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Precast concrete bridges

State-of-art report prepared by Task Group 6 . .4

~Q\ ember 200-1

SubjCCl to pnonucs tk:rim:d 11~,' the. teering Committi."e and the Pa"~sidiulil. tltc resuh: of _(ih-'5 work In Cormnission and I'a:;k Groups arc published ina continucusly numbered series of technical publicanons ealled 'Hull.-tins'_ The following categories 'SIre u:.t:d:

'-La'lego:ry mhiimuRl ap'Pro1;'i1'1 'IIOl:l!'duf'\~ I"lfl~ IJ!i:red prior to publlic:rUQIl

i-[ T-ee---:-b-fli:-c~1 Report 3ppr-.ved h a Task GIQ'L1P and tin: Ci131;~Ufl5 (lhhe Commission

State-of-An H::_:'~ep9:",~ ",.' fii"'- -=<I:.:ppro\'oo b\ a, CtJJnlDli;,~Elln

\'Ianu~l or a!ppm'\'~-d by IhL: St.:cnng Comminee offib 'or its PILlbH"il~iiull Roan!

(ill[l;ie t~\i' i!_lQQIJ p:r;:~Lic.;;.,,:.;'!:__ --:-:----:--

Recomrnendaticn arpm"('~ by [hE.' Council oftlb __ --::--:-- __

Mode'l COO_. _e a_,_p_,_.p_.oon:d by the Gcn!..:'I<l1 !b::il"r11hl;.!_.' _n__..ffi<-i_::_b _

Any pluhlicalioll not hewing met the abo. c n:Cluirell~Llts w.ill .' clearly idt:nlitteda" prelrmmary draft.

Thi~ Bulletin N~ 19 \\(lJS approved as a fi,() stat '·or·art n:pm1il'l A.prii ~.m.l-~I by Jib Cerami $101U 6. P"t' {iJhrietli iun

This report was tlrafc(_..u h~ _fir. T:_b1. (irilLlp tl-L l't'fulll bridg(['s; JUSl' Calavera .C('1mr.I~(If. -[';.Iml

. \ndre DC' Che ricbrcn Il uuu. Fran .et David Fernanrlez-Ordoitez I-'l1ei'aoriCM05 Castelo, S.A_, 'lrJHi, Se'm·t::!.~ ._ Amcncllo Gasperi fLOTlSllltLl'Ig engineer, i[oly , Jorge Ley (IJ>..'TFI\MC, Spain], Fritz \Uiflmg I!'TO - Uechm c\: Partner. Genn,lIIl) I" Pierre Passeman ,C[R1U. Fran et. C. Quarrel {. panbeton 3\', TIll: '\; .thcrland- l, Ladislav Sasek ~ VPL DECO Praha, C,,_o.:ch Republic], George Tootcll tBuch'UI (_ IJnc~[o(.~ LId.. t' K~, Arno ld V a n • \ c ker ,~ Adgi urn )

Full address dC'((l~I$. of 11151: Group members may be !fmndin the fib llm."ctOry or through liLe (mlo[ll'; _ ervices on fill's website. http; 'lfl,l:u:rf1ch.

The l"n]nur pnhlfcmion of ihis report has been. made possibl~ through Ih.: g.:n~r''''II~ ~lLrp"t'! of these sponscrs:

Fcr ~ Spain), Gi;'F'H~i;'Ile Prefabbricati S.p.A, (Ital) l, hlJlU~ ~.r.l I h.:.il~' I"" f L \t-\C I SpJ.JnJ .. Paeadar Spain). Prccornprc-vi Ci"l'I11\} 'ord (Imlyl, Pretabricados Castelo s..,=... I""",i~ I. '=;p rNh:m IJ\ I l he Netherlands}

AII.'IOLlgJ:" thclntcmatienal lederanen for Structural (('II':L..:l ,jib - Jt_~!~r3Tio]] imernationale dubeton - C~'::lll.,"·d from (,EH and HP. doc~ its b.::,L W k.'rl$lIrelh'H <my infermatton ~jY,efl is accurate, no liahiiily Or' ro:"s!W1Hibilityof 1In~' kind fll1C'!Lltiil"lg liability for n-gli!!!cllL:'1.:' I L~ al..'C'..:'r1 'il ;1'1 thl~ re~p~cl b) tile orgal1is::ufon. it!> members, •. CTYllmS. m agents ..

AU righrs reserved, 1'0 pan of thls publ] :;a~iun HIll) bereproduced, moo i tied" ImtlshU~d, ~ti.l[o1':t'I in aretrieval 5YStCII1. ur transmitted in any term Or by any means, electronic. mechanical. photocopymg, recordina, or otherwise, without prier \\ ritten pcrrnissinn ..

fir':S~ published in :Z<llni! hy ~hor [nti!'m3.t1Ioulfo·~de.riitiQn. fOIi S'Im'lucmur:t1 e'l1Jm::rd~ (/il,) j-'os~ addres : Case Postale 88, CH·I 0 15 Lausanne, '.wilzerland

. In: I addre s: Federal lnstiune of Technology L.aUS<:iIlIlL:' - EPFL. Section Genie eil, il Tel .,.-11 11 693274 • Fax .;.4l 2] 69J, 62,L_ .E-m(lJlI fib{j:(eoptlchi, w,r:b h\tp:lifih_cptl.eli1

L, N L-fi2~36W LBN ::!-8R394··f~9'-,

Foreword

B]!'Idg(,~s and viaducts are an important segreenr within the con. nuction acuvuy. Most publications regarding realisations and guidance dncumcnls on design and execution are generally focusing the more spectacular bridge project: s with extreme large sp~m~ and challenging 'execution conditions. However the bulk of the bridge market concerns ordinary bridges 0'\11(:'1' motorways, railways and watercourses. They are character iscd b:- muller spans, limit .. UlOIl of traffic res trietion during execution and above aU economy. This: is the exquisitedomain for prefabrication: high strength concrete, peed of con truuion. absen ce ('1 ~ scaffolding, industrialised production proc,ess. etc, Howeverthe knowledge of modem pr ... ~,~a:'l hridgesamnng authorities and designers is. oftenlimited and a lOI 'Of prejudices exist n ith regard to aesthetic appearance, technical possibilities and innovations.

The present State of Art: teflOn. is intended Ul give derailed information on modern precast bridges. The SI:Op' is restricted tv industriallv precast bridges. manufactured in pennanem I recasting plant. The dOtUU1CliL IS for a greater part bas ed On European experience, since !1IO~l of the member of the Task Group are from Europe 1lind the ollcction of infermation

rom other continents didn't succeed very well, Th~fib Commission on prefabrication intends. to .omplernem the rcscm, late nf the An Reporr by a future publiratiun concerrnng gurdcl incs on the de _ r~ll and l· ... cvution uf pr(,.'~,t::;t bridges.

The report lH~ be '11 r~p:.ir .... J b:, I.h,· T Ii k Grvup TG 6A. headed Q: Prof J. C 31.: \ era D:David F ernandez and \ mold \ an -\ ·!.:ef hav ~ ll,'=-' ~ ·h(· ~a~w,!~_ \~ .... _ ..•

Com CIlOr Task Group 0.-1

'IIID

Contents

J I1'l rod II ction

'2 Definitions

3 History aad development 0'( precast bridges

3.1 General

3.2 Technical development

3.3 Standardisation - Design guide

4 1" ype~c:. of precast bridges. 4.1 Genera I,

4') Solid deck briugl's 4..3 Girder bridges

4.4 Box-beam bri(]g~~ 4'.5 Mono-box nnd!!e~

4Jj Curved box .'!. I J..,' ges

-t_- Tro ghr.nd;;~~

.J... S,:~n~'!i onczes

~_.;I r ab 1:: q.3.~ ec [l 'h.l=~-~

-UO Spe ral bridges

.!..1} Cuh Ti:=. (too" ault ') sterns

4.l2. Overview ~rnn ranges of the drt CfCJlllyp!:' of precast bridges

:; Same tura I, systems

5_1 Simply supported bridges

5.2 Simply supported hridges with consinuou slabs 5.3 Continuous bridges

5.4 Integral bridges

6 A'f:slbet.ic s Connect i ens

8 Detailing

8. l Skew bridges 8.2 Hankillg

8 . .3 Edges;

S.4 Piers and abutments

9 Design

9.1 Specific aspects 9,1 Durability

9.3 Sei. mic aspect'

10 Execution

10. .. 1 ~,~ruanufactm't' or'lile precast elements 1 0.2 Transport: and crec t i on

10.3 Silt,; work

J 0.4 Quality ElSSlI.If3.1lCC

1.1 Research

] U Tests on strut cOnlpre.s!=:iOIl shear failure ol'bridge beams

~ 1.2 Fat~guc performance of precast prestressed beams in rail bridge decks

Bibliography

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1 Introduction

Publiealiuns on 'the subject of bridge construction deal mos IlV, ith pcctacular structures, both with respect to design matters- spall Icnglh and total length _ as with regard to execution. They are constructed on site, often using a technique of site-prefabrication of large and extremely heavy bridge parts. However, an importam pan of the bridge market con ists oJ simple projects" where speed of constructiun. cost and minirnu isturbance of existing traffic rue important parameters" This. is the domain of indu tria 11: precast bridges, although also relatively large' bridges can be made by this tvchnique. ln the following, the' term "precast. bridges" is used wor this type of bridges, made in pemlancn pr~~I.\3.5 lUg H.L!~.m '~.

The development and application of preca:;'i bridges IS, very dufercm In the ... an0U5 countries: in some Iike Belgium. Canada, Italy, Spain" '[he -:\ethedan<'ls" l.nited ,- n;dL'! .. USA, etc" precast bridges are routinely used, in mhcr countries tht:y are hardly known or e\ en not u cd at al], Also ill other continents like for example China, precast bridge . arc frequently used, but infarrnation is mi '. ing.

The' develepmentof precast bridges has been mainly done by the precast ]ndustry in rollaboratlon with public ainhnrities. Tni[]aUy,lhc projects were based on beam systems with a cast in-situ deck. later on. the developments ... vent Inwards more completely prefabricated systems, for example with box beams. The recent developments are now focussing on:

more emph asis on 3CS~ hct i cs, larger and hca vier un its, demands for special solutions,

total tender projects, in which [he prccastcr i rcspou::;ibk' lor the complete structure"

The development of cranes, launching cradles and assembly methods in general, along with thl: increased length and loading eapacny of rausport vehicles, have enhanced prefabrication potcnsial enormously. both from the technical and economical standpnints, An this has led 100 the existence of prefabricated structures that can rcadi]y span up to 1,00 ill"

The progress made during recent years in transversal deck con truction using trut bracing and preca t components in genera] have made in possible to build very wide deck. with hlghly aesthetic single box beams ...

Precast beam bridges are we'll suited for modcrai " span projects" where 1h" realisation -. classical scaffolding supported on the ground is difficult ,or prohibitively expensive ami \\:. ":-_ (he $,: eed of ere linn is mandatory:

\\ ,J tercou r,;; c " railw avs,

roads and Illowrwl;lYS: in use, in order to limit tra 'j re-mc: .

Prcfabncauun pr~:i~ms many advantages l"'\~" ~- ':'G~:' - - .-~ _

have resulted from the i ndus rial JPPr.>~ 'h .:1!:J • .!' _-2;"':- ._ -' •• :- = ~-

from adverse \~ ather COIlQI.i(ln:." For r::ln_ :~:.. ~_ :-:0 ~r- -':"~;' .,:,,:- __ = :~_ .s:

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--" :"J d eth r ; '. '-I'.,j r .,....., l' .1.-. ...... ~ ----- -.-- ... ,I!_ ..... - - •• - - - -_& ---:

prmcrp e·s. an nlu oo~ 3..lHL.::- ."i rnastc: ,,,"=... . jl,;. -: -.:."" ,,_" _ ••• :-: :- ~ _ ~_" • ~~ - __ ..:. ...::.~

. :I'[""~' l "" . ~.~ oJ the _ ~ • ~ - ~ ~- -" - . 'p ._._,,_ .- _ - "

a se., .-c.or1lLro s.}~(em. tie J 111m;:- l ._ "il m~ rrc...;: ~.C ~ ~ ~.L . __ ... ~ ~ ".. "_, •• ~,:,,, ~~,non

and control. Among lh,.: manv ad, enrages, [he follow in§" l~-~ lY- 1''::':-: ;:. _:"f r-rer est -0 bndgc cons truction:

Oualitv and resulariev ofthe concrete strength.

,W' """ ,Ii" _

Element with. elaborated shape" designed to get a maximum benefit from the: materials

and, the prefabrication. They require the 11C of relatively complex moulds,". but at the same lime enable high quality surfaces with re:;;peCI [0 shape, texnrre, dimensional tolerances, etc". 'to be achieved.

Absence oflaborious and hindering scaffolding.

Shorter construction time due to the Iact that precast elements are made In the plcm independent from the foundations and mher preparamry ,,,-ort on site.

The perceived opinion from som ~ instanc .. ~!>_ that precast bridges arc UlOI1QJt'OIlOlllS rind ugly.

The huger number or lran=>'T. 'r:i~I It._~mb In old r realisations. especially in viaducts, causing discomfort and maintena , ~ rr,'hl~r.:

("('I am ~P'("';:IIl ,. l",:hn~':_i. ':-~_<;':'. :-u.:h ~~ , zr lei dou ts \\ ith regard to rile transfer lenc th e':· 1"I"~~lr~~,:;_ ~ ~ ~":-Y.-:;, '"'_1[1' l:ul;:t(\ for larue diameters subiected ]0 fatigue

.,.,. ... 1 .......... :J e

~:rL·=-~·:' "l c.=":. ~.; :-:-.;;;;:~ Another question concerned the effectiveness of [he shear

:;-~.<-~. 2: ~o-: _ .. ctiscc 'hI. ",-:n cast-rn-situ .oncrete and prefabricated elements, ,,::-~ ~ ,::.!I1~ ir.. relation W -,uigue stresses.

The aim of this State-of-the-Art repori js 10 give 1;1 d'~]aJj]cLl overview of the existing C;;nIIUIOJ1S and apP][(',;ttTI;.Hl$ v v odd-wide and recent developments on the domain of precast bridges ... They should enable the enthoritics and designers to roml a realistic opinion about the possibilities .. sad advantages of this technique, and gel away from OIUC: still existing prejudices.

2 Definitions

Abufment:: Any end support of a bridge usua .. lly without rigid continuity with the deck. kigid abutments and flexible ::1Ibutmelus should be di~tingllnshedwhcfc relevant.

Pier: Intermediate support of'a bridge, situated under the deck.

Be1Jirimg:: Struerural device located between the deck ami an abutment or pier of the bridge and rransfcrringlnads [rom the deck to the aburrnern or pier. or Jllcm rug ! clativ c rnov ernents between the different parts of the structure.

PlI"e-tCllsi:~lII1ilil.~:· pn::stfCssing u red in permanent PI'1:CJSljng factories l .. uh stranc s pr('t.;n;ll~ll·J on long beds before casting and hl'lrdCI1 ing Ofi~lI .. ~ concrete.

Pot-tensioning presrressing with duetsand cables u. "~d mainly 011 site .. but sometimes at ('I applied in precast bridge construction in. complement to pre-tensioning ..

Cont1inUD1!J.. hl>iflgc: Bridge with no expan "ion joint ' between adjacent Intermediate span: . WJlll or wrthout structural continuity,

Partiall:'uil.ll~ru~ity: Structural system with simply upportcd beam amJ t.~~ .. ml~r1uOlus slab deck,

Full contlnulty: Structural . ysremwith continuous beams am) slab deck,

~ntegral hr:iclgre::Rridg.c wlrhout expan ion joints between adjacent mrermedime spans and between end spans <1[1d abutments.

Diaphragm. Transverse stiffening action of the bridge, either by the deck or by transversa in-sill! or precast beam] l.

ern.'!':, h'('ad: Transverse support beam at an mtermediate deck support

S,agging moment. Bending moment inducing tensile stresses in 'the bonnm 'j-r-~ - .... momenr) ..

Hogghlg mOl!ll,fm1t: Bending moment ~nducil!"lg t.~n~il.e stresses Ifi th.: mUW"HI.

: :-~

-.:~: .~

Ske« bddge: Angular cm~.~il1g of oblique bridge,

Expanslen john: Device between abutmcn and 11 ........ :-.. relative InO'!, ing,

- - .

- - - -- - _'\ --.'>-

';'-;:-,.,"i .. _~ .. _ ... -~-_

Sacrificial back walj: W .11h"'\~ longitudina 1 i;- :-:..:' longimdinal mov 'Hl('nb arc n~'l hinJ· r ~ '. ~:Jl~ ~.:!.-:

Safety SFO[:lS and limit -I.QP·: Del, i .es d signed to restrict re 13:n,;:: displacement o...'~\ .... ·~·Il the deck andits t<iUrpon due to scisnuc action 10 secure the rrucrure.

3 History and development of precast bridges

The development of precast concrete bridges goes back a long way in history, The firs.t projects dating from '[he ~llltia.hol'l of prefabrication in concrete h cU~ Sohnions frurn the thirties can be I,QUDd in most developed countries. mainly for short span bridges and generally reo rricted [0 sma]] works,

The real 'break-through of precast bridge,; tuok place m the fifties and the sixties. ltwas driven by the large growtb of road traffic and the cunstructinn of new motor ways, creating a need Ior fast and economic solution . fnr umh:rp;j:;~<."~ and ll\ erpasses with aslinle as possible disturbance of the ongoing. traffic. On the other hand, the imrouuclionof long-line prestressing techniques in precasung pl.Wb i,,'~'m:l buted substarnially 10 [he development of larger and more <lcnrter pecasr lIlH·~. wbi ~h \\"1'5 '~~n.:([~'i;'il ..:=-p ·l'iall: for long spans and h<;';'1\ ~ loading fer bri,J~~~

LI,.)(). ing t:J";}.. over K':-:::r ,::;::: 5. . ..... ildi !! ( pre;:;: re-.;;~. 0 icrctc bridges. one can

;~~,;: 3. constan gr,_,\\'h (_. :'1: p.um -r orp Ia n .at J bridges and alsointhe size and weight of the applied preens units Hnwever, the d zv clopmem has not bvcu lh .. , sam ~ if! the di Iferent countries, III orne I .ountries, precast bridgesare very widely used and <Ie, epted as a cia sical solution, This i for example the case ill Bclglum. Italy, lhl~ lctherlands, Spain, UK. but also in the USA and in Canada where precast bridges have: a market penetratirm ofSO~/o and more, Those coumrics dispose of an extensive range of technical solutions for small and large projects and the preeasser is playing an important role in the design and cxeeuuon of the projccrs. The decision whether a bridge is precast or not is taken at the initial design stage either hy she mnhoritic' or by the consultant.

In other countries, precast bridge, arc 8CCCplCd<t, a good variant elution 10 cast in-situ bridges. The marker is dominated by big contracting companies and the' decision whether to precast a bridge Or not i. o~h,:n taken by the contractor himself on the basis of COS1 and availability of work, In periods of high economicel activity, there are I1I10re precast bridges [han mn ~ow economical periods. Examples of such countries are Canada, France. Germany, etc, The market share of precast bridge .. lies hehn~en ,) and 20%,

Finally, in a number of enuntrie: . preea. [ bridges Inc seldom. or never u ed. T11is i oflcn due to. a lack or knowledge and prejudices against prefabricated bridge. '. both on a technical and aestheuclevel, pccially ill the Scandinavian countries, there are little precast concrete bridges, although the climatic conditions would logically incite to an oppn ire artirudc,

.J.2 Tech n ie al d evelapment

PrCt~)t bridge svstems and units have been and are still mainly b ilig rle1lie~op-ed by the preC<'I5If:rS vhcll1 elves. When looking at a hH~C scale, 'each precaster or local group of pre casters has their own bridge pml1le .. However the basic systems arc rather si mi lar, with ,<11 few exceptions. En om > countries, like lor example in. UK. the influence' of Government has been very' great in ibe early days. with encouragement of the us ~ of prestressed concrete because of shortages of steel, and Governmentaltechnical input wa. used 10 progress design, casting and! the planning of prototypes, In the SA standard cross-sections lor bridge beams .\ LTL' developed by' ;) "Joint Committee of the Prestressed Concrete lnstimte" and the

"American A sociatien of Staf,c Highway Officials (AASHOr for type~-lV beams in 1956 and fur type V and V~ beams in 1960.

The solutions from the first period were me-ant for rathersmall bridges, h, is hard 10 . ay where the practice bl~gWI1, but it W;;JS very likely in England. Pretensinncd precast bridg beams were cas'[ before :! 948, btu rhat year marked the intrudurtion of the first manufacturer: 3d\ erti ing and producing ranges of precast bridge beams, In. the I_'S. [he 1'11"'3l precast bridge was constructed in 119-0 in T'CUllCSSCC. The following variants wer used in ihe early period:

., The so-caned malch 'l:'.a-i:;t systems, whereby the bridge is composed of (] series of rectangular beams plac,ecl side by side. After erection. the beams are transformed into a deck by transversal post-tensioning. The system is not applied anymore

- Systems composed of man inverted 'I-beams placed each against ea ch other, _ \ 'ter erection .. the space' between and above the beams is. f ned with in-S]lUeOJlCR~lL_

Next came ~hc girder bridges with preCMr beams and a ca L in-situ deck slab, ln ih co beginning.jhc height of the beams was rather small for example 2ft:1 112 for a railway bridg ~ of ·0 ft span i:1I1 UK, and :50 em in same ltalian projects, They be came gradually higher and hrgher. up to 2_:W [11. At the' same ~ir[;1e'th.e maximum span length of the beams increased from 35 m in the sixties. til] 50 (0 ()O m nov .. adays,

The prestress i ng of lh(" large beamsis oilen a combination of straight. and relieved strands, to '"~O~ with the tcnsi) ~ stresses ill [he lOp of the beam ~mjill:;:5 durin~ maruuaeture and handling Ln ::-lUlk' l'.bL'~_ the relieved :-tr~nd:; sre replaced b~ rt'~Hen;;:LL'ning c.1~l(:';;: ',\ j'h,Jl arc tensioned irh r on the ::ott .J..) :l.rQ or .n ; rre J. ',~r ,'.1" HI~ .:r~J harden: n; C I' rh ..;~;,.;. slab,

The bridge beams are mnSi~y l-shaped or 111\ cr.:c T·.!'~_!::",~·L.. _!-.": :--.~~;:;-.:!.:! '.~ !:~ ~~-.~, - \" However, in the US the practice ror tb ~ pasI 3u years r,J_;;: "'i'~- LL' e I llJ'1<":~;:- end tJk,~~ .n J.U Ibeams ems'S. sections, Performance ha~ been exec] I'm ven w irh :h in \\" _. The beams arc placed apart at a certain di: ranee, although there are also 'SOhHIOJb \1. ill! lar~1.:" bouorn .1 ang s, where the beam an: put againsteach other, to increa 'e the resistance against lateral colli ion. In the' latter case, the bridge has a flar nnderdcck. The deck slab ]5:~.S.t on concrete shuttering planks .. placed in-between the bridge bc:~~rus_"f]lcrc are of COUf'S'e also other Iypes of beams used. for example V-shaped or trapezoidal beams in France andItaly.

The more recent developments arc' aiming at thecomplete precasting of the entire bridge deck .. A!~Q here .. different systems exist:

lhc box beam bridg,e-. either with one large single box, or with multiple .. maller boxe '.

- Composit bridges with prefabricated deck composed of tran 'n"IS3I, unit " with 3, length equal tu tho total width or the bridge. These units are normally supported on ted beams.

- Trough bridges have been developed for example in Belgium, especially for ["drh~a: bridges,

Segrnemal bridges, hut with rather tmall segments, prcca [ in a fixed factory, Thev are norniallj U$o;U for viaducts in cities and urban areas, However, in thet.'S and III -ornc countries in Enmpe, pliant cast segmental bridges have been emplej eo on . \ er crossing with span up to 80 metres,

At some lime between ] 9- and 1, 9fL~ a giant change rook place in the \\ a~ in whtch bridge des ig n wa s eon s i t1cr~!~l From a pe ri ud where con cern was pri m ari I y WiI h the ec nnorn ~ of new huild, [here n'<l_ a chnngc to an apprecia ion of the importance uf lifetime p rforrnanc .. The

increase in wad salting from ] 955 onwards, and its detrimental effect IOn highway structures of all materiels is well known, PIl;'C~.Ul.l bridge clements cast i,]1 permanent factorres benefit both Irorn pruti;t;h'::u weather conditions and certified quality assurance systems, Experience fromma ny countri es s how better du rabi 1 it.) of precast bridges than cast m-si tuones.

The .1.13JICSl developments fire inspired bymarket demands to improve the aesthetics of the precast bridges. [0 sallie airne and C;Uc-,lS and tn manage ibc proces.s of design and erection. l\;.~ uch prog.rcss hasbeen III ade i 11 the dev el opmem . of bri dge soluti om ·i n the I estfifteen years in €I! number of areas .. Il1I (hls regard. th~ tirsr challenge for the bridg\: rnanufactuacrs 'was to adapt their products to ,~u!,~ cd budges without :hnving resort to polygonal-shaped floor plans, Today, curved box bea nil s a re cu rrem I ~ appli ed :i n Spa i n ,Tl'H:': N etherlands and UK,. with a curvature radius as: lov .. (1':5 I ~U ILL TIle second problem to be solved was to produce members with variable de pt hs, w h i ell .:l re beuer adapted to stmetural requ ~ rente rus and aesthetic demands, A ]50 piers and other supporting structures are sometimesin precast concrete.

ln [he ~JrI~ period, ~recJ.st bridgesv .... ere always designed assimply supported structures. eve n in 1 he L J. =>'-.. 1,.1 r 11. IJ _:. - 5. 03 n brid gcs, Hccanse of problems wi rh rc Sop eel [0 traffi c comfort .1 ne! m 3. i nt e n.m .... ~ ( : - the tr.m::; vers al joi IU s, mu i ti -sprln bridges a re now mos tly designed as continuous stru 'Hm:!' There arc two alternatives. either with partial continuity where only U1C slab is. made C0n1111UOllS and the beams are ~imr~ly supported, or with full continuity, both for [he supporting beams andthe deck slab, In Germany for example, the latest developments in the construe lion of prlxa S t bridge sind ude com in uous b ri dges, wh ic h are prestressed for transportation and made continuous by post-tensioning aftererection.

. -

In Spain, due [0 competinonwnheastin-sitn solutions .. pre-casters are constantly searchi.n_g for new and competitive solutions, In the last decades, new and very complex precast. bridge ::;y:slcfns havebeen developed, for example enntinuans box. beam bridges up to spans; of 90 metres. cominuous bridges with variable depth up 10 spans of 60 metres, systems with external :lJrJsHcusion~ng> even precast cable stayed bridges with spans up '1:0 :::!j)O metres.

In France. O:IUer ,,'b-oul mh;cn years of experience running irs TGV high-speed rail lines, SNCF (French RailJ.inviwd conn-actors and precast enncrete products manufacmrcrs [;0 cunlribufte to the luturc TGVlinc sesviugcastcrn H'ancC,\\'~lllh a view to redncing [he cost and consnuction rime for the: mill line by rneens ofa novel design of standard bridges. In 1996.

~ ~

after studying around thiIlly newdesign concepts, SNCF carne to the conclusion lhal the most

economic and rel iahle snlution consisted of COntll1lUOUS rail bridge:illSing pre-tensioned prefabricated beams. Fatigue tests were carried out to check that these beams would be able 10 withstand ihc appHcabkrailway loading for [he theoretical service lifetime of the works (IOO years). These studies were carried out by CER1I3 {see chapter i I ).

"[his J.1C'W type ofstandard bridge, whicb SNCF has designated "Ra-prIA D'-, should reduce investmem and running costs as well as the line construction lime, while still meeting all the technical and regulatory criteria inrespect of safetyand track e\ enness. The dualimerest of this continuous structural solution lies in the reduced effect or climatic and gCIl)-lec]-rrdt:"l unknown p,n"!TR~l(rs and the physical separation of track and bridge construction.Jnadditinn, the monolithic nature of this construction technique enables longer maintenance intervals since it helpsto stabilise the ballast and reduces rail stresses above the ::mpports_

Standardisation of bridge systems. and beams ha: he en gradually nuruduced in most coumries around rhc years '0- 5. In the USA it started already in the ]9':;O·~ .. In [he UK, a brochure front 1.979 went as far ~5, prnducing complete designs. manufacturing construction and specifieatiun materials for eight bridges, Of these. Three were in-ssrn concrete. four using precast bridge beams and one with sled beams. 10 I1:dgimn the r';31 beak-through of preen.. t bridges cam ~ in the sixti s. during a val construction pmgrJ.l1 0' mntorw ays. Both the' aurhoriries and the precastcr ' were COH\'] 11 cedi thata standardisation in the domain of precast brid~\..~~ was needed. end that the technique of precast prestressed ~:OH ... :[d~ h,;uj ~.~ 1.)1 \ ed sufficiently 10 enable a coditlcarion. In October i 9,66.iI commission was installed to pun IIsl1 3 guide em the tandardi: ation of precas r prestrcs sed concrete beams for bridges, The conunission wa composed of members from the Bridge andRai IRay authon 11,.~; and ihc Belgian Precast Concrete Federation, The Hclgiau Authorities wok the commitment It) design all 111:1,'. precast bridges according to the agreed standardisation.

The: Belgian standardisation was focu .. ing the 1:),l~e of prces ,t bridges, thr geometry of the beams including edge beams, the calculation method and. QLI3Wy conrrnl procedures, AI. (I some production and erection characteristics have been standardised, e.g. arrangement of the prcstrc ':;ing: tendons. deviation of the prestressing tendons in [he beam. m~ild steel reinforcement ere, The given prescription enable draft standard reinforcement drawing .. both ]IJf reinforcing and prestressing steel.

In France. a first document related 10 [he calculariou of prCC3.SE lmJgl:~. cntul .. J .. PR.-\D -3. was published in 19'":3 b:. SETR.4. j Fr nch national design 19t:'n.~ -,,- ,"3d.;: .~d mo.o: w vs l", h coin .ided \\ itb an II' 'icial pubh '::1 1('111 •• Prov l: lLl:-!~1 '71~l.=, ':l:l ~~ :-:= .:, . ~re~ri' In_,:

. -

the .alculatir . .ln iJf prestress d 1.mi1::-:K 'ordin£ 10 [he l""w'"':.):= L r-,· ~.~i': '1,."hoc HL\\\ ever,

little specification were gn en conccrmng the J.:=- . ..;:n ~l( ~~, briC.~;;:5. The do cum nt ~"'If 19-; has b en complemerued in 1996 by :J design gUll! on -l{,).1d bridges \~ nh pre-tensioned prcsrrc sed bridge beams" also publi=ohnl b~·ETR.."'.

The idea or standardised precast bridges took hold in .orwey as early asin .196-L 111196 . jj committee was established ro stan. the development. The commiucc W<I:, a juint venture with participants from the Norwegian Concrete Associarion and the Public Roads Administration. In the beginning the result- were kept as. internal report in thr Public Roads Administration. but in ] 974 (hey were made onida] as J. orwegian Concrete Association publications no. ~. ~, 3 and -l:

110, 1 eomatns (he design procedure for precast prestressed bridge beams;

no. 2 is a detailed calculation example. with the beam in composite aciion with the deck:

no. _' cnntains rhe stsndardiscd beam section' am! recommendations for design and produ 'lion:

no. ~i" an enlargement of the number uf standardised beams ..

. ~ summary of Ih~,; pnJj~Cl WO,1S presented hi the publication "NoHki~k Betong' , no '.;0 1977. r n '[he same publicanuu, no. 2-4 in [982 several examples uf the use of th ·"_"r.·l?l~t~ sy 'l :m:, \" hh p destrian culverts .. water culverts, retaining '''-ails. several ~ pes I) ~,k~i.nan bridges as well as. several type of road bridges were presented, The bridges were '\t~n"l\dy used up to the middle of the ~ 9sn· s. The} lost [heir popularity m31It1~ due to "h':=>lhl.:!.k~ reasons. This was uot the lault ll!'lht: system. though, but because the \\ a} [he bridgeswere

modelled into [he terrain was, not. always very successful The bridge handbooks have; be-ell revised in the period fT1(}Dl.] 9919 to 2001, and a revival of I he. popularity of preeast bridges is expected.

In Germany, guidcillincs for design and execution of bridges with precast beams were published ~n 1 '979: "Provisional guidelines for road bridges in prestressed and reinforced precastconcrete' {R Fl'-Bnlcken] 1979., Forsehungsgcscllschatt fill" das Srrallenwesen, The guidelines include design rules, examples and details specific for precast bridges, Tbese receenmendations are valid still tu Jay and unly seme minor amcndencnts \\1(;]-(; made in ihc context of the pro gress 0[[ h e s,[flte' of rh e art,

Like other eoururies. a normalisation efclements was also done in Spain, bur ,,,,~a:!i, seldom used The final de~]gl1i of every single bridge is done by the preeaster onthe basis of their own. element types.

As limed in the LSA. standard solutions for precast bridges were developed by pel .111 !.956_ _-\ scnes of cross-scetions fm bridge beams were used by all precast concrete manufacturers. Of course. there were differences i,[J the number of pr-estressing tendons, mild steel reinforcement. etc.

Thisearly development of standardisation expedited thegTi(n",~h of'rhe precast bridge beam market in the US. In some states, such as Texas, 50% of 3]1 bridges. are of precast concrete.

4 Types of precast bridges

4.1 General

This chapter givesa general description of the must current types of precast bridges. M.!lIlIl}' partly or completely precast bridge systems have been developed during th .... past 30 to 40 year~_ In [his document we arc mainly dt<tl.ing with the types ~\ hi h are still used today,

4 .. 2 SoHd[ deck bridges

Small bridge deck. can he constructed with precast umts and :_. j.\,i.~ _ m-suc roppmg. acting together as a composite structure. They arc used fOT decks (I - bridges. viaducts culverts, runnel decks, etc, The type of sohniou leads 10 heavy but t:~~) to ere { srrucnircs. For this rcasun. it continue's to be valid for short- and in some cases even for medunn-span briqjgc~_

For small sp.ans up eo ea ,,00 to L)m, a massive slab-beam solution can be chosen (Fig .. -l.I]. The precast slab has. a modulated width, Ior example ~ 2.00 'li11I1, and a thickness of 150 to 3.:0 rnm, The slabs are positioned side by side, and a structural wppingvaQ'ing from 150 'to 20() mm is Cal l on site,

The precast slabs. arc mostly prestressed arid protruding bars at the top 'CI1S'UfC a good connectionwith the structural topping. The longitudinal joint £'1.Ce·5 of ~he slabsare provided with a longitudinal slotto form a shear key. The edge ef'thehndgc is normally finished with a profile cast on site together with the topping.

Fig. 4.1;' Solid' slab-beam bridg«

In a more advanced . nlution, the deck is composed t_1_ l·~:..:.:' __ -. _-_~: -:--:"- _"'! ~ ~

hC3\ ~ double-tee units. placed side by side. and '('1 ne; :~.:: "_ :_;- ~ ~; :-_ - t »: -;; <,: infill concrete. The additional reiuforccntcut Llf ttl . ,'.!~_ --~. __ ;: ~ __ ::::'=-:'5-::5 ~ ::-~~. ::--;:_r .... in forcemem through openings in the \\ I:" ;: (II: ~ . .r-.-~ .?[;" .;;.- -::' :-.: __ : : :-~..: __ .::: .=.: _ • ~ :_-_ beam . Ihe system is .uitcd for bridgee '.\ iih J ';!l: .;;1':~-:h ~:',\ ~- ~;;- ~,')\ - .Ji~::. ..!..--:.~.:. -. m. The edge of [he ridge can be realised \\ rn ;;, L':~:..:a=! ~_J..: ?R\·i· ~ ... T _! "~: m-suu canti levering slab.

9

Figure 4.2 shows systems, which are used in UK. Spain, the; Netherlands etc, The solution results in heavy) but very durable bridges,

Fig. 4._: Precast slab bridge with cast in- itu i'~fill

A new eri s of precast prestressed elements up to ~.O m height and a modular width up to 1200 mm are now currently manufactured in haly., Spain and Portugal with hpforming machines on long Iine casting bed, _ These kinds of clements are produced with shear reinforcement included in the webs,

Figures 4.3 te 4.5 show sections and examples of multi-span bridge'S composed of precast beams. with inverted d'ClUblc T~profHe. or box shaped units similar t.o hollow core slabs for bridges with ,pan length between '1_ and ... 0 m.

The main ndvanf,ages, of [he system arc massi H~ productionpotentiality and limited factory labour input. lypkaJl, IQf hollow core slab manufacturing. plant . i he multi-span bridges can be designed with partial or fLIU continuity and tran .vcr '3,t beams at sup om and in {he middle of the span 'Ire possible.

Fig. 4.3: Cross-section' a/bridge u.'itl~ inverted t~(mh.le~Tgb·d'e,r.{j

Fi!!. 4A,' ("russ-;y;ecliun uf bri(~ge wNh hollow core beams

F.ig.4.,5: E.\:mnples ofinverteddouble-T gmler "ndy-~ ~

J.J Girder bridges

Large girder bridge con rirutc the mam solution for p • .: '..!~', :;- ;:,~-:": :; _. : i: - ~-:- ::_ ::'-:-5

on, The bridge deck is composed ofs \' oral i \ I1~d. T - - - - - - -.:~ _';

certain distance. r he beams an:' cunuccu .. 'd' b v , l [r,u~:,,\ ;,;- ..... ,!.~ ,;';: -_ .!~::- :-:-~::: ~: :-':';- ~ _: 'In:

- - ..

and sometimes also in [he middle of thespan. d } ">~t::' '"":~ - - : - ~ ::-;_- ~ ..!. -';:" ... :..:,:- ,,,-:: of the

beam: and casting of the d [aphr,,1~nl earns. 1.1 J .:, ~ . .:.::" .~ _.;:.~: _ - c-.:~. -\_~!:- \\ i:h ":Oi1 rete

shunering planks positioned on a ~'IOI(;h ~a the lop of the 'beams. The top of the heams has prmruding reinforcement for the connection with the deck slab. The syst '111 is used bmh for impl} supported and c:ontwnuul.Is bridge strucnrres. The system wi,1h inverted 'I-beams is suaable tor span length. between approximately 15 to 45 III (Figures 4.6 and 4..7). The system enables bridges with closed underdeck.

The bridge ystcm \\ ith l-shapcd ams is suitable for span lengths between approximately ]5 to 55 rn, The distance between [he units i variable arid run 'lion of the needed span 'oad capacity. Examples of l-beam bridges in various countries are given in Jr igure 4 . .3 10 4.]].

: Cross section ofbeaen bJ'·idgel'l'i.rh I-shaped girders

4. n~., nJ prff'arl hridg""

-~

Fig. 4. H.. l-beam brixf,gc orer h',ucn:ow:sC'

13

Pig. 4. J J_' l-heam bridge diu-:iug erection

The system consists of prestressed box-shaped beams .. The bridge deck is composed of a series of box beams placed side by sidle: O.1i' at a small distance. After erection the site work is limited !to ~hefining of the 1ol1giJud~nal joints and the transversal posMensioning of the bridge. The slendemc 1111i.u is wn the order of30= however, span, of 50 III have already been realised with box-beams of I_50 I'll height. Prrnrudlng reinforcement is. available in the beam Tor connections. to cast in-situ edge profiles, joint construetions. screcds. etc .

. .

~ -I-~-

~ -- -

.~lDtJ7Oi5i:j -

There exist also a type of box-beams with lOp t1arlge<;; 10 construet the fu;ridge- deck. The system iswi,de~YlHietd in Australia for bridge:> ~.'U ~bout 45 m span. They call the units "super Tee beams". [)ctai1sabou[ CIC1IIC[lts~ erection and finished bridgesare given in Figures 4\,16 and 4L] 7.

Fig. 4.16: Super Tee beams on the slock),ardaud during erection. prior {O C(}.:;;t.ing oIthe bridge deck

15

.vno rer vanant t:.~~· ,(" ox-beams fer ndge d.:·._~r comprises a large bottom flange. The' s~ !>h:m has been concerv ed tor bndg .~ l.~ uh closed under dccl Tho: cast in-situ top plate is made-in the same way i:3:5 for classical box-beams bndg :;..

Fig. 4. J 8: F.:rample of bO;I[-beams wUiI boUa!1l flanges luI' .bridges wi,r'h closed under der:k

r\ rhird \ ariant solution for box-beam' consists of [J-shapcd precast units, covered with precast deck xlahs and completed by aeast in-situ struetural topping,

Df

Fig. 4.J9: Precast C-sbaped hridge units ..... ·;111 cast ilz-situ deck slab

[6

Fig. 4.~(J: Bridge l 'ith U-slwped bpOI1lS durin!: erection

figure 4.2~ shows a combination of longimdinal box beams andtrans- crsal scgm(m.ts for the cantilevering bridge deck A steel Jral1rle supports; the cantilevers.

4 . .5 Mono-box bridges

Duri 11 g the 13 s:~ decades, new systems :f or long SP.'U1S and complex bridges were de",€: I OIJ'cd mainly in Spain, Thebridge is composed of fI large trapezoidal beam \:! v ith eamilevering or braced cast in-situ deck slab, The bridges 'C"3n be designed as continuous structures, with . pans lip to 90 m and more.

For reasons of handling and transport, the size QfUb::' single box beams is limited In 01 ut 45 m. When ]onger spans are needed the hridge i constructed with several beams. m .. r.! continuous by post-tensioning. The b aU1S are normally positioned on lempornry upports and then connected to each other, It is an evnlurive con truction pro ~t." in \\ hi'h '\ ;;:r:. ph ... s . needs to beexecuted .... ·<Ir~fully. The construction is considered composire With pan 0- precast and, iu situ concrete. The design of the bridge for ~t:"n iL;"c;ibi1il~ limit stares is highly dependent O[~ this process,

17

After erection, ~h.e precast preseressed beamsmay need addhiorla.~1 prestressing by POSt~ tensioning l:abh;:s The post-tensioning can be placed wiihin the cross secuon of the beam or externally, POS'i:-tensioni1J'lg barsare also used l'Of the conneetions between beams,

rhis type of bridges is a more complex n-ay of buiJdi.llg precast bridges but thc '$y;stc~1Th enables to build ~()ngc:r spans than with normal beams (eithes simply supported or centinuous). Up to now sC': .... eral bridges have beenconstructed wilh::::pans nm,g~Elg from. 50ln to '90m.

I ):;;;;

Fig . .J.ll: G-O_'!iS-:~i!c;i(m ()fm(mn~hn.1J[ hridge

The cantilevering deck of Ilht:, b.rhlg:es is either cast ~n~s~tutogelher with jhe deck slab. or made with precast slabs, supported by precast concrete bracing units or steel trusses. The followhag p,icm.re:s show ex.ample:s of mono-box bridges ..

b. [lrm:ed slob

Fig. 4.25: Mono-box-bridg« wuh ccwliie'ocriug slah deck

Precast mono-box bridges with curved soffit are similar w uonual mono-box bridges but the beams are cast in special moulds 10 achieve the curved shape, Pre-tensioning is normally not used and replaced by pnst-tensionmg to cope with the curved moulds. Prccastmuno-box bridges with curved suUil are usually constructedwith structural continuiry and spans may reach more than 50 m.

'19

.. t6 ("un ed box beam bridges

ince ~ ':'y: : "T.~": ?:-;'<7"~'"~': ~ "t ...... ;;O'~". =- :~.:;" .: been eveloped by precasiers to cope with the 1fl.:'l"C'3S,ulg tl.:rr!.r.C. ~ ;;"x';: ~~5j".:;::.,,: ~ .. ~!lI'n;; The orsroual rigidi ty of box beams suits very well for bridges \\ Itn '11 , • .)(1b:ml~ • ._ ~f'. .:.ur. The soluuon is tim',' currently hc.ing applied in Spain, the Xerherl •• nds and L K. Th radius vanes rrom 200 m to as low as ] OOm. During manufacture, [he deviating f(:m:~ from th tension ~J tendons i" taken up by spe~ial!1 equipment conne ted '10 the base of [he mould.

Fig: 4.~ : Curved box-beam Kirders (mel metra vtadnct

Fie. 4._9: Examnles nfl·,lodllc.l'S n'illl cnrved box-beams

~ I'.

4.7 Trough. bridges

New ~ypes of br.idge decks. characterised by 1:1 h~gh cress-section modulus and a slender constructien h(~~gbJ[, have been developed for the cQus.ln:tcliQn of the '!R~\V bigh-speed train tracks in. Beleium during. ~he last decade.

'iIr.~ ,

The '[rough elements are mostly composite structureswith a steel prof] le in the edges, The bottom p]ah; of th~ units is pn;~lr.;~s\~d with "t klr~~' number of strands. Tnt:' pre-cur' . .;J steel proflles are pn~heri don nwards before casnngof '[he bottom plate -\ fter hardening of ·n..? bottom plate concrete inwhich the flanges of th~ :.lled ~aITD are locared.xhe '" enical forces acting em the S[CC.~ beams arc released and the (If';:-~'rC'::.;5H1~. force ES, ~r:ldU3H~ applied. In :i seeon d su~p. I he webs. and u pp;;: r f an g es cit he steel be arns are em e loped with rei nforc ed l:OUCfCIC_ The lengthef the units \ <n.!l·~ ~Jch~ cell ~U and .~5 rn, lh~~ height i~ 1.30 m and the width 4rn. The total weight of die units can Oln1C1Utn 10 ~ 60 ron.

~~~: ~~""~~

fl II

I I

l,E-~-·-·-·--·------·---·---- ---_,../

-. .... ~R--- ._ - - ,_ ..r.

I I

I I.

I •

I I

I r

Fig. 4.3/ : hough hridgesfnr raitway trucl;

Another example of a precast through bridge is given 011 figure 6.S. It concerns a railway viaduct. The track i situated at the bottom of the trough, thus enabling a very slender design of aile project, There are 31501 ,l]J few raalismioos of bough bridge .wuh an arch shape.

Precast segmental decks. are regularly used in traditional camileverconstrucrion of large spnm bridges" The segments compri e the full '1\rjd~,h of the bridge and the length of the units. is related to their wdght: 3!lJ(:I to the means of 'ImW'lSpofta~iolTh and I,iflrung_ large s'e,g.rneuJs are usual Iy precast on site, but there arc also good examples of large bridges wid'! factory precast segments (Figures 4.32 and ·t. -. -. .). For smaller project ., tor example viaducts in cities. segments arc often manufactured in permanent preeasting factories _ One of the ad all~3.g~;~ lies in the large production. erie!'>. Ihe erection is mcstly dum":' on a temporary scaffelding, and alter 11Iling th tn .. msversal jomts, the units ai,€: po r-rensioncd in ~hc longitudinal direction.

Fig. 4.32: Segmenta! hridgt"_lnl" rrcce~ ~ W rwrU'ay

Fig. 4.33.: Bridge with p,.emSI se,gmel1l:.

ill precast bridg ronsrruciion, 01:50 Longitudinal segmentsare sometimes used. H concerns beams, or hex girder for long span bridges. prefabricated in SC\'ct.31. UI'I.il' b 'cause of transport and lifting limirations. 111t~ unus arc assembled on sire by post-tensioning before erection. lE",amph:s of such bridges arc alrea.dy given (In Figures 4._6 and 4.21.

II is ~~(jss]b~e to USeSl<lYS[O reach longer spans in the eous.tnu:t~un of precast bridges.

Spans IIp to 4001il.etres can be acbieved with precast decks in cable stayed bridges.

Precast decks; can he designed for ('1.\'0 planes of SI;"jJY-" with a box girder undcrc.~al~h plane of stays. ltis also possibleto designa deck wilh a single plane of smys ,,"1111 one or two box girders joined by a transverse beam ateach anchorage ofihe stays ..

In additim] to the classical more or less standard bridges .. there js all evolution towards special concepts designed for specific bridge projects.

Bridges in dense pnptslaredareas are often des~gned with special artcntion 10 HH:: acsthctieal uutluokaad lfadi.~klil'il. The :lo,Howing examples show bow p.rt."'CaJst concrete has responded to therequirements. In Figure: 4.35, tlte eenualareh ~s made with bigb Sllf(;[jglhconcrClt:.

23

F~g_ 436: Precast (JFch bridge

Follow~ngfiguiics show examples ofone-off designed bridges made with precast concrete beams anda C{lSI in-situ deck. The bl.':8H1Sa;rC cast in mou Ids made especially for !he project

Fig. 4.38: Precast bridge wilh luriabh: construction depth

Fig. 4.39: Precast hridgt! H-if}! curved /J~-idg._ ~o _. J: nwsom~' blocks. supponcd bv ;~1~ - ': '1' _

:'.J..:._:' --. _ _ __ :.. ....

- ~

- - ..... _

Canal brldge

Several examples of canal bridges have been built wid. p:n;Ca"1 concrete elements. Figure 4,.m Jl.O\\- an cxsmpl _

FigA_40: Canal bridue

There arc many gQQ~ examples of precast pedestrian bridges. from short to very lung spans.

Precast bridge beams ~IX U" .d also for conveyor heir. and other indu trial applications,

4.1 I Culverts and vault systems

Therearc different t~ p'::- llr pr ... ·a.:;l :l.Lh -rts, The most classi ~.3.1 vn es are t ~ .... ,_ culv erts, which are allen used r,"Ir .~m3.11 underpav-cs and L 1IlI1::-1=

I •• g

i .: i' :t; .

I r- I _ -~. _ .

- - I _ __ .. ,-- _ ~

Pfg. 4_43: F;xample ofbox culvert Imilerprl5"" bl·i.dge

AJI10lhcr type concerns the arch euh ens or vaults. The vaults are of curved Or palygona] guideline structures of different 1J'iP·es:

- Dnmedsrructures with more than two clements, These have an arch supported (In 1:\\ o curved side walls that are fixed to 3! raft foundatinn or directly supported on the ~I0.mct with precast trip footings incorporated to "he precast piece,

27

- Domed structures with (me element, with the bottom slab built into the precast ur in-situ element.

According hJ its functional scheme. they can be divided in several type:

L .~ .<\J~ arch simply supported ontwo sidewalls connected by' a bottom slab.

I:l L - Domed structure with two elements, commonly known as jri-articulated. The connection to [he foundations is a simple articulation: the loundations can be a bedplate or a footing.

~v. = Domed SInI nire or an element \!,rhich "an be fixed [0 'the foumllatiolils 0]" biarticulated .

The different ~l -mcnts arc usuallv of reinforced concrete. with rectansular section or

. ~

nbbcd ;;: ectinn. The a."pt:'CI from inside file passage is usually plain, alrlmugh '[bere may be

solutions in u hich rhe lateral w ails. arc ribbed inside (panrcularly in '[he second type of strucru :- v. ith larg > clcarancesr. The arches generally have a rectangular section, although for lArge. pam (I.> 10m ~m:51Ihe:~ ar usuallyribbed. In the ca .... 1,; of vaultswith "WI element . the support points may be raised \\](11 SOI1l'C walls to give more clearance.

- =.,.,...= =-;

->

, .

Fig. 4A5; Preca: 1 arch structure

1

ell,

Inverted T-beam bridges

.- i . ::;1

~ ~

-"n',"

~ Solkll slab bridges

.--_ '_'W

o .5 10 '1.5 20 25 30 3S 40 45 50 55 so s.:

SP (m)

29

5 Structural systems

ln the first period of precast bridge' construction, it was considered logical 10 design the bridge decks. as simply supported structures with lflIJ1S\C[ sal joints al~ insermediate Spanis, and between end spans and abutments. The beams were normally positioned on inuj\liduaW bearings - one at each beam end - and lht' joints "LTC' dimensioned 10 allow for thermal m ovement of the decks, Sim p~y su ppo n cd bri d ge~ als o enab 1 e to take: up deformations due to creep and shrinkage .. In the sameway. differential ~ ttl .meru of deck supports can casi Iy be accommodated,

Many thousands of bridges ha \ ~ been ouih .u '".1 ~ ,/I, 3\ and still bclun;e very well. The main reasons for th~' hi.~h J urclbll "-;.' are

"[;1 _-=- _

C~

:- ~~5::- _ ~: to coyer on the reinforc ment,

. \.hhou,gh rh b arns thcrnse . ("= "!'. c - -, . ..:"'-.:' l~ \ ~r\ successful, there are disadvantages inherent [0 snnply -urp'm~d d eck s~ sterns. B :uir.g~.!r r .~'4uimj ~'l each beam cod. They are expensive and need sometimes to be rcplac ~d H [1\\ ~\ N. the main problems with simply supported decks originate from the presence of expansion jointsr Iong term durability in presence of de-icing sail and discomf rL to tratlic Govd detailing of pier supports and abutments. could delay the corrosion of the concrete elernems and bearings, for example:

- Possibility of ins peel jon and replacement of bearmg« I Fig. 5.11.

- In tallation of drainage channels for rernov al of the \\ aier I fig. 5.2).

However. it is quite obvious. that the best solution ro prev ent the above problems consists in eliminating: th transversal joints within the bridge deck. euher by continuous deck systems or bv intczral bridge,

r
~.J::iLI
~.pn
r
YI! 'tiuc "'&
1
L~
I .... ... 1
~ F(r;. 5.1: PossihilifY of inspection •• 'itfl access galtery

block-out for dilatation joint

I

dmi'n8l1!;t:: channel .' ...----

- I 1.:'1a_~l~lm.:'tl~

bearinu

deck stab

J

Pip; 5.2: .:r;"lppnn and (iDU/men/, delail

P'~litial continuityis a method to provide only eontmuity of rhe deck slaJb, tile beams being designed as ~in~ply supported, This means that no distribution of vertical load effects between the i nterm eel i ate hrid ge d ec ks can occur. Th is a pplies [0 <'1111 vert ica I load S, iJ icludjn g sel Fweight and variable loading.

T"'.',Q methods are used to provide partial continuity in beam and slab fields. ~n the first scfution. the cout~m~lly is rcstnctcd to the sJab (Hilly. which deflects to accommodnre the :rot.a~~o[ils of the simply supported deck beams, The beams arc erected in the conventional manner 0]1(0 iud~\'ldll!al. bearings, To pennir flexure.uhe deck slab is separated from the support beams evera ~e,~glh of about L5.m b, <I layer of deforming material, for example expanded polystyrene, Figures 5.3 and 5 . .4 are sho\\'lng two alrernarive executions,

Slab eennmihy

1

-~ ,I

D ~a:ph[:lligll1 beams

.Possihil~(y m jack-up rn ebridg,e under-the d.ia.pfin'!:gm:;

Lanrinated rubber bean r.;~ CJ.I'l entbossments

... -

rypic.a[ feamres:

L Separate bearings and diaphragms me prn\ ided for ~~.:::~'

") Deck slab is separated trom support beams ~'\ -=. _ ,- - retaticna l flex i hit itv

~, •

There ~s [ill ~l)THI:rallly n,;illft.~T~·":IIl_'n· '""\: ., '-~ ~ -.:~

moment continurrv between spans tor L\;?: -..:....:

:'0:::_-..:; _-: ::_-~:

3]

:'loom ~j m

<~ =r=:»

.t\: -:,

~ .~ ".1 Partial rnminuitv : detail type I;' Wll"h:mf .'i:olmion ,iI'II

ln the ::;'';-';!,XiC solurion, the bridge decks are designed ,1I1d constructed in ~lbe conveotiona manna l~I~lmpl~ =-tJP;:'X'lI1C'd mulri-span bridges, with slab trimmer diaphragms a! rhe beam ends. As wuh l~pe 1_ [he beam-ends are supported on rwo parallel rows of bearings on tlu piers. Longitudinal reinforcement bars arcincorperatcd at ttu; ~hlb mid~dcpth 10 tic the slab: rogethcr oyer [he pier. eljminaring expansion movement at deck tevel and permitting the USj of an incorporated deck. rotation joint, To accommodate this rota'lion. the dowels an debonded over a certain length at hoth sides of the joint. Ai lso .. the slab and trimmer bean have reduced. ~hickI'H!':S:S eo givemore fle.x]bHity and rotationcapacity .. A compressible join [iller ~s ;;tppHeJd oo]O'lV and above the dowel connection.

Fig. 5.5: Partia! contim,li{y - de/ai/type 2: lied deck slab

Typical feanrres:

~ _ The lie reinfercernent <It mid-depth of the slah ]:5 debonded over a shert lcrngilial each side ur Ih~ jni,Ill 10 petmit de~k rotation. There Is, no moment coral~JHlity between spans_

2. Slabs between spans are separated using compressible joint :fi:.IIi.ilg bm. deck wate]" proofing and deck s.urt~Killig are continuous and special sealsare provided over the joint for dUl!b lc protec lion.

3 _ Scpal'alC' hearings and. end diaphragms arc prnvud!ed lorea.chs]1:Em_

The soluti ens ] and 2 arc si mple measures to prov id e simp ly supported con~~nuous decks, \'!.'ilh a minimU!lll of extra design and construction effort.

Multi-spau bridges with enechanical continuity between ::Iri_l(lcellt spans are realised by integration of the bridge beams into a reinforced concrete crosshead 011 top of the piers. The construction i~ done iu 1"\,00 81C]J$:

'1'

ln the first step the beams aresimply 1)UPPOfl(tl and ,-"~, :_'~~" _ ~ ~ \, ':~_-!~l p!u:. the load fromrhc formwork and the wet cast concrete of the ~br<

In the second step •. after hardening of the in-situ con .rete, the :i!I"_:-:_:;"! 'X"'': -:-;~~ cotninucus. but Oldy lor theadditional dead load and the vanable load III g.

• ~Il a. first solution the beams are supported 0"' temporary scalfolding, built off the pic]" foundations. The beam-ends with protfUd~ng sn1UIlds and additional remforcement are then incorporated over a certain distance in a rather widein-situ integral erosshead, cast on lop oflhe pier. The h:.m.gituciim·d top remforcemcnt is. placed ,~n the dock slab.The bridge deck is Strengthened in the transverse direction. either with post-tensioning or with. mild steel reinforcement The cresshead is supported 011 a single rowef bc:arjn~!f:s placed ~Il the centre ofthe pier.

------,

.. .;_r .. ::: rr

,

1.:11:;1""'. ...d ': rrol t!~

_..r. .. ' L_.. ... :--T • _.I I

Fig. 5.6: F'itll c01.rtilJuUy ~ derail type 3: wide ilhSitU .int(!gral crosshead

]'ypkn~ features:

:~. Beams are erected en temporary £uppon::; generally off pier rOllm:ill~ iuns 1.Pcm]<lw~n~ bearings arein single line

l. ConUnuily reinfarcemem is provided in the siah and at the top and bettom of bridge beams. The lapping efreinfereement is normally om. d]fflct.l~l.

Although more cnmplex to design and more expensive to construct than any of the other rueiho b. type 3 continuity offers more advantages.

I lorizontal CU1iV3I11l1re ofthe bridge carl be en ily accommodarcd b' \'aryiug thewidth of t he in tcgral erosshead to Iorm a trapezi urn, T his penni t s the use of precast beam s of [be same I en g[ II per pal].

Problems due to differential inclination of the bridge _pam, can be reduced by curving of the top and bottom surfaces of Ull~ crusshcad. In ibis way. the increased slab thickness at mid span required 10 lake LIp the v errical CUf\'311U"C above ~hc straight precast beams, can be reduced,

Only 11 single entral rnw of hearing i~ required This .iuunclli(:!tdy halves the number of bearings required for simpl: supported consrrucrion. although the individua] bearing , izewill increase,

The piers are more slender, not only be :3.U~~ of rhe mgle Hue of bearings. but mainly because the dead and live JOdJ moments applied to th piers by the eccentric pos ition of the bearings arc removed

I he piers T~.:'~'oJ LI)l l'_ Li,\ ~ ..:. .._ _'n=>:...!11i width. The integral crosshead can he de igned to allo» ,:,,)rL:" ;::~~-l: ~ .:~~ ~ : :l.:",: evering outside rile pier, This also provides a further r.:-lI ..... 'L:_'L:-_ :.:-' __ ",-~._ ..... _"":::' __ - .• :~.."!ii..,n~s.

,~ In th - :- cond ~( .. ~~ - ~ _ :-~ '"Ire-i, rcsscd beams arc provisionally supported on top of the pi.I;~_ Th in-situ m:;; ;:-~, '::-D5'Sh cad over the pier ]S then cast between and around the heanv nver R W,dl - ,_': ~l'\_-'U' ] III on buth .ides, However. the erossheadis narrower than type 3 be ause 0 ~ ;'L 5:::.:;11 _.ill' etween the beams. ThL 1.'IHlIC narrow gap makes ~l more difficult 10 realise ~l'. ~J,-~ui;ll' lapping of the bottom reinforcement between [he beams. Lon giru din a i (~.),..: - ~ _ - ::- 1 ~ a ga i 11 e as ily rca li sed wi lh lop rei nforcement in the continuous CUnlpl.l itc Jt'.}... ~:J::'. The longitudinal hottom reinforcement of [he erosshead ~ .. partly tn, tailed LhrflIl;; ~ r:~-' ~..;: In the ends. or the beams

After harden ~;; ). he crus-head concrete. the two rows of temporary bearings are remox ea .sec , ;:,"j('l." I T('I transfer '[he support reaction on the central ro\'i.1 of bearings, Some sohmons IF·~ a \\ 1 e smglc crntancut rubber bearing, which acts as support for hath beams,

- :;..... ~.;.; ",",..

7:·· ._: •.. ! .. ~t:!o:: -

'_. _ '=''''' r"

, , rr:_ re .. t--.:,:-::."·

-I' --i' ~~::'-T' ,,;;

Fig. 5.7: Full f'rmtinu.ity· - detai] type 4.- UWTVW in sitr.r illtegml crosshead

34

Typical featI!JJres:

I.. Temporary suppottsare not requ ired.

Permanent be~dng'S m<lJY be. in single or twin line

2_ Con~inl!ityrein_rorcr:mi,;nl is provided lfl the slaf ami at the bottrrm uf bri!lgt., beams, The lappj rl g of rei n tbreemeilH is d i fficuit.

""

This uY]1 e of cont i nuity is re 1 a~i.ve]y eesier to construe [ than l}~:. The g' re are 5 l ad vanta gc lies ~n the easiness 'tu erCCI the beams directly on the pier. :..'-~\ crthc ~~,~~_ adequate 'con nection between bottemflangereinfercern ent is di ffic u h.

it The third solution is a varian~ of types :3 and 4, and the integral crosshea.l ~ ~ . .!.~. r "

stages. The erosshcad has a greater depth than the main beams and the IJmLL'fi' <ec: . cast ~]rst to support these beams, generally on thin mortar beds, Jna second step, :n-; complete ero sshe ad i s cast in the same waya s described for I) pc 3.

The advantage of this type ofcontinuityis thecomplete elimination or temporary bearings. The disad'! v antagc lies in[hcI1a.rge size of the cross-head under the beams, both for aesthetic reasons as w~th respect to tbe free he ight, I ype 5 cont.[uuity is also considered as a frame t,;1!')I1 stmctioui n case t he piers {Iff:' monol ith ic wi Ih the deck and ccnseqcentlycontribute in the moment distribution of (he complete structure, However, it is also possible to provide a h~]]gc between the e ro:s,sh~: adand l h cpier.

."

Typieal features:

], Be4ilm s are supported on slage I crosshead d l:Iring erectiea, 2.. Crosshead mostly [Q be monol~lhlc with pier

3. Crossheadscffit is normally lower than 'beam son~~

4. Reinforcement is similar ttl types 3 and 4 dcpcmii[1g on thccross-seetinnol'the ~.tag::: . erosshead

Besides uhe above described solutions. full cominuity of precast bridges .... sn ;1bl.l been realised with POSH(;ll.si.Ofling systems.

35

.' There art' 51i]1 orher possible variants of snlutions type .3 and 4 where the continuity is made by lapping of'reimorecrnem 111 block-outs atthe top of the beams and concrete mlirtg: between the end blocs.

~-".---

Typical feamres:

L Beams are $i!IJ].m~l,cd tUI stage l eresshead dLLr~~l,g crecnon,

7< Pennaucnt hearings under each beam

3. Contlml~1i)' reinforeenu:nt is prl.wi(]ed in [he staband top ohh~ bdlj~c beams,

Fie. 5.10.: Detoit of!.r'ill cmninuifv wuh in-situ crussheud

L.... ... I •

Fig. 5 . .11: Comi,:uwus bri4f;C! lrirh precast rectangular beams

Fig. 5. L;" Continuau: bridge with precast' beams

37

Fig .. 5. J:: Continuous precasT box beam hddgf'

5.4 Integral bridges

lntegral bridges are designed wirhout expansion jcmts, neither bel \~ ccn ad_i,u intcrmcd iarc spans nor between end spans and abutmerus. Thi section describes the \ ari f} ! cs (If integral abutments and their design procedure.

ILH fike continuous bridges, at intermediate supports can be constructed with bearing P' it ~.:- ~!.lu;.!l1~ possible to provide such pads 31 abutments without expansionjoints. This t.yPI constructi LPn I~' referred to as cmi-integral bridges. It is particu] a rly suited for bridges \' prestressed beams since the bearings eliminate the problems assodalcdwilh rmm: counuuuy ~md roteuun due to creep and thermal effects,

Abutrncrus lll" integral bridges are attached to the bridge. 1 hey have to follow hnriznntal temperature Iluctuai ions of lh~ bridge. Th aburments must be designed EO all this. movement 10 occur and at the same time he able [0 resist traffic loads, In the same \ as for classic-al bmJ~.:~ '.\] th convcnrionallv fi x ed abutments, the design or integral ahm 1l'1( ro r brid ge s \\ i rh pre~ oJ.., l rr~ ~ rre _~ se d he l'U118 a Iso rcq II ire ~ spce i I-tI cun s i dna lions. wh ich arc needed ill inlC'gr.1I hrTJg~:. using other forms of construction.

Several lYPi;:' 1)1' integral and semi-integral abunncnts can be u. ed. Some countric recommend a I imit to the overall lenglh and skew ness or blld~n designed integrally (U. K.

maximum overall length = <SOm., maximum sk "\\ 311:, r n the l' SA .. integral bridges. havr

been designed and cousuuctcd successfully \~ Ill! 0\ crul] kn!;:1h~ in excess of 200m.

; ~ .. I"

... "'E~'" _:=1

:-:- -::. -:: ... _::

.. ~ - ~ .. :. ~: .. : : == ! - ',- ~!. ~ - :: .. =::~ ....

::;-. ;;~

39

6 esthetics

The 8 esthetic appcaram;c of a bridge is an essential factor. which has [0 be taken intc account from the beginning of a project. As for construction works. in general, the general silhouette uf a bridge is conditioned by its overall aspect, in other \\'onh., by the first image p erceived hy an observer situated at a distan re, The silhouette is particularly characterised b~, the regularity of the longitudinal profile, [he proportioning arul the general harmony of the disengaged ~ incs, the inlcgmlion uf 'tilt: project within the surroundings, etc, When the observer is aettine closer. (he perception become demiuated b v the outlook of details, !;ucll

..... .... J' ~

as the architecture of piers ami abutments. the a. peer of 'he surface, shape, colour and

proportions of the ,~rlges. etc.

The norma] slenderness ratio of bridges using precast prestressed beams leads sometimes but HJ:Jl always to deck thicknesses. which am tbiekcr than in ~onlinmHls slab bridges especially IIIl cas> of slatic'ill~ independent pans .. In '[he beginning period of precast bridges. when the demand was large. the appearance of the bridges W3:S not so important, However, ill th e ei gil II c s rh C' , nuat ion .hanged and precast bri d ge:; we re en 11e 1 sed lOr b dng le ss elegant than asr in-shu one:,_ e: pecially when theheadroom is limited. ]n addition, for an ldentical clearance. the additional thickness has an influence on !h~ \oIUI1W of the lie .ess embankment IO the bridge. i OOalY_ there an: di Hi:r,enl solutiens to overcome this problem:

- The bridge can he designedw ith ill huger number [If more slcnd '[ beam. 'by decreasing the distance betweenthem. This will ot'eourse infhrem e the total cost ofthe project.

- Box. beam bridges exhibit a slenderne: s ratTo OO'''H 10 30. \~hil'h is comparable to classical slab bridges,

~ The bridge can be executed "\·~tlh IUOI"C slender edge b rarns. especialjy in case of hox beam bridge,

- Structural continuity enables to reduce the deck thickn ss, comparable to cast in-situ bridges.

- The combinarinn of pre urcssing at the plant and pes -t nsioning om ,iIC enables 10 reduce' llJ~~ h .ight of the stnn lure in an important \\ a~

~ High qr~ngth concrete. up lu 100 ~1ra ,ylindcr strengjh. enables also hi decrease to a certain extend lhl' cru s-sevrion fOF 111" same performances

J

Fig. 6. J: Three alternative .m/ut/ollS for lhf!f:d(~(j with box beam's

Anmber aesthetic inconvenience may arise from the camber effect of independent multi, span prestressed bridge units, Precast prestressed units are subjcctcd to camber. varying according to the level of prestressing and the duration of storage on the stcckY::lrd at the plant

After erection, ~hese deformations are partially compensated by the east in-situ deck slab and Olher 11'1.0(1 loadings .. Also here, lhe problem should nor exist. since many appropriate remedies exist to overcome it

N n = ~
Fig_ ti..2: .fn~jJe1>fect,im,l's. aIshe lougiwdinal nnJg._· rrDf'il .. ' due to camber ofihe ind:e:penden! prestressed bridJ!.t: span»

a) Edge profiles

The edge of OJ 'bridge determines the tine of the structure, since isconstirutes tllile: most visible pan of the bridge deck. There arc; d~nc'rcf~t. posslb.lili~]cs to realise ihe edge, cisbcr by the arch itecnsre of its shape, (.iii by the surface fi[1i~h.~ng and co]nur_Mme details are given in chapter 83.

b) Variable depth of [he longirudil,a~ bridge profile

Alrhongh lesseurremly applied. there are good examples of precast: bridges with variable depth.

The' ~t~[lecl of 31. bridge can al so be considerab l y improved by an appropriate architectute of piers and abutments, especially in mba I.) areas, Good examples of precast piersare gruvcfI i:n d.1!ap[er8.:4.

A~ fa:r~sll.O[~2;mlhdl.y curved bridges eoncems, their realisation is mere difficult lr!JJ prettl5>l concrete than in cast in-situ .. Placing (111.(; precast beams in a polygon following ihecurvarure usualJ]y solves. the problem" The' solution isperfectly aceepmble fcr large curvature radii, but less attwactive~Oi smal ler ones .. However, asalreadymenti oned ~n sccuon !!k6, toda y l h ere a r c also curved precast pre-tensioned box beams.~\'~lh a radius as 1m,v as 120m ..

, J

I

The foHoyd,uglwgu[[,f;S show dHfcrcn~ realisations of precast bridges for which a~~lh~:: .. > \\1{~r'C 3JTh i IrI~PtJril:R!:I1l desjgn 'I ssue ~

Fig 6--1: Precast bridge with em ved beams and edgeprufd<:

Fig. 6 .: i: RaiJuYl_Y viuduct. buill will, precast prestressed ihrougb etement« Al~[I tile piers and crossheads ewe in factory mallif pnn'W;t concrete

Fig 6.6: Precast "ridge 1\-;111 cur: [.i i:

Fig. 6.7_- Viaduct in PI"(!C 1.U concret«

Fig. 6..8: Long preces! bridge Ol.'Cr river

45

7 Connections

This chapter describes some specillc connections. which are used jn precast hridg construction. It concerns ma.in~y tlil,c connections bcr. .. ccn the precast beamsand cast in-si! trans versal di.aph.ragm:n bemus and deck slab .

• Precast beam to diaphragm beam

Because' of the dense reinforcement 'in the end blocs of til ~ precast beam the coonectiu with the diaphragm beam ismade with protruding bars, threaded couplers, anchored in th precast beam or with sleeves through rhc beams ] he comact surface in the precast beam roughened,

diap hragrn thre.!ded

beam couplers

Ihl {u:l~·d ',)Upl'T

.,Ii '!f.:% li !!=~; " ~.

.l -, .

-'11

1

1 ~,-,-----,

.: [;r

~ / J_l_

Fig. _ J: Horisonta! aQJS section at tbe beam end

For intermediate transversal diaphragm beams, the connection. with the pre asi beam generally reali: ed through transversal openings in the precast units, enabling the pa sage ( themain reinforcement ofthe diaphragm beam .. for edge beams, threaded coupler are u cd.

• S upp ort connections

The, precast beauts an: normally supported 011 specially des:igllcd! bearing pad .. 1'JI positioning is given in Figure .3 for beams with rectangular ending and in figure 7.4 fc beams with cantilevering ending,

• Beam slab connections.

The interface shear between precast beams and rho cast in situ deick slab is taken up b protruding reinforcement from the precast beam. The shear transfer capacity is 25% to 3J~ higher when rhe pronudjng reinfercemcm i'~ placed according to b) than to a)-Tillie rransf capa ~il~ of the interface shear 'C3n further he enhanced by the used of inclined stirrups

b)

Fig. -.J: Shear reinforcemen: between bearu» and derk slob

I

...,... ..

j -, -====--. I

Fig: 7A; Supporting detaifs for beamsu-if11 cantlleverending

,-

Edge profiles are nonnally connected to tbe C;.'I,51 ill-situ deck slab by means of protruding bars. Figure 7.5 shows (he connection of a special edge beam. with a solid bridge deck composed of smalll-beams.snd infil] eoncrete.

Ftg. 7.5: Conm:czIol1 re.il~l()rceme:m between precast and C~i~r In-situ concrete

8 Detailing

For enoderstc angles, for example bctw ccu -0 and 1 01'1 J~~~,::: .::-. the bridgeconcept bath for the deck and for the beams ~~ nearly ihe same as for <tratghr r'1:-,~~.:"~ 11K' normal solutionis to ccn struct the bridge in the prolonga lion 0 f Uht; s k ~\" . !'\."1' s ~';'. ~ =- \. -.!C,

'Vhen the skew is hig:h,er than 70 degrees. [he design IS :- .~~ '::~""-:--:"'.~-" For .1. go-od

fn net i.fJJ1 i ng of the supporting d~c v ices ~ t he ax I 5 of the .~ d!'- ~~_ ......... L. ~_, ;' ..:. -.:. r -: ~ _ : h e

~ol:1lg itud i nal ax i 5 of the beams . Figure K~. ShOl,""5 a sol urion "" i th or'i.h(l'g:~""'-8. ~ - -::- - .-; ~ v- - • enlarged transversal diaphragm beam. hh.Hl..c\cr. itis also possible 10 produce tne .:--;-~-:-~

s kew en dings.

Ernbankrnem

Supponing p.ad

Brid.ge beam

Fig. 8.1: SllPPQrl ('wrtwgf!nleRil'far skew bridges

The 'lop surface of the crosshcad is parallel W she inclinatien and the supports are ident ical,

The crosshead is horiz(li!ll~al and the supporting embessments havea variable hleigbt

I

a)1 Crosshead wilhindined ~op surface

8.3

Edzes .L~LI,~''-'

Edges an: among the most vis~bte parts of ill bridge and thus contributing in an important way to the vi sual aspect thereof Also hen:' different solutions are available. Some consist in a simp! finishing of the top of '[he deck; other .. are partially or completely hidmg (he precast beams behind an ornamental separate edge profile. In most ascs. the edge' are' in precast concrete, but there arc also realisation v. hh C'~~"l in-situ concrete.

'i!!! Precast edges.

Precast beams have 11 high quality smonrh urtacc 'h .. .xrure \\ i.tb a straight and regular shape, which can remain vi sible to show the structure of the bridge, Ihc cast in-situ ~laJb of the deck can be finished by a simple decorative profik. marking the line of the bridge.

Fig .. R.J: Simple preens! profile tofinist: tha canulevering dec). .. slab lu a beam bridge

Fig. 8.4: £.ww1'/(" of. imph-! el~'{e finishing in a CW1'Cc/ box beam hrit(f!,e

~I J

Precast: edges are often much more pronounced. with ::J pannply of.archi~~l:lura~ shapes and surface .fiuishes,.iJ1J. simulated ualuHd stone. in coloured CmlCr~]e.eH:. They are either I11Ql'lo~,i.thic units. or executed as facing elemerus tor a l~$51 In-situ concrete ~xu::k~m!'. The

. - .. . .. ~

fi)Uml.'iu'e n~un:~ illustrate the many ;nQs:s]bmlie~ within this: 'S('11mkH1.

~.,_." ,_. y

Fig. .5_- Examples of precas i .architedurai edge pro./iles

fig. 8.6: Mono-box bridge wi,h an;hilf!cfr.wal edge'

Fig. 8.7:· Example of precast erchnecmra! hr-ic(-.;e edge

EclgL'=> of precast bridgfO_ are sorn ,Lime~ r ... li .. J. v. ith 1:1 ~f ectal beam. The solution is no only more expensive because of the mall number of units. btl! (here may also be problems 0 lateral curvature withprestre .. sed b ams, du to [he _~: rnmctry of the profile _

Fig. ' .. 9:' Sotution with a special edge heam

The infitl concrete at t~e bcuom part increases the resistance against lateral collision.

52

Ed12;CS ca nbc: rca ~ i sed on site tJ!)~dhcr wi lh the c ast i n ~ II f the (k' ck ~ la b. Th I.S wav of execution

• .,;:.. - - - - - - - - - - - 0;::;;' • - .... - _. ...,..' •

is not very usual, especiallyfar more complex cross-sections.

8.4 Plersam] abunnents

Piersare generally cast on site, because of their large size and weight. However, there are good examples c ~r precast piers ~.::; shown QU UH.; ruUow~ng pictures, Another example of a ra ih\ -ay viaduct in Bel g~U['Jil w ith preca~[ piers a nd cross-h ead sis g ive n 0111 Figure 6.7.

I
, C',a-;t OIl ~]~e

f~liUln

53

Fig. I '_ .14: Precast pier lor cable slay(!dfoo,rb'f'idge

Fig. 8.15: Box beam bridgeuiitb vartable depth andprecastpiers

ln some cases precast clements arc used to formbridge abutmcnrs. '[he elements are flUli height, modularwiddxaad usualjybave on ~he bad side one or more webs from [he top. [0 the foundation. The J,csmg;t.ing secnon is thus sn.apecl as a T or A. For important heights a precast tie can be used eo forma ~mss stmetuee. The elements are placed on site side by side and are completed by the cast in-situ foundatiea and a top beam ..

-n- -"!~- ~,.,-
n I I
" If
II I. II
n It "
" " II
LI 11 j
tI I
tl 11 ~~ ~~-

T'

h

1

L

FRONT 'VIE\,V

CROSS SECTION

56

Fi_g. 8. J& Example 0 bridge alm.l'mem wi.rh ribbed precast l\wll

9 Design

The design of precast briliigl!s is based on the classi -.11 design procedures. and cede requirements set fonh for bridges an genera I. In Europe .. OJ ~p:..:'! t~~ standard for bridge design is now UIU.h;r elaboration: Eurocode .2 "Design IQf concrete struc: ir ~ • Pa ::!: Rcinforeedand prestressed concrete bridge i'', Tilt: fib Commi siun un Prcfabric _t~,-,. .11:ends·~' puhl ish in the future design recommendations for precast bridges.

For precast concrete bridge elements. the following addl.tll1m:d·~1~"il a:>!, ..:~~ zre '!O c consid ercd:

,a) Transient situations during thc constructicn of the bridge: manufacrnre ofthe elements, sum-age. 'iran port. erection on implc supports. composite action with the deck lab and when relevant, cont~nuity through connections and post-ten ioniog,

b I Transfer of force between precast dements and in situ concrete. for example hear reinforcement b tween beams and leek lab.

c} Standardised procedures for qualuy surveillance with . upervision b) an independent third party. In some couutries, accountis taken of the increased reliability of the high quality structure by the adoption of lower material safety margins for concrete ~ -,I. I and steel (1~) Iorthe de,5lgn of precast elements.

d) The U5e of high ·p'tFfOml(.mcc concrete up (0 lOO i\tPa'l. "...hil,.'h I~ now .urrernlv being applied in precasting. also for bridge clements

The search for he most appril rime cross-se .rion of rm,'';:1S lll1dg' clc _~'m=- ~:=: I.~( ma_u .. 1f importance in prefab n cation. because of th . j pact on the '.\ i;h ~ ... ' the iits. Inthis context, designs have b en rc zussing on the: idealisation of the concrete dimension, [or xample with regard toweb thicknc . dim -nsion of the upper and lower flanges. n • .i.ly of end blocks. etc .. The developrnenn were often based on specific research programmes and national code st ipulat ions,

The publication or the CEB-FlP' Mode] Code] 9901135 created a. pmblern in some countries because of ihe more COlli ervativc requirement on 'the calculation of compression struts for members with shear reinforcement ~.han in the previous edition. Due rothc hereby increased minimum dimensions of the webs. for bridge beams .. I 'xisling expensi e moulds could not be used any more. Tests carried out in Splain I see chapter I.]) on the strut compression shear failure of bridge beams with thin webs showed however that: the: capacity L, not depending on she concrete alone hut a I so related to the qn ant ity 0 r 81 irru piS_

9'.2 Durabiliry

The durability of concrete structures is mainl:. governed by the mireimusn cement quamiry in the concrete mix, a Low waterrcement ratio and {he compaction and [he strength (I C' ~ 1 .. - hardened concrete, Another important facto]" i the concrete cover, which must be br;=, enough to prevent corrosion of the reinforcement.

Bridges are normally designed for a lifetime of minimurn 1 00 years. In ~Jll!:1C'n. the siruemres an: oflen exposed tosevere weather conditions and the influen e of t!e~iLing -alrs. Experiences. with regard tothe durability of prcca t bri~I~C"s an; ~'nl;;~tI]~ pcsitive. due: to the

57

hi.,gh C:OIl(T('lt' strength, tow watencement ratio and quality of execution. The latter positively influenced hy '[he indoor manufactnrc, goodworkmansbip, repetition of work ,a.i high control h;\'I.J.

ln rnanv countries, especially in Norway. Germany, Bd_giilll:n and the Netherlands, whe precast bridges have been applied {or a lung period and to a great. extend, and where elimai conditions are worse th.:ln in southern counrri ~s, it ha been stated repeatedly that ~he COS1S 'f maintenance and repair of precast bridge are' much lower than for in situ one. This is particular the case f()r simply supported bridges \!. ill! ~~ continuous slab deck.

111 a few countries, there 3["(' Oil the orhcr hand also some objections against The usc preca t bridges. One apparently minor draw ack concern the cost orin speetion, which seer to be larger for precast bridges than for cast in-situ ones because of the larger CXPOSI surfaces of the componeure in the i~f'lm:C'r ·.CC"

Anmherless g( od ~'-~n~ J":~ 35 been has bLL'1I I! ported in Germany, concerning spallii cracl .. ::, en lh~~[l .. l t- ;'j~:-tr .~~ ~ bridge earns. The problem ma~ be out: to' the liJlii presrr ;;,if1g { .. rce s ~.e~dC'.::: .,' ~~~\ ~~II: jtLL'mpr~~~ion in [he lower flange' under fun Ioadin Th _. Jl tribunon _~. stresses ..:nc: er permanent loads 1 thus rather unbalanced, '\'fruthli'll1l[' :';TPS; es In the 1Ij. J.'!oI.:' r.J.n~~· nd larg ~ .re5S::S in the lower one. This results in iU~PQrl3 spalling strcssesv which ~hl ... uld he taken lip b~ suflic: nt reinforcement at the ends of II beams .. Huw C\' cr, similar problems did not ~.., .cur in other countries . End tensile stresses C~ also be eontrnlled hy relieved trands Or b~ dcbonding {If a number of strands towards [I ends of sbe beams.

The principles and design rules for bridges\-\,'j'lh respect to carrhquake a .tions are n significantly different for precast brjdgi,;;S than for 'cast in-situ ones. The strucnual COID1CClio: betwe n the bridge beams, diaphragms and deck slabs arc to, be dimensioned for the actii forces. The same ['3. valid for the connections witharehttecturaledgcelcmcnts and oth equipment of the bridge strucmre. The followmg Spl"CmC features related to the execution precast concrete hould be analysed.

[he overlap of the deck on it:s support must be long enough. The minimum support leng rims' be sum. 'iem for . he support function to be maintained ill the event of extrcn sci mie displacement. I.t can be calculatedwith the follnwing formula:

b=-b -d-[)

where

b, i:;; the minimum effective uppon length. for standard bridges a length of 300 mmcr be adllph:U j unless special studies determine otherwise].

d is the differential displacement ot'the ground between the axis of me fixed support ar the .onc m .d support.

rJ i the drsplsccmcut of the deck on the support a. a result of cismic combinations,

58

_ >b,

IDECK

,ABUTMElrtliT

b

-IOi-...,.._'b(j

"""""-'""""11 •...... i-+--------~--~

DECK dlsptacad by sarthqoa Eli

...... ~~,c .. ::=-~II"""" ...... ~-------;,-----

I.....i~~" ;.m----- Dislordp.d bealfi ng

AIBU1MEN1i

I

Stops can be mad ~ of steel orrcinlorced coucrete. The~, are generally not \ ('0- duculc.

There art: two kinds of SlOpS:

., Safet,~ ,'lOp, designed 0 prevent tho: JI.:', 1;:' .. 'l. ing irs 5oUr! "I':; \\ hile allowing fn:~' deformation of rhe bearings r sulting from the sc I snnc acuun

.' Limit stops twluch al 0 act a :.arCl~ ~wp:;, designed [0 resrri ! relanve dtsplaccmcru between the deck and its: supports under. eismic 3C"ti0I1_

The faces of the stops must be oriented appropn'1ldy 10 limit rotation of skew bridges around '[he vertical axis ...

a) Longitudinal s~.()PS

In general it ]:s nu~. necessary to install long~iUdtnfljl safety stops because of the safety margin onrributcd by the backfill b 'hind lhe aburmem. Longitudinal limit SlOpS can be envisaged to complement laminatedrubber bearing in some r .. are and special cases (e.g. long bridge on piers of the same characteristics fOf which ,8, behaviour faetor has to be applied), The gap ,around the stops 111U51 be a.djustcd in order to limit the effects of impact onthe supports"

Transverse safety or limit stops {foF :~ai~ bridges')' must be provided [0 limit the r lau \ ~ displacement between the bridge and its supports and to prevent the C'ol1ap I: ~f It. 1;:';;". It is recommended that limit stops be installed on abutments. with a small gJP I I) 10 ...:0 mml which will allow the bridge [0 "wnrk" in service and limit the ~1Te ts of po ,nding in an eartbqueke.

In. the case or a deck whose trensverscmovemem is restricred at 1\:\'0' s;~lppon:s. rransver smps are 1101 gem"!'raJlly required on the other supports.

SUPPORT

The figure ::li:'l('1\ e ~.h\"'\~ s ~.r..~: ?(I~5.t·lt:' arrangement, Restraint is obtained by reinforc concrete !;,n1b-~\=-~l~.:!~ a: i..~~~ ~:J;JQ-I . .'f1 .. J:- :H !h.: um.krs.idl: or tht,; deck. The cmbossin, lW~U 12. r '.?:1';: r 1'"1·~. ~~ '"1:~ .:..... _: "1 -:":".. P-.'" L:~ pe L If <a let} smp works on I y in the transver

• I ~ ~ F ~ n

cirecnon o: :;1;: :'::-;~;~

60

~ I1dUS[i~a~ i sed prec ast bridge elements are manu fac l ure din pe rman em faci lit ies under an officially agreed system of quality surveillance. The clements arc generally cast oulo]]g Huu prestressing beds, aJthough for very large and yery heavy units such as mono-box girders an.d some special units. other prestressing techniquesmay be used.

The moulds are normally in steel, In some ~liI umrie $. 1 i ke lor c xarnple in B el gi u rn, the srendardisaticn oflhc geometrical eharacrerisrics of [he main beams by theS arronal Hrrdgc Authorities .. has enabled to elaborate a mould system composed of standardised mould segments. A complete SCI of mould segments enables the producuon of Sill t.~ pes 01 beams given in the standardisation. The system hasnow been used for merethan 45 ~year£.

Fig. 10_2'.- Prestressing in a hmg hueprnc/m::lion afbridg.e beom»

6]

Fig. 10.3: Storage olbl'idge beams

lrsnspon of long and heavy bridge' units mal)! require spe ial truck and selected itineraries.

The rransport t often done at nighl, in order to limit rhe drsturbanee uf the normal traffic, In some -ounrri 5. transport is ah 0 done by hip and b .. rail.

FIe. 'r'.!· Fr. msoort o__t _' 1(1 IOU heavy hridge be(un by.trw:.:k

The necessity to ~:rn.nspu:rl heavy bridge units 10 the site IS not necessarily a negative aspect of precast bridges, In fact. thetransport ofa ~imitfid number oflarge units has to be compared to bringing 'in scaffolding, material for the JOiml\l/ork, r'eady~!J1ix (,,~'Qnc["clC:, etc, on separate transports. When the units are precast, all these materials do not have h) he brougbt to [he site au all. This represents a significant reduction ~n the number of truckmovements. and hence less burden on Iht': environment.

In most cases, the erection of bridge beams is done with mobile cranes. The crane capaeiry is ntH'" curremly up to 400 lOR Very often 1\:1,'0 cranes are needed to hoist [he long bridge elements up m Ihcir final position,

63

Fig. W _ _- Erection ofmono-box beam

Ng_ Jo.y.~ Erection of hox beams IIsing a gr:mfJ"}.'

~itc work encompasses the preparation and casting of addirional structural components like diaphragm beam .. infill concrete and deck slabs. plus the finishing works of the bridge. The general contractor carries out the work, The following figures illustrate orne of the works to be en rried ou 1 I) t1 i IC.

Fig. ! 0.1 0.: PnX(lSI hridge O .. ({('I'· (:'1'·(:'("[ ion or t lu: b tams

Fig. In. J' I: P laeement 0/ ~ hu t led ng p&mks for the deck slab

65

Fig. fO.1 ~~: Placement of cantilevenng :i;/mllerinJ!

10.4 Quanty assurance

• Genera]

The: quality assurance with regard ro rhc production L': ::".:-. _~ _ ~ :--=-""" ~~",:.l5 d on

the qualit y system described in EN r,so 900 I and f?\ 1 ~ - ..... .:. ~ .: . omrol

supervised by an accredited third pan • or State H ighw a~ r~-:- -_

• Factory production eonrrol

The factory production control ystern con 'bb· 1.,-- :-- ._-=~~_ regular

in speetions, tests and ~.hc utilisation of the results to L~~rL::-" ~-:-.e-: ----:;: . nals, other

lncom]ng materials. prOdUC1]QU precesses and products " -: _" _ _ -y-.ln::s in

panicular checks on geometry, location of [he rl..~lnt0k"':·::::''':- _ - _ ~ _ -~~~ {CIr~"'. and properties or the materials including concret .. rein .(~,:=-c;:--" z: . _ -::-;~__:= '=1.' :1·. The r sulis of inspection , which arc CXP]',C 'sed in num .ri .:_".. . - -: ::::5::~.;_ -;;. :..-~ recorded in ~-f special register. available to the third party.

Th fr, u n ~. of checks and in. pection controls are ~;:... __ - .:::._ -''''''~(a rurcr and

the bndgc authunues. generally based on national o: --:_ - - --~ - L.i" =randards. An

example of an inspection scheme tor process, iuspccu __ ::: ' . I~ is based nn

the eEl'\' Ur..!fl produ ~l standard for precast produ ts prf \, I •

66

SHR;f'IJ;)CT 1\,IIII::THOI[) I PLRPOSF. t'llliQUE:'I>lCV -
J\,1 ixmre - composiuon • Visual OIl. weighing CunIL1ml11\ WiltJ intended I - Dai !)o' ~~r each
texcepe water corueru equipmen'l pmol..lllctt(ln wmJXI$IUon used
. Ole king a.gain~l: -Awfe~ .Ii change
prodm:llo[l documems !
Water content of frcs'b AI1Ilmrria[e 'mt::'llind 10 provide lhtl torthe - :DilLI) (or t'aeh
concrete W<I rer cerne nt rattc compo ition wt'd
- .iflet each c-ha.Ulg,·
- ]n c~e "f.Jmlbl
Chk:1l1d~ coutcnt Calculation .,. thJ: th; In .:'.:1:.,: (.fincfot'<I'5e of the
To CDHlf
maximum chlonde .. f, 'nd~ ',~nr "nr of'the
content I s not exceeded .','n~iHu~~.·
'\V:ltt:r. cement rat.to of Ca Ie ularion accord ill~ to To 1iiS_ ":..~ 'p.:'"'ifi'J D3"!~ _Ii ~~ _1:1~"i
rr,,:sh j,.'oni;'l'ie te specific standard I water cement raun
AIr .onieoIlt offresh T lIU: e 'On:iillf!' 'In ~f1'!.:';::iliL:' To assess cenformuy F ust bate h (of .:.:..-
concrete standard n i~h specified ('omem of produc U(}Jl ,;u: .ill :11
entrain t <! ir \ a lues stabi i ise
Concrete mi_\ Vismt1!ched: ('oirt'Cll11ixill:2 Daih (ur t.:'31:h mivcr
Daily for each type or --
.PrllL"1l1 ial cnncrei r: Tesiing according to Toa 'L:f>~ conformity
~t[ol'r1g(h 5Jk~ific slali'ldMd with i i~lC'lH.k-d VlIILll: concrete
Densny of h ard ~ ned T est int! :8:c~'onling 10 I Til ru. ess speei fled J\S tiequemly <IS polclIlo.ai
concrete specific standard densitv strenzth
.' ruble J(J.I: Example o/inspeCliclJl sdlemejor concrete contro!

'. Prod II C~ 1011 tole ran 'r.:,:;;

An eX~II::11p]~' of production tolerances; specified by the CEN Product standard for bridee elements C" n l' 2~1) \\·G lI'TGI4 is given ill table ]0.1

l'EIlLVI'U-U:U I!)m,:vv" 1"10); tmm)

1 - (2.0 - L'20001
- l,:!O + U2(}OO)
- h; I 00 or - W (wll ici1;::yc[ i:-; the
greater]
- !.10 + llo"lOOl'
== (10 + h<1:00J -
I ±]U
-.5 - 10
1 bl ;;;:1103 h
J!<. I" -:::-0.05 d
"" 0,02 h
- Length (L}

~ ri; Horizonta.l s,!cewn~:;$1 \':. ~ f Verticelit' .:: .. J~. see Fig I d I

:b.~ern.l devkuion twith rrefere:nct W ihe-orcw;:;lI ;]1',,1$)

Camber 0]" $ag (with referen W declared \ alue ··':::IJualc-d 'lakin~ into 50""A ofihc declared v alu or

account 'I1~e; ace and the load historv o -he elo!merlt) 1..1800 whichever is [hI; ~pateirl

P'OiSitioll ofl!Ql~ 01 iilS~~ru I \~ uh rd' T~:n : • W {lrnwillg~l + ....;;;~...;3;..;O~ _

. iVh.!li.!:;!l! . Ii i !ion 11 riles (l,r i "-.en - w:..:iIh:.::L:..:· n::..c3::c.>OCg-"-'ro:__:U::"p'--:-:-_-=---:----::--~~-_+------;;;-j-

Conerese cover Cnl,e absolute minimum requised b) th.: durnhilily - '5 - 10

sheul d a lwa 's be tiU lf lied I

Pnsition of o.rdinary rein fUB:'t:: rncrn ~ n I'll related to cover ~_ except the 10111llldilHl.l s ilion uf sti rru ~_

=10

Tab/'eW.2: Example of product tolerancesfor hridge elements

61

f_"_

. .

1+-

l /.

I I

I

I :' I :

I I I

rQ, hi

r,I

I

I

~ I

I I

/

/

I

rig III C: Basic dimensions and deviationsfor br.id~~e elemen:

M 1 Research

A l01 of research programmes have been carried out cspccia Ily for ~)CI in the US and differen[ organisations in Europe. hllhe following. ['.\'0 outstanding examples of investigations Oil precast brillgl;s arc described,

] 1.1 Tests on strut eompression shear faUurc of brldge beams - r~TE:\IA,C and Pelyteelmfe Unlverslty of Baecelona, Spain

P'rec:m;[ beams for bridges nre menufacturedjn Spain from [he enrl,~ fifu~;:, on. Rridg~ constmction techn ique 5W i,~h precastmembe rs have constantly been de' eloped ~ i nee and are used loa aJy to bu ild Slat icall y d eterminare. comin uous bri dgc s w itlh SPI~ ns of oyer j 0 met e r-;_

DilTcn;:m~ beam !yPt~$ have been dc\'dopcd such as: 1 beams, u'ougharnd box gurdcrs. These beams have been ,designed in recent years; to Spanish Codesr.;:r~So and EP-93.. based onthe CEB-Flf' i\l~ODEL CODE ]97fL

With the publication of former versions of Eurocode EC-2 Part I and Enrocode EC-2 "art ~~3" ]1 ... vas. found that. for the situations in whieh precast beams arc usually employed. the solutions used with considerable success in recent years would, not be valid any more, The proulern arose onthe !.~om[]fession allowed on the struts for the model io resist shear, In these beams [he eompressionin thestruts is high but thereis always enough sheaf reinforcement [(I control tension stresses. Afree tbe result luf the hereafter f.h;s~db",;d invcslig~li{)n arultcsts. the fonnularicn for shear compression in the stnnsjn the final version of F urncnde EC -~ PaT1 I has been chan ged ami adapted to ~he v al u es adopted informer Cod e:; and consi stem \\ ith these i UVCS,l i ga l i ons.

l. Study and analysis of available bibHogrdphy 2- Analysis ofexisting tests on shear failure

3. Analysis onshear failure made fOF FEHECE_ f"a'li]urc ill eomprcssicn of'thc struts

4. E M(! h i 1 .. h a struetnra I Val]~'}111 a I model for shear

5. Evaluation ofthe tests \,\ .. ith the mode]

6. Final conclusious

.A[[a~[onal desi.gn "n~ calculationmudcl has been developed and evaluated with full-scale shear tests on elements.

Shear ICS1S. were originally made by F. Leonhardt in 1961 in ShMg:nt together with R..

Wal~eli. Also. M .. P'. Nielsen and M.\V. Braesttup have performed tests at the Technical Univcesityuf Denmark in ] 980.. and finally some R:Sl made by Teofilo Serrano in C~_]) F X (Spain) during 1982 have been analyzed.

Furthermore a number of dnHI from I.he tests made for FEDF.Cf by Intemac and rhe Technical School of Civil Engineers of Barcelona. UDder the direction of lhof.- Prd.!"':=>~L\r=> Aparicio. Cal.3vCIf.3: and Del Pozo, have beenanalysed. in these tests the failure of the pr~(':::.~[ bridge beams, was, produced directly in the shear struts, without previous plastificarion I)f shear rein lorccmcn t.

69

The d \ elopedrational model combines resistance hi shear with UIC strut and tic model, originally d cvclopcd by Riner and r'l.'IO'I-sdl_ and the inscribed arch and tension tie model, as proposed by the three professors that made Fedece Tests,

The proposed model takes into account redistribution b etween both mechanisms of stnn "HU.i ti _. as wen as the inscribed arch and tension lie. when one of the mechanism rcachc - its maximum load capacity,

It has been possible to veri I~' <B correct correlation between previsions of the rhcorerical model and shear failure tests made h) e\ end ainhor , both in the (' a se of direct compression in shear struts <'ImJ with lorrnernlastificaticn of sheaf' ties and subsequent comprc sion or shear srruts Or compression top chord.

In all studied case - the SJI11C' failure mechanism has been obtained in the model .a~ well as in the tests, This has occurred, Din in the case of direct compression in the shear struts, as W(lS rile (,<lSC I.."'oJ Bare '!(lI13: T ,,-~:.b_ and also ill the case of failure in compre, _ ion of shear struts after former pl3,m] ~ me n 117" .:: he' ar ies. as ill the case of Stuttgart shear test and CE DEX shear

On ~h . basis of th r alized \\ ors, ir a 1:1 demonstrated that the mcehal!j:)m of shear resistan e !, very complex and that the proposed model can mode] it with enough approximation, This model has within two shear resisting mcchanisnrs that interact depending onthe different mechanic t:h<lf".,tl~h;ri·'lic: L,r its el ments and the history ofloads,

The ~~p'p'lil:ation of the proposed model. in (he de ign allow: adjusting the response of linear elements regarding combined bending and shear, Although it has not been explicitly I()oked for. the tension ~n the bendi'l1g chord and the compre::;';;inn in the bending compression chord can he derhrced from the model. Both depend ~trongl~ onthe way the . hear and bending reinforc ment has been designed .

..

I~lll

.. ..

Fig. 1/, I: Nlo{/,el din"eloped in/he inve t.igatkm

o

Fig. fl.2_- Fnstrumentation 0; beams

i:~"iI iP'..,J~'~I'._J '')f:i- i),. ...... .,u, r IUI..,.." ..... [ ... "/ •• r

"71

H.2 AlRC!HI - .;" smUT

.. ::c

_._"'" - --"J2

cm.'BINA nON I ft"RCH·'" SlRl!Jli

-: ... :~IY'--

Fig. 1'1.4: EHJmp/.e of calibration between the In . j.: sr: ...

7_

11.2 Patlguc performance of precastprestressed beams In .ndl. 'Itnr.i.dgc dec ks- eERIB F ra nee

The tests presented here have been undertaken 1O validate the technique or continuous prccas 1 b rid ged!cck for ~~ igh-speed uf;amn S (T G V] 0!U ihereq uesi o is'\" C F (fre n ch raill

This type of b:l:~dgc is built by placing sepsrme precast pretensinned ~am'S and joining then] together with a reinforced-concrete slab, The mechanical conrinuio is prov ided by reinforced ecncrctecrcssbcams atop the piers" "rhe asm of this swd~ v,,'015 (0 proof rhat the resuhing composite assembly was capable ofwithstending lhe specific loading CITe,;!::, of rail bridges for the lifetime of a THV bridgiG. i.~ ","as undertaken by the CERlB I Slwj~ and Research Centre of [he french Precast Concrete llrh:iu!\t~y), in association with the SXCF and the :WI[) (Fren en r ederation 0 f Prec as l Concrete Manufacturers).

This; study took place in several steps:

I, 'lh;s~gn <:1m] l1tbricath;::Ull or a representative lCS[ spceimen iu aecerdauccwirh SNCf design regu I 311] ons:

~ performance of a 5~,at]c Ioadingtest i~U failure 011 a first lC'~t specimen:

.' performance of a 50-.nlliHion-eyd.c fatigue [est on a second specimen; this, corresponds h) a lifetime of about I 00 years., followed by .1. static test to failure.

The test specimens consist or two 5.35 m long spans joined together b~ a crossbcaru. lhc final T shaped Cm.~5; sectinnis obtained by pouring a 15 em slab of [35 concrete on the pretensionned C 50 beams, Cominuity is achic,:t:0 byordinary 11Ingjludi~lal rriuforccmcnt in the slab and! !h.c crossheam cast together.

The test specimens were designed ~n accordance-with the SNCFs guidelines:

• design of the pre~lres:~ by considering the requirements of Classl ~ (tensile stresses up to ].5 x fct al 100\'cd in concrete) intransient ~i.tuat1Cn1S1!l1l1L1. the requirements of Class .~. '(liIO tensile stresses allowed in concrete) in the service situation:

.• design I) t' ord ina ry re i n forecmcnt {co[llimJ iry and shear reintorecmenr J, pa rt i cularly relative to fatigue.

The ~oadij!lg rig was designedto sirmelate the dead load caused by batlasr andequipment as well asthelive loads due to the passage of trains {siee figure 1. ] .5).

Fig. ! 1..5: OP.'np.rnf 'l·ien

l ] .2 . .3.l BdmnoUK in service

The specimens behaved similarly, shO\1i'inga slight cracking f'-::~- ~ .::.- ~:-. :.~ loads in [he reinforced concrete pans atop the continuity bearing.

Stiffness evolurion. evaluated by rotation measurements. 'U as t:-. ~:. :':.:..:..-;.:e ~ 1:11 renston stiffening models of cracked sections in bendiT!g (Fig. I ~ .. 6 :!IwJ ! ~-

..

. /

- f

s.l ''!

:!;,. • .

: XE- ..

,I' .

1-"'3I~",,~- --_

74

The eonscqueuce of this behavious was a mechanical cominui Y coefficient slighrly below I. (coefficient gi, .. en bythe ratio ofeantinuitymoment .ornparcd with a continuous beam with COD stant ineriia ):: 1I rider servi ce loads this coe ffi c i enrwa S rim urul O. -; for all tests ..

1 i .,1.3,,;2 Fatigue test

The fatigue test was carried out at a frequency of 8 hertaLe .. about 1 ~ t"lf the frequency corresponding 10 the first natusal-vibretion mode,

The coefficient of redistribution, k, de fi iii cd above remained very dose to O. - 0.: during the rest, However, several things showed that the structure had undergone some change:

i, cracks in the cnntinuity zone bC\C8ll:1C slightly wider, while remaining quite right tfrorn O. B nun atthe sian ofthe test to 0.1.1 mm at the end, under servic e I.oall~) :

'. '[he modulus of elasticiry of scetiens F1lV:u with strain gauges decreased sHglul~_ reflecting the fatigue ofthe material, 31 the' locallevel:

• the overell etiffncss of the spans, defined by the ratio of the force applied by the deflection measured mid-span, also decreased,

The above re_ulits appear to indicate thal the test specimen has undergone some adaptatiun: in other words, rhe losses of stiffness mid-span and above the continuitv bearing have belen compensated so as 10 maintain a constant rate of redisrriburion throughout the duration of the lest

] 1.2,.3.3 Po t elastic behaviour and failure phase

The Tailure mechanism for both tests arc identi '<II. .\ plastic developed mid-span (pkl$liH~i.1liun of the prestressing wires), then the beam/slab assembly separated between the poilu of maximum moment and a shear-bending crack Ileal' ihe ern .... sbearn (Fig. ] Ud arul 11.'9). This separation was cau: ed hy shearing of a II the connecting reinforcement and seems to be accompanied by buckling in the compressed and separated pan ofthe slab. It should be :mcnt~oncd tha: up [0 collapse no slippage of len don S was recorded at the simply supported end of-the beam .

Figure J J. : Fauure mechanism

Fi}!,lIre 11_9_' Failure ofa ptasnc illl"_ t

75

Considering a fun redistribution bl~l\'l, cen the spans and ih ~ in. zrmediate nppnrt. the two failure modes Ihorizontal shear and hendililg~ occur or -10- ~ <:J .. LL.1LL<.1 load 1'\ 1. hen .eir is difficult 10 determine categorically how failure .ame about. T1-. L,"I[J.jhe y- ·,",c 1 -: estwas obtained for a lower load value than the 200 one, this can b·~· ~._,- l.nned (1:, a lo« er ducriliryin the I'~ !,;'Oi.:;;~. leading 10 less redistribution.

The test campaign pre, ented here demonstrased the capacuy 01 :'1;,",.-: -:,1 -~d components 10 withstand ]~11jglH~ effects, particularly wi~h respect to the strength "1:-:- -~ ..... -.::"; ~ mchor Lones. SimHarly, the composite beam <lab strucmrc made continuous I.::':: :=.::-.:~ reed con rete

proved to behave verv well : no change in overall performance, II L c co'. ! cracking on

the continuity bearing or of mid-span dcformatiun throughout th . _- :h~ test, i.c.

50 million cycles,

The safety marzin at ·.lilur~ relative 10 the service Io.uj lJ" a l( L,' _-- s: : ; :.')0: both le~ t. . th i _ ratro 15- cons lJlTl"tl lL' be satisfactory,

_-\l th .. ' end L){ ixHh h;;':;.l • the behaviour of the test : pecirnen wa mocc cc _:: _.:: ... d _ In terms () . the ~)\ erall rnechan real Sl U3lIOil_ l~Ull .ideration of the loss 0 " Sri fir :.:::' .- _ - __ • ~,-:: secnons correctly repres ntcd rh ~ redistribution: nhserved in the (CSIS_

The results obtained mean [hrs cnnsnuetion process can be \;;tliual!;'d:-_:- ~-:': ~ ::~:ru .ticn of rail bridge decks. The findings ran be II ed to improve de50gn methods .- .... - ~ ~ -_, x _"

. tructure.

76

12 Bibliography

ll] .ENV 1992~2: ]'996,Eu~'f){'ode 2; Df:$ign Qf concrete structures Part 2: Cmu::tele flddge.'i.

[2] t:NVI '998-2:1 '994, Eurocode fi: Design pravlshrns ji-n- ..:{wlitq.wAe reslstanc .. ·(:' of strucmre» - .Parl 2.: Br·idg(?s.

i~4] PI' EN I 336:9 :1999, COmrl1DIJ R ules for Precast Concrete Products.

[5] Ressner; fh:ikken tms .SpmmbelOn-Fenigleileu_ E.mSI &, S~hn, [3,rliu. ] 988.

[6] Vorlr!ilifige: Richt.!inhNj fiir ,,')tmJ1el~- lmd J~~egdwiit'ken all~; S{:mnn~ und Stahlbel'ouFert igteifen (R FT-B nick.!;'D)I ] 979 .. F orschungsgesel lsehaft fur das S traOen\ve sen.

171 P~itch~fd. Brian P. B~'idge DesigJ'.l for Dl',frabilif»: a TRL Public,atirm In.cm1~amthlg .ue!hm:l:~ o.lAchh!l'ing Comimdw in Composls» Concrete Bridge' Decks.

[R] Hambly, Edmund C and Nicholson, B_ Prestressed B~(m.r lnJf!j{rid 8rh~>!,e!!o_ !peA, U_K.

[9] Teylor, H_P_J CQ1'1lim,tity of Bridge Decks using Precast Beams. PC/\ ... L.K"

[WI C larke, LA_ and Sugic. t Se:-n·h:eahifitr Limit State Aspects qf Continuous Bridge.t llJiHg Precast Concrete Beams. PC'-\_. L' _ K_

[] 1] fib bulletin 9 .. Guidalrc'e jOlT good bridge design, lnly:mOn, chaplcrl.4.2.

[]2] RIL['.\'[ Report ~ 4, .Durability Design ofConcrete StrUCl'lire;r;;_ Edircd by A. Sarja and E. Vcsikari, 1996.

[~3] .fih bulletin J _ Structural Concrete: Texthook ON Behaviou«. Design mu:i P.er/orm.mKf!.

Volume 3_ December 1999,.

[[4]t:UROCODI:: g-~ DAN

[16] floms Courant» en Lmi<? Sismiqw!.- Guide de Coneeptio». SETRA. and SNCF. January 1000.

[[ I 7] rS92, Seismic engineering regulations.

[191 Aparicio, A.:, Calavera. 1.. ami De] Pow. F.,l P/:cm de im'f:'Sligacion .n;"~·~' 111 compresion md:ximu en bielas. po« f!.sIner-zf.) cortame pan: ";gas prefobr« aJ.J5 de hormigo1f preteesado COl] atmadurus pretesas. Madrid. November 1997_

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[20J [2]]

Concrete Manual A Wai.cr Resources Technica! Pllhika{.iol.l. U' Oc:part.U1.enL of the Interior, Bureau nfRcclamation,

lr' I P report ::'i7K Composite Jioor structnres. SETO. 1998.

[:n]

__ J

Reeomendaeiones pam lu realizucion cit' pruebas de carga. Recepcion de pnentes de carretera .. Direccien General de Carretera •. _ Mini terio de Fomcnto. Spain, ]999.

r241

SNCf, Callier des prescriptions ccmummes appJic.ah/l"S nux uwn:luh: (/f!! travaus d "OZI\!nlge d'ar! et au/res constructions, Livret 2.01. ] 995.

[25] El V1992~ 1·-.1: ~ 994. Euracode 1: Design C!f concrete structures precast concrete elemcsns and structures.

General rnles -

[261 ".t. Chefdebi '11. A. Comportement a la .faligue de prmn'es imiuslriell~!:{. pnfcunlraill{es pour tabliers de poms-mil:s. Publication Technique n° ] 10. (ERWB.199_,

[~.~] Fernandez-Drdonez. D_ /\/ec(mismo!l: de r:e,s{Hlf!J .. /(~.k(!utf! "I esfuerzo conome en l,'igas p" sfabricados .. Madrid .. 200 I.

1:S.SNI562- j.f,W IISUN z·:S;33~~069·X.

'1: Illnt:lro1dllJlciion :2 ID,efj,nUiions

3, IH isIDric,a~ revii!ew

41 'Typ,es, of precast briid,g;es 5 Sill'lu:=tural systlems,

6 Ae's,thetics

'7 C'Dnn,ections 9: Detailling

9 Desj,g:n

11{] Execution 11 IAes,e~arc Ih

1i 2 S,~bl ii,o:Qlraphy

13 ,A~ckn:owledg,emen~

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