator needle.

9. Hair spring to preload the gear train to eliminate gear lash and hysteresis.

Diaphragm

A second type of aneroid gauge uses deflection of a flexible membrane that separates regions of different pressure.
The amount of deflection is repeatable for known pressures so the pressure can be determined by using calibration.
The deformation of a thin diaphragm is dependent on the difference in pressure between its two faces. The reference
face can be open to atmosphere to measure gauge pressure, open to a second port to measure differential pressure, or
can be sealed against a vacuum or other fixed reference pressure to measure absolute pressure. The deformation can
be measured using mechanical, optical or capacitive techniques. Ceramic and metallic diaphragms are used.

Useful range: above 10−2 Torr [9] (roughly 1 Pa)

For absolute measurements, welded pressure capsules with diaphragms on either side are often used.
shape:

• Flat

• corrugated

• flattened tube

• capsule

Bellows

In gauges intended to sense small pressures or pressure differences, or require that an absolute pressure be measured,
the gear train and needle may be driven by an enclosed and sealed bellows chamber, called an aneroid, which means
“without liquid”. (Early barometers used a column of liquid such as water or the liquid metal mercury suspended
by a vacuum.) This bellows configuration is used in aneroid barometers (barometers with an indicating needle and
dial card), altimeters, altitude recording barographs, and the altitude telemetry instruments used in weather balloon
radiosondes. These devices use the sealed chamber as a reference pressure and are driven by the external pres-
sure. Other sensitive aircraft instruments such as air speed indicators and rate of climb indicators (variometers) have
connections both to the internal part of the aneroid chamber and to an external enclosing chamber.

Magnetic coupling

These gauges use the attraction of two magnets to translate differential pressure into motion of a dial pointer. As
differential pressure increases, a magnet attached to either a piston or rubber diaphragm moves. A rotary magnet that
is attached to a pointer then moves in unison. To create different pressure ranges, the spring rate can be increased or
decreased.
5.5. ELECTRONIC PRESSURE SENSORS 27

5.4.3 Spinning rotor gauge

The spinning rotor gauge works by measuring the amount a rotating ball is slowed by the viscosity of the gas being
measured. The ball is made of steel and is magnetically levitated inside a steel tube closed at one end and exposed to
the gas to be measured at the other. The ball is brought up to speed (about 2500 rad/s), and the speed measured after
switching off the drive, by electromagnetic transducers.[10] The range of the instrument is 10−5 to 102 Pa (103 Pa with
less accuracy). It is accurate and stable enough to be used as a secondary standard. The instrument requires some
skill and knowledge to use correctly. Various corrections must be applied and the ball must be spun at a pressure well
below the intended measurement pressure for five hours before using. It is most useful in calibration and research
laboratories where high accuracy is required and qualified technicians are available.[11]

5.5 Electronic pressure sensors


Main article: Pressure sensor

Piezoresistive Strain Gage Uses the piezoresistive effect of bonded or formed strain gauges to detect strain due to
applied pressure.

Capacitive Uses a diaphragm and pressure cavity to create a variable capacitor to detect strain due to applied pres-
sure.

Magnetic Measures the displacement of a diaphragm by means of changes in inductance (reluctance), LVDT, Hall
Effect, or by eddy current principle.

Piezoelectric Uses the piezoelectric effect in certain materials such as quartz to measure the strain upon the sensing
mechanism due to pressure.

Optical Uses the physical change of an optical fiber to detect strain due to applied pressure.

Potentiometric Uses the motion of a wiper along a resistive mechanism to detect the strain caused by applied pres-
sure.

Resonant Uses the changes in resonant frequency in a sensing mechanism to measure stress, or changes in gas
density, caused by applied pressure.

5.5.1 Thermal conductivity

Generally, as a real gas increases in density -which may indicate an increase in pressure- its ability to conduct heat
increases. In this type of gauge, a wire filament is heated by running current through it. A thermocouple or resistance
thermometer (RTD) can then be used to measure the temperature of the filament. This temperature is dependent on
the rate at which the filament loses heat to the surrounding gas, and therefore on the thermal conductivity. A common
variant is the Pirani gauge, which uses a single platinum filament as both the heated element and RTD. These gauges
are accurate from 10−3 Torr to 10 Torr, but their calibration is sensitive to the chemical composition of the gases
being measured.

Pirani (one wire)

Main article: Pirani gauge

A Pirani gauge consist of a metal wire open to the pressure being measured. The wire is heated by a current flowing
through it and cooled by the gas surrounding it. If the gas pressure is reduced, the cooling effect will decrease, hence
the equilibrium temperature of the wire will increase. The resistance of the wire is a function of its temperature: by
measuring the voltage across the wire and the current flowing through it, the resistance (and so the gas pressure) can
be determined. This type of gauge was invented by Marcello Pirani.
28 CHAPTER 5. PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

Two-wire

In two-wire gauges, one wire coil is used as a heater, and the other is used to measure temperature due to convection.
Thermocouple gauges and thermistor gauges work in this manner using thermocouple or thermistor, respectively,
to measure the temperature of the heated wire.

5.5.2 Ionization gauge


Ionization gauges are the most sensitive gauges for very low pressures (also referred to as hard or high vacuum).
They sense pressure indirectly by measuring the electrical ions produced when the gas is bombarded with electrons.
Fewer ions will be produced by lower density gases. The calibration of an ion gauge is unstable and dependent on
the nature of the gases being measured, which is not always known. They can be calibrated against a McLeod gauge
which is much more stable and independent of gas chemistry.
Thermionic emission generate electrons, which collide with gas atoms and generate positive ions. The ions are at-
tracted to a suitably biased electrode known as the collector. The current in the collector is proportional to the rate
of ionization, which is a function of the pressure in the system. Hence, measuring the collector current gives the gas
pressure. There are several sub-types of ionization gauge.

Useful range: 10−10 - 10−3 torr (roughly 10−8 - 10−1 Pa)

Most ion gauges come in two types: hot cathode and cold cathode. In the hot cathode version, an electrically heated
filament produces an electron beam. The electrons travel through the gauge and ionize gas molecules around them.
The resulting ions are collected at a negative electrode. The current depends on the number of ions, which depends
on the pressure in the gauge. Hot cathode gauges are accurate from 10−3 Torr to 10−10 Torr. The principle behind
cold cathode version is the same, except that electrons are produced in the discharge of a high voltage. Cold Cath-
ode gauges are accurate from 10−2 Torr to 10−9 Torr. Ionization gauge calibration is very sensitive to construction
geometry, chemical composition of gases being measured, corrosion and surface deposits. Their calibration can be
invalidated by activation at atmospheric pressure or low vacuum. The composition of gases at high vacuums will
usually be unpredictable, so a mass spectrometer must be used in conjunction with the ionization gauge for accurate
measurement.[12]

Hot cathode

A hot-cathode ionization gauge is composed mainly of three electrodes acting together as a triode, wherein the cathode
is the filament. The three electrodes are a collector or plate, a filament, and a grid. The collector current is measured
in picoamps by an electrometer. The filament voltage to ground is usually at a potential of 30 volts, while the grid
voltage at 180–210 volts DC, unless there is an optional electron bombardment feature, by heating the grid, which
may have a high potential of approximately 565 volts. The most common ion gauge is the hot-cathode Bayard-Alpert
gauge, with a small ion collector inside the grid. A glass envelope with an opening to the vacuum can surround the
electrodes, but usually the Nude Gauge is inserted in the vacuum chamber directly, the pins being fed through a
ceramic plate in the wall of the chamber. Hot-cathode gauges can be damaged or lose their calibration if they are
exposed to atmospheric pressure or even low vacuum while hot. The measurements of a hot-cathode ionization gauge
are always logarithmic.
Electrons emitted from the filament move several times in back and forth movements around the grid before finally
entering the grid. During these movements, some electrons collide with a gaseous molecule to form a pair of an
ion and an electron (Electron ionization). The number of these ions is proportional to the gaseous molecule density
multiplied by the electron current emitted from the filament, and these ions pour into the collector to form an ion
current. Since the gaseous molecule density is proportional to the pressure, the pressure is estimated by measuring
the ion current.
The low-pressure sensitivity of hot-cathode gauges is limited by the photoelectric effect. Electrons hitting the grid
produce x-rays that produce photoelectric noise in the ion collector. This limits the range of older hot-cathode gauges
to 10−8 Torr and the Bayard-Alpert to about 10−10 Torr. Additional wires at cathode potential in the line of sight
between the ion collector and the grid prevent this effect. In the extraction type the ions are not attracted by a wire,
but by an open cone. As the ions cannot decide which part of the cone to hit, they pass through the hole and form an
ion beam. This ion beam can be passed on to a:
5.6. DYNAMIC TRANSIENTS 29

• Faraday cup
• Microchannel plate detector with Faraday cup
• Quadrupole mass analyzer with Faraday cup
• Quadrupole mass analyzer with Microchannel plate detector Faraday cup
• ion lens and acceleration voltage and directed at a target to form a sputter gun. In this case a valve lets gas into
the grid-cage.

See also: Electron ionization

Cold cathode

There are two subtypes of cold-cathode ionization gauges: the Penning gauge (invented by Frans Michel Penning),
and the Inverted magnetron, also called a Redhead gauge. The major difference between the two is the position
of the anode with respect to the cathode. Neither has a filament, and each may require a DC potential of about 4 kV
for operation. Inverted magnetrons can measure down to 1x10−12 Torr.
Likewise, cold-cathode gauges may be reluctant to start at very low pressures, in that the near-absence of a gas
makes it difficult to establish an electrode current - in particular in Penning gauges, which use an axially symmetric
magnetic field to create path lengths for electrons that are of the order of metres. In ambient air, suitable ion-pairs
are ubiquitously formed by cosmic radiation; in a Penning gauge, design features are used to ease the set-up of a
discharge path. For example, the electrode of a Penning gauge is usually finely tapered to facilitate the field emission
of electrons.
Maintenance cycles of cold cathode gauges are, in general, measured in years, depending on the gas type and pressure
that they are operated in. Using a cold cathode gauge in gases with substantial organic components, such as pump
oil fractions, can result in the growth of delicate carbon films and shards within the gauge that eventually either
short-circuit the electrodes of the gauge or impede the generation of a discharge path.

5.6 Dynamic transients


When fluid flows are not in equilibrium, local pressures may be higher or lower than the average pressure in a medium.
These disturbances propagate from their source as longitudinal pressure variations along the path of propagation. This
is also called sound. Sound pressure is the instantaneous local pressure deviation from the average pressure caused by
a sound wave. Sound pressure can be measured using a microphone in air and a hydrophone in water. The effective
sound pressure is the root mean square of the instantaneous sound pressure over a given interval of time. Sound
pressures are normally small and are often expressed in units of microbar.

• frequency response of pressure sensors


• resonance

5.7 Calibration and standards


The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) has developed two separate and distinct standards on pres-
sure Measurement, B40.100 and PTC 19.2. B40.100 provides guidelines on Pressure Indicated Dial Type and Pres-
sure Digital Indicating Gauges, Diaphragm Seals, Snubbers, and Pressure Limiter Valves. PTC 19.2 provides in-
structions and guidance for the accurate determination of pressure values in support of the ASME Performance Test
Codes. The choice of method, instruments, required calculations, and corrections to be applied depends on the
purpose of the measurement, the allowable uncertainty, and the characteristics of the equipment being tested.
The methods for pressure measurement and the protocols used for data transmission are also provided. Guidance is
given for setting up the instrumentation and determining the uncertainty of the measurement. Information regarding
the instrument type, design, applicable pressure range, accuracy, output, and relative cost is provided. Information
30 CHAPTER 5. PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

is also provided on pressure-measuring devices that are used in field environments i.e., Piston Gauges, Manometers,
and Low-Absolute-Pressure (Vacuum) Instruments.
These methods are designed to assist in the evaluation of measurement uncertainty based on current technology and
engineering knowledge, taking into account published instrumentation specifications and measurement and applica-
tion techniques. This Supplement provides guidance in the use of methods to establish the pressure-measurement
uncertainty.

5.8 History
Further information: Timeline of temperature and pressure measurement technology

5.9 European (CEN) Standard


• EN 472 : Pressure gauge - Vocabulary.
• EN 837-1 : Pressure gauges. Bourdon tube pressure gauges. Dimensions, metrology, requirements and testing.
• EN 837-2 : Pressure gauges. Selection and installation recommendations for pressure gauges.
• EN 837-3 : Pressure gauges. Diaphragm and capsule pressure gauges. Dimensions, metrology, requirements,
and testing.

5.10 US ASME Standards


• B40.100-2013: Pressure gauges and Gauge attachments.
• PTC 19.2-2010 : Performance test code for pressure measurement.

5.11 See also


• Deadweight tester
• Force gauge
• Gauge
• Piezometer
• Sphygmomanometer
• Vacuum engineering

5.12 References
[1] NIST

[2] http://vacaero.com/information-resources/vacuum-pump-practice-with-howard-tring/1290-understanding-vacuum-measurement-units.
html

[3] Methods for the Measurement of Fluid Flow in Pipes, Part 1. Orifice Plates, Nozzles and Venturi Tubes. British Standards
Institute. 1964. p. 36.

[4] [Was: "fluidengineering.co.nr/Manometer.htm". At 1/2010 that took me to bad link. Types of fluid Manometers]

[5] Techniques of high vacuum


5.13. EXTERNAL LINKS 31

[6] Beckwith, Thomas G.; Roy D. Marangoni & John H. Lienhard V (1993). “Measurement of Low Pressures”. Mechanical
Measurements (Fifth ed.). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. pp. 591–595. ISBN 0-201-56947-7.

[7] The Engine Indicator Canadian Museum of Making

[8] Boyes, Walt (2008). Instrumentation Reference Book (Fourth ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 1312.

[9] Product brochure from Schoonover, Inc

[10] A. Chambers, Basic Vacuum Technology, pp. 100-102, CRC Press, 1998 ISBN 0585254915.

[11] John F. O'Hanlon, A User’s Guide to Vacuum Technology, pp. 92-94, John Wiley & Sons, 2005 ISBN 0471467154.

[12] Robert M. Besançon, ed. (1990). “Vacuum Techniques”. The Encyclopedia of Physics (3rd ed.). Van Nostrand Reinhold,
New York. pp. 1278–1284. ISBN 0-442-00522-9.

5.13 External links


• Home Made Manometer

• Manometer
32 CHAPTER 5. PRESSURE MEASUREMENT
5.13. EXTERNAL LINKS 33

A McLeod gauge, drained of mercury


34 CHAPTER 5. PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

Membrane-type manometer
5.13. EXTERNAL LINKS 35

An original 19th century Eugene Bourdon compound gauge, reading pressure both below and above ambient with great sensitivity.
36 CHAPTER 5. PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

Indicator side with card and dial


5.13. EXTERNAL LINKS 37

Mechanical side with Bourdon tube


38 CHAPTER 5. PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

Mechanical details
5.13. EXTERNAL LINKS 39

A pile of pressure capsules with corrugated diaphragms in an aneroid barograph


40 CHAPTER 5. PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

Bayard-Alpert hot-cathode ionization gauge


5.13. EXTERNAL LINKS 41

Dead-weight tester. This uses known calibrated weights on a piston to generate a known pressure.
Chapter 6

Pump

For other uses of “pump” or “pumps”, see Pump (disambiguation).


A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action. Pumps can
be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid: direct lift, displacement, and
gravity pumps.[1]
Pumps operate by some mechanism (typically reciprocating or rotary), and consume energy to perform mechanical
work by moving the fluid. Pumps operate via many energy sources, including manual operation, electricity, engines,
or wind power, come in many sizes, from microscopic for use in medical applications to large industrial pumps.
Mechanical pumps serve in a wide range of applications such as pumping water from wells, aquarium filtering, pond
filtering and aeration, in the car industry for water-cooling and fuel injection, in the energy industry for pumping oil
and natural gas or for operating cooling towers. In the medical industry, pumps are used for biochemical processes
in developing and manufacturing medicine, and as artificial replacements for body parts, in particular the artificial
heart and penile prosthesis.
Single stage pump – When in a casing only one impeller is revolving then it is called single stage pump.
Double/multi-stage pump – When in a casing two or more than two impellers are revolving then it is called double/multi-
stage pump.
In biology, many different types of chemical and bio-mechanical pumps have evolved, and biomimicry is sometimes
used in developing new types of mechanical pumps.

6.1 Types

Mechanical pumps may be submerged in the fluid they are pumping or be placed external to the fluid.
Pumps can be classified by their method of displacement into positive displacement pumps, impulse pumps, velocity
pumps, gravity pumps, steam pumps and valveless pumps. There are two basic types of pumps: positive displacement
and centrifugal. Although axial-flow pumps are frequently classified as a separate type, they have essentially the same
operating principles as centrifugal pumps.[2]

6.1.1 Positive displacement pumps

A positive displacement pump makes a fluid move by trapping a fixed amount and forcing (displacing) that trapped
volume into the discharge pipe.
Some positive displacement pumps use an expanding cavity on the suction side and a decreasing cavity on the discharge
side. Liquid flows into the pump as the cavity on the suction side expands and the liquid flows out of the discharge as
the cavity collapses. The volume is constant through each cycle of operation.

42
6.1. TYPES 43

A small, electrically powered pump

Positive displacement pump behavior and safety

Positive displacement pumps, unlike centrifugal or roto-dynamic pumps, theoretically can produce the same flow at
a given speed (RPM) no matter what the discharge pressure. Thus, positive displacement pumps are constant flow
machines. However, a slight increase in internal leakage as the pressure increases prevents a truly constant flow rate.
in case.
A positive displacement pump must not operate against a closed valve on the discharge side of the pump, because it
has no shutoff head like centrifugal pumps. A positive displacement pump operating against a closed discharge valve
continues to produce flow and the pressure in the discharge line increases until the line bursts, the pump is severely
damaged, or both.
A relief or safety valve on the discharge side of the positive displacement pump is therefore necessary. The relief
valve can be internal or external. The pump manufacturer normally has the option to supply internal relief or safety
valves. The internal valve is usually only used as a safety precaution. An external relief valve in the discharge line,
with a return line back to the suction line or supply tank provides increased safety.
44 CHAPTER 6. PUMP

A large, electrically driven pump (electropump) for waterworks near the Hengsteysee, Germany

Horizontally mounted lobe pump (right) shown with its electric motor (left) and drive-shaft bearing (middle)

Positive displacement types

A positive displacement pump can be further classified according to the mechanism used to move the fluid:

• Rotary-type positive displacement: internal gear, screw, shuttle block, flexible vane or sliding vane, circumfer-
6.1. TYPES 45

Discharge
Vane

Suction
Lobe pump internals

ential piston, flexible impeller, helical twisted roots (e.g. the Wendelkolben pump) or liquid-ring pumps
• Reciprocating-type positive displacement: piston pumps, plunger pumps or diaphragm pumps
• Linear-type positive displacement: rope pumps and chain pumps

Rotary positive displacement pumps These pumps move fluid using a rotating mechanism that creates a vacuum
that captures and draws in the liquid.
Advantages: Rotary pumps are very efficient because they naturally remove air from the lines, eliminating the need
to bleed the air from the lines manually.
Drawbacks: The nature of the pump requires very close clearances between the rotating pump and the outer edge,
making it rotate at a slow, steady speed. If rotary pumps are operated at high speeds, the fluids cause erosion, which
eventually causes enlarged clearances that liquid can pass through, which reduces efficiency.
Rotary positive displacement pumps fall into three main types:

• Gear pumps – a simple type of rotary pump where the liquid is pushed between two gears
• Screw pumps – the shape of the internals of this pump is usually two screws turning against each other to pump
the liquid
• Rotary vane pumps – similar to scroll compressors, these have a cylindrical rotor encased in a similarly shaped
housing. As the rotor orbits, the vanes trap fluid between the rotor and the casing, drawing the fluid through
the pump.

Reciprocating positive displacement pumps Main article: Reciprocating pump

Reciprocating pumps move the fluid using one or more oscillating pistons, plungers, or membranes (diaphragms),
while valves restrict fluid motion to the desired direction.
46 CHAPTER 6. PUMP

Rotary vane pump

Pumps in this category range from simplex, with one cylinder, to in some cases quad (four) cylinders, or more. Many
reciprocating-type pumps are duplex (two) or triplex (three) cylinder. They can be either single-acting with suction
during one direction of piston motion and discharge on the other, or double-acting with suction and discharge in both
directions. The pumps can be powered manually, by air or steam, or by a belt driven by an engine. This type of pump
was used extensively in the 19th century—in the early days of steam propulsion—as boiler feed water pumps. Now
reciprocating pumps typically pump highly viscous fluids like concrete and heavy oils, and serve in special applications
that demand low flow rates against high resistance. Reciprocating hand pumps were widely used to pump water from
wells. Common bicycle pumps and foot pumps for inflation use reciprocating action.
These positive displacement pumps have an expanding cavity on the suction side and a decreasing cavity on the
discharge side. Liquid flows into the pumps as the cavity on the suction side expands and the liquid flows out of the
discharge as the cavity collapses. The volume is constant given each cycle of operation.
Typical reciprocating pumps are:

• Plunger pumps – a reciprocating plunger pushes the fluid through one or two open valves, closed by suction on
the way back.

• Diaphragm pumps – similar to plunger pumps, where the plunger pressurizes hydraulic oil which is used to flex
a diaphragm in the pumping cylinder. Diaphragm valves are used to pump hazardous and toxic fluids.

• Piston pumps displacement pumps – usually simple devices for pumping small amounts of liquid or gel manually.
The common hand soap dispenser is such a pump.

• Radial piston pumps

Various positive-displacement pumps The positive displacement principle applies in these pumps:

• Rotary lobe pump


6.1. TYPES 47

• Progressive cavity pump


• Rotary gear pump
• Piston pump
• Diaphragm pump
• Screw pump
• Gear pump
• Hydraulic pump
• Rotary vane pump
• Peristaltic pump
• Rope pump
• Flexible impeller pump

Gear pump Main article: Gear pump

This is the simplest of rotary positive displacement pumps. It consists of two meshed gears that rotate in a closely
fitted casing. The tooth spaces trap fluid and force it around the outer periphery. The fluid does not travel back on
the meshed part, because the teeth mesh closely in the center. Gear pumps see wide use in car engine oil pumps and
in various hydraulic power packs.

Screw pump Main article: Screw pump

A screw pump is a more complicated type of rotary pump that uses two or three screws with opposing thread —
e.g., one screw turns clockwise and the other counterclockwise. The screws are mounted on parallel shafts that have
gears that mesh so the shafts turn together and everything stays in place. The screws turn on the shafts and drive fluid
through the pump. As with other forms of rotary pumps, the clearance between moving parts and the pump’s casing
is minimal.

Progressing cavity pump Main article: Progressive cavity pump

Widely used for pumping difficult materials, such as sewage sludge contaminated with large particles, this pump
consists of a helical rotor, about ten times as long as its width. This can be visualized as a central core of diameter x
with, typically, a curved spiral wound around of thickness half x, though in reality it is manufactured in single casting.
This shaft fits inside a heavy duty rubber sleeve, of wall thickness also typically x. As the shaft rotates, the rotor
gradually forces fluid up the rubber sleeve. Such pumps can develop very high pressure at low volumes.

Roots-type pumps Main article: Roots-type supercharger

Named after the Roots brothers who invented it, this lobe pump displaces the liquid trapped between two long
helical rotors, each fitted into the other when perpendicular at 90°, rotating inside a triangular shaped sealing line
configuration, both at the point of suction and at the point of discharge. This design produces a continuous flow with
equal volume and no vortex. It can work at low pulsation rates, and offers gentle performance that some applications
require.
Applications include:

• High capacity industrial air compressors


• Roots superchargers on internal combustion engines.
• A brand of civil defense siren, the Federal Signal Corporation's Thunderbolt.
48 CHAPTER 6. PUMP

Peristaltic pump Main article: Peristaltic pump

A peristaltic pump is a type of positive displacement pump. It contains fluid within a flexible tube fitted inside a circular
pump casing (though linear peristaltic pumps have been made). A number of rollers, shoes, or wipers attached to a
rotor compresses the flexible tube. As the rotor turns, the part of the tube under compression closes (or occludes),
forcing the fluid through the tube. Additionally, when the tube opens to its natural state after the passing of the cam
it draws (restitution) fluid into the pump. This process is called peristalsis and is used in many biological systems such
as the gastrointestinal tract.

Plunger pumps Main article: Plunger pump

Plunger pumps are reciprocating positive displacement pumps.


These consist of a cylinder with a reciprocating plunger. The suction and discharge valves are mounted in the head
of the cylinder. In the suction stroke the plunger retracts and the suction valves open causing suction of fluid into
the cylinder. In the forward stroke the plunger pushes the liquid out of the discharge valve. Efficiency and common
problems: With only one cylinder in plunger pumps, the fluid flow varies between maximum flow when the plunger
moves through the middle positions, and zero flow when the plunger is at the end positions. A lot of energy is wasted
when the fluid is accelerated in the piping system. Vibration and water hammer may be a serious problem. In general
the problems are compensated for by using two or more cylinders not working in phase with each other.

Triplex-style plunger pumps Triplex plunger pumps use three plungers, which reduces the pulsation of single
reciprocating plunger pumps. Adding a pulsation dampener on the pump outlet can further smooth the pump ripple,
or ripple graph of a pump transducer. The dynamic relationship of the high-pressure fluid and plunger generally
requires high-quality plunger seals. Plunger pumps with a larger number of plungers have the benefit of increased
flow, or smoother flow without a pulsation dampener. The increase in moving parts and crankshaft load is one
drawback.
Car washes often use these triplex-style plunger pumps (perhaps without pulsation dampeners). In 1968, William
Bruggeman significantly reduced the size of the triplex pump and increased the lifespan so that car washes could use
equipment with smaller footprints. Durable high pressure seals, low pressure seals and oil seals, hardened crankshafts,
hardened connecting rods, thick ceramic plungers and heavier duty ball and roller bearings improve reliability in
triplex pumps. Triplex pumps now are in a myriad of markets across the world.
Triplex pumps with shorter lifetimes are commonplace to the home user. A person who uses a home pressure washer
for 10 hours a year may be satisfied with a pump that lasts 100 hours between rebuilds. Industrial-grade or continuous
duty triplex pumps on the other end of the quality spectrum may run for as much as 2,080 hours a year.[3]
The oil and gas drilling industry uses massive semi trailer-transported triplex pumps called mud pumps to pump
drilling mud, which cools the drill bit and carries the cuttings back to the surface.[4] Drillers use triplex or even
quintuplex pumps to inject water and solvents deep into shale in the extraction process called fracking.[5]

Compressed-air-powered double-diaphragm pumps One modern application of positive displacement pumps


is compressed-air-powered double-diaphragm pumps. Run on compressed air these pumps are intrinsically safe by
design, although all manufacturers offer ATEX certified models to comply with industry regulation. These pumps
are relatively inexpensive and can perform a wide variety of duties, from pumping water out of bunds, to pumping
hydrochloric acid from secure storage (dependent on how the pump is manufactured – elastomers / body construction).
Lift is normally limited to roughly 6m although heads can reach almost 200 psi (1.4 MPa).

Rope pumps Main article: Rope pump

Devised in China as chain pumps over 1000 years ago, these pumps can be made from very simple materials: A rope,
a wheel and a PVC pipe are sufficient to make a simple rope pump. Rope pump efficiency has been studied by grass
roots organizations and the techniques for making and running them have been continuously improved.[6]
6.1. TYPES 49

6.1.2 Impulse pumps


Impulse pumps use pressure created by gas (usually air). In some impulse pumps the gas trapped in the liquid
(usually water), is released and accumulated somewhere in the pump, creating a pressure that can push part of the
liquid upwards.
Conventional impulse pumps include:

• Hydraulic ram pumps – kinetic energy of a low-head water supply is stored temporarily in an air-bubble
hydraulic accumulator, then used to drive water to a higher head.
• Pulser pumps – run with natural resources, by kinetic energy only.
• Airlift pumps – run on air inserted into pipe, which pushes the water up when bubbles move upward

Instead of a gas accumulation and releasing cycle, the pressure can be created by burning of hydrocarbons. Such
combustion driven pumps directly transmit the impulse form a combustion event through the actuation membrane to
the pump fluid. In order to allow this direct transmission, the pump needs to be almost entirely made of an elastomer
(e.g. silicone rubber). Hence, the combustion causes the membrane to expand and thereby pumps the fluid out of the
adjacent pumping chamber. The first combustion-driven soft pump was developed by ETH Zurich.[7]

Hydraulic ram pumps

A hydraulic ram is a water pump powered by hydropower.[8]


It takes in water at relatively low pressure and high flow-rate and outputs water at a higher hydraulic-head and lower
flow-rate. The device uses the water hammer effect to develop pressure that lifts a portion of the input water that
powers the pump to a point higher than where the water started.
The hydraulic ram is sometimes used in remote areas, where there is both a source of low-head hydropower, and a
need for pumping water to a destination higher in elevation than the source. In this situation, the ram is often useful,
since it requires no outside source of power other than the kinetic energy of flowing water.

6.1.3 Velocity pumps


Rotodynamic pumps (or dynamic pumps) are a type of velocity pump in which kinetic energy is added to the fluid
by increasing the flow velocity. This increase in energy is converted to a gain in potential energy (pressure) when the
velocity is reduced prior to or as the flow exits the pump into the discharge pipe. This conversion of kinetic energy
to pressure is explained by the First law of thermodynamics, or more specifically by Bernoulli’s principle.
Dynamic pumps can be further subdivided according to the means in which the velocity gain is achieved.[9]
These types of pumps have a number of characteristics:

1. Continuous energy
2. Conversion of added energy to increase in kinetic energy (increase in velocity)
3. Conversion of increased velocity (kinetic energy) to an increase in pressure head

A practical difference between dynamic and positive displacement pumps is how they operate under closed valve
conditions. Positive displacement pumps physically displace fluid, so closing a valve downstream of a positive dis-
placement pump produces a continual pressure build up that can cause mechanical failure of pipeline or pump.
Dynamic pumps differ in that they can be safely operated under closed valve conditions (for short periods of time).

Radial-flow pumps

Such a pump is also referred to as a centrifugal pump. The fluid enters along the axis or center, is accelerated by the
impeller and exits at right angles to the shaft (radially); an example is the centrifugal fan, which is commonly used to
implement a vacuum cleaner. Generally, a radial-flow pump operates at higher pressures and lower flow rates than
an axial- or a mixed-flow pump.
50 CHAPTER 6. PUMP

Axial-flow pumps

Main article: Axial-flow pump

These are also referred to as All fluid pumps. The fluid is pushed outward or inward and move fluid axially. They
operate at much lower pressures and higher flow rates than radial-flow (centripetal) pumps.

Mixed-flow pumps

Mixed-flow pumps function as a compromise between radial and axial-flow pumps. The fluid experiences both radial
acceleration and lift and exits the impeller somewhere between 0 and 90 degrees from the axial direction. As a
consequence mixed-flow pumps operate at higher pressures than axial-flow pumps while delivering higher discharges
than radial-flow pumps. The exit angle of the flow dictates the pressure head-discharge characteristic in relation to
radial and mixed-flow.

Eductor-jet pump

Main article: Eductor-jet pump

This uses a jet, often of steam, to create a low pressure. This low pressure sucks in fluid and propels it into a higher
pressure region.

6.1.4 Gravity pumps

Gravity pumps include the syphon and Heron’s fountain. The hydraulic ram is also sometimes called a gravity pump;
in a gravity pump the water is lifted by gravitational force.

6.1.5 Steam pumps

Steam pumps have been for a long time mainly of historical interest. They include any type of pump powered by a
steam engine and also pistonless pumps such as Thomas Savery's or the Pulsometer steam pump.
Recently there has been a resurgence of interest in low power solar steam pumps for use in smallholder irrigation
in developing countries. Previously small steam engines have not been viable because of escalating inefficiencies as
vapour engines decrease in size. However the use of modern engineering materials coupled with alternative engine
configurations has meant that these types of system are now a cost effective opportunity.

6.1.6 Valveless pumps

Valveless pumping assists in fluid transport in various biomedical and engineering systems. In a valveless pumping
system, no valves (or physical occlusions) are present to regulate the flow direction. The fluid pumping efficiency of
a valveless system, however, is not necessarily lower than that having valves. In fact, many fluid-dynamical systems
in nature and engineering more or less rely upon valveless pumping to transport the working fluids therein. For
instance, blood circulation in the cardiovascular system is maintained to some extent even when the heart’s valves
fail. Meanwhile, the embryonic vertebrate heart begins pumping blood long before the development of discernible
chambers and valves. In microfluidics, valveless impedance pumps have been fabricated, and are expected to be
particularly suitable for handling sensitive biofluids. Ink jet printers operating on the Piezoelectric transducer principle
also use valveless pumping. The pump chamber is emptied through the printing jet due to reduced flow impedance
in that direction and refilled by capillary action..
6.2. PUMP REPAIRS 51

6.2 Pump repairs

Examining pump repair records and mean time between failures (MTBF) is of great importance to responsible and
conscientious pump users. In view of that fact, the preface to the 2006 Pump User’s Handbook alludes to “pump
failure” statistics. For the sake of convenience, these failure statistics often are translated into MTBF (in this case,
installed life before failure).[10]
In early 2005, Gordon Buck, John Crane Inc.’s chief engineer for Field Operations in Baton Rouge, LA, examined
the repair records for a number of refinery and chemical plants to obtain meaningful reliability data for centrifugal
pumps. A total of 15 operating plants having nearly 15,000 pumps were included in the survey. The smallest of
these plants had about 100 pumps; several plants had over 2000. All facilities were located in the United States. In
addition, considered as “new”, others as “renewed” and still others as “established”. Many of these plants—but not
all—had an alliance arrangement with John Crane. In some cases, the alliance contract included having a John Crane
Inc. technician or engineer on-site to coordinate various aspects of the program.
Not all plants are refineries, however, and different results occur elsewhere. In chemical plants, pumps have tra-
ditionally been “throw-away” items as chemical attack limits life. Things have improved in recent years, but the
somewhat restricted space available in “old” DIN and ASME-standardized stuffing boxes places limits on the type
of seal that fits. Unless the pump user upgrades the seal chamber, the pump only accommodates more compact and
simple versions. Without this upgrading, lifetimes in chemical installations are generally around 50 to 60 percent of
the refinery values.
Unscheduled maintenance is often one of the most significant costs of ownership, and failures of mechanical seals and
bearings are among the major causes. Keep in mind the potential value of selecting pumps that cost more initially,
but last much longer between repairs. The MTBF of a better pump may be one to four years longer than that of its
non-upgraded counterpart. Consider that published average values of avoided pump failures range from US$2600
to US$12,000. This does not include lost opportunity costs. One pump fire occurs per 1000 failures. Having fewer
pump failures means having fewer destructive pump fires.
As has been noted, a typical pump failure based on actual year 2002 reports, costs US$5,000 on average. This
includes costs for material, parts, labor and overhead. Extending a pump’s MTBF from 12 to 18 months would save
US$1,667 per year — which might be greater than the cost to upgrade the centrifugal pump’s reliability.[10][11][12]

6.3 Applications

Pumps are used throughout society for a variety of purposes. Early applications includes the use of the windmill
or watermill to pump water. Today, the pump is used for irrigation, water supply, gasoline supply, air conditioning
systems, refrigeration (usually called a compressor), chemical movement, sewage movement, flood control, marine
services, etc.
Because of the wide variety of applications, pumps have a plethora of shapes and sizes: from very large to very small,
from handling gas to handling liquid, from high pressure to low pressure, and from high volume to low volume.

6.3.1 Priming a pump

Typically, a liquid pump can't simply draw air. The feed line of the pump and the internal body surrounding the
pumping mechanism must first be filled with the liquid that requires pumping: An operator must introduce liquid
into the system to initiate the pumping. This is called priming the pump. Loss of prime is usually due to ingestion
of air into the pump. The clearances and displacement ratios in pumps for liquids, whether thin or more viscous,
usually cannot displace air due to its compressibility. This is the case with most velocity (rotodynamic) pumps — for
example, centrifugal pumps.
Positive–displacement pumps, however, tend to have sufficiently tight sealing between the moving parts and the casing
or housing of the pump that they can be described as self-priming. Such pumps can also serve as priming pumps, so
called when they are used to fulfill that need for other pumps in lieu of action taken by a human operator.
52 CHAPTER 6. PUMP

6.3.2 Pumps as public water supplies

Main article: hand pump


One sort of pump once common worldwide was a hand-powered water pump, or 'pitcher pump'. It was commonly
installed over community water wells in the days before piped water supplies.
In parts of the British Isles, it was often called the parish pump. Though such community pumps are no longer
common, people still used the expression parish pump to describe a place or forum where matters of local interest
are discussed.[14]
Because water from pitcher pumps is drawn directly from the soil, it is more prone to contamination. If such water is
not filtered and purified, consumption of it might lead to gastrointestinal or other water-borne diseases. A notorious
case is the 1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak. At the time it was not known how cholera was transmitted, but
physician John Snow suspected contaminated water and had the handle of the public pump he suspected removed;
the outbreak then subsided.
Modern hand-operated community pumps are considered the most sustainable low-cost option for safe water supply in
resource-poor settings, often in rural areas in developing countries. A hand pump opens access to deeper groundwater
that is often not polluted and also improves the safety of a well by protecting the water source from contaminated
buckets. Pumps such as the Afridev pump are designed to be cheap to build and install, and easy to maintain with
simple parts. However, scarcity of spare parts for these type of pumps in some regions of Africa has diminished their
utility for these areas.

6.3.3 Sealing multiphase pumping applications

Multiphase pumping applications, also referred to as tri-phase, have grown due to increased oil drilling activity. In
addition, the economics of multiphase production is attractive to upstream operations as it leads to simpler, smaller
in-field installations, reduced equipment costs and improved production rates. In essence, the multiphase pump can
accommodate all fluid stream properties with one piece of equipment, which has a smaller footprint. Often, two
smaller multiphase pumps are installed in series rather than having just one massive pump.
For midstream and upstream operations, multiphase pumps can be located onshore or offshore and can be connected
to single or multiple wellheads. Basically, multiphase pumps are used to transport the untreated flow stream produced
from oil wells to downstream processes or gathering facilities. This means that the pump may handle a flow stream
(well stream) from 100 percent gas to 100 percent liquid and every imaginable combination in between. The flow
stream can also contain abrasives such as sand and dirt. Multiphase pumps are designed to operate under changing or
fluctuating process conditions. Multiphase pumping also helps eliminate emissions of greenhouse gases as operators
strive to minimize the flaring of gas and the venting of tanks where possible.[15]

Types and features of multiphase pumps

Helico-axial pumps (centrifugal) A rotodynamic pump with one single shaft that requires two mechanical seals,
this pump uses an open-type axial impeller. It’s often called a Poseidon pump, and can be described as a cross between
an axial compressor and a centrifugal pump.

Twin-screw (positive-displacement) The twin-screw pump is constructed of two inter-meshing screws that move
the pumped fluid. Twin screw pumps are often used when pumping conditions contain high gas volume fractions and
fluctuating inlet conditions. Four mechanical seals are required to seal the two shafts.

Progressive cavity (positive-displacement) Progressive cavity pumps are single-screw types typically used in shal-
low wells or at the surface. This pump is mainly used on surface applications where the pumped fluid may contain a
considerable amount of solids such as sand and dirt.

Electric submersible (centrifugal) These pumps are basically multistage centrifugal pumps and are widely used
in oil well applications as a method for artificial lift. These pumps are usually specified when the pumped fluid is
mainly liquid.
6.4. SPECIFICATIONS 53

Buffer tank A buffer tank is often installed upstream of the pump suction nozzle in case of a slug flow. The buffer
tank breaks the energy of the liquid slug, smooths any fluctuations in the incoming flow and acts as a sand trap.
As the name indicates, multiphase pumps and their mechanical seals can encounter a large variation in service con-
ditions such as changing process fluid composition, temperature variations, high and low operating pressures and
exposure to abrasive/erosive media. The challenge is selecting the appropriate mechanical seal arrangement and
support system to ensure maximized seal life and its overall effectiveness.[15][16][17]

6.4 Specifications
Pumps are commonly rated by horsepower, flow rate, outlet pressure in metres (or feet) of head, inlet suction in
suction feet (or metres) of head. The head can be simplified as the number of feet or metres the pump can raise or
lower a column of water at atmospheric pressure.
From an initial design point of view, engineers often use a quantity termed the specific speed to identify the most
suitable pump type for a particular combination of flow rate and head.

6.5 Pumping power


Main article: Bernoulli’s equation

The power imparted into a fluid increases the energy of the fluid per unit volume. Thus the power relationship is
between the conversion of the mechanical energy of the pump mechanism and the fluid elements within the pump.
In general, this is governed by a series of simultaneous differential equations, known as the Navier–Stokes equations.
However a more simple equation relating only the different energies in the fluid, known as Bernoulli’s equation can
be used. Hence the power, P, required by the pump:

∆pQ
P =
η
where Δp is the change in total pressure between the inlet and outlet (in Pa), and Q, the volume flow-rate of the
fluid is given in m3 /s. The total pressure may have gravitational, static pressure and kinetic energy components; i.e.
energy is distributed between change in the fluid’s gravitational potential energy (going up or down hill), change in
velocity, or change in static pressure. η is the pump efficiency, and may be given by the manufacturer’s information,
such as in the form of a pump curve, and is typically derived from either fluid dynamics simulation (i.e. solutions to
the Navier–Stokes for the particular pump geometry), or by testing. The efficiency of the pump depends upon the
pump’s configuration and operating conditions (such as rotational speed, fluid density and viscosity etc.)

(v22 − v12 ) ∆pstatic


∆P = + ∆zg +
2 ρ
For a typical “pumping” configuration, the work is imparted on the fluid, and is thus positive. For the fluid imparting
the work on the pump (i.e. a turbine), the work is negative. Power required to drive the pump is determined by
dividing the output power by the pump efficiency. Furthermore, this definition encompasses pumps with no moving
parts, such as a siphon.

6.6 Efficiency
Pump efficiency is defined as the ratio of the power imparted on the fluid by the pump in relation to the power supplied
to drive the pump. Its value is not fixed for a given pump, efficiency is a function of the discharge and therefore also
operating head. For centrifugal pumps, the efficiency tends to increase with flow rate up to a point midway through the
operating range (peak efficiency or Best Efficiency Point (BEP) ) and then declines as flow rates rise further. Pump
performance data such as this is usually supplied by the manufacturer before pump selection. Pump efficiencies tend
to decline over time due to wear (e.g. increasing clearances as impellers reduce in size).
54 CHAPTER 6. PUMP

When a system includes a centrifugal pump, an important design issue is matching the head loss-flow characteristic
with the pump so that it operates at or close to the point of its maximum efficiency.
Pump efficiency is an important aspect and pumps should be regularly tested. Thermodynamic pump testing is one
method.

6.7 References
[1] Pump classifications. Fao.org. Retrieved on 2011-05-25.

[2] Improving Pumping System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition, May 2006. Accessed 2015-05-22.

[3] “Definitive Guide: Pumps Used in Pressure Washers”. The Pressure Washr Review. Retrieved May 14, 2016.

[4] “Drilling Pumps”. Gardner Denver.

[5] “Stimulation and Fracturing pumps: Reciprocating, Quintuplex Stimulation and Fracturing Pump”. Gardner Denver.

[6] Tanzania water blog – example of grass roots researcher telling about his study and work with the rope pump in Africa.

[7] C.M. Schumacher, M. Loepfe, R.Fuhrer, R.N. Grass, and W.J. Stark, “3D printed lost-wax casted soft silicone monoblocks
enable heart-inspired pumping by internal combustion,” RSC Advances, Vol. 4,pp. 16039–16042, 2014.

[8] Demirbas, Ayhan (2008-11-14). Biofuels: Securing the Planet’s Future Energy Needs. Springer Science & Business Media.
ISBN 9781848820111.

[9] Welcome to the Hydraulic Institute. Pumps.org. Retrieved on 2011-05-25.

[10] Pump Statistics Should Shape Strategies. Mt-online.com 1 October 2008. Retrieved 24 September 2014.

[11] Submersible slurry pumps in high demand. Engineeringnews.co.za. Retrieved on 2011-05-25.

[12] Wasser, Goodenberger, Jim and Bob (November 1993). “Extended Life, Zero Emissions Seal for Process Pumps”. John
Crane Technical Report. Routledge. TRP 28017.

[13] Hill, Donald Routledge (1996). A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times. London: Routledge. p. 143.
ISBN 0-415-15291-7.

[14] “Online Dictionary – Parish Pump”. Retrieved 2010-11-22.

[15] Sealing Multiphase Pumping Applications | Seals. Pump-zone.com. Retrieved on 2011-05-25.

[16] John Crane Seal Sentinel – John Crane Increases Production Capabilities with Machine that Streamlines Four Machining
Functions into One. Sealsentinel.com. Retrieved on 2011-05-25.

[17] Vacuum pump new on SA market. Engineeringnews.co.za. Retrieved on 2011-05-25.

6.8 Further reading


• Australian Pump Manufacturers’ Association. Australian Pump Technical Handbook, 3rd edition. Canberra:
Australian Pump Manufacturers’ Association, 1987. ISBN 0-7316-7043-4.

• Hicks, Tyler G. and Theodore W. Edwards. Pump Application Engineering. McGraw-Hill Book Company.1971.
ISBN 0-07-028741-4

• Karassik, Igor, ed. (2007). Pump Handbook (4 ed.). McGraw Hill. ISBN 9780071460446.
• Robbins, L. B. “Homemade Water Pressure Systems”. Popular Science, February 1919, pages 83–84. Article
about how a homeowner can easily build a pressurized home water system that does not use electricity.
6.8. FURTHER READING 55

Simple hand pump


56 CHAPTER 6. PUMP

Antique “pitcher” pump (c. 1924) at the Colored School in Alapaha, Georgia, US
6.8. FURTHER READING 57

Gear pump
58 CHAPTER 6. PUMP

Screw pump
6.8. FURTHER READING 59

Cavity pump

A Roots lobe pump


60 CHAPTER 6. PUMP

360° Peristaltic Pump


6.8. FURTHER READING 61

Rope pump schematic


62 CHAPTER 6. PUMP

A centrifugal pump uses an impeller with backward-swept arms


6.8. FURTHER READING 63

Derelict windmill connected to water pump with water storage tank in the foreground

Metering pump for gasoline and additives.


64 CHAPTER 6. PUMP

First European depiction of a piston pump, by Taccola, c.1450.[13]


6.8. FURTHER READING 65

Irrigation is underway by pump-enabled extraction directly from the Gumti, seen in the background, in Comilla, Bangladesh.
Chapter 7

Reynolds transport theorem

In differential calculus, the Reynolds transport theorem (also known as the Leibniz–Reynolds transport theorem),
or in short Reynolds’ theorem, is a three-dimensional generalization of the Leibniz integral rule which is also known
as differentiation under the integral sign. The theorem is named after Osborne Reynolds (1842–1912). It is used to
recast derivatives of integrated quantities and is useful in formulating the basic equations of continuum mechanics.
Consider integrating f = f(x,t) over the time-dependent region Ω(t) that has boundary ∂Ω(t), then taking the derivative
with respect to time:


d
f dV.
dt Ω(t)

If we wish to move the derivative within the integral, there are two issues: the time dependence of f, and the in-
troduction of and removal of space from Ω due to its dynamic boundary. Reynolds’ transport theorem provides the
necessary framework.

7.1 General form


Reynolds’ transport theorem can be expressed as:[1][2][3]

∫ ∫ ∫
d ∂f ( )
f dV = dV + vb · n f dA
dt Ω(t) Ω(t) ∂t ∂Ω(t)

in which n(x,t) is the outward-pointing unit normal vector, x is a point in the region and is the variable of integration,
dV and dA are volume and surface elements at x, and vb (x,t) is the velocity of the area element (not the flow velocity).
The function f may be tensor-, vector- or scalar-valued.[4] Note that the integral on the left hand side is a function
solely of time, and so the total derivative has been used.

7.2 Form for a material element


In continuum mechanics, this theorem is often used for material elements. These are parcels of fluids or solids which
no material enters or leaves. If Ω(t) is a material element then there is a velocity function v = v(x,t), and the boundary
elements obey

vb · n = v · n.

This condition may be substituted to obtain:[5]

66
7.3. A SPECIAL CASE 67

(∫ ) ∫ ∫
d ∂f
f dV = dV + (v · n)f dA.
dt Ω(t) Ω(t) ∂t ∂Ω(t)

7.3 A special case


If we take Ω to be constant with respect to time, then vb = 0 and the identity reduces to

∫ ∫
d ∂f
f dV = dV.
dt Ω Ω ∂t
as expected. (This simplification is not possible if the flow velocity is incorrectly used in place of the velocity of an
area element.)

7.3.1 Interpretation and reduction to one dimension


The theorem is the higher-dimensional extension of differentiation under the integral sign and reduces to that expres-
sion in some cases. Suppose f is independent of y and z, and that Ω(t) is a unit square in the yz-plane and has x limits
a(t) and b(t). Then Reynolds transport theorem reduces to

∫ ∫
d b(t) b(t)
∂f ∂b(t) ( ) ∂a(t) ( )
f (x, t) dx = dx + f b(t), t − f a(t), t ,
dt a(t) a(t) ∂t ∂t ∂t
which, up to swapping x and t, is the standard expression for differentiation under the integral sign.

7.4 See also


• Differentiation under the integral sign
• Leibniz integral rule

7.5 Notes
[1] L. G. Leal, 2007, p. 23.
[2] O. Reynolds, 1903, Vol. 3, p. 12–13
[3] J.E. Marsden and A. Tromba, 5th ed. 2003
[4] H. Yamaguchi, Engineering Fluid Mechanics, Springer c2008 p23
[5] T. Belytschko, W. K. Liu, and B. Moran, 2000, Nonlinear Finite Elements for Continua and Structures, John Wiley and
Sons, Ltd., New York.
[6] Gurtin M. E., 1981, An Introduction to Continuum Mechanics. Academic Press, New York, p. 77.

7.6 References
• L. G. Leal, 2007, Advanced transport phenomena: fluid mechanics and convective transport processes, Cam-
bridge University Press, p. 912.
• O. Reynolds, 1903, Papers on Mechanical and Physical Subjects, Vol. 3, The Sub-Mechanics of the Universe,
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
• J. E. Marsden and A. Tromba, 2003, Vector Calculus, 5th ed., W. H. Freeman .
68 CHAPTER 7. REYNOLDS TRANSPORT THEOREM

7.7 External links


• Osborne Reynolds, Collected Papers on Mechanical and Physical Subjects, in three volumes, published circa
1903, now fully and freely available in digital format:Volume 1, Volume 2, Volume 3,
• http://www.catea.org/grade/mecheng/mod6/mod6.html#slide1

• http://planetmath.org/reynoldstransporttheorem
Chapter 8

Rheopecty

Rheopecty or rheopexy is the rare property of some non-Newtonian fluids to show a time-dependent increase in
viscosity (time-dependent viscosity); the longer the fluid undergoes shearing force, the higher its viscosity.[1] Rheopec-
tic fluids, such as some lubricants, thicken or solidify when shaken. The opposite and much more common type of
behaviour, in which fluids become less viscous the longer they undergo shear, is called thixotropy.
Examples of rheopectic fluids include gypsum pastes and printer inks. In the body synovial fluid exhibits the extraor-
dinary property of inverse thixotropy or rheopexy.[2]
There is ongoing research into new ways to make and use rheopectic materials. There is great interest in possible
military uses of this technology. Moreover, the high end of the sports market has also begun to respond to it. Body
armor and combat vehicle armor are key areas where efforts are being made to use rheopectic materials. Work is also
being done to use these materials in other kinds of protective equipment, which is seen as potentially useful to reduce
apparent impact stress in athletics, motor sports, transportation accidents, and all forms of parachuting. In particular,
footwear with rheopectic shock absorption is being pursued as a dual-use technology that can provide better support
to those who must frequently run, leap, climb, or descend.

8.1 Confusion between rheopectic and dilatant fluids


An incorrect example often used to demonstrate rheopecty is cornstarch mixed with water, which is a very viscous,
white fluid. It is a cheap and simple demonstrator, which can be picked up by hand as a semi-solid, but flows easily
when not under pressure. However, cornstarch in water is actually a dilatant fluid, since it does not show the time-
dependent, shear-induced change required in order to be labeled rheopectic. These terms are often and easily confused
since the terms are rarely used; a true rheopectic fluid would when shaken be liquid at first, becoming thicker as shaking
continued.
Just as the opposite behaviour of becoming thinner with time is thixotropism (time dependent pseudoplastic be-
haviour), rheopectic behaviour may be described as time-dependent dilatant behaviour.[3]

8.2 References
[1] http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/0/22880407

[2] O'Neill, p.l (1996). “The Inverse Thixotropic Behaviour of Synovial Fluid”.

[3] Sato, Tatsuo (August 1995). “Rheology of suspensions”. The Journal of Coatings Technology: 69. Retrieved March 12,
2016.

69
Chapter 9

Specific speed

Specific speed Ns, is used to characterize turbomachinery speed.[1] Common commercial and industrial practices
use dimensioned versions which are of equal utility. Specific speed is most commonly used in pump applications to
define the suction specific speed —a quasi non-dimensional number that categorizes pump impellers as to their type
and proportions. In Imperial units it is defined as the speed in revolutions per minute at which a geometrically similar
impeller would operate if it were of such a size as to deliver one gallon per minute against one foot of hydraulic head.
In metric units flow may be in l/s or m³/s and head in m, and care must be taken to state the units used.
Performance is defined as the ratio of the pump or turbine against a reference pump or turbine, which divides the
actual performance figure to provide a unitless figure of merit. The resulting figure would more descriptively be
called the “ideal-reference-device-specific performance.” This resulting unitless ratio may loosely be expressed as a
“speed,” only because the performance of the reference ideal pump is linearly dependent on its speed, so that the ratio
of [device-performance to reference-device-performance] is also the increased speed at which the reference device
would need to operate, in order to produce the performance, instead of its reference speed of “1 unit.”
Specific speed is an index used to predict desired pump or turbine performance. i.e. it predicts the general shape of
a pumps impeller. It is this impeller’s “shape” that predicts its flow and head characteristics so that the designer can
then select a pump or turbine most appropriate for a particular application. Once the desired specific speed is known,
basic dimensions of the unit’s components can be easily calculated.
Several mathematical definitions of specific speed (all of them actually ideal-device-specific) have been created for
different devices and applications.

9.1 Pump specific speed

Low-specific speed radial flow impellers develop hydraulic head principally through centrifugal force. Pumps of
higher specific speeds develop head partly by centrifugal force and partly by axial force. An axial flow or propeller
pump with a specific speed of 10,000 or greater generates its head exclusively through axial forces. Radial impellers
are generally low flow/high head designs whereas axial flow impellers are high flow/low head designs. In theory,
the discharge of a “purely” centrifugal machine (pump, turbine, fan, etc.)is tangential to the rotation of the impeller
whereas a “purely” axial-flow machine’s discharge will be parallel to the axis of rotation. There are also machines
that exhibit a combination of both properties and are specifically referred to as “mixed-flow” machines.
Centrifugal pump impellers have specific speed values ranging from 500 to 10,000 (English units), with radial flow
pumps at 500-4000, mixed flow at 2000-8000 and axial flow pumps at 7000-20,000. Values of specific speed less
than 500 are associated with positive displacement pumps.
As the specific speed increases, the ratio of the impeller outlet diameter to the inlet or eye diameter decreases. This
ratio becomes 1.0 for a true axial flow impeller.

n Q
Ns = (H)3/4

where:

70
9.2. NET SUCTION SPECIFIC SPEED 71

Ns
n
Q
H
Note that the units used affect the specific speed value in the above equation and consistent units should be used for
comparisons. Pump specific speed can be calculated using British gallons or using Metric units (m3 /s or L/s and
metres head), changing the values listed above.

n Q
The following equation gives a dimensionless specific speed. Ns = (H)3/4

9.2 Net suction specific speed


The net suction specific speed is mainly used to see if there will be problems with cavitation during the pump’s
operation on the suction side.[2] It is defined by centrifugal and axial pumps’ inherent physical characteristics and
operating point.[3] The net suction specific speed of a pump will define the range of operation in which a pump
will experience stable operation .[4] The higher the net suction specific speed, then the smaller the range of stable
operation, up to the point of cavitation at 8500 (unitless). The envelope of stable operation is defined in terms of the
best efficiency point of the pump.
The net suction specific speed is defined as:[5]

N Q
Nss = N P SH 0.75
R

where:

Nss = net suction specific speed


N = rotational speed of pump in rpm
Q = flow of pump in US gallons per minute
N P SH R = Net positive suction head (NPSH) required in feet at pump’s best efficiency point

9.3 Turbine specific speed


The specific speed value for a turbine is the speed of a geometrically similar turbine which would produce unit power
(one kilowatt) under unit head (one meter).[6] The specific speed of a turbine is given by the manufacturer (along with
other ratings) and will always refer to the point of maximum efficiency. This allows accurate calculations to be made
of the turbine’s performance for a range of heads.
Well-designed efficient machines typically use the following values: Impulse turbines have the lowest ns values, typi-
cally ranging from 1 to 10, a Pelton wheel is typically around 4, Francis turbines fall in the range of 10 to 100, while
Kaplan turbines are at least 100 or more, all in imperial units.[7]

ns = n P /H 5/4 (dimensioned parameter), n = rpm [8]
where:


Hn
Q

• N = Wheel speed (rpm)


• P = Power (kW)
• H = Water head (m)
72 CHAPTER 9. SPECIFIC SPEED

9.3.1 English units


Expressed in English units, the “specific speed” is defined as ns = n√(P)/h5/4

• where n is the wheel speed in rpm


• P is the power in horsepower
• h is the water head in feet

9.3.2 Metric units


Expressed in metric units, the “specific speed” is ns = 0.2626 n√(P)/h5/4

• where n is the wheel speed in rpm


• P is the power in kilowatts
• h is the water head in meters

The factor 0.2626 is only required when the specific speed is to be adjusted to English units. In countries which use
the metric system, the factor is omitted, and quoted specific speeds are correspondingly larger.

9.3.3 Example
Given a flow and head for a specific hydro site, and the RPM requirement of the generator, calculate the specific
speed. The result is the main criteria for turbine selection or the starting point for analytical design of a new turbine.
Once the desired specific speed is known, basic dimensions of the turbine parts can be easily calculated.
Turbine calculations:

2.294
Ns =
Hn0.486

Hn
De = 84.5(0.79 + 1.602Ns )
60 ∗ Ω
De
Well-designed efficient machines typically use the following values: Impulse turbines have the lowest ns values, typi-
cally ranging from 1 to 10, a Pelton wheel is typically around 4, Francis turbines fall in the range of 10 to 100, while
Kaplan turbines are at least 100 or more, all in imperial units.

9.4 See also


• Pump
• Net positive suction head
• Water turbine

9.5 References
[1] Shepard, Dennis G. (1956). Principles of Turbomachinery. McMillan. ISBN 0 - 471 - 85546 - 4. LCCN 56002849.

[2] “Specific speed”. McNally Institute. Retrieved 2007-07-13.

[3] “NPSH and Suction Specific Speed - Goulds Pumps - ITT Corporation”. ITT Corporation. Retrieved 2007-07-13.
9.5. REFERENCES 73

[4] “Article #3: Suction Specific Speed (NSS)". Pumping Machinery. Retrieved 2016-06-09.

[5] “Specific Suction Speed for Pumps”. Engineering Toolbox. Retrieved 2007-07-13.

[6] http://www.thermopedia.com/content/859/

[7] “Technical derivation of basic impulse turbine physics, by J.Calvert”. Mysite.du.edu. Retrieved 2012-07-08.

[8] Sayers, A. T. (1990). Hydraulic and Compressible Flow Turbomachines. Mcgraw Hill Book Co Ltd. ISBN 978-0-07-
707219-3.
Chapter 10

Terminal velocity

For other uses, see Terminal velocity (disambiguation).


Terminal velocity is the highest velocity attainable by an object as it falls through a fluid (air is the most common
example). It occurs when the sum of the drag force (Fd) and the buoyancy is equal to the downward force of gravity
(FG) acting on the object. Since the net force on the object is zero, the object has zero acceleration.[1]
In fluid dynamics, an object is moving at its terminal velocity if its speed is constant due to the restraining force
exerted by the fluid through which it is moving.
As the speed of an object increases, so does the drag force acting on it, which also depends on the substance it is
passing through (for example air or water). At some speed, the drag or force of resistance will equal the gravitational
pull on the object (buoyancy is considered below). At this point the object ceases to accelerate and continues falling
at a constant speed called the terminal velocity (also called settling velocity). An object moving downward faster than
the terminal velocity (for example because it was thrown downwards, it fell from a thinner part of the atmosphere, or
it changed shape) will slow down until it reaches the terminal velocity. Drag depends on the projected area, here, the
object’s cross-section or silhouette in a horizontal plane. An object with a large projected area relative to its mass,
such as a parachute, has a lower terminal velocity than one with a small projected area relative to its mass, such as a
bullet.

10.1 Examples

Based on wind resistance, for example, the terminal velocity of a skydiver in a belly-to-earth (i.e., face down) free-fall
position is about 195 km/h (122 mph or 54 m/s).[2] This velocity is the asymptotic limiting value of the velocity, and
the forces acting on the body balance each other more and more closely as the terminal velocity is approached. In
this example, a speed of 50% of terminal velocity is reached after only about 3 seconds, while it takes 8 seconds to
reach 90%, 15 seconds to reach 99% and so on.
Higher speeds can be attained if the skydiver pulls in his or her limbs (see also freeflying). In this case, the ter-
minal velocity increases to about 320 km/h (200 mph or 90 m/s),[2] which is almost the terminal velocity of the
peregrine falcon diving down on its prey.[3] The same terminal velocity is reached for a typical .30-06 bullet dropping
downwards—when it is returning to the ground having been fired upwards, or dropped from a tower—according to
a 1920 U.S. Army Ordnance study.[4]
Competition speed skydivers fly in a head-down position and can reach speeds of 530 km/h (330 mph); the current
record is held by Felix Baumgartner who jumped from a height of 128,100 feet (39,000 m) and reached 1,342 km/h
(834 mph), though he achieved this velocity at high altitude, where extremely thin air presents less drag force.

10.2 Physics

Using mathematical terms, terminal velocity—without considering buoyancy effects—is given by

74
10.2. PHYSICS 75


2mg
Vt =
ρACd
where

• Vt represents terminal velocity,


• m is the mass of the falling object,
• g is the acceleration due to gravity,
• Cd is the drag coefficient,
• ρ is the density of the fluid through which the object is falling, and
• A is the projected area of the object.

In reality, an object approaches its terminal velocity asymptotically.


Buoyancy effects, due to the upward force on the object by the surrounding fluid, can be taken into account using
Archimedes’ principle: the mass m has to be reduced by the displaced fluid mass ρV , with V the volume of the
object. So instead of m use the reduced mass mr = m − ρV in this and subsequent formulas.
The terminal velocity of an object changes due to the properties of the fluid, the mass of the object and its projected
cross-sectional surface area.
Air density increases with decreasing altitude, at about 1% per 80 metres (260 ft) (see barometric formula). For
objects falling through the atmosphere, for every 160 metres (520 ft) of fall, the terminal velocity decreases 1%.
After reaching the local terminal velocity, while continuing the fall, speed decreases to change with the local terminal
velocity.

10.2.1 Derivation for terminal velocity


Using mathematical terms, defining down to be positive, the net force acting on an object falling near the surface of
Earth is (according to the drag equation):

1
Fnet = ma = mg − ρv 2 ACd
2
At equilibrium, the net force is zero (F = 0);

1
mg − ρv 2 ACd = 0
2
Solving for v yields


2mg
v=
ρACd

10.2.2 Terminal velocity in a creeping flow


For very slow motion of the fluid, the inertia forces of the fluid are negligible (assumption of massless fluid) in
comparison to other forces. Such flows are called creeping flows and the condition to be satisfied for the flows to be
creeping flows is the Reynolds number, Re ≪ 1 . The equation of motion for creeping flow (simplified Navier-Stokes
equation) is given by

∇p = µ∇2 v
where
76 CHAPTER 10. TERMINAL VELOCITY

• v is the fluid velocity vector field

• p is the fluid pressure field

• µ is the liquid\fluid viscosity

The analytical solution for the creeping flow around a sphere was first given by Stokes in 1851. From Stokes’ solution,
the drag force acting on the sphere can be obtained as

24
(6) D = 3πµdV or Cd =
Re
1
where the Reynolds number, Re = µ ρdV . The expression for the drag force given by equation (6) is called Stokes’
law.
When the value of Cd is substituted in the equation (5), we obtain the expression for terminal velocity of a spherical
object moving under creeping flow conditions:

gd2
Vt = (ρs − ρ)
18µ

Applications

The creeping flow results can be applied in order to study the settling of sediments near the ocean bottom and the fall
of moisture drops in the atmosphere. The principle is also applied in the falling sphere viscometer, an experimental
device used to measure the viscosity of highly viscous fluids, for example oil, parrafin, tar etc.

10.2.3 Finding the terminal velocity when the drag coefficient is not known
In principle one doesn't know beforehand whether to apply the creeping flow solution, or what coefficient of drag to
use, because the coefficient depends on the speed. What one can do in this situation is to calculate the product of the
coefficient of drag and the square of the Reynolds number:

mgD2
Cd Re2 =
Aρν 2
where ν is the kinematic viscosity, equal to μ/ρ. This product is a function of Reynolds number, and one can consult
a graph of C versus Re to find where along the curve the product attains the correct value (a qualitative example of
such a graph for spheres is found at this NASA site: ) From this one knows the coefficient of drag and one can then
use the formula given above to find the terminal velocity.
For a spherical object, the above-mentioned product can be simplified:

4mg
Cd Re2 =
πρν 2
We can see from this that the regime and the drag coefficient depend only on the sphere’s weight and the fluid prop-
erties. There are three regimes: creeping flow, intermediate-Reynolds number Newton’s Law (almost constant drag
coefficient), and a high-Reynolds number regime.[5] In the latter regime the boundary layer is everywhere turbulent
(see Golf ball#Aerodynamics). These regimes are given in the following table. The weight range for each regime is
given for water and air at 1 atm pressure and 25 °C. Note though that the weight (given in terms of mass in standard
gravity) is the weight in the fluid, which is less than the mass times the local gravity because of buoyancy.
Between the first two regimes there is a smooth transition. But notice that there is overlap between the ranges of
C Re2 for the last two regimes. Spheres in this weight range have two stable terminal velocities. A rough surface,
such as of a dimpled golf ball, allows transition to the lower drag coefficient at a lower Reynolds number.
10.3. TERMINAL VELOCITY IN THE PRESENCE OF BUOYANCY FORCE 77

10.3 Terminal velocity in the presence of buoyancy force


When the buoyancy effects are taken into account, an object falling through a fluid under its own weight can reach a
terminal velocity (settling velocity) if the net force acting on the object becomes zero. When the terminal velocity is
reached the weight of the object is exactly balanced by the upward buoyancy force and drag force. That is

(1) W = Fb + D

where

• W = weight of the object,

• Fb = buoyancy force acting on the object, and

• D = drag force acting on the object.

If the falling object is spherical in shape, the expression for the three forces are given below:

π 3
(2) W = d ρs g
6
π
(3) Fb = d3 ρg
6
1
(4) D = Cd ρV 2 A
2
where

• d is the diameter of the spherical object

• g is the gravitational acceleration,

• ρ is the density of the fluid,

• ρs is the density of the object,

• A = 14 πd2 is the projected area of the sphere,

• Cd is the drag coefficient, and

• V is the characteristic velocity (taken as terminal velocity, Vt ).

Substitution of equations (2–4) in equation (1) and solving for terminal velocity, Vt to yield the following expression

√ ( )
4gd ρs − ρ
(5) Vt =
3Cd ρ

10.4 See also


• Stokes’ law

• Free fall

• Terminal ballistics
78 CHAPTER 10. TERMINAL VELOCITY

10.5 References
[1] “Terminal Velocity”. NASA Glenn Research Center. Retrieved March 4, 2009.

[2] Huang, Jian (1999). “Speed of a Skydiver (Terminal Velocity)". The Physics Factbook. Glenn Elert, Midwood High
School, Brooklyn College.

[3] “All About the Peregrine Falcon (archived)". U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. December 20, 2007. Archived from the
original on March 8, 2010.

[4] The Ballistician (March 2001). “Bullets in the Sky”. W. Square Enterprises, 9826 Sagedale, Houston, Texas 77089.

[5] Robert H. Perry; Cecil Chilton (eds.). Chemical Engineer’s Handbook (fifth ed.). pp. 5–62. ISBN 978-0070494787.

10.6 External links


• Terminal Velocity - NASA site
• Onboard video of Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters rapidly decelerating to terminal velocity on entry to the
thicker atmosphere, from 2,900 miles per hour (Mach 3.8) at 5:15 in the video, to 220 mph at 6:45 when the
parachutes are deployed 90 seconds later—NASA video and sound, @ io9.com.
10.6. EXTERNAL LINKS 79

Fd
80 CHAPTER 10. TERMINAL VELOCITY

Fd

Fg

Creeping flow past a sphere: streamlines, drag force Fd and force by gravity Fg
10.6. EXTERNAL LINKS 81

Settling velocity Ws of a sand grain (diameter d, density 2650 kg/m3 ) in water at 20 °C, computed with the formula of Soulsby
(1997).
Chapter 11

Thixotropy

Thixotropy is a time-dependent shear thinning property. Certain gels or fluids that are thick, or viscous, under
static conditions will flow (become thin, less viscous) over time when shaken, agitated, sheared or otherwise stressed
(time dependent viscosity). They then take a fixed time to return to a more viscous state. In other words: some
non-Newtonian pseudoplastic fluids show a time-dependent change in viscosity; the longer the fluid undergoes shear
stress, the lower its viscosity. A thixotropic fluid is a fluid which takes a finite time to attain equilibrium viscosity
when introduced to a steep change in shear rate. Some thixotropic fluids return to a gel state almost instantly, such
as ketchup, and are called pseudoplastic fluids. Others such as yogurt take much longer and can become nearly solid.
Many gels and colloids are thixotropic materials, exhibiting a stable form at rest but becoming fluid when agitated.
Some fluids are anti-thixotropic: constant shear stress for a time causes an increase in viscosity or even solidification.
Constant shear stress can be applied by shaking or mixing. Fluids which exhibit this property are usually called
rheopectic. They are much less common.

11.1 Natural examples


Some clays are thixotropic, with their behavior of great importance in structural and geotechnical engineering.
Landslides, such as those common in the cliffs around Lyme Regis, Dorset and in the Aberfan spoil tip disaster
in Wales are evidence of this phenomenon. Similarly, a lahar is a mass of earth liquefied by a volcanic event, which
rapidly solidifies once coming to rest.
Drilling muds used in geotechnical applications can be thixotropic. Honey from honey bees may also exhibit this
property under certain conditions (such as heather honey or mānuka honey).
Both cytoplasm and the ground substance in the human body is thixotropic, as is semen.[1]
Some clay deposits found in the process of exploring caves exhibit thixotropism: an initially solid-seeming mudbank
will turn soupy and yield up moisture when dug into or otherwise disturbed. These clays were deposited in the past
by low-velocity streams which tend to deposit fine-grained sediment.
A thixotropic fluid is best visualised by an oar blade embedded in mud. Pressure on the oar often results in a highly
viscous (more solid) thixotropic mud on the high pressure side of the blade, and low viscosity (very fluid) thixotropic
mud on the low pressure side of the oar blade. Flow from the high pressure side to the low pressure side of the oar
blade is non-Newtonian. (i.e.: fluid velocity is not linearly proportional to the square root of the pressure differential
over the oar blade).

11.2 Applications
Many kinds of paints and inks— e.g.plastisols used in silkscreen textile printing— exhibit thixotropic qualities. In
many cases it is desirable for the fluid to flow sufficiently to form a uniform layer, then to resist further flow, thereby
preventing sagging on a vertical surface. Some other inks, such as those used in CMYK-type process printing, are
designed to regain viscosity even faster, once they are applied, in order to protect the structure of the dots for accurate
color reproduction.

82
11.3. ETYMOLOGY 83

Solder pastes used in electronics manufacturing printing processes are thixotropic.


Thread-locking fluid is a thixotropic adhesive that cures anaerobically.
Thixotropy has been proposed as a scientific explanation of blood liquefaction miracles such as that of Saint Januarius
in Naples.[2]
Semi-solid casting processes such as thixomoulding use the thixotropic property of some alloys (mostly light metals)
(bismuth). Within certain temperature ranges, with appropriate preparation, an alloy can be put into a semi-solid
state, which can be injected with less shrinkage and better overall properties than by normal injection molding.
Fumed silica is commonly used as a rheology agent to make otherwise low-viscous fluids thixotropic. Examples range
from foods to epoxy resin in structural bonding applications like fillet joints.

11.3 Etymology
The word comes from Ancient Greek θίξις thixis “touch” (from thinganein “to touch”) and -tropy, -tropous, from
Ancient Greek -τρόπος -tropos “of turning”, from τρόπος tropos “a turn”, from τρέπειν trepein, “to turn”. It was
invented by Herbert Freundlich originally for a sol-gel transformation.[3]

11.4 See also


• Aberfan disaster
• Bingham plastic
• Calcium Sulfate
• Dilatant
• Fumed silica
• Kaye effect
• Nanocellulose
• Polymer
• Pseudoplastic
• Rheology
• Rheopexy (antonym)
• Shear thinning
• Silly putty
• Solder_paste#Composition find “thixotropic index”
• Viscosity

11.5 References
[1] Hendrickson, T: “Massage for Orthopedic Conditions”, page 9. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003.
[2] Garlaschelli, Ramaccini, Della Sala, “The Blood of St. Januarius”, Chemistry in Britain 30.2, (1994:123)
[3] Reiner, M., & Scott Blair, G. W., (1967) in Eich, F. R., (ed) Rheology, Theory and Applications Vol 4 p 465 (Academic
Press, NY)

• Derakhshandeh, B. Vlassopolous D., and Hatzikiriakos S.G., Thixotropy, Yielding and ultrasonic Doppler
velocimetry in pulp fibre suspensions, in Rheologica Acta DOI 10.1007/s00397-011-0577-7, 2011)
• Dam break wave of thixotropic fluid in Journal Hydraulic Engineering, 2006, Vol. 132, No. 3, pp. 280–293
84 CHAPTER 11. THIXOTROPY

11.6 External links


• The dictionary definition of thixotropy at Wiktionary
Chapter 12

Time-dependent viscosity

Time-dependent viscosity is a property of one class of non-Newtonian fluids in which the apparent viscosity of the
fluid changes with time as the fluid continues to undergo shear.
Most commonly, in a non-Newtonian fluid, the viscosity (the measure of a fluid’s ability to resist gradual deformation
by shear or tensile stresses) of the fluids is dependent on shear rate or shear rate history (time). These shear-thickening
fluids are divided into two groups: time dependent and time-independent viscosity. In the case of time dependent
viscosity, the apparent viscosity of a fluid changes with time as the fluid is continuously sheared. They can be termed
as memory materials. If the apparent viscosity decreases with time, the fluid is called thixotropic and if it increases
with time, it is called rheopectic. Thixotropic behaviour is the result of a break down in the microstructure of the
material as shearing continues. This happens when the shear is exceeded of a limit. It leads to non-linear stress-strain
behaviour. Thixotropy can be associated with the effect of bubbles. Examples of these types of fluids are gelatine,
shortening, cream, paints, yogurt, xanthan gum solutions, aqueous iron oxide gels, gelatine gels, pectin gels, synovial
fluid, hydrogenated castor oil, some clays (including bentonite, and montmorillonite), carbon black suspension in
molten tire rubber, some drilling muds, many paints, many floc suspensions, and many colloidal suspensions. In the
case of rheopatic fluids, the structure builds as shearing continues. Rheopectic behaviour may be described as time-
dependent dilatant behaviour. This type of behaviour is much less common but can occur in highly concentrated
starch solutions over long periods of time. Shear induced crystallization may be responsible for rheopatic behaviour.
Other examples are gypsum pastes and printer inks.

12.1 Thixotropic fluids


Main article: Thixotropy

Thixotropic fluids are fluids that show a shear thinning property. Certain gels or fluids that are thick (viscous)
under static conditions will flow (become thin, less viscous) over time when shaken, agitated, or otherwise stressed.
They then take a fixed time to return to a more viscous state. In more technical language: some non-Newtonian
pseudoplastic fluids show a time-dependent change in viscosity; the longer the fluid undergoes shear stress, the lower
its viscosity. A thixotropic fluid is a fluid which takes a finite time to attain equilibrium viscosity when introduced
to a step change in shear rate. Some thixotropic fluids return to a gel state almost instantly, such as ketchup, and are
called pseudoplastic fluids. Others such as yogurt take much longer and can become nearly solid. Many gels and
colloids are thixotropic materials, exhibiting a stable form at rest but becoming fluid when agitated.

12.1.1 Applications
Drilling muds used in geotechnical applications can be thixotropic. Honey from honey bees may also exhibit this
property under certain conditions.(heather honey).
Synovial fluid found in joints between some bones. Both cytoplasm and the ground substance in the human body
is thixotropic, as is semen.[1] Some clay deposits found in the process of exploring caves exhibit thixotropism: an
initially solid-seeming mudbank will turn soupy and yield up moisture when dug into or otherwise disturbed. These
clays were deposited in the past by low-velocity streams which tend to deposit fine-grained sediment.

85
86 CHAPTER 12. TIME-DEPENDENT VISCOSITY

Thread-locking fluid is a thixotropic adhesive that cures anaerobically.


Thixotropy has been proposed as a scientific explanation of blood liquefaction miracles such as that of Saint Januarius
in Naples.[2] Semi-solid casting processes such as thixomoulding use the thixotropic property of some alloys (mostly
light metals) (bismuth). Within certain temperature ranges, with appropriate preparation, an alloy can be put into
a semi-solid state, which can be injected with less shrinkage and better overall properties than by normal injection
molding.
Solder pastes used in electronics manufacturing printing processes are thixotropic.
Many kinds of paints and inks— e.g.plastisols used in silkscreen textile printing— exhibit thixotropic qualities. In
many cases it is desirable for the fluid to flow sufficiently to form a uniform layer, then to resist further flow (which
may become a sagging problem on a vertical surface). Some other inks, such as those used in CMYK-type process
printing, are designed to regain viscosity even faster, once they are applied, in order to protect the structure of the
dots for accurate color reproduction.

12.2 Rheopectic fluids


Main article: Rheopecty

Rheopectic fluids are a rare class of non-Newtonian fluids. These show a time-dependent increase in viscosity;
the longer the fluid undergoes shearing force, the higher its viscosity.[3] Rheopectic fluids, such as some lubricants,
thicken or solidify when shaken. Examples of rheopectic fluids include gypsum pastes and printer inks.

12.2.1 Applications

There is ongoing aggressive research into new ways to make and use rheopectic materials. There is great interest in
possible military uses of this technology. Moreover, the high end of the sports market has also begun to respond to it.
Body armor and combat vehicle armor are key areas where efforts are being made to use rheopectic materials. Work
is also being done to use these materials in other kinds of protective equipment, which is seen as potentially useful
to reduce apparent impact stress in athletics, motor sports, transportation accidents, and all forms of parachuting.
In particular, footwear with rheopectic shock absorption is being pursued as a dual-use technology that can provide
better support to those who must frequently run, leap, climb, or descend.

12.3 Hysterisis
After the gradual attrition of the microstructure of the fluid, the reverse situation may take place. There is no reason
why the forward and the backward processes take place in the same manner. In reality, some hysteresis takes place.
That is the stress-strain relation is not identical when measured with increasing and decreasing strain rates.

12.4 The marker and cell method


A technique is described for the numerical investigation of time-dependent flow of an incompressible fluid, of which
is partially confined and partially free. The full Navier–Stokes equations are written in finite-difference form, and the
solution is accomplished by finite-time-step advancement. The primary dependent variables are the pressure and the
velocity components. Also used is a set of marker particles which move with the fluid.[4]

12.5 See also


• Fluid dynamics

• Viscosity
12.6. NOTES 87

Blue: With increasing shear rate the system is breaking downGreen: With decreasing shear rate the system is building up

12.6 Notes
[1] Hendrickson, T: “Massage for Orthopedic Conditions”, page 9. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003.

[2] Garlaschelli, Ramaccini, Della the swagg fights of air forces Sala, “The Blood of St. Januarius”, Chemistry in Britain 30.2,
(1994:123)

[3] “BBC Science - How to: make a liquid that’s also a solid”. Bbc.co.uk. 2013-08-05. Retrieved 2015-03-08.

[4] “Numerical Calculation of Time‐Dependent Viscous Incompressible Flow of Fluid with Free Surface”. Retrieved 2014-
05-25.

12.7 References
• J. R. Lister and H. A. Stone (1996). Time-dependent viscous deformation of a drop in a rapidly rotating denser
fluid. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 317, pp 275–299 doi:10.1017/S0022112096000754

• Reiner, M., and Scott Blair, Rheology terminology, in Rheology, Vol. 4 pp. 461, (New York: Achedemic
Press, 1967)

• “Numerical Calculation of Time‐Dependent Viscous Incompressible Flow of Fluid with Free Surface”. Re-
trieved 2014-05-25.
88 CHAPTER 12. TIME-DEPENDENT VISCOSITY

X Axis: Viscosity Y Axis: Shear Force


Chapter 13

Water hammer

For a hammer powered by water, see Trip hammer.


Water hammer (or, more generally, fluid hammer) is a pressure surge or wave caused when a fluid (usually a

Effect of a pressure surge on a float gauge

liquid but sometimes also a gas) in motion is forced to stop or change direction suddenly (momentum change). A
water hammer commonly occurs when a valve closes suddenly at an end of a pipeline system, and a pressure wave
propagates in the pipe. It is also called hydraulic shock.
This pressure wave can cause major problems, from noise and vibration to pipe collapse. It is possible to reduce the
effects of the water hammer pulses with accumulators, expansion tanks, surge tanks, and other features.
Rough calculations can be made either using the Zhukovsky equation [1] , or more accurate ones using the method of
characteristics.[2]

89
90 CHAPTER 13. WATER HAMMER

13.1 History

Marcus Vitruvius Pollio described in the 1st century B.C. the effect of water hammer in lead pipes and stone tubes
of the Roman public water supply.[3][4] Water hammer was exploited before there was even a word for it: In 1772,
Englishman John Whitehurst built a hydraulic ram for a home in Cheshire, England.[5] In 1796, French inventor
Joseph Michel Montgolfier (1740–1810) built a hydraulic ram for his paper mill in Voiron.[6] In French and Italian,
the terms for “water hammer” come from the hydraulic ram: coup de bélier (French) and colpo d'ariete (Italian)
both mean “blow of the ram”.[7] As the 19th century witnessed the installation of municipal water supplies, water
hammer became a concern to civil engineers.[8][9] Water hammer also interested physiologists who were studying the
circulatory system.[10]
Although it was prefigured in work by Thomas Young,[11][10] the theory of water hammer is generally considered to
have begun in 1883 with the work of German physiologist Johannes von Kries (1853–1928), who was investigating
the pulse in blood vessels.[12][13] However, his findings went unnoticed by civil engineers.[14][15] Kries’s findings were
subsequently derived independently in 1898 by the Russian fluid dynamicist Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky (1847–
1921),[16][17] in 1898 by the American civil engineer Joseph Palmer Frizell (1832–1910),[18][19] and in 1902 by the
Italian engineer Lorenzo Allievi (1856–1941).[20]

13.2 Cause and effect

When a pipe is suddenly closed at the outlet (downstream), the mass of water before the closure is still moving,
thereby building up high pressure and a resulting shock wave. In domestic plumbing this is experienced as a loud
banging resembling a hammering noise. Water hammer can cause pipelines to break if the pressure is high enough.
Air traps or stand pipes (open at the top) are sometimes added as dampers to water systems to absorb the potentially
damaging forces caused by the moving water.
In hydroelectric generating stations, the water travelling along the tunnel or pipeline may be prevented from entering
a turbine by closing a valve. For example, if there is 14 km of tunnel of 7.7 m diameter full of water travelling at
3.75 m/s,[21] that represents approximately 8000 megajoules of kinetic energy that must be arrested. This arresting is
frequently achieved by a surge shaft[22] open at the top, into which the water flows. As the water rises up the shaft its
kinetic energy is converted into potential energy, which causes the water in the tunnel to decelerate. At some HEP
stations, what looks like a water tower is actually one of these devices, known in these cases as a surge drum.
In the home a water hammer may occur when a dishwasher, washing machine or toilet shuts off water flow. The result
may be heard as a loud bang, repetitive banging (as the shock wave travels back and forth in the plumbing system),
or as some shuddering.
On the other hand, when an upstream valve in a pipe closes, water downstream of the valve attempts to continue
flowing creating a vacuum that may cause the pipe to collapse or implode. This problem can be particularly acute if
the pipe is on a downhill slope. To prevent this, air and vacuum relief valves or air vents are installed just downstream
of the valve to allow air to enter the line to prevent this vacuum from occurring.
Other causes of water hammer are pump failure and check valve slam (due to sudden deceleration, a check valve may
slam shut rapidly, depending on the dynamic characteristic of the check valve and the mass of the water between a
check valve and tank).

13.2.1 Related phenomena

Steam distribution systems may also be vulnerable to a situation similar to water hammer, known as steam hammer.
In a steam system, a water hammer most often occurs when some of the steam condenses into water in a horizontal
section of the piping. Steam picks up the water, forming a "slug", and hurls this at high velocity into a pipe fitting,
creating a loud hammering noise and greatly stressing the pipe. This condition is usually caused by a poor condensate
drainage strategy.
Where air filled traps are used, these eventually become depleted of their trapped air over a long period of time
through absorption into the water. This can be cured by shutting off the supply, opening taps at the highest and lowest
locations to drain the system (thereby restoring air to the traps), and then closing the taps and re-opening the supply.
13.3. WATER HAMMER FROM A JET OF WATER 91

Expansion joints on a steam line that have been destroyed by steam hammer

13.3 Water hammer from a jet of water


If a stream of high pressure water impinges on a surface, water hammer can quickly erode and destroy it. In the 2009
Sayano–Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station accident, the lid to a 640 MW turbine was ejected upwards, hitting
the ceiling above. During the accident, the rotor was seen flying through the air, still spinning, about 3 meters above
the floor. Unrestrained, 256 cubic metres (67,600 US gal) per second of water began to spray all over the generator
hall.[23] The geyser caused the structural failure of steel ceiling joists, precipitating a roof collapse around the failed
turbine.

13.4 Water hammer during an explosion


When an explosion happens in an enclosed space, water hammer can cause the walls of the container to deform.
However, it can also impart momentum to the enclosure if it is free to move. An underwater explosion in the SL-1
nuclear reactor vessel caused the water to accelerate upwards through 2.5 feet (0.76 m) of air before it struck the
vessel head at 160 feet per second (49 m/s) with a pressure of 10,000 pounds per square inch (69,000 kPa). This
pressure wave caused the 26,000 pounds (12,000 kg) steel vessel to jump 9 feet 1 inch (2.77 m) into the air before it
dropped into its prior location.[24]

13.5 Mitigating measures


Water hammer has caused accidents and fatalities, but usually damage is limited to breakage of pipes or appendages.
An engineer should always assess the risk of a pipeline burst. Pipelines transporting hazardous liquids or gases warrant
special care in design, construction, and operation. Hydroelectric power plants especially must be carefully designed
and maintained because the water hammer can cause water pipes to fail catastrophically.
92 CHAPTER 13. WATER HAMMER

The following characteristics may reduce or eliminate water hammer:

• Reduce the pressure of the water supply to the building by fitting a regulator.

• Lower fluid velocities. To keep water hammer low, pipe-sizing charts for some applications recommend flow
velocity at or below 1.5 m/s (4.9 ft/s)

• Fit slowly closing valves. Toilet fill valves are available in a quiet fill type that closes quietly.

• High pipeline pressure rating (expensive).

• Good pipeline control (start-up and shut-down procedures).

• Water towers (used in many drinking water systems) help maintain steady flow rates and trap large pressure
fluctuations.

• Air vessels work in much the same way as water towers, but are pressurized. They typically have an air cushion
above the fluid level in the vessel, which may be regulated or separated by a bladder. Sizes of air vessels may
be up to hundreds of cubic meters on large pipelines. They come in many shapes, sizes and configurations.
Such vessels often are called accumulators or expansion tanks.

• A hydropneumatic device similar in principle to a shock absorber called a 'Water Hammer Arrestor' can be
installed between the water pipe and the machine, to absorb the shock and stop the banging.

• Air valves often remediate low pressures at high points in the pipeline. Though effective, sometimes large
numbers of air valves need be installed. These valves also allow air into the system, which is often unwanted.

• Shorter branch pipe lengths.

• Shorter lengths of straight pipe, i.e. add elbows, expansion loops. Water hammer is related to the speed of
sound in the fluid, and elbows reduce the influences of pressure waves.

• Arranging the larger piping in loops that supply shorter smaller run-out pipe branches. With looped piping,
lower velocity flows from both sides of a loop can serve a branch.

• Flywheel on pump.

• Pumping station bypass.

13.6 The magnitude of the pulse


One of the first to successfully investigate the water hammer problem was the Italian engineer Lorenzo Allievi.
Water hammer can be analyzed by two different approaches—rigid column theory, which ignores compressibility of
the fluid and elasticity of the walls of the pipe, or by a full analysis that includes elasticity. When the time it takes a
valve to close is long compared to the propagation time for a pressure wave to travel the length of the pipe, then rigid
column theory is appropriate; otherwise considering elasticity may be necessary.[25] Below are two approximations
for the peak pressure, one that considers elasticity, but assumes the valve closes instantaneously, and a second that
neglects elasticity but includes a finite time for the valve to close.

13.6.1 Instant valve closure; compressible fluid


The pressure profile of the water hammer pulse can be calculated from the Joukowsky equation[26]

∂P ∂v
= ρa
∂t ∂t

So for a valve closing instantaneously, the maximum magnitude of the water hammer pulse is:
13.6. THE MAGNITUDE OF THE PULSE 93

Typical pressure wave caused by closing a valve in a pipeline

∆P = ρa0 ∆v

where ΔP is the magnitude of the pressure wave (Pa), ρ is the density of the fluid (kg m−3 ), a0 is the speed of sound
in the fluid (ms−1 ), and Δv is the change in the fluid’s velocity (ms−1 ). The pulse comes about due to Newton’s laws
of motion and the continuity equation applied to the deceleration of a fluid element.[27]

Equation for wave speed



B
As the speed of sound in a fluid is a = ρ , the peak pressure depends on the fluid compressibility if the valve is
closed abruptly.

K
B=
(1 + V /a)[1 + c(K/E)(D/t)]

where

• a = wave speed

• B = equivalent bulk modulus of elasticity of the system fluid-pipe

• ρ = density of the fluid

• K = bulk modulus of elasticity of the fluid

• E = elastic modulus of the pipe


94 CHAPTER 13. WATER HAMMER

• D = internal pipe diameter

• t = pipe wall thickness

• c = dimensionless parameter due to system pipe-constraint condition on wave speed[27]

13.6.2 Slow valve closure; incompressible fluid


When the valve is closed slowly compared to the transit time for a pressure wave to travel the length of the pipe, the
elasticity can be neglected, and the phenomenon can be described in terms of inertance or rigid column theory:

dv
F = ma = P A = ρLA .
dt
Assuming constant deceleration of the water column (dv/dt = v/t), gives:

P = ρvL/t.

where:

• F = force, N

• m = mass of the fluid column, kg

• a = acceleration, m/s2

• P = pressure, Pa

• A = pipe cross section, m2

• ρ = fluid density, kg/m3

• L = pipe length, m

• v = flow velocity, m/s

• t = valve closure time, s

The above formula becomes, for water and with imperial unit: P = 0.0135 V L/t. For practical application, a safety
factor of about 5 is recommended:

P = 0.07V L/t + P1

where P 1 is the inlet pressure in psi, V is the flow velocity in ft/sec, t is the valve closing time in seconds and L is the
upstream pipe length in feet.[28]

13.7 Expression for the excess pressure due to water hammer


When a valve with a volumetric flow rate Q is closed, an excess pressure ΔP is created upstream of the valve, whose
value is given by the Joukowsky equation:

∆P = Z Q

In this expression:[29]
13.7. EXPRESSION FOR THE EXCESS PRESSURE DUE TO WATER HAMMER 95

• overpressurization ΔP is expressed in Pa;

• Q is the volumetric flow in m3 /s;

• Z is the hydraulic impedance, expressed in kg/m4 /s.

The hydraulic impedance Z of the pipeline determines the magnitude of the water hammer pulse. It is itself defined
by:


ρB
Z=
A

with:

• ρ the density of the liquid, expressed in kg/m3 ;

• A cross sectional area of the pipe, m2 ;

• B equivalent modulus of compressibility of the liquid in the pipe, expressed in Pa.

The latter follows from a series of hydraulic concepts:

• compressibility of the liquid, defined by its adiabatic compressibility modulus B , resulting from the equation
of state of the liquid generally available from thermodynamic tables;

• the elasticity of the walls of the pipe, which defines an equivalent bulk modulus of compressibility for the solid
B . In the case of a pipe of circular cross section whose thickness t is small compared to the diameter D, the
equivalent modulus of compressibility is given by the following formula: B = Dt E ; in which E is the Young’s
modulus (in Pa) of the material of the pipe;

• possibly compressibility B of gas dissolved in the liquid, defined by: Bg = γ


αP

• γ being the specific heat ratio of the gas


• α the rate of ventilation (the volume fraction of undissolved gas)
• and P the pressure (in Pa).

Thus, the equivalent elasticity is the sum of the original elasticities:

1 1 1 1
= + +
B Bl Bs Bg

As a result, we see that we can reduce the water hammer by:

• increasing the pipe diameter at constant flow, which reduces the flow velocity and hence the deceleration of
the liquid column;

• employing the solid material as tight as possible with respect to the internal fluid bulk (solid Young modulus
low with respect to fluid bulk modulus);

• introducing a device that increases the flexibility of the entire hydraulic system, such as a hydraulic accumulator;

• where possible, increasing the percentage of undissolved gases in the liquid.


96 CHAPTER 13. WATER HAMMER

13.8 Dynamic equations


The water hammer effect can be simulated by solving the following partial differential equations.

∂V 1 ∂P
+ =0
∂x B ∂t

∂V 1 ∂P f
+ + V |V | = 0
∂t ρ ∂x 2D
where V is the fluid velocity inside pipe, ρ is the fluid density and B is the equivalent bulk modulus, f is the friction
factor.

13.9 Column separation


Column separation is a phenomenon that can occur during a water-hammer event. If the pressure in a pipeline drops
below the vapor pressure of the liquid, cavitation will occur (some of the liquid vaporizes, forming a bubble in the
pipeline, keeping the pressure close to the vapor pressure). This is most likely to occur at specific locations such as
closed ends, high points or knees (changes in pipe slope). When subcooled liquid flows into the space previously
occupied by vapor the area of contact between the vapor and the liquid increases. This causes the vapor to condense
into the liquid reducing the pressure in the vapor space. The liquid on either side of the vapor space is then accelerated
into this space by the pressure difference. The collision of the two columns of liquid (or of one liquid column if at
a closed end) causes a large and nearly instantaneous rise in pressure. This pressure rise can damage hydraulic
machinery, individual pipes and supporting structures. Many repetitions of cavity formation and collapse may occur
in a single water-hammer event.[30]

13.10 Simulation software


Most water hammer software packages use the method of characteristics[27] to solve the differential equations in-
volved. This method works well if the wave speed does not vary in time due to either air or gas entrainment in
a pipeline. The Wave Method (WM) is also used in various software packages. WM lets operators analyze large
networks efficiently. Many commercial and non commercial packages are available.
Software packages vary in complexity, dependent on the processes modeled. The more sophisticated packages may
have any of the following features:

• Multiphase flow capabilities


• An algorithm for cavitation growth and collapse
• Unsteady friction: the pressure waves dampens as turbulence is generated and due to variations in
the flow velocity distribution
• Varying bulk modulus for higher pressures (water becomes less compressible)
• Fluid structure interaction: the pipeline reacts on the varying pressures and causes pressure waves
itself

13.11 Applications
• The water hammer principle can be used to create a simple water pump called a hydraulic ram.

• Leaks can sometimes be detected using water hammer.

• Enclosed air pockets can be detected in pipelines.


13.12. SEE ALSO 97

13.12 See also


• Blood hammer

• Cavitation

• Fluid dynamics

• Hydraulic ram – makes constructive use of the water hammer effect

• Hydraulophone – musical instruments employing water and other fluids

• Impact force

• Watson’s water hammer pulse

13.13 References
[1] Kay, Melvyn (2008). Practical Hydraulics (2nd ed.). Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-415-35115-4.

[2] Shu, Jian-Jun (2003). “Modelling vaporous cavitation on fluid transients”. International Journal of Pressure Vessels and
Piping. 80 (3): 187–195. doi:10.1016/S0308-0161(03)00025-5.

[3] Vitruvius Pollio with Morris Hicky Morgan, trans. The Ten Books on Architecture (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard
University Press, 1914) ; Book 8, Chapter 6, sections 5-8 , pp. 245-246. Vitruvius states that when a water pipe crosses a
wide valley, it must sometimes be constructed as an inverted siphon. He states that cavities (“venters”) must be constructed
periodically along the pipe “and in the venter, water cushions must be constructed to relieve the pressure of the air.” “But if
there is no such venter made in the valleys, nor any substructure built on a level, but merely an elbow, the water will break
out, and burst the joints of the pipes.” Swiss engineer Martin Schwarz — Martin Schwarz, “Neue Forschungsergebnisse zu
Vitruvs colliviaria" [New research results on Vitruvius’ colliviaria], pp. 353-357, in: Christoph Ohlig, ed., Cura Aquarum
in Jordanien (Siegburg, Germany: Deutschen Wasserhistorischen Gesellschaft, 2008) — argues that Vitruvius’ phrase vis
spiritus referred not to air pressure, but to pressure transients (water hammer) in the water pipes. He found stone plugs
(colliviaria) in Roman water pipes, which could be expelled by water hammer, allowing water in the pipe to flood the air
chamber above the pipe, instead of rupturing the pipe.

[4] Ismaier, Andreas (2011), Untersuchung der fluiddynamischen Wechselwirkung zwischen Druckstößen und Anlagenkompo-
nenten in Kreiselpumpensystemen [Investigation of the fluid dynamic interaction between pressure surges and system compo-
nents in centrifugal pumping systems], Schriftenreihe des Lehrstuhls für Prozessmaschinen und Anlagentechnik, Universität
Erlangen; Nürnberg Lehrstuhl für Prozessmaschinen und Anlagentechnik (in German), 11, Shaker, ISBN 978-3-8322-
9779-4

[5] Whitehurst, John (1775), “Account of a machine for raising water, executed at Oulton, in Cheshire, in 1772”, Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 65: 277–279, doi:10.1098/rstl.1775.0026 See also plate preceding page 277.

[6] Montgolfier, J. M. de (1803), “Note sur le bélier hydraulique, et sur la manière d’en calculer les effets” [Note on the hydraulic
ram, and on the method of calculating its effects] (PDF), Journal des Mines (in French), 13 (73): 42–51

[7] Tijsseling, A. S.; Anderson, A. (2008), “Thomas Young’s research on fluid transients: 200 years on” (PDF), Proceedings
of the 10th International Conference on Pressure Surges, Edinburgh, UK: 21–33 see page 22.

[8] Ménabréa, L. F. (1858), “Note sur les effects de choc de l’eau dans les conduites” [Note on the effects of water shocks in
pipes], Comptes rendus (in French), 47: 221–224

[9] Michaud, J. (1878), “Coups de bélier dans les conduites. Étude des moyens employés pour en atténeur les effects” [Water
hammer in pipes. Study of means used to mitigate its effects], Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Ingénieurs et des Architects
(in French), 4 (3,4): 56–64, 65–77

[10] Tijsseling, A. S.; Anderson, A. (2008). Hunt, S., ed. “Thomas Young’s research on fluid transients: 200 years on”. Proc.
of the 10th Int. Conf. on Pressure Surges. Edinburgh, United Kingdom: BHR Group: 21–33. ISBN 978-1-85598-095-2.

[11] Young, Thomas (1808). “Hydraulic investigations, subservient to an intended Croonian lecture on the motion of the blood”.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 98: 164–186.
98 CHAPTER 13. WATER HAMMER

[12] von Kries, J. (1883), “Ueber die Beziehungen zwischen Druck und Geschwindigkeit, welche bei der Wellenbewegung
in elastischen Schläuchen bestehen” [On the relationships between pressure and velocity, which exist in connection with
wave motion in elastic tubing], Festschrift der 56. Versammlung Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte (Festschrift of the 56th
Convention of German Scientists and Physicians) (in German), Tübingen, Germany: Akademische Verlagsbuchhandlung:
67–88

[13] von Kries, J. (1892), Studien zur Pulslehre [Studies in Pulse Science] (in German), Tübingen, Germany: Akademische
Verlagsbuchhandlung

[14] Tijsseling, Arris S.; Anderson, Alexander (2004), “A precursor in waterhammer analysis – rediscovering Johannes von
Kries” (PDF), Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Pressure Surges, Chester, UK: 739–751

[15] Tijsseling, Arris S.; Anderson, Alexander (2007), “Johannes von Kries and the history of water hammer”, Journal of
Hydraulic Engineering, 133 (1): 1–8

[16] Joukowsky, N. (1898), "Über den hydraulischen Stoss in Wasserleitungsröhren” [On the hydraulic hammer in water supply
pipes], Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg (1900), series 8 (in German), 9 (5): 1–71

[17] Tijsseling, Arris S.; Anderson, Alexander (2006), The Joukowsky equation for fluids and solids (PDF)

[18] Frizell, J. P. (1898), “Pressures resulting from changes of velocity of water in pipes”, Transactions of the American Society
of Civil Engineers, 39: 1–18

[19] Hale, R. A. (September 1911), “Obituary: Joseph Palmer Frizell, M. Am. Soc. C. E.”, Transactions of the American
Society of Civil Engineers, 73: 501–503

[20] Allievi, L. (1902), “Teoria generale del moto perturbato dell'acqua nei tubi in pressione (colpo d’ariete)" [General theory
of the perturbed motion of water in pipes under pressure (water hammer)], Annali della Società degli Ingegneri ed Architetti
Italiani (Annals of the Society of Italian Engineers and Architects) (in Italian), 17 (5): 285–325

[21] http://communities.bentley.com/products/hydraulics___hydrology/f/5925/p/60896/147250.aspx#147250

[22] http://cr4.globalspec.com/thread/73646

[23]

[24] Flight Propulsion Laboratory Department, General Electric Company, Idaho Falls, Idaho (November 21, 1962), Additional
Analysis of the SL-1 Excursion: Final Report of Progress July through October 1962 (PDF), U.S. Atomic Energy Commis-
sion, Division of Technical Information, IDO-19313; also TM-62-11-707

[25] Bruce, S.; Larock, E.; Jeppson, R. W.; Watters, G. Z. (2000), Hydraulics of Pipeline Systems, CRC Press, ISBN 0-8493-
1806-8

[26] Thorley, A. R. D. (2004), Fluid Transients in Pipelines (2nd ed.), Professional Engineering Publishing, ISBN 0-79180210-8

[27] Streeter, V. L.; Wylie, E. B. (1998), Fluid Mechanics (International 9th Revised ed.), McGraw-Hill Higher Education

[28] “Water Hammer & Pulsation”

[29] Faisandier, J., Hydraulic and Pneumatic Mechanisms, 8th edition, Dunod, Paris, 1999 (ISBN 2100499483)

[30] Bergeron, L., 1950. Du Coup de Bélier en Hydraulique - Au Coup de Foudre en Electricité. (Waterhammer in hydraulics
and wave surges in electricity.) Paris: Dunod (in French). (English translation by ASME Committee, New York: John
Wiley & Sons, 1961.)

13.14 External links


• What Is Water Hammer and Why Is It Important That You Prevent it?

• What Is Water Hammer/Steam Hammer?


• “Water hammer”—YouTube (animation)

• “Water Hammer Theory Explained”—YouTube; with examples


13.15. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES 99

13.15 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses


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Hoangtien12a1, Makimau, Watt1001, JohnWickContinental, Culturefanatic12, AnErrorBuzzerSoundEffect2016At3675And4008, Ben-
der the Bot, Jan.Kodl93, Dunsinan, KAP03, M.moradi08, Magic links bot and Anonymous: 622
• Reynolds transport theorem Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reynolds_transport_theorem?oldid=777087456 Contributors: Aetheling,
Giftlite, GünniX, AnthonyA7, YurikBot, Wavelength, Matador, Haranoh, SWGlassPit, Hoo0, EndingPop, Trevor.tombe, CmdrObot,
Dricherby, Charlesreid1, P4lm0r3, Starryharlequin, !jim, Salih, Garethvaughan, TXiKiBoT, Lechatjaune, Agricola44, EMBaero, Bbanerje,
PixelBot, El bot de la dieta, Crowsnest, Dthomsen8, Addbot, Ozob, Arbitrarily0, Yobot, Daniele Pugliesi, Xqbot, CXCV, Freakband,
Misterkong, Calmer Waters, Chogg, BG19bot, QuarkyPi, Shyncat, Indronil Ghosh, Epicgenius, Benson Muite, Bender the Bot and
Anonymous: 45
• Rheopecty Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rheopecty?oldid=783741589 Contributors: Heron, Nikai, Laurascudder, Mac Davis,
Firien, Nihiltres, Alex Bakharev, Jedwards05, Mdwyer, SmackBot, Uthbrian, Interlingua, SithiR, Thijs!bot, Dougher, Numbo3, Mr-
Bell, Tesscass, Capuchin, Dhatfield, Mild Bill Hiccup, DumZiBoT, Addbot, Yobot, Erik9bot, Tijm6140, Jdelhaxhe, ‫عبد المؤمن‬, Nelg,
Aarjav12, Grendelorf, Bonks1 and Anonymous: 24
13.15. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES 101

• Specific speed Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Specific_speed?oldid=781201555 Contributors: Topbanana, Gene Nygaard, MG-


Tom, BD2412, Dhollm, Avalon, Knotnic, SmackBot, Bluebot, Sbharris, Annelid, CmdrObot, ThisIsAce, MarshBot, Ebinesos, Magioladi-
tis, PCock, Zedh, Mkoronowski, GILDog, WikHead, Addbot, Tassedethe, Fredgrillet, Lightbot, Yobot, Amirobot, Soycaca, AnomieBOT,
Materialscientist, LilHelpa, Nfr-Maat, Boving, Magnus242, Imveracious, MastiBot, ClueBot NG, Helpful Pixie Bot, Ankursrivastava006,
BG19bot, NichoEd, Abhishekmaha, Shatrughanprasad, Kritesh156, Sofdnurg Savige' IV, Andrewjaymullins and Anonymous: 35
• Terminal velocity Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terminal_velocity?oldid=784874314 Contributors: Heron, Ewen, Leandrod,
Mrwojo, Ubiquity, Patrick, Theresa knott, Charles Matthews, Crissov, Ike9898, Robbot, Moriori, Nurg, Gandalf61, Hadal, Spuzzum,
Cutler, Peter L, Giftlite, DocWatson42, Jao, Wolfkeeper, Bovlb, Solipsist, Pne, Keith Edkins, SURIV, Fudo, Halo, Sonett72, Tonik, Kate,
Ouro, CALR, Discospinster, Plugwash, Violetriga, Jpgordon, Bobo192, Stesmo, Fremsley, Archfalhwyl, Elipongo, La goutte de pluie,
Larryv, Nsaa, Wayfarer, Alansohn, Eleland, Eric Kvaalen, Erik, M3tainfo, Suruena, Omphaloscope, Staeiou, Gene Nygaard, Reinoutr,
Pol098, Before My Ken, WadeSimMiser, Cbustapeck, Wikiklrsc, Zbxgscqf, Oscabat, Latka, Rune.welsh, Fresheneesz, Sderose, Diza,
Compotatoj, DVdm, DarkDragon~enwiki, Phantomsteve, JabberWok, DanMS, Rsrikanth05, Yrithinnd, NawlinWiki, Seanlavelle, Fid-
dyCent, Light current, StuRat, Tomj, Vicarious, Kier07, SigmaEpsilon, ArielGold, Kungfuadam, Unschool, Hux, Yamaguchi , Cool3,
Rncooper, Izzynn, Bluebot, Astaroth5, DHN-bot~enwiki, Xasf, Yanksox, Tsca.bot, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Chlewbot, Jhausauer,
Sloverlord, NorseOdin, OranL, Duinemerwen, StoneCantor, Freedom to share, Kukini, Kuzaar, RTejedor, Accurizer, Peterlewis, Drag-
onWR12LB, Peter Horn, Inquisitus, Iridescent, Gemeinereiner, Tawkerbot2, TreyGreene, Cryptic C62, JForget, Ispollock, Shyland,
Dycedarg, BennyD, N2e, Nderamo@gmail.com, Safalra, JPadron, Aristophanes68, *flossie*, Optimist on the run, Woland37, Thijs!bot,
Epbr123, Cphuntington97, Headbomb, Reswobslc, Sean William, Elert, Escarbot, AntiVandalBot, Wainson, Tweesdad, Paulbalegend,
Altamel, Umbop21, .anacondabot, Acroterion, Bongwarrior, VoABot II, Albmont, Email4mobile, Nyttend, TeraBlight, Freticat, Jivjov,
MartinBot, Partnerintime12, R'n'B, Erockrph, AstroHurricane001, Salih, Ibbirula, Ignatzmice, Cenne, KylieTastic, Lcawte, Tikka-
billa100, Deor, CWii, Jeff G., VasilievVV, TXiKiBoT, Oshwah, Sidelines, NPrice, Praveen pillay, Jackfork, LeaveSleaves, OverMyHead,
Gobbag, GraemeinEngland, Turgan, Chacro10, AlleborgoBot, Sethkills, Pentium1000, SieBot, Gamesguru2, Matthew Yeager, Flyer22
Reborn, Snideology, NameThatWorks, Susan118, Dolphin51, ClueBot, The Thing That Should Not Be, Bastien Sens-Méyé~enwiki,
Mild Bill Hiccup, Awickert, Luckstev, John Nevard, Worth my salt, SchreiberBike, La Pianista, Thingg, Crowsnest, Mchaddock, Aaron
north, Avoided, Ali Esfandiari, Thatguyflint, King Pickle, Addbot, Mr0t1633, Pitomba, Lbslapshotpro, MrOllie, XRK, Kyle1278, TStein,
Jasper Deng, Flacc, Ehrenkater, Tide rolls, Gail, Zorrobot, Roar888, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Fraggle81, AnomieBOT, Archon 2488, Adjust-
Shift, ThaRanger21, Linedwell, Neurolysis, Hevosen, SassoBot, Raphlf, Zeomox, Gordonrox24, Constructive editor, Tangent747, Lu-
cienBOT, Lookang, Recognizance, Maxstr9, Unitanode, D'ohBot, Machine Elf 1735, Haein45, Pinethicket, Serols, Vrenator, Bento00,
Skamecrazy123, EmausBot, John of Reading, WikitanvirBot, SchoolboysAngel, JSquish, ZéroBot, SporkBot, Kyucasio, Brandmeis-
ter, ChristopheRobin, Odysseus1479, Bidonmine, ClueBot NG, Vedaanth, Widr, Helpful Pixie Bot, Electriccatfish2, ZMD123, Reg-
istreernu, AwamerT, Snow Rise, Chander, Dipankan001, Dentalplanlisa, TheMacMini09, Eio, Glacialfox, Shaun, BattyBot, KAS69,
ChrisGualtieri, Webclient101, AakaFosfor, 069952497a, Reatlas, Jimbob 46, Jnims2, Drdale1113, Jorgentr, RaphaelQS, Popo2328,
EnigmaX8000, Chemistry74, Bubba58, Kingsley14126, Vieque, Rainmaker6, KH-1, ChamithN, KurtHeckman, AlphaBetaGamma01,
ARK142, User000name, Awesomeman854, Claytonthemeanie290, Kyle.r.simon, Wikidalien, Zach23599 and Anonymous: 442
• Thixotropy Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thixotropy?oldid=784814509 Contributors: David spector, Heron, Kosebamse, David-
WBrooks, Julesd, Corixidae, BAxelrod, Disdero, Charles Matthews, Cutler, Matt Gies, BenFrantzDale, Dratman, Onco p53, Togo~enwiki,
GeoGreg, Sonett72, Shmuel, Lswartz, Bdoserror, Jpgordon, Duk, Jag123, Ziggurat, EvilSuggestions, Hooperbloob, Paleorthid, Monado,
Axl, Mac Davis, Snorgy, Pol098, Firien, Alan Canon, Grahn, FlaBot, StephanCom, Wavelength, Conscious, Alex Bakharev, Black
Orpheus, Nbrouard, Janke, Mastercampbell, Skittle, SmackBot, Eskimbot, Septegram, Thumperward, Spiritia, Peterlewis, Kal1917,
Angelpeream, Sadalmelik, Ballista, Basar, Thijs!bot, Gioto, Mdotley, Dougher, Gadlen, Livingdeaddolls, Chemical Engineer, Alekjds,
Skylights76, MartinBot, BeadleB, Keith D, TechnoFaye, Leon II, Zuejay, Geekdiva, Jim Swenson, IanBallard, Pdcook, JhsBot, Cap-
tainRotgut, AlleborgoBot, Keilana, Chansonh, PlantTrees, Martarius, ClueBot, Binksternet, Flowingaa, BOTarate, DumZiBoT, Strato-
caster47, Addbot, Binary TSO, Ojb500, SamatBot, Angrense, Zorrobot, Meisam, Luckas-bot, Legobot II, ArthurBot, Obersachsebot,
Coretheapple, Omnipaedista, Jonkerz, 777sms, GWicke, ZéroBot, ClueBot NG, Babakder, ChrisGualtieri, Melenc, TysonKan, Vana-
monde93, Gravuritas, 7Sidz, Elephantsofearth, Aarjav12, Carlos Danger, Míkóhańeń and Anonymous: 92
• Time-dependent viscosity Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time-dependent_viscosity?oldid=772156408 Contributors: Joe Decker,
Slashme, Derek R Bullamore, Gnomeza, Dodger67, AnomieBOT, Omnipaedista, BattyBot, FoCuSandLeArN, NYBrook098, 7Sidz, Aar-
jav12 and Anonymous: 5
• Water hammer Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_hammer?oldid=782212214 Contributors: Edward, Aarchiba, Julesd, Kwan-
tus, Finlay McWalter, Astronautics~enwiki, Henrygb, Ojigiri~enwiki, Patcat88, Anthony, DocWatson42, Marnanel, Fennec, Inter, Leonard
G., H-2-O, Bobblewik, DragonflySixtyseven, Sonett72, Rich Farmbrough, Pt, FirstPrinciples, Spalding, Evil Monkey, RJFJR, Ceyockey,
Kenyon, Rtdrury, Rjwilmsi, Kajmal, Tedd, Bgwhite, YurikBot, Rallette, CQ, Petri Krohn, Theroachman, SmackBot, Ashenai, Incnis
Mrsi, Canthusus, Diegotorquemada, Chris the speller, Thumperward, Fromgermany, Kittybrewster, Ddon, GarrieIrons, Reptile209, Sb-
mehta, Copeland.James.H, Peterlewis, Makyen, Onionmon, DabMachine, Woodshed, GeordieMcBain, Mikiemike, CmdrObot, Quibik,
Epbr123, Brichcja, Davidhorman, Uruiamme, Erxnmedia, AndyBloch, Ccrrccrr, MSBOT, .anacondabot, Raggiante~enwiki, User A1,
TheEgyptian, Glrx, Rlsheehan, Ichibani, Adh30, Setreset, Yeokaiwei, Kilmer-san, Abatishchev, SieBot, Cwkmail, Dinplug, ThomasKro-
nau, Danbert8, Taquito1, SimbadTheMariner, Donebythesecondlaw, Chiguel, SchreiberBike, Alexknight12, Plumboy, DumZiBoT, XLinkBot,
Dthomsen8, Saeed.Veradi, Addbot, RobinClay, Lightbot, Luckas-bot, Yobot, PMLawrence, AnomieBOT, Götz, Quebec99, Xqbot,
DrRevXyzzy, Waterhammer, Mfwitten, Thetehror, MastiBot, DixonDBot, AST60, EmausBot, John of Reading, Helium4, ZéroBot,
Suslindisambiguator, Donner60, Puffin, ChuispastonBot, ClueBot NG, Jonathan 123987, Helpful Pixie Bot, Cccefalon, BG19bot, Tis-
cando, Johntyree, Mogism, SeattleQ, The Anonymouse, Me, Myself, and I are Here, Xraycrush, VexorAbVikipædia, KasparBot, Fluid-
mechanic, Phil anselmo334, Pa101things, Bender the Bot and Anonymous: 119

13.15.2 Images
• File:Airspeed_p1230157.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/47/Airspeed_p1230157.jpg License: CC-
BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: David Monniaux
• File:Ambox_important.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b4/Ambox_important.svg License: Public do-
main Contributors: Own work, based off of Image:Ambox scales.svg Original artist: Dsmurat (talk · contribs)
• File:Apparent_viscosity.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6c/Apparent_viscosity.svg License: GFDL
Contributors: Own work Original artist: User:Slashme
102 CHAPTER 13. WATER HAMMER

• File:Barograph_03.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dc/Barograph_03.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Con-


tributors: ? Original artist: ?
• File:Bayard-Alpert_gauge.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/10/Bayard-Alpert_gauge.jpg License: CC-
BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: K. Murray (Kkmurray)
• File:Blown_expansion_joint.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e8/Blown_expansion_joint.jpg License:
Public domain Contributors: Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons by UNiesert using CommonsHelper. Original artist: Kajmal at
English Wikipedia
• File:Centrifugal_2.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fe/Centrifugal_2.png License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Con-
tributors: Own work Original artist: R. Castelnuovo (myself)
• File:Commons-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg License: PD Contributors: ? Orig-
inal artist: ?
• File:Corn_speaker.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/81/Corn_speaker.jpg License: CC BY 3.0 Con-
tributors: Own work Original artist: Daniel Christensen
• File:Dead_weight_tester,_Type_PD23,_Nagano_Keiki_Co.,_Ltd._-_National_Museum_of_Nature_and_Science,_Tokyo_-_DSC07787.
JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b4/Dead_weight_tester%2C_Type_PD23%2C_Nagano_Keiki_Co.%2C_
Ltd._-_National_Museum_of_Nature_and_Science%2C_Tokyo_-_DSC07787.JPG License: CC0 Contributors: Own work Original artist:
Daderot
• File:Derelict_windpump_with_water_tank_in_the_foreground_next_to_the_Boorowa_railway_in_Galong_NSW_Australia.JPG
Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cd/Derelict_windpump_with_water_tank_in_the_foreground_next_to_the_
Boorowa_railway_in_Galong_NSW_Australia.JPG License: CC BY-SA 4.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: John Hewat from
Canberra, Australia
• File:Different_Fluids_showing_variation_of_Viscosity_with_Shear_Force.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/
b/b6/Different_Fluids_showing_variation_of_Viscosity_with_Shear_Force.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Origi-
nal artist: Aarjav12
• File:Dosierpumpe.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/63/Dosierpumpe.png License: Public domain Con-
tributors: www.thomas-magnete.com Original artist: THOMAS MAGNETE GmbH
• File:Drehkolbenpumpe.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4d/Drehkolbenpumpe.jpg License: CC-BY-
SA-3.0 Contributors: Herold & Co. GmbH Original artist: Herold & Co. GmbH
• File:E_Bourdons_Patent_Compound_Gauge.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/35/E_Bourdons_Patent_
Compound_Gauge.jpg License: CC BY-SA 4.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Stub Mandrel
• File:Eccentric_pump.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/1/19/Eccentric_pump.gif License: PD Contributors: ? Orig-
inal artist: ?
• File:FA18pitot.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b2/FA18pitot.png License: CC BY 3.0 Contributors:
Own work Original artist: Muraer
• File:Flow_curve_of_thixotropic_systems_with_and_without_Shear.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/
3/3b/Flow_curve_of_thixotropic_systems_with_and_without_Shear.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist:
Aarjav12
• File:Gear_pump.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c4/Gear_pump.png License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Con-
tributors: ? Original artist: ?
• File:Hand_pump.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/af/Hand_pump.png License: Public domain Con-
tributors: ? Original artist: ?
• File:Instruments_at_Mount_Washington_Observatory.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7f/Instruments_
at_Mount_Washington_Observatory.JPG License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Z22
• File:Jet_pump.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5a/Jet_pump.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:
Own work Original artist: KVDP
• File:Joukowsky-Pressure-Shock-01.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8e/Joukowsky-Pressure-Shock-01.
jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: CEphoto, Uwe Aranas
• File:Lobbenpomp.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/df/Lobbenpomp.gif License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Con-
tributors: Transferred from nl.wikipedia to Commons. Original artist: McDavid at Dutch Wikipedia
• File:LobePump_en.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/66/LobePump_en.svg License: CC0 Contributors:
Own work Original artist: Jahobr
• File:Lysholm_screw_rotors.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3a/Lysholm_screw_rotors.jpg License:
CC BY-SA 2.5 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Motorhead at English Wikipedia
• File:MAXIMATOR-High-Pressure-Manometer-01a.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/74/MAXIMATOR-High-Pressure-M
jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: CEphoto, Uwe Aranas
• File:Manometer_104026.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d5/Manometer_104026.jpg License: CC-
BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
• File:McLeod_gauge.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/32/McLeod_gauge.jpg License: CC BY 2.5 Con-
tributors: No machine-readable source provided. Own work assumed (based on copyright claims). Original artist: No machine-readable
author provided. Ytrottier assumed (based on copyright claims).
• File:Old_hand_water_pump.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3c/Old_hand_water_pump.jpg License:
CC BY-SA 4.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Bubba73 (Jud McCranie)
13.15. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES 103

• File:Pcp-thumb.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c8/Pcp-thumb.gif License: Public domain Contribu-


tors: Own work Original artist: Petteri Aimonen
• File:Pitot-cső_helikopteren_4.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d4/Pitot-cs%C5%91_helikopteren_4.
jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Zátonyi Sándor (ifj.)
• File:Pitot_tube_types.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/af/Pitot_tube_types.svg License: CC BY-SA
3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Chaos386
• File:Pompe_à_palettes.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e1/Pompe_%C3%A0_palettes.gif License: CC
BY-SA 1.0 Contributors: Transferred from fr.wikipedia to Commons by WikedKentaur using CommonsHelper. Original artist: The orig-
inal uploader was Xlory at French Wikipedia
• File:Pump-enabled_Riverside_Irrigation_in_Comilla,_Bangladesh,_25_April_2014.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/
commons/8/88/Pump-enabled_Riverside_Irrigation_in_Comilla%2C_Bangladesh%2C_25_April_2014.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Con-
tributors: Own work Original artist: Mohammed Tawsif Salam
• File:Question_book-new.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/99/Question_book-new.svg License: Cc-by-sa-3.0
Contributors:
Created from scratch in Adobe Illustrator. Based on Image:Question book.png created by User:Equazcion Original artist:
Tkgd2007
• File:Rheology_of_time_independent_fluids.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/89/Rheology_of_time_
independent_fluids.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: g-sec
• File:Rope_Pump.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ec/Rope_Pump.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Con-
tributors: Own work Original artist: Xofc
• File:Settling_velocity_quartz.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3f/Settling_velocity_quartz.png License:
CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Urs Neumeier
• File:Simple_pump_schematic.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/26/Simple_pump_schematic.svg License:
CC BY-SA 4.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: IngenieroLoco
• File:Stokes_sphere.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ae/Stokes_sphere.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Con-
tributors: self-made
Based on: G.K. Batchelor (1967) An introduction to fluid dynamics, Cambridge University Press. Pages 230–235. Original artist:
Kraaiennest
• File:Streamlines_relative_to_airfoil.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f7/Streamlines_relative_to_airfoil.
png License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work (Original text: I created this work entirely by myself.) Original artist: Crowsnest
(talk)
• File:Taccola_first_piston.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e0/Taccola_first_piston.jpg License: Pub-
lic domain Contributors: Reproduction [1] Original artist: Taccola
• File:Terminal_velocity.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8c/Terminal_velocity.svg License: GFDL Con-
tributors: Own work Original artist: Neurolysis (<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:Neurolysis' title='User talk:Neurolysis'>talk</a>)
• File:Text_document_with_red_question_mark.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a4/Text_document_
with_red_question_mark.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Created by bdesham with Inkscape; based upon Text-x-generic.svg
from the Tango project. Original artist: Benjamin D. Esham (bdesham)
• File:UniversumUNAM55.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7b/UniversumUNAM55.JPG License: CC
BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: AlejandroLinaresGarcia
• File:Utube.PNG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/08/Utube.PNG License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own
work Original artist: Ruben Castelnuovo (Ub)
• File:WPGaugeFace-2.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a5/WPGaugeFace-2.jpg License: Public do-
main Contributors: This file was derived from WPGaugeFace.jpg: <a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:WPGaugeFace.jpg'
class='image'><img alt='WPGaugeFace.jpg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c6/WPGaugeFace.jpg/50px-WPGaugeFace.
jpg' width='50' height='64' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c6/WPGaugeFace.jpg/75px-WPGaugeFace.
jpg 1.5x, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c6/WPGaugeFace.jpg/100px-WPGaugeFace.jpg 2x' data-file-width='256'
data-file-height='330' /></a>
Original artist: WPGaugeFace.jpg: en:user Leonard G.
• File:WPPressGaugeDetailHC.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/87/WPPressGaugeDetailHC.jpg Li-
cense: Public domain Contributors: Transferred from en.wikipedia. Original artist: Leonard G. at en.wikipedia
• File:WPPressGaugeMech-2.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fd/WPPressGaugeMech-2.jpg License:
Public domain Contributors: This file was derived from WPPressGaugeMech.jpg: <a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:WPPressGaugeMech.
jpg' class='image'><img alt='WPPressGaugeMech.jpg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f8/WPPressGaugeMech.
jpg/50px-WPPressGaugeMech.jpg' width='50' height='64' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f8/WPPressGaugeMech.
jpg/75px-WPPressGaugeMech.jpg 1.5x, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f8/WPPressGaugeMech.jpg/100px-WPPressGaugeMech
jpg 2x' data-file-width='256' data-file-height='330' /></a>
Original artist: WPPressGaugeMech.jpg: en:user Leonard G.
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104 CHAPTER 13. WATER HAMMER

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