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HIGH RESOLUTION STUDIES ON

LATE HOLOCENE SEDIMENTS FROM


LOWER REACHES OF NARMADA VALLEY,
WESTERN INDIA

BY

PRABHIN SUKUMARAN

DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY
FACULTY OF SCIENCE
THE MAHARAJA SAYAJIRAO UNIVERSITY OF BARODA
VADODARA- 390 002, GUJARAT- INDIA

FEBRUARY 2012
HIGH RESOLUTION STUDIES ON
LATE HOLOCENE SEDIMENTS FROM
LOWER REACHES OF NARMADA VALLEY,
WESTERN INDIA
A
THESIS SUBMITTED TO
THE MAHARAJA SAYAJIRAO UNIVERSITY OF BARODA
FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN GEOLOGY

BY
PRABHIN SUKUMARAN

SUPERVISED BY

PROFESSOR DHANANJAY A. SANT

DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY
FACULTY OF SCIENCE
THE MAHARAJA SAYAJIRAO UNIVERSITY OF BARODA
VADODARA- 390 002, GUJARAT- INDIA

FEBRUARY 2012
DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY
FACULTY OF SCIENCE
THE MAHARAJA SAYAJIRAO UNIVERSITY OF BARODA
VADODARA- 390 002, GUJARAT, INDIA
Telephone: +91 265 2785560/2795329
Fax: +91 265 2795569/ 2787556

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the comprehensive compendiums of the original


research work entitled ―High Resolution studies on Late Holocene Sediments from
Lower reaches of Narmada Valley, Western India‖ submitted by Mr. PRABHIN
SUKUMARAN to The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda for the partial
fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Geology
is original work incorporates the results of the field investigations and laboratory
works carried out by him. This work has not been submitted for any other degree
anywhere. He is solely responsible for the technical data and information provided
in this work. The candidate has fulfilled the requirements regarding attendance
contained in O.Ph.D. 3(i). The candidate has also made the necessary corrections
suggested by the external examiners.

(Prabhin Sukumaran) (Prof. Dhananjay A. Sant)


Candidate Supervisor

Head
(Department of Geology)

I
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It is with appreciation that I acknowledge the support, supervision and


unflinching encouragement of the supervisor Prof. DHANANJAY A. SANT, who guided
me through the Ph.D process and creates a deep understanding between
quantitative process research and qualitative geomorphic synthesis. I am very
grateful to him as he spent long hours from his precious time in stimulating
discussions during the period of my thesis work.

I am indebted to Prof. L. S. CHAMYAL, Head, Department of Geology, The


Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda and the Coordinator (Gujarat Corridor) of
the SSS (Science of Shallow Subsurface) Programme of the Department of Science
and Technology, New Delhi, under which this study was undertaken with project
grant, SR/S4/ES-21/NARMADA WINDOW/P 6. I am thankful to Prof. NIKHIL DESAI, former
Head, Geology Department and Dean, Faculty of Science, for providing the
departmental facilities to carry out this study. I am grateful to other members of the
department, Dr. SATISH J. PATEL, Dr. D. M. MAURYA and Dr. NILESH BHATT for their
help at different stages of the work. I also take this opportunity to express my heart-
felt thanks to the Vice Chancellor, Registrar and all other administrative persons of
the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda for their support.

I gratefully acknowledge Professor K. KRISHNAN, Department of Archaeology


and Ancient History, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda for availing
laboratory facility, advice, supervision and other crucial contributions. His
involvement with his originality has triggered and nourished my intellectual
maturity and confidence. I would like to express my grateful thanks to Dr. SASHIKANTH
ACHARYA, Department of Biochemistry, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda for
his help during the Sedimentological analysis and Geochemical analysis.

I convey special acknowledgement to Prof. S. N. RAJGURU for sparing his time


to come with me in the field and making me understand the fluvial Geomorphology

III
and Archaeological interferences; Prof. NATHANI BASAVAIAH (Indian Institute of
Geomagnetism, Panvel) for all the laboratory support and valuable discussions
during the environmental magnetic studies; Prof. GOVINDAN RANGARAJAN (Indian
Institute of Science, Bangalore) for all the supports during the statistical analysis and
synthesis; Dr. VIJAY SATHE (Deccan College, Pune) for the fossil identification and
analysis; Dr. GEORGE MATHEW (Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai) for his
support and help during the geochemical analysis at IIT Bombay; Dr. PAVEZ IMTIYAS
(CEEMAC, Bangalore) for all the support during the Shallow Seismic studies; Dr. C.
RAJSHEKHAR (Agharkar Research Institute, Pune) and Prof. BRUCE W. HAYWARD,
(Geomarine Research, Auckland, New Zealand) for their support and advice at
different stages of the micropaleontological analysis and Dr. JEAN-LUC SCHWENNINGER
(University of Oxford) for the Luminescence dating.

I would like to extend my sincere thanks to Shri. M.C KANDPAL (General


Manager, ONGC, Vadodara), Shri. SAGAR MEHTA (Head, Cambay Basin Unit,
Hindustan Oil Exploration Company Ltd.) and Shri. AMARDEEP JAIN (Lead Technical
Support, Hindustan Oil Exploration Company Ltd.) for their valuable suggestions
and critical comments on the shallow seismic studies.

I express my sincere thanks to all the anonymous referees of papers


published form this thesis, for their valuable suggestions and comments which
added to the clarity and content of the research papers, and hence the thesis.

I wish to thank DAVE kaka, SALIM bhai and BACHU bhai for all their support
during the field work and sampling.

I owe collective and individual acknowledgments to my colleagues at


Maharaja Sayajirao University and friends at Baroda, whose presence somehow
perpetually helped and made the whole experience memorable. Many thanks go in
particular to RAJESH Chettan, THOMMACHAYAN, VINODETTAN, VIJU Chettan, SMITHA
Chechi, DASAN, HARISH Bhai, HEMANT Bhai, VIKAS, VISHAL, SIDHARTH, PARUL and

IV
JACQUELINE. The myriad support given by NITESH KHONDE, during the
micropaleontological studies is far beyond than what I can express in words.
Without his support, the work would not have been completed within the
stipulated period of time. My sincere thanks go to RAHUL. RAJGOPAL (My dear frined,
ONGC Ankleshwar), for his innumerable help and support during the seismic
survey (I am sorry Rahul, I ramshackle your complexion in 43°C). I also take this
opportunity to convey my sincere thanks to TRUPTI Madam and SHILPA Madam (IIT
Mumbai), DINA (IIG, Panvel), PRASHANTI IYER, SONAL and NIMESH MURALEEDARAN
(Department of Geology, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) for all their
support during different stages of my laboratory analysis. The support and
departmental facilities extended to me from the Department of Archaeology and
Ancient History, the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda is highly
acknowledged. Special thanks go to the Head of the department and all teaching
members. The support given by student and research members of 2006-2009 batch
especially BHANU bhai, MANISHA, LAKSHMI, SUNITA, ABHA, KALYANI and TRIVENI
deserves special thanks. I would fail in my duty if I should not thank Mr. ANISH T.K
(My dear friend) for all his support and hospitality during trips to Bombay and all
his love and financial support throughout the course.

My parents deserve special mention for their inseparable support and


prayers. I express my sincere thanks to my SISTER, BROTHER and all my family
members for being a constant source of inspiration throughout my life. Important of
all, my love, thanks and appreciation goes to AMITA (My wife) and her family for
their thoughtfulness, patience, trust and the confidence in me.

Finally, I would like to thank everybody, who was important to the


successful realization of the thesis, as well as express my apology that I could not
mention personally one by one.

PRABHIN SUKUMARAN

V
TABLE OF CONTENT

CERTIFICATE........................................................................................................................... I

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................................................................ III


TABLE OF CONTENT ............................................................................................................ VI

LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................................. IX

LIST OF TABLES ...................................................................................................................XII

LIST OF PLATES.................................................................................................................. XIII

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................... 1


1.1 RATIONALE AND BACKGROUND ............................................................................... 2
1.2 DEFINING STUDY AREA ............................................................................................ 3
1.3 REGIONAL STRUCTURE AND TECTONICS ................................................................... 4
1.4 HISTORICAL AND MODERN RECORDS OF HYDROLOGY OF LOWER NARMADA ........... 6
1.4.1 Historical Records ........................................................................................ 6
1.4.2 Modern Records ........................................................................................... 8
1.5 SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES ......................................................................................... 11
1.5.1 Methodology .............................................................................................. 12
1.5.2 Earlier Approaches and Results ................................................................. 13

CHAPTER 2: GEOMORPHOLOGY............................................................................... 18
2.1 REGIONAL GEOMORPHOLOGY................................................................................ 19
2.1.1 Higher Erosional Surfaces.......................................................................... 19
2.1.2 Lower Erosional Surfaces........................................................................... 20
2.1.3 Alluvial Plains ............................................................................................ 21
2.2 GEOMORPHOLOGY OF THE STUDY AREA ................................................................ 21
2.2.1 Quaternary Surface 1 ................................................................................. 22
2.2.2 Quaternary Surface 2 ................................................................................. 24
2.2.3 Quaternary Surface 3 ................................................................................. 25

CHAPTER 3: MICRO-SEISMIC STUDIES ..................................................................... 28


3.1 SEISMIC STUDIES: A THEORETICAL BACKGROUND .................................................. 29
3.1.1 Field Observations and Methodology ....................................................... 32
3.1.2 Theoretical Calculation ............................................................................. 34
3.1.3 Results and Discussion ............................................................................... 39
3.2 CONCLUSION ......................................................................................................... 43

CHAPTER 4: HIGH RESOLUTION STUDIES: SAMPLING AND CHRONOLOGY.... 44

VI
4.1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 45
4.2 HIERARCHY OF SAMPLE LOCATION ........................................................................ 45
4.3 SAMPLING FOR MULTI-PROXY ANALYSIS ................................................................ 48
4.4 SAMPLING FOR OSL DATING .................................................................................. 49
4.4.1 General Principles of Luminescence Dating............................................. 50
4.4.2 Result .......................................................................................................... 51

CHAPTER 5: HIGH RESOLUTION SEDIMENTOLOGICAL STUDIES ....................... 54


5.1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 55
5.2 METHODOLOGY..................................................................................................... 56
5.3 SEDIMENT FACIES................................................................................................... 58
5.3.1 Sandy Facies ............................................................................................... 59
5.3.2 Muddy Facies ............................................................................................. 61
5.4 PALAEOHYDROLOGY ............................................................................................. 63
5.5 BIVARIATE PLOTS................................................................................................... 63
5.6 OTHER PLOTS ........................................................................................................ 65
5.7 DISCUSSION ........................................................................................................... 68
5.8 INFERENCES ........................................................................................................... 70

CHAPTER 6: MICROPALEONTOLOGICAL STUDIES ................................................ 71


6.1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 72
6.2 MATERIALS AND METHODS.................................................................................... 73
6.3 RESULTS: FORAMINIFERAL ASSEMBLAGE AND THEIR DESCRIPTION ......................... 73
6.4 DISCUSSION ........................................................................................................... 90
6.5 INFERENCES ........................................................................................................... 93

CHAPTER 7: ENVIRONMENTAL MAGNETISM AND GEOCHEMICAL STUDIES .. 94


7.1 ENVIRONMENTAL MAGNETIC STUDIES ................................................................... 95
7.1.1 Sample and Analysis .................................................................................. 95
7.1.2 Sample Preparation for Magnetic Studies ................................................. 96
7.1.3 Environmental Magnetic Measurement ................................................... 96
7.1.3.1 Calculation of Mass Specific Susceptibility................................................ 98
7.1.3.2 Calculation of Frequency Dependent Susceptibility ................................. 98
7.1.4 Ferrimagnetic Mineral Concentration ...................................................... 99
7.1.5 Results and Discussion ............................................................................... 99
7.2 GEOCHEMICAL STUDIES ....................................................................................... 106
7.2.1 Methodology ............................................................................................ 107
7.2.2 Results and Discussion ............................................................................. 108
7.3 INFERENCES ......................................................................................................... 115

VII
CHAPTER 8: AGGRADATION HISTORY AND DEPOSITIONAL MODEL FOR
UCHEDIYA SURFACE ......................................................................................................... 116
8.1 INTEGRATION OF MULTI-PROXY RECORDS ........................................................... 117
8.2 DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT............................................................................. 122
8.2.1 Channel Deposit ....................................................................................... 122
8.2.2 Channel Margin Deposits ........................................................................ 123
8.2.3 Transitional Deposits ............................................................................... 123
8.2.4 Overbank Deposit .................................................................................... 124
8.2.5 Catastrophic Monsoonal Storm with Coastal Upwelling Deposits ........ 124
8.3 MODEL FOR AGGRADATION HISTORY OF LATE HOLOCENE FLOOD PLAIN ............. 125

REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................... 131

PUBLICATIONS ................................................................................................................... 158

VIII
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1-1: Location map of study area .......................................................................... 4

Figure 1-2: Tectonic map of Cambay basin ................................................................... 5

Figure 1-3: Hydrograph of Narmada River at Garudeshwar Gauge. .......................... 10

Figure 1-4: Flow chart showing methodology adopted in the present study ............ 12

Figure 2-1: Geomorphological map of Lower Reaches of Narmada Valley. .............. 19

Figure 2-2: Geomorphology of the area under study .................................................. 22

Figure 2-3: Cross-section of Narmada channel at Uchediya Sequence. ..................... 23

Figure 2-4: Field photograph showing the contact between gravel and silt in ........ 23

Figure 2-5: Field photograph of Neobank showing sandy and muddy sequence ...... 24

Figure 2-6: Field photograph showing the develepment of QS3 ................................ 26

Figure 2-7: Historic modification of Tavra bar and Kabirvad bar ............................. 26

Figure 2-8: Historic development in QS3 .................................................................... 27

Figure 3-1: Locations of Microtremor stations in the study area. .............................. 31

Figure 3-2: Image showing borehole correlations from the available boreholes . .... 32

Figure 3-3: An example of waveform recorded ........................................................... 33

Figure 3-4: H/V spectral ratio for 31 stations ............................................................. 36

Figure 3-5: Comparison between depths calculated ................................................... 39

Figure 3-6: Cross profiles showing the contact of unconsolidated soft sediment and
consolidated bedrock variations of Quaternary sediments. ......................... 41

Figure 3-7: Late Tertiary–Early Quaternary palaeo-topography of area ................... 42

Figure 4-1: Cross-section of Narmada channel at different segments. ....................... 46

IX
Figure 4-2: (A) Contour map of Sandy sector showing Uchediya surface and
palaeobank surface; (B) Lithologs .................................................................. 47

Figure 4-3: Field photographs showing four trench sequence. .................................. 49

Figure 4-4: Photograph showing sampling technique adopted for OSL .................... 50

Figure 4-5: Sediment log of Uchediaya sequence, visual observations along with OSL
dates. ................................................................................................................ 52

Figure 5-1: Litholog of Uchediya sequence showing different sedimentary subfacies


and their associations ...................................................................................... 58

Figure 5-2: Plot of average sorting against averaged mean grain size of individual
facies clearly shows clustering of two groups. .............................................. 59

Figure 5-3: Pie diagram showing average values of sand, silt and clay percentage
variation in sandy sedimentary subfacies. ..................................................... 60

Figure 5-4: Pie diagram showing average values of sand, silt and clay percentage
variation in muddy sedimentary subfacies .................................................... 62

Figure 5-5: Bivariate plots of 401 samples used for the characterization................... 64

Figure 5-6: Statistical parameters of Uchediya Sediments .......................................... 66

Figure 5-7: Suite analysis of Uchediya sequence after Tenner, (2007). ..................... 67

Figure 6-1: Histogram showing relative percentages of foraminiferal species at


lithounit 2 and lithounit 4. ............................................................................. 91

Figure 6-2: Litholog of Uchediya sequence showing sedimentological characteristics


of foraminifera bearing lithounits. ................................................................. 92

Figure 7-1: Plot of lf against SIRM ............................................................................ 100

Figure 7-2: Depth wise variation of magnetic parameters from the Uchediya ...... 101

Figure 7-3: Depth wise variation of lf values for Uchediya sequence ..................... 102

X
Figure 7-4: Minimum, maximum and average values of different parameters........ 105

Figure 7-5: Plot of ferrimagnetic mineral weight percent verses SIRM .................. 106

Figure 7-6: Depth wise variation of individual major elemental composition along
Uchediya sequence compared with sediment subfacies. ............................ 109

Figure 7-7: Concentration of K2O plotted againest depth......................................... 110

Figure 7-8: Concentration of major elements other than Silica plotted for each
samples........................................................................................................... 111

Figure 7-9: Variation diagram of major oxides with respect to SiO2 ........................ 112

Figure 7-10: Bivariant plot capturing relative variation between major oxides. ..... 113

Figure 7-11: Plots of CaO+Na2O vs Fe2O3+TiO2 ........................................................ 114

Figure 8-1: Bivarient plot of Mean grain Size verses Ferrimagnetic mineral weight
percentage ..................................................................................................... 118

Figure 8-2: Bivarient plots of Mean grains size verses χlf .......................................... 119

Figure 8-3: Bivarient plot of Ferrimannetic mineral concentration and SIRM....... 120

Figure 8-4: Bivarient plots of χlf vs Fe2O3 + TiO2 ...................................................... 121

Figure 8-5: Bivarient plots of χlf vs CaO + Na2O ..................................................... 121

Figure 8-6: Stabilisation of channel bar preserves CMS_CU deposit within CD. ... 127

Figure 8-7: Northward shifting of thalweg line and aggradation of bar. CMD & TrD
accreated along River bank. ......................................................................... 128

Figure 8-8: Aggradetion of OBD, stabilisation of Uchediya through periodic


flooding. ......................................................................................................... 128

Figure 8-9: Major flood events and their multi-proxy records from Over Bank
Deposit ........................................................................................................... 129

XI
LIST OF TABLES

Table 1-1: Description of Narmada River in historic documents. ................................ 6

Table 1-2: Narmada flood record .................................................................................... 9

Table 1-3: Flood record of peninsular Rivers other than Narmada and their synoptic
condition ........................................................................................................... 9

Table 3-1: Calculated thickness of unconsolidated sediments over Tertiary bedrock


using equations of Ibs-von Seht and Wohlenberg (1999), Parolai et al.
(2002) and Dinesh et al. (2010). ..................................................................... 37

Table 3-2: Relative variation of the thickness of Quaternary sediment cover at 31


locations which is further used for the elevation models............................. 40

Table 4-1: Characteristics of Narmada channel in its different segments................. 46

Table 5-1: Equations and terminologies used for the statistical analysis. .................. 57

Table 6-1: Depth wise frequency distribution of Microfossil assemblage ................. 74

Table 7-1: Parameters, units and descriptions used for the environmental magnetic
studies .............................................................................................................. 97

Table 7-2: The mineral magnetic properties for Late Holocene flood plain sediment
along depth profile. ....................................................................................... 100

Table 7-3: Average magnetic parameters of each lithounit ...................................... 104

Table 7-4: Major elemental geochemistry of samples ............................................... 108

Table 7-5: Correlation coefficient of major elemental concentration ...................... 108

XII
LIST OF PLATES

Palte 6-1: Quinquloculina seminulum , Fissurina cf indica, Gallitellia vivans,


Globigerina bulloides, Bolivina pusilla and Cassidulina cf laevigata ........... 80

Palte 6-2: Bulimina marginata, Murayinella murrayi, Elphidium simplex and


Nonionoides auris. ......................................................................................... 85

Palte 6-3: Nonionoides gratiloupi, Ammonia tepida, Elphedium cf excavatum and


Elphedium species. ......................................................................................... 89

XIII
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Rationale and Background

Flood plain sediment preserves both internally generated autogenic forcing


(sediment characteristics and hydrology) as well as externally generated allogenic
forcing (changes in base level change, subsidence and uplift, climate and source
area) (Wonsuk, 2011). Fluvial autogenic processes and their interactions with
allogenic controls are quantified by carrying out high resolution, multi-proxy
studies of the cyclic strata. The reviews from Loire (France), Mississippi (USA),
Colorado (Texas, USA) and Rhine–Meuse (The Netherlands) by Blum and
Tornqvist (2000); from Northern Tunisia by Faust et al. (2004) and from Great
Britain by Lewin et al. (2005); from Yamé River, West Africa by Lespez et al.
(2011); from Ganga plain (India) by Sharma et al. (2004), Sinha and Sarkar (2009)
highlights significance of such studies by documenting fluvial responses to
allogenic forcing over both shorter (102−103 years) and longer (104−106 years) time-
scales.

The present study is carried out in subtropics, western margin of Indian


subcontinent in the lower reaches of a significant River Narmada, which flows
from East to West for 1289 km, across the Indian Peninsula, under the influence of
Southwest Indian Monsoon (SwIM). The distribution of rainfall over Indian
subcontinent is a seasonal event (June-July-August-September) controlled by
monsoonal tracks. As a result, the regions off the tracks are left dry and regions
along the track receive excess rainfall and surface runoff events. In such
conditions, the geomorphic changes are regulated by more hygric than the
thermal component of the climate, whereby geomorphic-sedimentological proxy
data therefore provide an opportunity to complement the highly temperature-
orientated approach in research of Quaternary climate change (Johnsen et al.,
1992; Bond et al., 1997; Cacho et al., 2000; Faust et al., 2004). Globally, the Late
Holocene climate history records two important climatic events namely 1.

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Medieval Warm Period (MWP) between ca. 800 to 1300 A.D and 2. Little Ice Age
(LIA) between ca.1350 and 1850 A.D (Grove and Switsur, 1994; Hughes and Diaz,
1994; Crowley, 2000; Crowley and Lowery, 2000; Cronin et al., 2003; Yamada et
al., 2010). The present study aimed at understanding change in landforms in
response to the SwIM phase under influence of Late Holocene climate events.

The Lower reaches of Narmada Valley (LrNV) is influenced largely by two


monsoonal storm tracks namely, the regular SwIM path, where moisture is carried
from Bay of Bengal across Narmada and Tapti basins (from SE to NE and East –
West) and Moisture derived through Arabian Sea (N-S and NNE-SSW) at the onset
and during the monsoon period. The bank full condition for the river is achieved
with torrential rains for 5-7 rainy days. Late Holocene flood plain is submerged
with rise in water level to 10 m whereas bank full and flood condition in river
Narmada is reached by rise in water to 21 m. Theoretically, a small denudational
change in a landform during the surface run off events that regulate a thalweg
line, which further in due course of time lead to change in morphology of the
channel itself. To understand such dynamical changes, the present study attempts
a high resolution, multi-proxy studies of a prominent late Holocene flood plain.

1.2 Defining Study area

The study area falls within latitude 21° 36' 55.67" N to 21° 54' 19.48" N
and longitude 72° 55' 49.88" E to 73° 15' 40.20" E covering an overall 540 Sq. km
of area, falling in Survey of India topographic sheets (1972) at 1:50,000 scale
numbers: 46C/14, 46G/1 and 46G/2 (Figure 1-). The study focused on a neobank
surface referred to as ―Uchediya surface‖. River Amravati, River Kaveri and River
Madhumati are the three important tributaries of the river Narmada flowing from
South. These tributaries are having catchment over the Deccan basalt and Tertiary
sedimentaries in the South and South East portion. The study area is well
habituated, having number of villages connected by roads. Important villages

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Chapter 1: Introduction

/towns along the southern bank of Narmada are Jhagadiya and Ankleshwar; on the
northern bank are Motikoral, Jhenor, Suklatirth, Tavara and Hinglot with Bharuch
as major town.

Figure 1-: Location map of study area

The town Bharuch has a historical importance. Its name was derived from
“Bhrigukachchha”, after Bhrigu Rishi. By 500 BC, the city was known to the Arab
and Ethiopian traders. It was a link port for luxury goods trade from the Far East
and the interior of the Indian sub-continent to the South-West Asia, the Middle-
East, the Mediterranean basin including Northern Africa and Europe.
Archaeological history of Bharuch says that there were ruins of many ancient
temples. From 322 BC, Bharuch was a part of the Mauryan Empire, the Western
Satraps and the Guptas. Afterwards, it was annexed by the Mughals, and finally by
the British.

1.3 Regional Structure and Tectonics

The oldest structural trends in the exposed rocks from lower reaches of
Narmada are NW-SE trend belonging to F1 folding and axial plane schistosity
belonging to Aravalli – BGC orogeny. The E-W to ENE-WSW trending, F2 folding

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Chapter 1: Introduction

marks Aravalli- Champaner deformation in the north of Narmada. ENE-WSW


trend south of Narmada is an extension of the structural grain belonging to Satpura
orogeny extending from Central India. ENE-WSW trend is found to have
superimposed over the Deccan basalt flows along Rajpipla Hill range and are also
recorded along the trends of intrusive (feeder dykes). These trends define
Narmada Rift Zone (ENE-WSW) and Cambay Rift Zone (N-S). The intersection of
these trends in the lower reaches of Narmada valley define Jambusar –Bharuch
block (Figure 1-2), the
deepest block of Cambay
Basin (Raju, 1968) .

Kaila et al. (1981) identified


a reverse basin margin fault
at Ankleshwar through
Deep Seismic Sounding
method along Mehmadabad
-Billimora profile, about 8
km south of present
Narmada. This Ankleshwar
fault is observed to merge
with Rajpipla escarpment
further east (RF2, Sant and
Karanth, 1993). The Lower
reach of Narmada valley
features numerous
ENE- Figure 1-: Tectonic map of Cambay basin (1) Narmada
Block, (2) Jambusar- Bharuch Block, (3) Cambay-
WSW and NW-SE trending
Tarapur Block, (4) Ahmedabad- Mehsana Block.
Post Trappean faults
bringing Bagh bed in juxtaposition with Deccan basalt. Late Tertiary-early
Quaternary deformations are best preserved within the Tertiary sediments

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Chapter 1: Introduction

exposed to the south of Narmada. Agarwal (1984) mapped several anticline


structures and faults, deforming Tertiary sediments, exposed between Rajpardi-
Jhagadiya-Ankleshwar track.

1.4 Historical and Modern Records of Hydrology of Lower Narmada

1.4.1 Historical Records


Available historical records of hydrology and meteorology of River
Narmada in lower reaches is spanning from 1000 to 1900 AD. These records are in
the form of historical documents, describing this period, which have encrypted
the behaviour of Narmada channel. This very section (Table 1-) summarises such
available notes and records in historic literature and scientific reports. The data
presented here is only summarising the descriptions which are available only in
English language or a translation or reference of regional literature in English
literature.

Table 1-: Description of Narmada River in historic documents.


Period Description
The archaeological structure, Fort Wall built on the right bank of
Narmada to prevent the city from erosion was built by Sidh Raj
1094-1143
Jaisinhji of Anhilwara during 1094-1143 (Bombay presidency
gazetteer 1877-1905, page 551).

Bahadur Shah strengthened and rebuilt the Fort wall. This is also
1526-1536 noted that the large ships were reaching up to the city wall during the
period (Bombay presidency gazetteer 1877-1905, page 55).

-Two hundred years ago when Fryer (1673-1681) crossed the river at
Broach, he found the stream broad, swift and deep, but adds that , on
1673-1681 account of the sand forced down to the rain skilful pilots are required
, by whose direction good lusty vessels are brought up to the city
walls (Bombay presidency gazetteer 1877-1905).

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Chapter 1: Introduction

A storm passed over the district of Bharuch, of which Mr. Forbs has
left an account in the Oriental memories- Forbs Oriental Memories,
vol-111, 53. ―Two years before I left India, some weeks before the
1781 setting into the south-west monsoon (May), we had the most deadly
storm ever remembered in Gujarat. It ravage by sea and land were
terrible, the damage at Broch was very great, and the loss of life
considerable‖
1822 Large flood (Kale et al., 1997).
-Bishop Herber (1825) visited Broch, he noticed that the Narmada
was very shallow and that then no vessel larger than moderately sized
1825
lighters could come beyond the bar. (Bombay presidency gazetteer
1877-1905).

Dangerous flood, it says an 866 hour of flood have submerged the


1834 Broach city in its water- Secretariat Judicial volume, issue 340 of
1850.

Cold environment (Gazetteer of India, Gujarat State (Broch dist.),


1835
1961, page 303).

Heavy rain (Gazetteer of India, Gujarat State, Broch dist., 1961, page
1836
303).

-Great flood-1937, when the water of Narbada and Tapi are said to be
have joined. No damage would seem to have been caused either to the
1837 district or the city of Broch it has not done much damage to the
Broach city (Bombay presidency gazetteer, Gujarat Surat and Broch,
1877, page 410).

Failure of Rain (Gazetteer of India, Gujarat State, Broch dist., 1961, p.


1838
303).

Failure of Rain (Gazetteer of India, Gujarat State, Broch dist., 1961, p.


1840
303).

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Chapter 1: Introduction

19th century story of Narmada was much devastating.


-At the time when the original bridge was built the heavy current of
the stream lays on the right bank. Since then the main channel of the
1860
river has so entirely shifted towards the left bank (Bombay
Presidency Gazetteer of year 1877-1905 is about the built of Golden
bridge; from page 419 and 420).

- a flood rising within 21 feet rail level carried away six spans in the
1864 deep water channel (Bombay Presidency Gazetteer of year 1877-1905
is about the built of Golden bridge; from page 419and 420).

-August flood rising to 18 feet of rail level carried away four spans
1868 (Bombay Presidency Gazetteer of year 1877-1905 is about the built of
Golden bridge; from page 419and 420).

-during seven years the southern bank was gradually washed away,
and driven back upward of 1000 feet. (Bombay Presidency Gazetteer
1870-1877
of year 1877-1905 is about the built of Golden bridge; from page
419and 420).

1878 Large flood (Kale et al., 1997).

1891 Large flood (Kale et al., 1997).

1894 Large flood (Kale et al., 1997).

-the water rising suddenly to the unprecedented height of 35 feet


above high water mark or within 13‘6‖ of rail level, washed away
1897 twenty six spans or upwards of 1600 feet of the southern portion of
the bridge. (Bombay Presidency Gazetteer of year 1877-1905 is about
the built of Golden bridge; from page 419 and 420).

1.4.2 Modern Records


Modern record of hydrology of Narmada spans from 1900-2002. Major
flood events recorded during this period are summarised in the Table 1-2 and

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Table 1-3 (Kale et al., 1997). Table 1- summarises the major flood events of
Narmada and Table 1- summarises flood records of peninsular rivers other than
Narmada and their synoptic conditions.

Table 1-: Narmada flood record (after Kale et al., 1997)


Flood date Discharge (m3/s) Synoptic condition
1926, September 23 - Cyclonic storm
1937, July 13, 26 - Depression
1954, September 24 30000 Cyclonic storm
1959, September 15 43200 Depression
1961, September 17 47700 Depression
1964, August 13 22900 Depression
1968, August 6 58000 Depression
1970, September 6 59000 Land depression
1973, August 30 57801 Depression
1984, August 20 49500 Depression
Table 1-: Flood record of peninsular Rivers other than Narmada and their synoptic
condition (after Kale et al., 1997)
River Flood Date Discharge (m3/s) Synoptic Condition
Kaveri 1923, July 9 Low pressure system
Kaveri 1923, Dec - -
Kaveri 1924, July 25 13000 -
Kaveri 1925, Nov 9 - Cyclone
Kaveri 1930, October 23 - Cyclonic storm
Gadilam 1933, Dec. 16 - Storm
Godavari 1937, July 30 24825 Cyclone
Tapi 1937, July 13,26 21500, 13600 Land depression
Tapi 1941, July 1, 11 - Depression
Tapi 1942, Aug. 6 - Depression
Tapi 1944, Aug. 24 25500 Depression
Krishna 1949, Sept. 24 - Depression
Godavari 1953, Aug. 11 25900 Depression
Godavari 1958, Aug. 30 64000 Depression
Godavari 1959, Sept. 17 78686 Depression
Tapi 1959, Sept. 17 37300 Depression
Krishna 1961, July -- -
Krishna 1964, Sept. 28 - Depression
Tapi 1968, Aug. 6 42500 Depression
Kaveri 1972, Dec. 5 - Cyclonic storm
Godavari 1976, Sept. 23 55000 -

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Chapter 1: Introduction

River Flood Date Discharge (m3/s) Synoptic Condition


Kaveri 1977, Nov. 12 - Cyclone
Godavari 1983, Aug. 15 41120 Cyclonic storm
Godavari 1990, Aug. 25 63200 Depression
Tapi 1991, July 31 14722 Depression
Tapi 1994, Aug 6 16697 -

Figure 1-: Hydrograph of Narmada River at Garudeshwar Gauge from 1948-2002.

Comparing these large flood records with other peninsular rivers shows
that in terms of large floods, Narmada stands the second position with a peak
discharge of 59000 m3/s. Figure 1- summarise the hydrograph of River Narmada

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Chapter 1: Introduction

during 1948-2002. The daily discharge recorded at Garudeshwar for the last 54
years (1948 to 2002) are plotted here for pre-monsoon (March, April May);
Monsoon (June, July, August and September) and post-monsoon (October,
November, December, January and February) periods separately. The plot suggests
wide variation in discharge, above significance (σ1) for pre-monsoon, monsoon
and post-monsoon.

1.5 Scope and Objectives

The present study aims to understand denudational processes in the lower


reaches of the River Narmada. The study is an attempt to identify sites showing
geomorphological changes and establish interrelationship between landforms and
channel dynamics through series of analysis and field observations. High
resolution multi-proxy records generated from representative site for Uchediya
surface will be used to decode landform aggradation, flood events and thereby
changes in the channel morphology. The study will further compare the available
historical database and analytical results to understand climate and
anthropological influence. Broad objectives of the present study can be listed as:

1. To study the morphology of the present Narmada channel, influence of


tributaries on the main channel and process intricacies.

2. The study intends to understand channel migration, meandering


course, avulsion, and mechanism of Bank erosion-deposition processes.

3. The study aims to reconstruct the depositional history of landforms by


high resolution multi-proxy analysis of sediments.

4. The high resolution, multi-proxy studies on the landforms would


ultimately aims to infer flood history in lower reaches of Narmada
Valley.

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Chapter 1: Introduction

1.5.1 Methodology

To attain the objectives, a high resolution multi-proxy approach would be


adopted for the present study. It will include mapping of landforms, shallow
seismic profiling of the area to understand the roots of the landform, high
resolution sampling of representative site for Uchediya surface followed by
sedimentological, magnetic, micropaleontological and geochemical analysis. A
flow chart given below describes the various stages of the study (Figure 1-).

Figure 1-: Flow chart showing methodology adopted in the present study

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Chapter 1: Introduction

1.5.2 Earlier Approaches and Results

The lower reaches of Narmada Valley became an area of interest for


different researchers since the 19th century. The drainage basin of tributaries that
flows into Narmada in the lower reaches exposes Precambrian metasedimentaries
and granites, Cretaceous Bagh and Lamata beds, Deccan basalts and intrusive,
Tertiary and Quaternary sediments in their catchment as well as along different
sectors.

A detailed description of Champaners and associated Precambrian rocks


have come out from the works of Blanford (1869), Fermor (1909), Hobson (1926),
Rao (1931); Gupta and Mukherjee (1938); Rasul (1965); Gopinath and
Krishnamurthy (1968); Jambusaria (1970); Gopalan et al. (1979); Mamtani and
Karanth (1997). Bagh and Lamata beds of Cretaceous age have first mapped and
decoded stratigraphy based on sedimentology and palaeontological evidence by
Blanford (1869) and later by Bose (1884), Vredenburg (1907), Sahni (1936),
Chiplonkar et al. (1977a), Chiplonkar et al. (1977b), Singh and Srivastava (1981),
Biswas and Deshpande (1983), Karanth et al. (1988a), Ahmad and Akhtar (1990)
and Akhtar and Ahmad (1991).

The Deccan basalt and associated rocks cover vast area in the lower
Narmada valley. Blanford (1869) was the first to study the basalt flows and
associated rocks. A major contributions on the Deccan basalt and associated rocks
come from Sukheswala and Avasia (1971), Pal and Bhimasankaran (1971),
Sukheswala et al. (1972), Ghose (1976), Krishnamurthy and Cox (1977),
Sukheswala (1981), Ramanathan (1981), Mahoney (1988), Sant and Karanth
(1990) and Simonetti et al. (1995).

Tertiary rocks are exposed in the South of River Narmada were studied by
Carter (1854: cited by Agrawal, 1984), Theobald (1860), Wynne (1862-63: cited by
Agrawal, 1984), Blanford (1869), Prasad and Ray (1963) Kathiara and Bhatt (1968)
and Singh (1972). A significant understanding of sedimentology, stratigraphy and
structure was further given by Prasad and Ray (1963), Gadekar (1975), Gadekar

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Chapter 1: Introduction

(1976), Gadekar (1978), Gadekar (1980a), Gadekar (1980b) followed by Agarwal


(1984) and Agarwal (1986).

Most of the records on the stratigraphy of Tertiary rocks in lower reaches


of Narmada was brought out by Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) through
various publications like Raju (1968), Chandra and Chowdhary (1969), Guha and
Pandey (1972), Sudhakar and Basu (1973) and Banerjee and Rao (1993).

A systematic scenario of Quaternary geology and Geomorphology of Lower


reaches of Narmada valley comes from the works spanning from 1869 to present.
Blanford (1869) was the first one who studied the Quaternary deposits of Gujarat
and reported the alluvial deposits of Narmada and Tapti Rivers.

Wainwright (1964) gave a detailed account of the Pleistocene sea level


changes and its effects on the lower reaches of Narmada. Allchin and Hegde
(1969), during the preliminary investigation of the Narmada valley had noticed
the terrace characters of the Lower reaches of Narmada valley. They identified
three terraces in the field, in which terrace II, they described is the most
prominent terrace. According to them- ―Terrace II is the most obvious, and is the
feature which first drew our attention to the terrace system. It takes the form of a
cliff cut into the silts of the plain, which can be traced along both banks of the
river from the coast upstream to Chandod.‖

Allchin et al. (1978) had identified major terraces of Narmada, Mahi and
Sabarmati rivers and inferred different phases of aggradation and incision. Gadekar
et al. (1981) studied the channel migration and geomorphic evolution of the Lower
Narmada valley using satellite imageries. They identified different geomorphologic
features like oxbow lakes, point bars and bar islands and suggested at least four
stages of geomorphic changes during the Northerly shifting of River Narmada.
According to them it was a flood dominated channel shifting or a Neotectonic
activity which was responsible for those changes.

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Bedi and Vaidyanadhan (1982) mapped detail morphology of lower reaches


of Narmada valley using Landsat imageries. According to them, the landforms
evolved since late Quaternary period. They further highlighted the role of
palaeohydrological and neotectonic activities responsible for the morphological
changes in the basin. Murthy and Pofali (1984) had worked out a detailed
geomorphological features of the entire Gujarat region using satellite imageries.
They had identified five main geomorphological units along with the subunits.
The major units were Hill, Table Land, Ridge and Dome, Pediment, Plain and
Marine landscape.

Patel et al. (1984) had studied the Geomorphological features along the
Mahi-Tapi coastal segment of Gujarat coast and derived a four stage sea level
change in the Quaternary age: A marine Transgression in the Early to Upper
Pleistocene age, Regression in the late Upper Pleistocene age, Transgression in
early Holocene and a Regression in the recent time. Karanth et al. (1988b) had
studied the morphometric analysis of selected streams in the lower reaches of
Narmada valley and indicated that the river channels are controlled mainly by
lithology and structure, and also inferred that the lithological configuration and
structural features are in response to the Late Cretaceous and the Late Tertiary
tectonic disturbances.

Sundaram et al. (1991) had concentrated mainly on the neo-tectonic


activity and Quaternary landforms in the Bharuch area using Landsat imageries
and field mapping. They identified five major geomorphological features in the
Bharuch area and spatial distribution of these landforms controlled by five linears.
They also suggested that the differential movement along these linears due to neo-
tectonic activity is responsible for the geomorphologic framework of the area.

Chamyal and Merh (1992) worked out detailed Quaternary stratigraphy for
the Narmada, Mahi and Sabarmati river basins of Gujarat. They divided the
Quaternary deposit of Lower Narmada valley into three units namely Tilakwada
Formation, Ambali Formation and Broach Formation. Merh and Chamyal (1993)

Page | 15
Chapter 1: Introduction

had studied the Quaternary sediments of Gujarat and divided it into three main
divisions‘ viz., Marine sediments, Fluvial sediments and Aeolian sediments. They
also inferred that the interplay of palaeo-climate and Glacio-eustatic factors were
the prime reason for the Late Quaternary landscape of the Gujarat. Sant and
Karanth (1993) derived the drainage evolution of lower Narmada Valley since
Palaeocene, distinguishing role of regional faults and change in drainage systems.

Chamyal et al. (1994) studied the significance of gravel sequences in


Tilakwada and indicated that these sediments are deposited in a tectonically
controlled environment of a graben fill.

Maurya et al. (1995) studied the tectonic evolution of the Gujarat alluvial
plain and inferred that the Late Quaternary tectonic events were responsible for
the current landscape of central Gujarat. Chamyal et al. (1997) and Bhandari et al.
(2001) had studied the Narmada alluvial fan near the Tilakwada area. The exposed
sedimentary sequences at six locations were divided into five lithofacies. Detailed
analysis of the section further inferred that the alluvial fan architecture is
dominated by debris flow deposits indicative of a semi-arid condition. They have
also inferred that the deposition of alluvial fan event was a major activity
responsible to the reactivation of pre-existing lineaments. Chamyal et al. (2002)
used geomorphic data combined with stratigraphic records to infer the Late
Quaternary geomorphic evolution of the Lower Narmada valley and gave
emphasis to the neotectonic activity of Narmada-Son fault. Raj et al. (2003) studied
the Karjan River basin, a tributary of Narmada and the major structural features
and drainage network analysis of the basin reveals an active tectonic history of this
part of the Narmada basin.

Gupta and Chakrapani (2005; 2007) had made an attempt for the first time
to study the spatial and temporal variations in water discharge and sediment load
of the Narmada River basin, tributaries and also the probable causes of variation.
Their analysis showed that 60-80% of the sediment load carried by the river is
trapped in Sardar Sarovar Dam. They further pointed that the water flow in the

Page | 16
Chapter 1: Introduction

River Narmada is influenced by rainfall, catchment area, ground water input


whereas geology/soil characteristics of the catchment and presence of
dams/reservoirs plays a major role in the sediment load.

Bhandari et al. (2005) had studied the Late Pleistocene sedimentation


history of the alluvial plain sediments of lower Narmada valley and classified the
exposed sediment sequence into two as alluvial fan deposits overlaid by alluvial
plain sediments. According to the authors, it was the first study on the alluvial
plain sediments of the lower reaches of Narmada valley and indicated that the
alluvial plain sediments are characterised by overbank sediments and large scale
sandy bed forms. Their study indicated that the Narmada channel has retained a
large catchment since 100ka.

Raj (2007) had carried out a detailed analysis of landforms, drainages and
geology of the area between the rivers Amaravati and Karjan in order to
understand the tectonic history of the lower Narmada basin. Based on the drainage
offsetting and tectonic landforms, the study inferred that the area is undergoing an
active deformation that is driven by Narmada Son Fault.

Raj (2008) had reported an occurrence of volcanic ash at Quaternary


alluvial succession of the Madhumati River, a tributary of the lower Narmada
River. The geochemical analysis of the ash correlated well with the youngest Toba
Tuff.

Raj and Yadava (2009) had studied the Late Holocene surface near the
Karjan River basin, a tributary of Narmada. According to them, occurrence of
organic rich clay (dating back to 1900-1200 Years BP) in an elevated terrace
having 2-4 meter heights is indication of the latest phase of uplift in this region.
Sridhar and Chamyal (2010) demonstrated the sediment accumulation in the
Lower Narmada river basin as an effect of hydrological changes caused by climate
and tectonic activities.

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CHAPTER 2: GEOMORPHOLOGY
Chapter 2: Geomorphology

2.1 Regional Geomorphology

The Lower Reaches of Narmada Valley (LrNV) (downstream of Kevadia


Dam) forms a small window within Lower Narmada Valley. The LrNV comprises
similar geomorphic units those broadly categorized for the whole of lower
Narmada Valley. Geomorphologically, the LrNV is grouped into three geomorphic
units: the Higher Erosional Surfaces, the Lower Erosional Surfaces and the Alluvial
Plain surfaces (Figure 2-). Each of these surfaces exhibit different characteristics in
terms of altitude, erosional pattern and geology.

Figure 2-: Geomorphological map of Lower Reaches of Narmada Valley.

2.1.1 Higher Erosional Surfaces


The higher erosional surfaces range in elevation from 400 m to 840 m a.s.l.
Geographically it occurs in two distinct areas viz. North and South of the present
Narmada channel and is referred to as Northern Higher erosional Surface (NHeS)
and Southern Higher erosional Surface (SHeS) respectively. NHeS is developed
mainly over Precambrian metasedimentary rocks and granites. It forms the
southern extension of Aravalli mountain range. The overall landscape of the NHeS

Page | 19
Chapter 2: Geomorphology

shows degraded domal hills that are devoid of regolith. The tributaries drains over
this surface follow structural trends of large fold or limb of anticlinorium/
synclinorium and shows differential erosion in its way. The NHeS forms
catchment for major northern tributary of the Narmada is the Orsang that is
having a drainage area of 4079 sq. km.

The SHeS are well exposed in the South of the present Narmada channel,
represents surface above 400 m. The SHeS attains maximum height of about 840 m
along Rajpipla hills. The SHeS forms an extension of Satpura Hill Range in Gujarat.
The SHeS features a number of basalt flows and associated intrusive. The SHeS
has, on an average, about 1 m to 2 m thick regolith capping the hill top. The lower
order and higher order stream within the SHeS flow through steep and deep
valleys. The River Karjan (1489 sq. km drainage area), a tributary of Narmada has
catchment over the SHeS. The SHeS is bounded by Rajpipla escarpment that
extends from Kevadia dam in the west to Rajpardi in the east. The escarpment is
defined as a regional fault (RF2: Sant and Karanth 1993) and has been further
understood to have played a significant role in defining Cambay basin blocks
(southern Ankleshwar block and northern Jambusar-Bharuch block). Kaila (1981)
further identified extension of these regional fault (RF2) into subsurface displacing
Mohorovicic.

2.1.2 Lower Erosional Surfaces


Lower erosional surfaces are developed in forefront of high erosional
surface and thus occur in both north and south of Narmada channel. The lower
erosional surfaces are 50 m to 300 m in elevation. The Northern Lower Erosional
Surface (NLeS) has developed over Deccan basalt and discontinuous patches of
Bagh Beds, sandstone, limestone and shale. Precambrian granites and quartzite
hills occur as regional high. The contact between Precambrians and Bagh beds
show angular unconformity whereas the contact between Bagh beds and Deccan

Page | 20
Chapter 2: Geomorphology

basalt is faulted (Sant and Karanth, 1988). The NLeS is drained by the Rivers
Orsang, Aswan, Men and Suki. These Rivers have, at places, incised deep through
the Bagh Beds and Deccan basalt like Gorge at Suki River near Kevadia.

The Southern Lower Erosional Surface (SLeS) is well developed on the


western margin of the study area over Deccan basalt and Tertiary sediments
whereas SLeS forms a narrow strip between Narmada channel and SHeS
escarpment over alluvial fans (Sant and Karanth, 1993; Chamyal et al., 1994;
Chamyal et al., 1997; Bhandari et al., 2001; Bhandari, 2004a). The Tertiary
sediments are deformed resulting into several domes (Agarwal, 1984) which
standout as regional high like Babaguru hill. The major tributaries drain the west
of SLeS are Madhumati, Kaveri, Amravati, Karjan and Nandi Khadi.

2.1.3 Alluvial Plains


Alluvial plains are developed on the west and the north of the NLeS and
the SLeS. The River Narmada flows along the southern margin of this vast alluvial
plain. The River Narmada has incised about 30 m exposing various sediment facies
belonging to Quaternary period. Quaternary sediments overlie directly over the
Precambrian rocks, Bagh beds, Deccan basalt and Tertiary sediments. The
variability in sediment facies suggests the role of different processes during
Quaternary period.

2.2 Geomorphology of the Study Area

The Quaternary landscape of the study area can be distinctly divided into
three geomorphic surfaces, based on the denudational pattern, elevation and linear
to curvilinear erosional boundary. These three surfaces are: Quaternary Surface 1
(QS1) Quaternary Surface 2 (QS2) and Quaternary Surface 3 (QS3) (Figure 2-).

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Chapter 2: Geomorphology

Figure 2-: Geomorphology of the area under study

2.2.1 Quaternary Surface 1

QS1 forms a widely developed regional surface with flat to rolling ground.
QS1 lies between 22 m to 46 m a.s.l. The widely developed QS1 is a result of
coalescing sediment brought by various rivers from the east and the south. QS1 is
bounded by NLeS in the east and SLeS developed over Tertiary sedimentaries in
the south. QS1 hosts the flood plain of River Narmada. River Narmada has incised
within QS1 by about 30 meters. When compared to wide northern QS1, the QS1
developed in the south, between the Tertiary SLeS and the Narmada channel
follows a narrow linear landform. QS1 in the southern part comprises of gravelly-
sandy facies overlaid by muddy facies that together overlying the sediments of
Tertiary age (Figure 2- and Figure 2-). The margin of QS1 is identified as
‗Palaeobank‘ along both northern and southern bank of River Narmada.

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Chapter 2: Geomorphology

Figure 2-: Cross-section of Narmada channel at Uchediya Sequence. A: Lower reaches


of Narmada valley, B: 3D surface of the study area, C: Cross section across Narmada.

Figure 2-: Field photograph showing the contact between gravel and silt in QS1

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Chapter 2: Geomorphology

Along the northern bank of the River Narmada, palaeobank is well


exposed, which follows a curvilinear pattern whereas along the southern bank, the
most prominent landform extending as a linear track running for 65 km is formed.
The palaeobank appears from Rajpardi town, extends towards Ankleshwar and
further west, where it merges with estuary zone. The palaeobank marks lateral
heterogeneity exposing Tertiary rocks closer to Jhagadiya followed by sequence
with gravels at base overlaid by silt. The palaeobanks trends parallel to Cambay
basin marginal fault (RF2, Sant and Karanth, 1993) and several ENE-WSW
trending Plio-Pleistocene anticlines further south (Agrawal, 1984).

2.2.2 Quaternary Surface 2

QS2 represents flood plain of River Narmada. QS2 is bound by palaeobank


along both the northern and the southern bank of the River Narmada. QS2 are
relatively stable but are seasonally active during floods. The elevation of QS2 varies
from 8m to 18m a.s.l. Several tributaries of the River Narmada incised in the SLeS
as well as QS1 get defunct after they flow into QS2, crossing over the palaeobank.
The present Narmada flows on an average 8 m below the QS2 surface,
distinguishing a ‗Neobank‘ (Figure 2-).

Figure 2-: Field photograph of Neobank showing sandy and muddy sequence

Page | 24
Chapter 2: Geomorphology

The neobank developed adjacent to the present Narmada channel, along


both the northern and the southern bank extends for about 45 to 50 km. The QS2
to the north of the present Narmada channel hashave developed in three
discontinuous patches namely, Motikoral Surface, Shuklatirth Surface and Bhukhi
Surface whereas to the south of Narmada QS2 has developed along two patches
namely Uchediya Surface and Parvata Surface. The Uchediya surface forms a
linear, continues and single landform extending for about 35 km aerial distance
with varying width from 0.5 to 6.0 km.

The present study is focused on investigating a very significant landform


developed along the southern bank of the present Narmada River referred to as
Uchediya Surface. Smith et al. (2009), while studying the Peace River of Canada
argued that the geometry of the various Holocene surfaces are the consequence of
accretion and growth of point bars gradually with increase in amplitude of a
meander as well as simultaneous acretion along Counter point bars. However, the
parallel nature of QS1 and QS2 along the southern bank of Narmada show intricate
relationship of landform aggradation.

2.2.3 Quaternary Surface 3


QS3 comprises of active landforms within the channel bounded by
neobanks. The elevation of this landform varies from 2 m to 6 m a.s.l. In the
present study area, QS3 are developed with discontinuity within the channel as
bars (Figure 2-).

The Narmada channel, in the present study area, exposes two significant
channel bars namely Kabirvad bar and Tavara bar developed upstream and
downstream of the village Uchediya respectively. Mapping of bars was carried out
from topographic sheet on 1: 50,000 scales published in 1972 and Satellite image
frame of 2009 incorporated in Google earth. The field observations were
supplemented for updated interpretations. Topographic sheet of 1972 shows, flow
of river water from both the side of the Tavara and Kabirvad bars (Figure 2-)

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Chapter 2: Geomorphology

whereas the recent observation in field as well 2009 satellite image frame shows
river flows along a single channel (southern in case of Tavara bar and northern in
case of Kabirvad bar).

Figure 2-: Field photograph showing the develepment of QS3 at downstream of


Uchediya surface.

Figure 2-: Historic modification of Tavra bar and Kabirvad bar between 1972 and 2009

The second channel that once existed is almost blocked by sediment. This
has caused major changes in the thalweg line, initiated erosion along the northern
bank between the Golden Bridge and the National Highway no. 8 Bridge, erosion
along southern bank, near Barbhata village, located opposite to Bharuch city. The
1972 record shows aggradation along the southern bank near Barbhata village. The

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Chapter 2: Geomorphology

shift in thalweg line has further initiated development of lateral point bar in
downstream of Golden Bridge (Figure 2-).

Figure 2-: Historic development in QS3 near Bharuch during 1972 to 2009

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CHAPTER 3: MICRO-SEISMIC STUDIES
Chapter 3: Micro-Seismic Studies

3.1 Seismic Studies: A Theoretical Background

The term microtremor summarises all ground vibrations excluding event of


short duration vibrations caused by earthquakes or explosions (Steinwachs, 1974).
Microtremor studies were originated in Japan and have gained broad recognition in
the study of site effect in earthquake ground motion (Kanai, 1957; Kanai and Tanaka,
1961; Nakamura, 1989; Seo, 1992; Lermo and Chavez-Garcia, 1993; Morales et al.,
1993; Lermo and Chavez-Garcia, 1994; Arai and Tokimatsu, 2005). In recent years,
microtremors have also been used in investigating shallow subsurface structure of a
basin (Parolai et al.; Field et al., 1990; Field and Jacob, 1993; Ibs-von Seht and
Wohlenberg, 1999; Al Yuncha and Luzon, 2000; Parolai et al., 2002; Zhao et al.,
2007).

The frequency of seismic noise shows both temporal and regional variations
depending on the influence of source and site. In case of thick unconsolidated
sediment overlying the bedrock, the seismic waves give high mechanical contrast,
where the upper unconsolidated sediment amplifies the seismic motion. The
frequency of resonating waves in the unconsolidated upper layer is related to the
velocity as well as the thickness of the sediment. Such site amplification can be
estimated using an ambient noise method introduced by Kanai (1957). Several studies
have shown that ambient seismic noise records reveal the fundamental resonant
frequency of surface sediments (Ohta et al., 1978; Celebi et al., 1987; Lermo et al.,
1988; Field et al., 1990; Hough et al., 1991; Konno and Ohmachi, 1998). To infer the
site amplification characteristics from ambient noise, one however needs to remove
source effect. Nakamura (1989) proposed a method to remove the source effect and
estimate site response by dividing the horizontal component of the noise spectrum by
the vertical component (H/V). Several modifications, shortcomings and applications
of this method were studied thereafter (Ohta et al., 1978; Celebi et al., 1987; Lermo et
al., 1988; Field et al., 1990; Hough et al., 1991; Lermo and Chavez-Garcia, 1993, 1994;

Page | 29
Chapter 3: Micro-Seismic Studies

Konno and Ohmachi, 1998; Zhao et al., 2007). Several researchers have applied
microtremor H/V spectrum for site investigation and measuring thickness of the top
soil cover over the bedrock in Europe, China, Japan [Tertiary – Quaternary
interphase: Yamanaka et al. (1994), Ibs-von Seht and Wohlenberg (1999), Delgado et
al. (2000), Parolai et al. (2002), Garcia-Jerez et al. (2006), Zhao et al. (2007)] and
mapping of regolith thickness over Archeans (Dinesh et al., 2010). In both the cases
there is high mechanical contrast, however in former case the variation of
Quaternary – Tertiary interphase in the basin is predictable, whereas regolith cover
would have wide variation locally. Studies by Ibs-von Seht and Wohlenberg (1999)
and Parolai et al. (2002) proposed equations relating the fundamental resonant
frequency to the thickness of soft sediment cover (Quaternary sediments) from the
observed well data and theoretical calculations. Ibs-von Seht and Wohlenberg (1999)
investigated western Lower Rhine Embayment in Germany comprising a variable
thickness of sediment belonging to Tertiary and Quaternary age. On the other hand,
Parolai et al. (2002) investigated Cologne area in Germany comprising sediments of
Quaternary and Tertiary age covering Devonian bedrock. In the recent work Dinesh
et al. (2010) have derived an equation for the Archean meta-sediments and the
overlying sediment cover at Bangalore City, India.

The present investigation is the first attempt to map the thickness of the
Quaternary sediments in the lower reaches of Narmada valley located at the southern
margin of Jambusar -Bharuch Block of Cambay Basin (Figure 3-), a potential
hydrocarbon block in western India (Mukherjee, 1983) using microtremors. In the
study area along the south eastern portion, the Tertiary sediments occur at shallow
depths and are enveloped by unconsolidated thin layer of Quaternary sediment,
whereas towards the northwest portion of the study area, the Tertiary sediments
extend only in the subsurface (Rao, 1969; Agarwal, 1984; Ramanathan and Pandey,
1988). The only subsurface information regarding Quaternary-Tertiary contact in the

Page | 30
Chapter 3: Micro-Seismic Studies

lower reaches of Narmada Valley within the study area is estimated through cross
profiles along Broach–Dadhal (Rao, 1969) as shown in Figure 3-.

Figure 3-: Locations of Microtremor stations in the study area.

Further, the area has been investigated by different researchers in terms of


mapping of the exposed sedimentary sequence, their depositional environment and
neo-tectonic characteristics (Allchin and Hegde, 1969; Gadekar et al., 1981; Bedi and
Vaidyanadhan, 1982; Sant and Karanth, 1993; Rajaguru et al., 1995; Bhandari et al.,
2001; Chamyal et al., 2002; Bhandari, 2004b; Bhandari et al., 2005; Raj, 2007, 2008;

Page | 31
Chapter 3: Micro-Seismic Studies

Raj and Yadava, 2009). However, the area still lacks information on variation in floor
of Tertiary bedrock, thickness of Quaternary sediments and its relation with surface
topography / landforms.

Figure 3-: Image showing borehole correlations from the available boreholes in the
present study area (adopted from Rao (1969), Fig. 2, p. 27). See Figure 3-1 for location of
boreholes.

3.1.1 Field Observations and Methodology

The lower reaches of Narmada exemplify various well preserved palaeo and
neo landforms. In general the southern portion of the study area forms three
surfaces, namely, QS1, QS2 and QS3 (Section 2.2). The area poses flat to rolling
topography with palaeobank and neobank as a paired landform which runs ENE-
WSW direction from Rajpardi in east to Ankleshwer and further west of Bharuch.
(Allchin and Hegde, 1969; Bedi and Vaidyanadhan, 1982; Mukherjee, 1983; Sant and

Page | 32
Chapter 3: Micro-Seismic Studies

Karanth, 1993). The incised river channels have exposed a few meters to 40 m of
Quaternary sediments belonging to QS1.

An ENE-WSW trending reverse basin marginal fault, traverse through the


southern boundary of the study area (Kaila et al., 1981). As a result, the basin
marginal fault exposes Tertiary sequence immediately along the southern periphery.
The structural studies on exposed Tertiary rocks suggest that they have undergone
last deformation during Plio-Pleistocene time, resulting in development of several
anticlines – syncline structures (Agarwal, 1986). Towards the north of the fault, the
late Tertiary rocks form the bedrock for unconsolidated Quaternary sediments whose
thickness varies depending on the late Tertiary – Early Quaternary topography.

Figure 3-: An example of waveform recorded (Location 13) by Lennartz seismometer (5 s


period) with City shark-II data acquisition system. X axis shows the time and Y axis
shows the different components of amplitude viz. NS, EW and vertical.

The present study apply the seismic method using ambient noise to decode a
two-layered model demarcating unconsolidated Quaternary sediment and the
bedrock belonging to Tertiary age. The measurements using ambient noise were

Page | 33
Chapter 3: Micro-Seismic Studies

carried out using the Lennartz seismometer (5 second period) with City shark-II data
acquisition system for 31 sites located on different landforms. The data acquisition
was done in a gridded pattern at a resolution of 5 km covering an area of 470 sq. km
that includes Tertiary high land surface in the south east to a flat flood plain towards
North West (Figure 3-). The present study has acquired the microtremor data at 100
samples / seconds for each site. However, the frequency range between 0.2 Hz to 10
Hz has been analysed in the present study. The acquisition system records
frequencies as three components viz. EW, NS and vertical vibration directions for
time duration of 40 minutes (Figure 3-). The noise recordings were processed using
GEOPSY software (http://www.geopsy.org/) to determine the fundamental resonant
frequency after generating the H/V spectral ratio for each station (Figure 3- 4).

3.1.2 Theoretical Calculation


Theoretical estimation of the thickness (h) of the soil layer over the bedrock
can be related to the fundamental resonant frequency (fr) of H/V spectral ratio by an
allometric function as given by equation 1 (Ibs-von Seht and Wohlenberg,1999),

h= a frb (1)

Where,
a and b are the standard errors of the correlation coefficients.

The estimated terrain specific equation was justified studying Quaternary –


Tertiary inter phase at western Lower Rhine Embayment (Ibs-von Seht and
Wohlenberg, 1999; based on 34 boreholes ranging in depth from 15m to 1257 m and
data from 102 seismic stations: equation 2A) and the Cologne area in Germany
(Parolai et al., 2002; based on 32 boreholes having a depth of <402 m and 337data
from seismic stations: equation 2B) simulating the thickness of soil cover (Quaternary
sediments) above bedrock (Tertiary rocks).

Page | 34
Chapter 3: Micro-Seismic Studies

Continue…
Page | 35
Chapter 3: Micro-Seismic Studies

Figure 3-: H/V spectral ratio for 31 stations (frequency range 0.2–10 Hz). The coloured thin lines are H/V spectral ratio for different
windows, black solid line is the average value and black dashed lines are ±standard deviation. The bar shows the fundamental
frequency with two grey shades representing ±standard deviation. Page | 36
Chapter 3: Micro-Seismic Studies

Dinesh et al. (2010) derived terrain specific equation (Equation 2C) for the
distinctly different terrain around Bangalore in India (inter phase of soil and
regolith with metamorphic rock and granites).

h = 96 fr-1.388 (2A)
h = 108 fr-1.551 (2B)
h = (58±8.8) fr(-0.95±0.1) (2C)

To map Quaternary – Tertiary interphase in the lower reaches of Narmada


valley; the present study adopt terrain specific equations by Ibs-von Seht and
Wohlenberg, (1999), Parolai et al., (2002) and Dinesh et al., (2010). A theoretical
thickness for the unconsolidated Quaternary sediment is calculated using the
fundamental frequency (fr) values of each station (Table 3-).

The underlying assumption to the present calculation is that the H/V


spectral ratio depends primarily on the source / site characteristics rather the
geographical location. Comparing the data estimated using the three equations; it
has been observed that the variation of estimated depth is more in the case of
Dinesh et al., (2010). The large deviation in the depths could be inferred due to the
high mechanical contrast of between Archean meta-sediments and the overlying
soil cover. While, the depths calculated using Ibs-von Seht and Wohlenberg
(1999) and Parolai et al. (2002) show significantly low variations in the thickness
due to the comparable geotechnical characteristics of geological formation.
Further, the values of thickness obtained from Ibs-von Seht and Wohlenberg
(1999) and Parolai et al. (2002) were compared for each station (Figure 3-). This
analysis clearly brings out that the thickness calculated for H/V spectral frequency
>0.5 Hz (26 data points) show an averaged standard deviation of 8 m in thickness,
whereas the H/V spectra frequency <0.5 Hz (5 data points) show averaged
standard deviation of 114 m in thickness. In other words, there is not much
difference between results obtained using the above two equations.

Page | 37
Chapter 3: Micro-Seismic Studies
Table 3-: Calculated thickness of unconsolidated sediments over Tertiary bedrock
using equations of Ibs-von Seht and Wohlenberg (1999), Parolai et al. (2002) and
Dinesh et al. (2010).
Loc. F (H/V) Thickness(m) Thickness (m) Thickness (m)
on (Hz) Ibs-von Seht and (Parolai et al., (Dinesh et al., 2010)
Map Wohlenberg, 2002) h = (58±8.8)fr(-0.95±0.1)
1999) h = 108fr-1.551
h = 96fr-1.388
Loc 01 0.90 111.11 127.17 67.13
Loc 02 0.747 143.91 169.78 86.94
Loc 03 0.754 142.06 167.34 85.82
Loc 04 0.333 441.69 594.44 266.85
Loc 05 1.085 85.72 95.16 51.79
Loc 06 0.499 251.94 317.44 152.21
Loc 07 0.504 248.48 312.57 150.12
Loc 08 1.185 75.84 83.00 45.82
Loc 09 0.973 99.717 112.68 60.24
Loc 10 0.865 117.40 135.24 70.93
Loc 11 2.476 27.27 26.46 16.47
Loc 12 1.173 76.92 84.32 46.47
Loc 13 0.324 458.81 620.25 277.19
Loc 14 0.361 394.86 524.48 238.56
Loc 15 0.918 108.10 123.32 65.31
Loc 16 0.936 105.23 119.66 63.57
Loc 17 1.150 79.07 86.95 47.77
Loc 18 3.326 18.10 16.74 10.93
Loc 19 2.428 28.02 27.28 16.93
Loc 20 1.360 62.64 67.03 37.85
Loc 21 1.721 45.18 46.52 27.30
Loc 22 0.832 123.9 143.65 74.86
Loc 23 1.012 94.42 106.02 57.04
Loc 24 0.973 99.71 112.68 60.24
Loc 25 2.985 21.04 19.80 12.71
Loc 26 8.585 4.85 3.84 2.93
Loc 27 5.545 8.90 7.57 5.38
Loc 28 1.208 73.85 80.56 44.61
Loc 29 5.767 8.43 7.13 5.09
Loc 30 5.998 7.98 6.71 4.82
Loc 31 0.993 96.94 109.18 58.56

Page | 38
Chapter 3: Micro-Seismic Studies

700

600

500

Thickness (m) 400

300

200

100

0
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31
Location Number

Figure 3-: Comparison between depths calculated using Ibs-von Seht and Wohlenberg
(1999) and Parolai et al. (2002) relationships (Eqs. (2A) and (2B)). The circle indicates
the average value whereas the length of the line suggests deviation from the average.

The study further averaged the values derived using equation 2A and 2B
giving a best fit equation for the lower reaches of the Narmada valley (equation 3).

= 102.1 fr-1.47 (3)

The equation (3) is further used for deriving primary information on the
relative depth variation of the interface between the two mechanically contrasting
layers of Quaternary sediment (soil) and Tertiary rock (bedrock) in the study area
(Table 3-).

3.1.3 Results and Discussion


The calculated values give a shallow interface of Quaternary and Tertiary
sediments in the Ankleshwer and Rajpardi segment and deep in the Bharuch and
Nareshwar segment. This observation is validated by correlation of wells across
Narmada River (Figure 3-). The correlation profile shows a thick sediment cover
at the Broach well. A thin cover of sediment inferred from the locations Loc 26,
Loc 27, Loc 29 and Loc 30 validates occurrence of Tertiary rocks at observed

Page | 39
Chapter 3: Micro-Seismic Studies

shallower depth. However, the observed depth of 77 m at Loc 28 forms in the


Tertiary bedrock indicates a local depression.

Table 3-: Relative variation of the thickness of Quaternary sediment cover at 31


locations which is further used for the elevation models.

Elevatio F Relative variation of


Loc. on
Latitude Longitude n (H/V) average thickness (m)
Map
(m) (Hz) = 102.1 fr-1.47
Loc 01 21.84895° 73.08142° 25 0.9 119.1451
Loc 02 21.8773° 73.12202° 22 0.747 156.85
Loc 03 21.90541° 73.1619° 25 0.754 154.70
Loc 04 21.71003° 72.95635° 28 0.333 518.06
Loc 05 21.73744° 72.99498° 24 1.085 90.44
Loc 06 21.7622° 73.02984° 18 0.499 284.69
Loc 07 21.78819° 73.0663° 20 0.504 280.52
Loc 08 21.81587° 73.1064° 36 1.185 79.42
Loc 09 21.84444° 73.14631° 23 0.973 106.20
Loc 10 21.87292° 73.18669° 34 0.865 126.32
Loc 11 21.67962° 72.98013° 19 2.476 26.87
Loc 12 21.70752° 73.01841° 19 1.173 80.62
Loc 13 21.7323° 73.05333° 23 0.324 539.53
Loc 14 21.75803° 73.09002° 15 0.361 459.67
Loc 15 21.78613° 73.12948° 23 0.918 115.71
Loc 16 21.81451° 73.16965° 20 0.936 112.44
Loc 17 21.84339° 73.20974° 20 1.15 83.01
Loc 18 21.64826° 73.00391° 11 3.326 17.42
Loc 19 21.67547° 73.04317° 17 2.428 27.65
Loc 20 21.70058° 73.07807° 14 1.36 64.84
Loc 21 21.72634° 73.11506° 12 1.721 45.85
Loc 22 21.75382° 73.15429° 17 0.832 133.78
Loc 23 21.78227° 73.19457° 14 1.012 100.22
Loc 24 21.8104° 73.23541° 33 0.973 106.20
Loc 25 21.61547° 73.0295° 29 2.985 20.42
Loc 26 21.64276° 73.06886° 25 8.585 4.3515
Loc 27 21.6674° 73.10354° 39 5.545 8.24
Loc 28 21.69308° 73.14048° 22 1.208 77.20
Loc 29 21.72093° 73.18014° 29 5.767 7.78
Loc 30 21.74903° 73.22044° 48 5.998 7.34
Loc 31 21.77744° 73.26117° 19 0.993 103.06

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Chapter 3: Micro-Seismic Studies

Calculated depth of the interface between the two layers (using equation 3)
is used to plot cross-profiles and digital elevation model (DEM) for lower reaches
of Narmada valley. Figure 3-A and Figure 3-B shows NW- SE and NE-SW cross-
sections respectively. The NW-SE profile shows a gentle northerly slope of the
consolidated bedrock viz. Loc 1-Loc 29, Loc 2-Loc 30 and Loc 3-Loc 31 profiles,
whereas the profiles along Loc 4-Loc 25, Loc 6- Loc 27 and Loc 7-Loc 28 show
steeper slope and increase in the unconsolidated sediment thickness.

Figure 3-: Cross profiles showing the contact of


unconsolidated soft sediment and consolidated bedrock
variations of Quaternary sediments. (A) NW–SE profile and
(B) NE–SW profiles.

Page | 41
Chapter 3: Micro-Seismic Studies

The profile Loc 5-Loc 26 appears to form a ridge dividing depressions into
two (Loc 4 and Loc 6). The variation in the depth of consolidated bedrock in the
SW portion of the study area can better be appreciated along NE-SW profiles
(Figure 3-B). The study of cross profiles implies linkages between the depo-
centers and the source in the different direction. The DEM for the bedrock
further reveals Late Tertiary – Early Quaternary palaeo-depressions (I) between
Loc 6, Loc 7, Loc 13 and Loc 14 showing relative depth variations of 284 m, 280 m,
539 m, 459 m respectively and depression (II) Loc 4 reaching a depth of 518 m
(Figure 3-).

Figure 3-: Late Tertiary–Early Quaternary palaeo-topography of area under study in


the lower reaches of Narmada valley. I and II are the depressions carved over Late
Tertiary–Early Quaternary surface forming the sites of thickest Quaternary sediment
in the study area.

Page | 42
Chapter 3: Micro-Seismic Studies

Comparing the geomorphology with digital elevation model of the bedrock


raises two possible explanations for the variation in the bedrock profile (Figure 3-).
Firstly, the steeply dipping Tertiary rock between Loc 18 and Loc 23 is correlating
with the surface expression of palaeobank. While the region connecting Loc 18,
Loc 19, Loc 20, Loc 21, Loc 22, Loc 15 and Loc 14 shows control of shallow
Tertiary rocks to the present braided channel of River Narmada. The profile
connecting Loc 15 and Loc 12 suggest a steep channel gradient of River Narmada
during late Tertiary – early Quaternary. The ridge formed by Loc 12 and Loc 19
between depression I and II may be correlated with thick gravel lobe exposed
along the southern bank of Narmada (within locations 20, 21, 27 and 25) brought
by transverse River system into the depression. Secondly, both the Quaternary
depressions appear to be structurally controlled as they lie adjacent to ENE-WSW
Cambay basin block fault identified along DSS profile (Kaila et al., 1981). High
resolution H/V spectral records from the area would give detail variations that
would help to resolve the role of process and structure.

3.2 Conclusion

The present study evaluates the usefulness of the H/V spectral ratio of
microtremor investigations. This is a relatively quick, easy and economic method
for estimating the thickness of unconsolidated sediments for a given terrain. An
equation for a geologically comparable terrain can be recalculated using the
average values of Ibs-von Seht and Wohlenberg (1999) and Parolai et al. (2002)
records of H/V measured from the terrain.

The lower reaches of Narmada Valley where estimation of Pre-Quaternary


topography has been difficult due to its wide variation has now been profiled using
a nonlinear regression equation (h =102.1fr-1.47). Two significant Quaternary depo-
centres have been outlined in the lower reaches of Narmada valley. The present
discovery is significant as it lies adjacent to ENE-WSW Jambusar - Bharuch
margin fault where the presence of shallow gas reservoirs is being exploited.

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CHAPTER 4: HIGH RESOLUTION STUDIES: SAMPLING
AND CHRONOLOGY
Chapter 4: High Resolution Studies Sampling and Chronology

4.1 Introduction

The response of rivers in a given dynamical system, over the continent,


would vary due to various reasons leading to complexity. Decoding these complex
characteristics from a sediment archive is the biggest challenge for a fluvial
geologist. Lateral and vertical variations in the sediment facies over a short
distance ensnare correlation of sediment characteristic. High resolution multi-
proxy approach is an important tool for understanding transition within the
sediment characteristics that signifies ―trend in sediment facies‖ and thereby the
energy conditions. The ―trends in sediment facies‖ in the present study refers to
any noticeable relationship existing between different proxies of sediment archive
that can further be used for the correlation across landforms under study.

The present study is an earnest attempt to decode the continental response


to the late Holocene climate change recorded over various large and small
continents. To achieve this primary objective, the most important issues are: 1.
the selection of appropriates site, 2. Sampling method and 3. Chronological
background. The present section of the thesis discusses the hierarchy of sample
location, sampling method and dating technique used for the study.

4.2 Hierarchy of Sample Location

The hierarchy for the selection of site for carrying out high resolution
sampling was derived by identifying, mapping of the landforms, and
understanding their status both geographically and dynamically within the fluvial
system. Geomorphology and overall variation in the sediment facies along LrNV
was compiled based on earlier works (Section 1.5.2) as well as newer observations
at both macro and micro level were gathered from field. Based on these records
the course of River Narmada in LrNV is classified into three main segments viz.,
(1) Straight to sinuous course, Gravel sector: Kevadia dam to Chanod (2)

Page | 45
Chapter 4: High Resolution Studies Sampling and Chronology

Meandering course, Sandy sector: Chanod to Bharuch and (3) Estuary, Muddy
sector: downstream of Bharuch (Figure 4-). Table 4- summaries the characteristics
of River Narmada in its different segments.

Figure 4-: Cross-section of Narmada channel at different segments.

Table 4-: Characteristics of Narmada channel in its different segments

Page | 46
Chapter 4: High Resolution Studies Sampling and Chronology

Figure 4-: (A) Contour map of Sandy sector showing Uchediya surface and palaeobank
surface;(B) Lithologs showing uniform lithology, wireframe shows the possible
extension of the different lithounits, 1, 2, 3 and 4 indicates visually distinguishable
sedimentary units.

Page | 47
Chapter 4: High Resolution Studies Sampling and Chronology

In the Gravel sector (from Kevadia dam to Chanod), the river channel
carves straight to sinuous course through exposures of Deccan basalt, Bagh Beds
and thick Gravel deposit till village Chanod. The gravel deposits overlie as well as
occur as infill within the older rocks. In the Sandy sector (from Chanod to
Bharuch) initially the river carves large looping meandering course (till
Sukaltirth). Thereafter, the channel braids till it reaches Bharuch. Downstream of
Bharuch, the Narmada River flows into Muddy sector forming an Estuary where it
dominates in silty clayey sediment facies.

The present site for high resolution sampling is identified over QS2 along
southern bank of the river, in the sandy sector between two northerly flowing
tributaries River Amravati (in the west) and River Kaveri (in the east). The site
selected is along a straight, eroding segment carved by the Narmada River,
exposing a cliff of about 8m. The continuity of sandy and muddy litho facies were
mapped laterally for 4 km. The observations testify that the microforms,
mesoforms and macroforms of these units and their upper and lower bounding
surfaces are similar (Figure 4-). It further provides understanding that the site
selected for high resolution sampling represents near core portion of a regionally
significant landform QS2 ―Uchediya Surface‖.

4.3 Sampling for Multi-proxy Analysis

A representative site for Uchediya surface was selected along the channel
of Narmada (21° 43' 2.22" N, 73° 6' 26.22" E; 10 m a.s.l.). High resolution sampling
was carried out in the cut-open trench over four benches across the 802 cm
vertical profile. Each trench was approximately 200 cm in length and 50 cm in
width; cut vertically along plumb line (Figure 4-). The trench was further dressed
and cleaned to record field based sedimentological details (sedimentary facies,
their transition and sedimentary structures). After cleaning the bench face
properly, markings were made in each two centimetres with a sharp tool and each

Page | 48
Chapter 4: High Resolution Studies Sampling and Chronology

two centimetre depth of samples was collected. A total of 401 samples were
collected in two sets, each weighing approximately 500 grams and one set was
packed in plastic bottles and another in air tight plastic bags with aluminium foils.
The samples packed in plastic bottles were used for analysis, whereas, the samples
packed in aluminium foils in air tight plastic bags were preserved as undisturbed
library sample.

Figure 4-: Field photographs showing four trench sequence.

4.4 Sampling for OSL Dating

A total of 16 samples were collected at an interval of 50cm from the 8 m


section at the southern bank of Narmada at Uchediya sequence. Samples were
collected from the planar surface of the cleaned trench. The sampling tube
consisted of a one inch diameter GI pipes with one edge was closed using steel
capes and another edge open. The open edge of the sampling pipe was then driven
into the cleaned surface (Figure 4-). Utmost care was taken to avoid the exposure

Page | 49
Chapter 4: High Resolution Studies Sampling and Chronology

of the samples to sunlight during shutting up of the GI pipe cap. The sample
collection was scheduled during late evening so that the intensity of the sunlight
was relatively low. Out of the sixteen samples, three samples from the depths of
750 cm, 600 cm and 0 cm (Figure 4-5) were sent to Luminescence Dating
Laboratory at the Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art,
University of Oxford for analysis.

Figure 4-: Photograph showing sampling technique adopted for


OSL chronology
4.4.1 General Principles of Luminescence Dating
Luminescence is a process in which materials convert energies of various
kinds such as optical, nuclear, electrical or chemical into light emission.

Page | 50
Chapter 4: High Resolution Studies Sampling and Chronology

Luminescence dating regulates the absorption of nuclear energy by natural


mineral and emission of luminescence on thermal or optical excitation. This
method is termed as Thermo Luminescence method (TL) or Optically Simulated
Luminescence (OSL) method based on the type of excitation. The basis of
luminescence dating is as follows:

1. Quartz and Feldspar grains in the sediment serve as sensitive radioactive


dosimeter which records the irradiation from the natural radioactivity
and preserves this record over a long geological time.
2. Natural radioactivity of U,
238 232 Th and 40K in the rocks and soil gives a
constant source of irradiation to natural minerals in the sediment.
3. During exposure to light, the minerals lose all the previously acquired
luminescence and they began luminescence acquisition afresh during
the burial due to irradiation from natural radioactive sources. This
luminescence acquisition continues till the exposure of these materials
to the surface.

The luminescence age equation can be simply written as,

Age =

Where,
- Total Luminescence
- Annual rate of Luminescence acquisition or Dose/year
4.4.2 Result
The results of the analysis show a relatively younger age for the sequence.
It gives an age of 130± 30 years before 2009 at 750 cm depth (sample id DUCH 1;
Oxford laboratory code X3543), 515±40 years before 2009 for the 600cm depth
(sample id DUCH 4; Oxford laboratory code X3544) and 495±60 years before 2009
for the 0cm depth (sample id DUCH 16; Oxford laboratory code X3545)(Figure4-
5). The obtained chronology record shows age reverse for the sample at depth of
200 cm. Dr.Jean-Luc Schwenninger, who dated the sediments, opined that ―I was

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Chapter 4: High Resolution Studies Sampling and Chronology

surprised at the relatively young age of the dates but after double checking the
luminescence measurements and the dosimetry data the results remain
unchanged. I don't have a precise altitude for the site and the calculations are
based on a mean site
elevation of 10 m above sea
level.

Unless, the site is over100m,


I don't expect any changes
to the calculated dates due
to variations in the cosmic
dose rate. There may be a
slight age overestimate for
sample DUCH4 [X3544]
because the sample was
collected near a sedimentary
boundary and in the absence
of in situ radioactivity
measurements with a
calibrated gamma-ray
spectrometer it is not
possible to correct for
variations in the external
gamma dose contribution to
the total dose received by
the sample. The sedimentary
Figure 4-: Sediment log of Uchediaya sequence, visual
facies illustration which you
observations along with OSL dates.
sent me indicates that the
overlying sediment has a finer texture and therefore, I suspect that the dose rate of

Page | 52
Chapter 4: High Resolution Studies Sampling and Chronology

this unit is higher. Our dosimetry measurements are based on the concentrations
of radio-isotopes within the OSL sample which according to your diagram,
originates from coarser textured sand and therefore, we may have underestimated
the true dose rate for this sample. If you can supply us with a sample from the
overlying sediment then we might be able to make suitable correction. However, I
don't expect the difference to be more than 100 years and therefore there might be
little merit in doing this additional work (the cost would be circa £80). If for
example I use the dosimetry data from sample DUCH1 [X3543] which was taken
from an even finer textured sedimentary unit then the revised date would be ~ 490
± 35. Basically, it is suggesting that the bulk of the sediment (+/- 6 m) was
deposited within a relatively short time span‖.

With this background the present thesis considers a relatively short time
span of around 100 years for the 0-600 cm section of the Uchediya surface.

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CHAPTER 5: HIGH RESOLUTION SEDIMENTOLOGICAL
STUDIES
5.1 Introduction

Sedimentological characters of river bank deposits and their formative

processes are studied by researchers all over the world (Steiger et al., 2001;

Gregory et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2006; Provansal et al., 2010). The principle

underlying assumption in such studies is ―distribution of grain size in a

sedimentary sequence is the reflection of mechanisms involved in sediment

transport and its depositional environment‖. There are number of statistical

methods for analysing grain size record determining depositional environments

(Krumbein, 1934; Passega, 1964; Sahu, 1964; Folk, 1966; Friedman, 1967; Doeglas,

1968; Visher, 1969; Guerzoni et al., 1996; Pandey et al., 2002; Richard et al., 2005;

Blott and Pye, 2006; Purkait, 2006; Bartholdy et al., 2007; Ren and Packman, 2007;

Cheetham et al., 2008; Goossens, 2008; Poizot et al., 2008; Brandono et al., 2009;

Buscombe and Masselink, 2009; Citterio and Piegay, 2009; Oldfield et al., 2009;

Smith et al., 2009; Zervas et al., 2009; Hajek et al., 2010).

Such quantitative study on high resolution is attempted for first time to

decode 802 cm thick sediment sequence, representing significant landform

―Uchediya surface‖ in the LrNV. Previously the studies were carried out in the

region, in relation with geomorphology and neotectonic implications, stratigraphy

and depositional environments based on visual interpretation and analysis of few

representative samples for determining sediment facies, clay mineralogy,

chronology and palynology. (Allchin and Hegde, 1969; Gadekar et al., 1981; Bedi

and Vaidyanadhan, 1982; Babu, 1984; Karanth et al., 1988b; Sundaram et al., 1991;

Sant and Karanth, 1993; Chamyal et al., 2002; Bhandari, 2004b; Bhandari et al.,

2005; Raj, 2007; Raj and Yadava, 2009; Sridhar and Chamyal, 2010). The aforesaid

studies gives overall understanding of LrNV, however, in depth study is called for

understanding channel morphology for last 500 years. In the present work, an

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attempt is made to determine high resolution quantitative sediment facies,

understand trends in facies change and energy conditions associated with

sediment facies implying to climate phase within late Holocene.

5.2 Methodology

The samples collected from the neobank of the Uchediya surface along

Narmada channel near Uchediya village were subjected to grain size analysis.

Particle size distribution was determined using long established sieve-pipette

method (Folk, 1974; Cheetham et al., 2008). A hundred gram split of each sample

were separated from the total sample by the method of conning and quartering.

These samples were treated with dil. HCl and 6% hydrogen peroxide followed by

washing with distilled water to remove carbonate and organic matter from the

sample. After washing and cleaning, samples were subjected to wet sieving

through 63 µ sieve to separate silt and clay sediments. Greater than 63 µm

sediments were then ran in sieve shaker using sieves of 1000 µm, 400 µm, 250 µm,

210 µm, 149 µm, 125 µm, 105 µm, 88 µm, 74 µm and 63 µm. Each fraction was

then collected separately and packed in aluminium foil and further in air tight

bags. The samples were weighed on Metller electronic weighing balance of 0.001g

precession.

Less than <63 µm sediment fraction were used for pipette analysis. 10 gm of

sample put into the cylinder along with some amount of distilled water, 1ml of

10% collagen solution that was finally made up to 1000ml. The experimental

cylinder was then put in a water bath to maintain the uniform temperature

throughout the experiment. After stirring the cylinder rigorously for 2-3 minutes,

pipetting is done at calculated time intervals for 31 µm, 16 µm, 8 µm, 4 µm and 2

µm respectively using Stock‘s law. Each fraction was oven dried and carefully

Page | 56
weighed. Weight percentages for all 15 fractions were calculated and used for

determining various sedimentological parameters and quantitative sediment facies.

Table 5-: Equations and terminologies used for the statistical analysis.

Graphic Mean (M) Graphic Sorting (σ1) Graphic Skewness (Sk1) Graphic Kurtosis (KG)

Very -1 to 0 Very well <0.35 Very fine +0.3 to +1.0 Very <0.67
coarse sorted skewed platykurtic
sand
Coarse 0 to 1 Well s o r t e d 0.35–0.50 Fine skewed +0.1 to +0.3 Platykurtic 0.67–0.90
sand
Medium 1 to 2 Moderately 0.5- 0.70 Symmetrical +0.1 to -0.1 Mesokurtic 0.90–1.11
sand well sorted
Fine 2 to 3 Moderately 0.70- 1.00 Coarse skewed -0.1 to -0.3 Leptokurti 1.11–1.50
sand sorted c
Very 3 to 4 Poorly sorted 2.00 Very coarse -0.3 to -1.0 Very 1.50–3.00
Fine skewed leptokurtic
sand
Very 4 to 5 Very poorly 2.00- 4.00 Extremely >3.00
coarse sorted leptokurtic
silt
Coarse 5 to 6 Extremely >4
silt poorly sorted
Medium 6 to 7
silt
Fine silt 7 to 8
Very 8 to 9
Fine silt

The grain size distribution record (401 samples and 15 grain size fraction
for each sample) are ran through statistical package GRADISTAT v6 (Blott and
Pye, 2001) to determine sedimentological parameters viz., Graphic Mean ()
Graphic Sorting (σ1), Graphic Skewness (Sk1) and Graphic Kurtosis (KG). The

parameters are calculated using the equations by Folk and Ward (1957) (Table 5-).
However, the descriptive terminology of Skewness, instead of Positive skewness
and Negative Skewness, the present section uses ‗Fine Skewed‘ and ‗Coarse
Skewed‘ for sediments of excessive fine sediments and excessive coarse sediments
respectively (After Blott and Pye, 2001). In view of bimodal and polymodal
sediments, the Graphic Standard Deviation (Sorting), Graphic Skewness and
Graphic Kurtosis of sediments are considered for qualitative comparison along the
vertical sequence only.

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5.3 Sediment facies

In the present study, the sequence is classified into two broad sedimentary

facies namely Sandy facies (68%) and muddy facies (32%). Each of the facies is sub

divided into subfacies based on cluster analysis of granulometric data for 401

samples.

Figure 5-: Litholog of Uchediya sequence showing different sedimentary subfacies and
their associations
Each cluster was quantitatively determined, compared, evaluated, and
supplemented with field base details. Each cluster is referred to as sediment
―subfacies‖ in the present study (
Figure 5- and Figure 5-). The sediment subfacies are supplemented with
other supporting records on composition and micro faunal assemblages at certain

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depths to resolve intricacies within subfacies. The nomenclature of sediment
subfacies is in line with litho-facies classification after Martins (1965),
Friedman,(1967), Jackson, (1975), Miall (1978, 1985), Friend et al., (1979), Friend
et al., (1986) and Martinius, (2000).

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

5
Average mean grain size (Φ)

0
0.5 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9
Average Sorting

Figure 5-: Plot of average sorting against averaged mean grain size of individual facies
clearly shows clustering of two groups. Numbers 1 to 7 indicate the indivudal facies
code as same as figure 5-1

5.3.1 Sandy Facies

The sandy facies are the most dominant facies (68%) exposed along the
Uchediya sequence. The facies are inferred based on data from 246 samples. The
sand facies show both laminated and trough-shaped cross bedding structures. The
sandy facies are further subdivided into four sub facies viz., StMS+FS+CS (32%),
SmFS+MS (29%) SlFS+VFS (26%), and StMS + CS (13%). where Sl- is laminated sand; St-
trough-shaped cross bedded; and subscript represent grain size (fine sand, very
fine sand, medium sand an coarse sand) (Figure 5-). In overall, the sandy facies are
poorly sorted (sorting ranges from 1.26 to 2) and show modality from bimodal to
unimodal distribution.

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Figure 5-: Pie diagram showing average values of sand, silt and clay percentage
variation in sandy sedimentary subfacies.

StMS+FS+CS sub facies (10YR 5/4 to 10YR 4/3) are decoded from analyzing
around 80 samples, the sub facies constitutes 32% of total sandy facies (Figure
5-A). The sub facies shows trough-shaped cross bedding with basalt pebbles seen
occasionally along the trough cross. The sub facies have developed prominently in
the lower portion of the sequence between 0 to 120 cm depth. The high resolution
analysis signifies the StMS+FS+CS sub facies and is sub divided into number of units by
intercalation of thin (few centimeters to 10 cm) units of SmFS+MS subfacies and
thick (50 cm) unit of StMS + CS sub facies. StMS+FS+CS sub facies are moderately well
sorted showing unimodal, symmetrical and platykurtic distribution.

SmFS+MS subfacies (10YR 5/4 to 10YR 3/3) are decoded based on analysis of
72 samples and comprises of 29% of sandy facies (Figure 5-B). StFS+MS subfacies are
massive in nature and occur as intercalating suite from base of the sequence up to
210 cm in the sequence. The facies become prominent at 150cm to 168cm and 290

Page | 60
cm to 310 cm from the base. The sediment unit with StFS+MS subfacies varies in
thickness from few centimeters to maximum 20 cm. SmFS+MS sub facies are
moderately sorted, showing unimodal, skewed towards very fine and very
leptokurtic in distribution.

SlFS+VFS subfacies are decoded from analysis of 64 samples and comprise 26%
of the sandy facies (Figure 5-C). SlFS+VFS subfacies (10YR 5/4 to 10YR 4/5) are
laminated and seen restricted in the central portion of the sequence between 415
cm to 485 cm. The sub facies also occur as intercalating suite alternate with its
coarser equivalents from depth of 500 cm to 590 cm. SlFS+VFS sub facies are
moderately sorted showing bimodal nature skewed towards very fine classes
showing very fine skewed and leptokurtic.

StMS+CS subfacies (10YR 5/4 to 10YR 4/3) are decoded from analysis of 30
samples respectively and comprises of 13% of sandy facies (Figure 5-D). StMS+CS sub
facies also shows trough-shaped cross bedding identified occurring within the
StMS+FS+CS sub facies as a coarser fraction from 200 cm to 245 cm. StMS + CS sub facies
differs from StMS+FS+CS sub facies with very platykuritic nature of distribution curve.

5.3.2 Muddy Facies


The muddy facies are the second dominant facies (32%) exposed along the
Uchediya sequence. The facies is inferred based on data from 155 samples. The
muddy facies show both massive and laminated in nature. Overall the muddy
facies is very poorly sorted (sorting ranges from 3.1 to 3.3). Based on the
quantitative analysis of grain size data and association of primary structures within
the muddy facies are further subdivided into two sub facies namely, FmSILT+VFS and
FmSILT+VFS+FS where Fm-is massive muddy subfacies; Fl-is laminated muddy
subfacies; and subscript represent dominance of grain size (silt, very fine sand and
fine sand). FmSILT+VFS+FS subfacies are poorly sorted showing bimodal to trimodal
very fine skewed, platykuritic distribution, however the facies is subdivided into

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Fm SILT+VFS (O) and Fm SILT+VFS (T) subfacies based on the presence (T) or absence (O)
of microfossil assemblage in the different levels (Chapter 6).

Figure 5-: Pie diagram showing average values of sand, silt and clay percentage
variation in muddy sedimentary subfacies

FmSILT+VFS+FS subfacies (10YR 4/4 to 10YR 4/3) are decoded from analysis of
109 samples respectively (Figure 5-A) comprising 71% of the muddy facies. The
FmSILT+VFS+FS subfacies dominate in the sequence from 605 cm to 802 cm depth. A
single unit varies from maximum 35cm to few centimeters. The sub facies unit
thins consistently upwards.

FmSILT+VFS sub facies (10YR 4/4 to 10YR 4/3) are decoded from analysis of 46
samples comprising 29% of muddy facies (Figure 5-B). Fm SILT+VFS sub facies units
are well developed at depths from 120 cm to 145cm, 360 cm to 410cm, 495 cm to
500 cm and 605 cm to 802 cm. Fm SILT+VFS sub facies occur as a thin intercalating
unit with FmSILT+VFS+FS sub facies from 605 cm to 802 cm and vice versa at depths
between 120 cm to 145cm and 360 cm to 410cm. Based on presence or absence of
foraminiferal assemblage the present study further classify FmSILT+VFS subfacies into
FmSILT+VFS (O) and FmSILT+VFS (T) representing overbank and tidal conditions
respectively.

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5.4 Palaeohydrology

The grain size distribution in a sedimentary sequence gives quantitative


textural characteristic for suites of facies. Various statistical parameters further
capture the mechanism of sediment transport, the environment of deposition and
its changes (Krumbein, 1934; Passega, 1964; Sahu, 1964; Folk, 1966; Friedman,
1967; Doeglas, 1968; Visher, 1969; Guerzoni et al., 1996; Pandey et al., 2002;
Richard et al., 2005; Purkait, 2006; Bartholdy et al., 2007; Ren and Packman, 2007;
Cheetham et al., 2008; Goossens, 2008; Poizot et al., 2008; Brandono et al., 2009;
Buscombe and Masselink, 2009; Citterio and Piegay, 2009; Oldfield et al., 2009;
Hajek et al., 2010).

Various statistical parameters calculated from the grain size distribution


data viz., Mean () Sorting (σ1), sorting within weight percentage of tails of fines
(4phi and finer), Skewness (Sk1), Kurtosis (KG) after Tenner, (2007). These are
further plotted to good advantage on bivariate diagrams for reasonable
interpretations. These diagrams capture hydrodynamics, sediment supply, trapping
and other dynamical conditions. The present study used various diagrams to
differentiate transporting agencies, transitions from one agency to another, or
change in energy conditions, or sediment contribution from outside systems. In
view of bimodal and polymodal sediments in the different facies, the statistical
parameters were used only for the relative variation in the vertical sequence of the
sediment characteristics.

5.5 Bivariate plots

The plot of mean phi size verses weight percentage of <3Φ sediments
(Figure 5-A) shows that it is similar to segmented cumulative frequency curve, in
which, each transported by a particular mechanism such as suspension
load(muddy facies); saltation (Muddy and sandy facies) and traction (sandy facies).

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Chapter 5: High Resolution Sedimentological Studies

A B

C D

Figure 5-: Bivariate plots of 401 samples used for the characterization of sediments. Numbers 1 to 7 indicate the facies code as in Fig.5.2 and
Fig.5.1.

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Chapter 5: High Resolution Sedimentological Studies

The plot show systematic transition of facies from leading, flat upper
segment to central steeper segment to trailing flat segment. FmSILT+VFS (T) that leads
the upper segment followed by FmSILT+VFS (O) suggesting subfacies were deposited
under suspension mode. The sub facies FmSILT+VFS+FS, falls at the transition of upper
and steeper segment of the S curve showing at least part of sub facies were under
suspension and saltation. SlFS+VFS, and SmFS+MS, falls along the bottom portion of
steeper segment suggesting at least part of sediment were deposited under saltation
and traction. StMS+FS+CS and StMS+CS trails along the trailing segment indicating
sediment transportation under traction. The plot clearly shows relationship
between sub facies and mode of transport and thereby energy conditions at the
time of deposition.

The plot between standard deviation in the grain size (sorting) and mean
grain size (Figure 5-B) differentiates muddy and sandy facies where show
compared to sandy facies muddy facies are poorly to very poorly sorted. The part
of sub facies SmFS+MS and SlFS+VFS falls in transition (moderate to poor sorting)
between muddy facies and StMS+FS+CS and StMS+CS sub facies. Similarly plot of
skewness (degree of asymmetry of a frequency) and standard deviation (sorting)
clearly differentiate muddy and sandy facies as well as partially differentiate
SlFS+VFS, SmFS+MS and StMS+FS+CS, StMS+CS sub facies (Figure 5-C).

A plot with mean grain size and kurtosis (degree of peakedness) also
differentiate between discussed sediment subfacies however the plot distinguish
part of, SmFS+MS, and SlFS+VFS showing very Leptokrutic dristibution where they are
extremely peaked having better sorting at center then tails (Figure 5-D).

5.6 Other plots

The plots of Mean () Sorting (σ1), Skewness (Sk1), Kurtosis (KG) are further
plotted along the depth profile of the sequence (Figure 5-).

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Chapter 5: High Resolution Sedimentological Studies

Figure 5-: Statistical parameters of Uchediya Sediments

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Chapter 5: High Resolution Sedimentological Studies

Figure 5-: Suite analysis of Uchediya sequence after Tenner, (2007). Sk1- Sk2 and KG1-KG2 indicate the difference in skewness and Kurtosis
value of successive lower and upper data, 1/KG is he reciprocal of the Kurtosis and φ/ KG and Sk/KG represents the ratio of mean verses
kurtosis and skewedness verses kurtosis

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Chapter 5: High Resolution Sedimentological Studies

The variation in values of  , σ1, Sk1 and KG along depth profile are comparable
across each parameter. The present study uses  , σ1, Sk1 and KG to divide
sedimentary sequence into 7 units along 800 cm thick sequence viz., (from bottom
to top) Lithounit 1 (0-114 cm)- Sandy; Lithounit 2 (116-150 cm)- Muddy;
Lithounit 3 (418-492 cm)- Sandy; Lithounit 4 (344-416 cm)-Muddy; Lithounit 5
(418-492 cm)-Sandy; Lithounit 6 (494-600 cm)-Sandy and Muddy; Lithounit 7
(602-800 cm)-muddy.

The plots Sk1-Sk2, KG1-KG2, φ/KG, 1/KG and Sk1/ KG (Figure 5-) signify relative
change as well as relatively elevation (higher or lower topography) at the time of
deposition of sediments. The φ/ KG ratio suggests StMS+FS+CS facies (Figure 5-7; from
0 to 120 cm), StMS+FS+CS sub facies and StMS+CS sub facies (Figure 5-7; from 145 to 350
cm was deposited at lower elevation. Whereas FmSILT+VFS (T) sub facies (from 120
cm to 145 cm and 365 cm) and FmSILT+VFS (O) sub facies along with FmSILT+VFS+FS sub
facies deposited above 610 cm relatively at higher elevation within the channel.
The sub facies SmFS+MS and SlFS+VFS dominate from 410 cm to 600 cm occur at
transition elevation compared to other discussed sediment facies. The ratios of Sk1/
KG and 1/KG further distinguish between StMS+FS+CS sub facies and StMS+CS sub facies
suggesting that StMS+CS sub facies were deposited at relatively higher elevation than
StMS+FS+CS sub facies. Possibly the StMS+CS sub facies represent accumulation of
coarser facies during high energy condition or a lag belonging StMS+FS+CS sub facies
resulted due to removal of finer sand under high energy conditions.

5.7 Discussion
The Late Holocene sediment sequence (802 cm thick) under present study,
along the southern bank of Narmada, west of Kavery River, near village Uchediya
represents a flood plain, the most conspicuous landform that get submerge in the
monsoon season during floods. The sequence comprises of suites of seven sub
facies that intercalate each other. The suites of sub facies are primarily decoded

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Chapter 5: High Resolution Sedimentological Studies

applying cluster analysis of high resolution granulometric record supplemented


with field sedimentological data at same resolution. The sub facies are further
distinguished along bivarient asserting hydrodynamics. The plots of ratios of few
statistical parameters along depth were used to decipher relative changes and
position during deposition.

The conditions prior to initiation of sediment deposition are inferred from


plots viz., M/K ratio, S/K ratio and 1/K ratio. The plots suggest the sediments were
deposited at relatively lower elevation compared to overlaying Fm SILT+VFS (T). The
present study further infers that the StMS+FS+CS sub facies were deposited in a
shallow channel environment. Cross trough structures and pebbles embedded
with them suggest sediment was transported under traction as bed load. The shift
in the thalweg line exposed the channel bed. High tidal influx deposited Fm SILT+VFS
(T) sub facies with a sharp contact with adjacent previously deposited channel
facies. Further changes in channel reinstalled channel conditions. Sandwich of
StMS+CS sub facies within StMS+FS+CS sub facies suggest accumulation of coarser
sediment or erosion of finer sediment under flood conditions. Shift in thalweg line
changes the permanent channel away from the present site of deposit.
Intercalation of Fm SILT+VFS (T) and FmSILT+VFS+FS shows mixed depositional
environment tidal and overbank flood deposits. Further aggradations resulted in
prominent point bar depositing SlFS+VFS sub facies. Interaction of Fm SILT+VFS (O),
SlFS+VFS sub facies and SmFS+MS sub facies thereafter suggest point bar accretion and
stabilization. Finally the point bar bounded the southern bank of channel during
non-monsoonal phases. During monsoonal floods submerged the point bar and
depositing FmSILT+VFS+FS sub facies capped with thin Fm SILT+VFS (O) as observed to
present time. Numerous floods over a period accreted 200 m of over bank deposit.
The landform thus accreted bounds the southern bank of present Narmada
channel.

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Chapter 5: High Resolution Sedimentological Studies

5.8 Inferences
1. High resolution quantitative granulometric record gives significant number
of sample population to decode suite of sediment facies and gives
significant understanding within facies and their transitions.

2. The quantitative variations in various bivarient plots and ratio of different


statistical parameters against depth distinguish textural characteristics of
the facies and changes occurred prior the deposition of facies.

3. The exposed eight meter section at the southern bank of present Narmada
channel preserves evidence of multi-process evolution for the landform.

4. The present high resolution analysis clearly brings out the seven stages for
the aggradation of the sequence represented by individual facies. Whereas
5. Accretion of the Holocene depositional surface of the area can be grouped
into two main environments, viz., a catastrophic fluvial environment and a
tide dominated marine environment.
6. Change in the sedimentological characteristics of the Holocene surface can
be interpreted as a result of major geomorphic change within the channel,
which may be due to a catastrophic event of flood possibly accelerated by a
climatic variability.

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CHAPTER 6: MICROPALEONTOLOGICAL STUDIES
Chapter 6: Micropaleontological Studies

6.1 Introduction

Micropaleontological study is well established technique for reconstructing


the palaeo-environments, palaeo-oceanographic, palaeo-climatic changes. The
applications of the technique is further extended for inferring tectonic processes
such as earthquakes and plate tectonics (Culver, 1988; Bornmalm et al., 1997; Kim
and Kennett, 1998; Horton et al., 1999; Edwards and Horton, 2000; Li et al., 2000;
Gebhardt et al., 2004; Hayward et al., 2004b; Barbieri et al., 2006; Rossi and
Vaiani, 2008; Hayward et al., 2010).

Foraminifera are the most widely studied among microfaunas. Short life
cycles and rapid response to environmental changes make Foraminifers an ideal
bio-indicator for both short and long term environmental changes. In the marginal
marine environments presence of foraminiferal and their diversity plays
significant role to understand land-sea interactions. Studies on modern
foraminiferal faunal distribution have been used to document Holocene eustatic
sea level changes (Gehrels, 1999; Horton et al., 1999; Edwards and Horton, 2000;
Gebhardt et al., 2004; Horton and Edwards, 2006; Massey et al., 2006; Woodroffe,
2009), bathymetric related zonation pattern (Culver, 1988) and Holocene tectonic
activities (Hayward et al., 2010).

Lower reaches of Narmada Valley have attained remarkable attention in

the paleoclimatic and neotectonic activities (Tewari et al., 2001; Chamyal et al.,

2002; Raj et al., 2003; Bhandari, 2004a, b; Bhandari et al., 2005; Raj, 2007; Raj and

Yadava, 2009; Khadkikar et al., 2010; Laskar et al., 2010), whereas the studies on

organic habitats are spare (Ghosh et al., 2008; Ghosh et al., 2009). Gosh et al. 2008

was first to report occurrence of planktonic foraminiferal species Gallitella vivans

from the Narmada along a muddy sequence at Ambeta. They also reported

intertidal foraminifera in both Narmada and Tapti estuaries. The occurrences of

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Chapter 6: Micropaleontological Studies

foraminifers within Narmada channel further traced inland up to 50 km from

coast. The present study have identified occurrence of microfaunal assemblage

within the muddy facies exposed along Uchediya sequence at two elevation viz.,

1.16 m to 1.62 m and 3.50 m to 4.26 m above the present water level in the

Narmada channel. Relative with the earlier findings along the Ambheta section,

the Uchediya section is 48 km inland whereas, compared to finds within Narmada

channel floor, the present site is further 6 km inland.

6.2 Materials and Methods

A standard microfaunal separation method was followed for processing of

bulk sample. The bulk sample was wet-sieved through 63 µm size sieve. A fraction

of >63 µm was collected and dried in 50 °C for observation under stereoscopic

binocular microscope. The samples were scanned for microfauna at magnification

maximum up to 32X. A fine 000 brush with only few hairs was used to isolate and

transfer the microfaunas. A detailed morphological study has been done using the

Scanning electron Microscopic images.

6.3 Results: Foraminiferal Assemblage and their Description

For the present study 2 samples (Depths: 128-130 cm, 142-144 cm) from

lithounit 2 and 3 samples (Depths: 360-362cm, 372-374 cm, 386-388 cm) from

lithounit 4 were processed for microfaunal recovery. In all 122 micro fanual

specimens were picked from 1.7 grams of processed sample from Unit 2 and 158

microfaunal specimens from 2.3 grams of processed sample form Unit 4 (Table 6-).

In absence of systematic description of the microfossil assemblages and their

description from LrNV, identification of species and description of their taxonomy

were derived comparing species with supra generic classification of Loeblich and

Tappan (1988). The taxonomic details of microfaual assemblage are discussed

below:

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Chapter 6: Micropaleontological Studies
Table 6-: Depth wise frequency distribution of Microfossil assemblage
Frequency Count
Sample I II III IV V Total
No Species
Depth 670 656 438 426 412
(cm)
1 Quinquloculina seminulum 1 1
2 Fissurina cf indica 1 1
3 Gallitella vivans 1 2 3
4 Globigerina bulloides 1 1 2
5 Bolivina pusilla 2 3 5
6 Cassidulina cf laevigata 4 4
7 Bulimina marginata 1 1 2
8 Murayinella murrayi 3 58 14 73 8 156
9 Haynesina simplex 3 3
10 Nonionoides auris 2 23 12 17 6 60
11 Nonionoides gatiloupi 1 2 3
12 Ammonia tepida 4 4 8
13 Elphidium cf excavatum 3 3 11 3 20
14 Elphidium sp. 2 2
Total 6 96 31 113 24 270

Order : MILIOLIDA Delage and Hérouard, (1896)


Superfamily: MILIOLACEA Ehrenberg, (1838)
Family : HAUERINIDAE Schwager, (1876)
Genus: QUINQUELOCULINA D'orbigny,(1826)
Species: Quinqueloculina seminulum Linne, (1758)
Plate 6-1: Figure 1
Serpula seminulum Linne, (1758), p. 786.
Miliolina seminulum Williamson, (1858), p. 85, pl.7, fig. 183-185; Brady, (1895), p.
157, pl.5, figs. 6a-c.
Quinqueloculina seminulum (Linne‘) d‘Orbigany, (1826), p.303; Chaturvedi,
(2001), p.122, pl. 3, fig, 13, pl.4, fig.1.

Description: Test quinqueloculine, slightly planoconvex to biconvex and


various considerably in lateral views from oval, suboval to subrounded.

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Chapter 6: Micropaleontological Studies

Remarks: This species is cosmopolitan in occurrence. From the available


record it seems that it is the most common species in the recent sediment of the
Indian subcontinent. Its recent report is from near shore and subsurface sediments,
north-western Gulf of Kachchh (Chaturvedi, 2001); off Karwar, central west coast
of India (Nigam and Khare, 1999); from the intertidal deposits of Kuchchh (Reddy,
2006) and from Meda creek of Sourashtra (Lakhmapurkar and Bhatt, 2010). Ruiz et
al., (2005) have identified an assemblage of Quinqueloculina seminulum and
Elphidium crispum to sub tidal channel environment near the mouth, with
normal marine conditions. This species also survive in an anoxic condition at least
for a short period of time (Moodley and Hess, 1992).

Order : LAGENIDA Delage and Hérouard, (1896)


Superfamily : NODOSARIACEA Ehrenberg, (1838)
Family : ELLIPSOLAGENIDAE A Silvestri, (1923)
Genus : FISSURINA Reuss, (1850)
Plate 6-1: Figure 2
Species: Fissurina cf indica Williamson, (1848)

Description: Test free, unilocular, slightly elongated, wall calcareous,


hyaline. The specimen is poorly preserved, however the studied specimen exhibits
the following characters, ovate in outline, periphery is weekly carinate, wall
calcareous, finely perforat, surface granular, the presence of entosolenian tube is
noticed. Size ranges from; length 80-90 µm and width 60-70 µm.

Order : GLOBIGERINIDA Lankester, (1986)


Superfamily : HETEROHELICAEA Cushman, (1928)
Family : GUEMBELITRIIDAE Montanaro Gallitelli, (1958)
Genus : GALLITELLIA Loeblich and Tappan, (1987)
Species: Gallitella vivans Cushman, (1934)
Plate 6-1: Figure 3a and 3b
Guembelitria ? vivans Cushman, (1934), p.105, pl. 13 figs. 9, 10.

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Chapter 6: Micropaleontological Studies

Guembelitria vivans (Cushman) Collins, (1958) 1958, p. 393, pl. 4, fig 14.
Gallitella vivans (Cushman) Loeblich and Tappan, (1986), p. 249, figs. 9-12; (1988),
p.453, pl 485, figs.1-3; Loebilch and Tappan, (1994), p.100, pl. 179, fig. 1-7;
Mayenkar, (1994), p.95, pl.9, fig.1; Chaturvedi, (2001), p.140, pl.7, Fig.1.

Description: Test elongate, triangular, tightly coiled and triserial


throughout with chamber proliferation in the final stage. Chambers sub angular
and rapidly enlarging as added, surface appears to be fine granular and perforated
with few numbers of large diameter pores, size varies from; Length 80 µm -100 µm
and width 60 µm to 80 µm.

Remarks: In the studied specimen only six well preserved specimens were
identified. The enlarged surface view shows very few pores of large diameter, they
are randomly oriented and surface appears to be fine-granular. Gallitellia vivans
(Cushman) is the only triserial coiling species among modern planktic
foraminifera and living very near to the surface (Kimoto et al., 2009). Because of
its small test and very low abundance in both water column and sediment, its
distribution and ecology is poorly understood. The occurrence of this species have
reported from the Indian subcontinent by Mayenkar, (1994), Chaturvedi (2001),
Reddy, (2006), Ghosh et al., (2008) and other part of the world by Collins, (1958);
Loeblich and Tappan, (1988); Loeblich and Tappan, (1994); Kimoto et al., (2009).

Order : FORAMINIFERIDA Delage and Hérouard, (1896)


Superfamily : GLOBIGERININAE Carpenter et al., (1862)
Family : GLOBIGERININAE Carpenter et al., (1862)
Genus : GLOBIGERINA D'orbigny, (1826)
Species: Globigerina bulloides D‘orbigny, (1826)
Plate 6-1: 4a and 4b

Description: Test free, low to medium trochospiral, strongly lobulate,


rounded, three chambers in one whorl, chambers spherical to slightly ovoid, well
separated, gradual increase in size, sutures deep, wall calcareous, uniformly and

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Chapter 6: Micropaleontological Studies

densely perforated, spines simple and with circular cross-sections. Size ranges
from; Length 70-80 µm and width 100-110 µm.

Remarks: The specimen is very well preserved and does not show any sign
of abrasion or weathering; this type of preservation rules out any role of
transportation. The specimen is essentially a planktonic one. The occurrence of
this species in intertidal deposits especially in low energy condition highlights the
major tidal influenced marine condition may be due to the south west monsoon
upwelling (Peeters et al., 2002). The species has been reported from Indian Ocean
(Bé and Hutson, 1977) and the south west Indian ocean (Khare et al., 2009). This
predominantly subantarctic and transitional species occurs in waters with surface
temperatures between 10°C and 18°C., surface salinities less than 35.5 %, high in
dissolved phosphate and silicate, and where the thermocline is weak and shallow.
Its optimal occurrence is in waters of 13.4°C., 34.8,% salinity, and 1.0 µg at/I
phosphate (Bé and Hutson, 1977). The species has reported from Anderson Inlet
area in Victoria of south-eastern Australia (Li et al., 2000). Surface water from
north-western Arabian sea (Peeters et al., 2002). Li et al., (2000) shows that
Globigerina Bulloides shows a clear responds to the palaeoenvironmental changes
and it indicate a cold water marine environment.

Order: ROTALIIDA Delage and Hérouard, (1896)


Superfamily: BOLIVINACEA Glaessner, (1937)
Family: BOLIVINIDAE Glaessner, (1937)
Genus: BOLIVINA D‘orbigny, (1839)
Species: Bolivina pusilla Schwager, (1866)
Plate 6-1: Figure 5a, 5b and 5c

Bolivina pusilla Schwager, (1866), p. 254, pl. 7, fig. 101; Mcculloch, (1977),
p.257, pl. 105, fig. 11.

Description: Test narrow, elongate, compressed and biserial throughout;


surface except the last part of chamber is ornamented by longitudinal striations.

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Chapter 6: Micropaleontological Studies

Densily populated pore pits are comparatively larger in size. 8-10 ridges are
visible. The upper portion of the chamber showing smooth surface without
considerable number of pore pit and no striations are visible. Size varies from;
length 200-210 µm and width 50-100 µm.

Remarks: The occurrence of this species is rare. Schwager, (1866) has


originally reported this specimen from the Mediterranean Sea. Mcculloch, (1977)
has recorded it from the Marshall Island of Northeast Pacific. From Indian
subcontinent the only report of the species is from the Gulf of Kachhh (Reddy,
2006). The species is originally a deep benthic. The well preserved specimens
indicates the effect of interaction between the deep sea marine condition and the
inland fluvial environment.

Order : ROTALIIDA Delage and Hérouard, (1896)


Superfamily : CASSIDULINACEA D'orbigny, (1839)
Family : CASSIDULINIDAE D'orbigny, (1839)
Genus: CASSIDULINA D‘orbigny, (1826)
Species: Cassidulina cf laevigata D‘orbigny, (1826)
Plate 6-1: Figure 6a, 6b and 6c

Cassidulina cf laevigata D‘orbigny, (1826), p.282; Lolelich and Tappan,


(1987), p504, pl.555, figs 1-8.

Description: Test free, calcareous, circular, planispiral, periphery gently


lobulate, wall smooth, semihyaline, periphery angular but not keeled, test
biconvex with 5 pairs of chambers per whorl. Central portion of the test is
excavated and sutures are depressed and curved. The pores are of big size but their
concentration is not seen in the region located along the suture. Size ranges from
Length 90-100 µm and width 90-100 µm.

Remarks: The side view of the studied specimen shows 6 chambers


moderately enlarged in size. The central portion of the test is excavated and
sutures are depressed and curved.

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Chapter 6: Micropaleontological Studies

Plate 6-1
1. Quinquloculina seminulum
a. Side view showing poorly preserved specimen. View X700.
2. Fissurina cf indica
a. Side view showing finely perforate granular surface texture. View X600.
3. Gallitella vivans
a. Side view showing triserial arrangement of chambers. View X650
b. Side view showing approximately four whorls of triserial arranged chambers.
Chambers sub globular in character. Tightly coiled. View X800.
c. The enlarged surface shows very few randomly arranged pores of large
diameter, (Surface also appear to be fine granular). View X 2500.
4. Globigerina bulloides
a. Test free, low to medium trochospiral, strongly lobulate, rounded. Three
chambers whorl, calcareous shell wall with deep suture and densely perforated
pores. Spines simple and with circular cross-sections. View X600.
b. Systematic arrangement of smaller pores densely placed in a unit area.
Remnants of spines are seen on the enlarged surface. View X3700.
5. Bolivina pusilla
a. Side view showing continuous ridges or striations. View X300.
b. The enlarged view showing apertural flap. The upper portion of the chamber
showing smooth surface without considerable number of pore pits and no
striations. View X1500.
c. Densely populated pore pits comparatively large size. 8-10 ridges or striations
are seen. View X1500.
6. Cassidulina cf laevigata
a. The side view showing 6 chambers moderately enlarged in size. The central
portion of the test is excavated and sutures are depressed and curved. The pores
are of big size but their concentration is not seen in the region located along
the suture. View X700.
b. The pores appears to be looking like shallow pits with centrally placed
depression. View X2700.
c. Apertural flap. View X2200.

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Chapter 6: Micropaleontological Studies

Palte 6-: Quinquloculina seminulum , Fissurina cf indica, Gallitellia vivans,


Globigerina bulloides, Bolivina pusilla and Cassidulina cf laevigata

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Chapter 6: Micropaleontological Studies

Order : ROTALIIDA Delage and Hérouard, (1896)


Superfamily : BULIMINACEA Jones, (1875)
Family : BULIMINIDAE Jones, (1875)
Genus : AMMONIA Brünnich, (1872)
Species : Bulimina marginata D‘orbigny, (1826)
Plate 6-2: Figure 1
Bulimina marginata D‘orbigny, (1826), p.269, pl.12, figs. 10-12.

Description: Test elongate triangular, triserial throughout, chambers


rapidly enlarging in height as added, strongly overlapping and slightly inflated; the
lower most acute margin of the chambers ornamented by short spines. Size ranges
from; length 90-100 µm, width 50-60 µm.

Remarks: Bulimina marginata is described and named by Orbigny (1826) is


one of the most common species in most outer shelf upper slope environment
(Burgess and Schnitker, 1990). This species is widely distributed in the recent
sediments of the Indian Region. Its recent reports are from North-western Gulf of
Kachchh (Chaturvedi, 2001), off Central west coast of India (Nigam and Khare,
1999), off Karikkattukuppam near Chennai, east coast (Rao, 1998) and from the
intertidal deposits of Kachchh (Reddy, 2006). In the studied specimen the species
shows a low frequency, only one specimen is collected from the lithounit 1. This
may be due to its sustainability in a low temperature range. Laboratory analysis of
the species shows that the species reproduces and calcifies between 6-14°C with an
optimum between 8-12°C temperature (Barras et al., 2009).

Order: ROTALIIDA Delage and Hérouard, (1896)


Superfamily: GLABRATELLACEA Loeblich and Tappan, (1964)
Family: GLABRATELLIDAE Loeblich and Tappan, (1964)
Genus: MURRAYINELLA Farias, (1977)
Species: Murrayinella murrayi Heron-Allen and Earland, (1915)
Plate 6-2: Figure 2a, 2b, 2c and 2d
Rotalia murrayi Heron-Allen and Earland, (1915), p. 721, pl. 53, figs. 27-34.

Description: Test low trochospiral coil of 21/2-3 whorls, 11-12 chambers


gradually enlarging in size. Surface is unevenly granular showing remnants of
tubercles. The distinct character of this reported species is that, the specimen of

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Chapter 6: Micropaleontological Studies

this locality has open umbilical and the final chamber of the test is provided with
short, low apertural flap. The central portion is pitted in nature. Size varies from;
Length- 80 µm -90 µm and width 100 µm-120µm.

Remarks: This species is the most frequent in the studied sample. The
species are reported from shore-sand from Sandoway, Arakan Coast, Burma, and
also in shallow water at Segaar, New Guinea (Heron-Allen and Earland, 1915).
The species reported from the Thailand Gulf (Melis and Violanti, 2006) forms the
most frequent species (17.6 %) in the assemblage. From India, the only report of
this species is from the Kachchh region of western India (Reddy, 2006). Melis and
Violanti, (2006) noted that the species had a wide environmental tolerence and
can be used as a marker for monitoring fluvial influence and pollution.

Order : LIIDA Delage and Hérouard, (1896)


Superfamily: NONIONACEA Schultze, (1854)
Family: NONIONIDAE Schultze, (1854)
Genus: HAYNESINA Banner and Culver, (1978)
Species: Haynesina simplex Cushman, (1933)
Plate 6-2: Figure 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, 3e, 3f,3g and 3h
Elphidium simplex- Cushman, (1933), p.52.pl.12, figs. 8,9.
Elphidium simplex – Cushman, (1939), p.62. pl.17, fig.10.
Elphidium simplex- Albani, (1968), p.113, pl.10, fig. 4.
Discription : This species is very rare in the studied assemblage.

Order : ROTALIIDA Delage and Hérouard, (1896)


Superfamily : NONIONACEA Schultze, (1854)
Family : NONIONIDAE Schultze, (1854)
Genus : NONIONOIDES Saidova, (1975)
Species: Nonionoides auris D‘orbigny, (1839)
Plate 6-2: Figure 4a, 4b and4c
Valvulina auris D‘orbigny, (1839), p.47, pl.2, fig. 15-17.
Nonionella auris (D‘Orbigny) Cushman, (1939), p. 33, pl.9, fig. 4; Setty and Nigam,
(1980), p-421.
Nonionoides auris (d‘ Orbigny) Saidova, (1975), p. 248; Loeblich and Tappan,
(1994), p. 158, pl.345, figs. 5-16.

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Chapter 6: Micropaleontological Studies

Distinguishing characters: Test oval to elongate oval in outline, a low


trochospiral coil of two convolutions; the umbilical end of the last chamber
extending into the umbilicus on the ventral side. Size varies from; Length 100-110
µm and width 60-70 µm.

Remarks: A total of eight chambers are visible. On the dorsal side sutures
are straight and slightly depressed. At some places microbial boring are seen. Fine
pores in the surface are randomly oriented. The surface shows narrow straight
depressed suture. Small pores are also seen across the suture. This species is
originally described by D‘orbigny, (1839) from the cost of Chile. Cushman, (1939)
reported this species from the Payta, Piementel and Eten coasts of Peru and off
British Columbia. Off the Forkland Island by Heron-Allen and Earland, (1932). In
the Sahul Shelf, Loeblich and Tappan, (1994) have recorded it from the Van
Diemen Rise eastern Timor Sea at 111.25 m depth and the western Van Diemen
Rise of Central Timor Sea at a depth of 54.84 m depth. From India the species have
been reported occurrence from the western coast (Setty and Nigam, 1980;
Mayenkar, 1994; Chaturvedi, 2001; Reddy, 2006).

Order : ROTALIIDA Delage and Hérouard, (1896)


Superfamily : NONIONACEA Schultze, (1854)
Family : NONIONIDAE Schultze, (1854)
Genus : NONIONOIDES Saidova, (1975)
Species: Nonionoides gatiloupi D‘orbigny, (1826)
Plate 6-3: Figure 3a and 3b
Nonionina gateloupi D‘orbigny, (1826), p 294
Nonionoides Saidova, (1975), p. 248

Description: Test weakly trochospiral, followed by planispiral, chambers


enlarging gradually, biumbilicate, periphery sub angular to rounded, wall
calcareous, hyaline, finely perforate, surface smooth, aperture low and
interiormarginal. Size varies from; Length 100-110 µm and width 75-80 µm.

Remarks: This is a Holocene species present in sublittoral regions, Atlantic,


Caribbean and Pacific regions. In the studied sediments it has a low frequency.

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Chapter 6: Micropaleontological Studies

Plate 6-2
1. Bulimina marginata
a. Side view showing triserial arrangement of chambers. Specimen had moderate
preservation. View X450.
2. Murayinella murrayi
a. Ventral view showing six chambers in all gradually enlarging in size. View X800.
b. The central portion of the species is pitted in character. View X2500.
c. Showing remnants of tubercles. View X3300.
d. Dorsal view showing the moderately increasing chamber diameter. The specimen
shows 2.5-3 whorls consisting of 11-12 chambers. View X700.
3. Haynesina simplex
a. Side view showing the rounded and gradually increasing chambers. Sutures are
characterised by septal bridges. Papillate structure is absent. View X550.
b. Enlarged surface view showing fine perforations closely placed and large septal
bridges. View X4300.
c. The specimen is characterized by papillate structure near the umbilical area. The
suture is curved and radial. The Septel Bridge is very few and ranges from 2-4
bridges distantly placed. In all the side view exhibit several chambers. Very
gradually increasing size. View X600.
d. Papillate structure includes tuburcle and small cone like structure. The surface is
densely populated with fine pores. View X1700.
e. Surface showing dense small pores and septal bridge. View X3500.
f. Side view showing well developed papillate structure. View X850.
g. Central portion exhibit distinct papillate structure. View X2700.
h. Enlarge surface showing randomly oriented distinctly placed pores. View X4500.
4. Nonionoides auris
a. Dorsal view. In all 8 chambers on the dorsal side sutures are straight radial and
slightly depressed. At some places microbial borings are also seen. This might have
been resulted by the activity of bacteria. View X550.
b. Enlarged portion showing microbial borings. View X3700.
c. Enlarged portion showing randomly oriented fine pores. View X200.

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Chapter 6: Micropaleontological Studies

Palte 6-: Bulimina marginata, Murayinella murrayi, Elphidium simplex and


Nonionoides auris.

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Chapter 6: Micropaleontological Studies

Order : ROTALIIDA Delage and Hérouard, (1896)


Superfamily : ROTALIACEA Ehrenberg, (1839)
Family : ROTALIIDAE Ehrenberg, (1839)
Genus : AMMONIA Brünnich, (1872)
Species: Ammonia tepida Cushman, (1927)
Plate 6-3: Figure 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e and 2f
Rotalia beccarri var. tepida Cushman, (1927), p.79, pl.1;
Ammonia tepida (Cushman) Seibold, (1975), p.191-192;
Ammonia tepida in Hayward et al., (2003), p.353, fig. 1-8.

Description: Test small; low trochospiral; periphery rounded to slightly sub


angular; broadly developed; Test walls perforated ; pores rounded; size varies from;
length- 90 µm to 100µm and width- 90 µm to100µm .

Remarks: Ammonia tepida is a cosmopolitan species, colonizing marine to


brackish-marine environments (Almogi-Labin et al., 1992). The species have
sustainability in a salinity range of 0.2–70 psu (Bradshaw, 1957; Reddy and
Jagadiswara Rao, 1984; Almogi-Labin et al., 1992). The recent reports stated the
restriction of this morpho-type to tropical, equatorial region (Hayward et al., 2003;
Hayward et al., 2004a) and indicative of a clear fresh water influence (Melis and
Violanti, 2006). The presence of this species have also been reported from inland
brackish lake (Wennrich et al., 2007). The surface enlargement of the studied
specimen showing comparatively large, randomly oriented pores located within
the granular surface with distinctly placed pores. The species have a reported
occurrences form east and west coast of India (Rao and Rao, 1974; Nigam, 1984)
and also reported from the Holocene section (~30 ± 10 and ~90 ± 10 ka) from the
Narmada estuary (Ghosh et al., 2008).
Order : ROTALIIDA Delage and Hérouard, (1896)
Superfamily : ROTALIACEA Ehrenberg, (1839)
Family: ELPHIDIIDAE Galloway, (1933)
Genus: ELPHIDIUM Denys-De-Monfort, (1808)

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Chapter 6: Micropaleontological Studies

Species: Elphidium excavatum Terquem, (1875)


Plate 6-3: Figure 3a, 3b and 3c
Elphidium excavatum (Terquem) forma clavata Cushman Plate 1, figures 1-9; plate
2, figures 1-9

Description: Test planispiral, involute, periphery rounded, size gradually


increasing as added, suture depressed, sutures usually closed before reaching the
umbilicul region. The illustrated specimen is characterised by broadly rounded
periphery without any keel. The umbonal area is shallowly depressed, excavated,
septal bridges are irregular and walls finely perforated. The specific identification
is made by limited number of specimens. In view of the character exhibited by this
specimen the species is tentatively comparable with excavatum. Size; Width 60-70
µm, Length 80-90 µm.

Remarks: In the studied samples, the species is present in all two units. This
species have also reported in Indian subcontinent from central west coast of India ,
from Gulf of Khambath, north eastern part of Arabian Sea, gulf of Kutch, east
coast of India and from the Saurashtra coast (Kameswara Rao, 1971; Nigam, 1984;
Nigam and Khare, 1999; Rao et al., 2000; Rao and Srinath, 2002). This species can
survive in an anoxic condition at least for a short period of time (Moodley and
Hess, 1992).

Order : Rotaliida Delage and Hérouard, (1896)


Superfamily : Rotaliacea Ehrenberg, (1839)
Family: Elphidiidae Galloway, (1933)
Genus: Elphidium Denys-De-Monfort, (1808)
Species: Elphidium sp.
Plate 6-3: Figure 4a and 4b

The illustrated specimen is comparatively small, with sub rounded


periphery. The sutures are depressed and curved. The septal bridges are obscured
by the strongly reticules surface shows recrystallization. More material is needed
for detail examination.

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Chapter 6: Micropaleontological Studies

Plate 6:3
1. Nonionoides gatiloupi
a. This illustrated specimen distinctly showing 9 chambers in the final whirl,
suture is straight depressed. The chambers are gradually increasing in size.
However the last chamber is comparatively smaller than the punltimate
chamber. View X600.
b. The surface enlargement shows numerous pores, randomly oriented in a fine
matrix. View X2500.
2. Ammonia tepida
a. Ventral view of Ammonia tepida. View X500.
b. Enlarged surface view exhibiting very fine pores, very closely spaced and visible
only at very high magnification. The enlarge surface also shows the presents of
pores of large diameter. However in a unit area they are very few. For eg the
picture show only two pores. View X2700.
c. Surface enlargement of the ammonia tepedia showing comparatively large
randomly oriented pores located within the granular surface. View X 14000.
d. Ventral view of the Ammonia tepeda. View X400.
e. Enlarged umbilicus view. View X1000.
f. Enlarged surface view showing the arrangement of pores and their absence in
the suture area. View X1300.
3. Elphidium cf excavatum
a. Side view showing planispiral, involute, rounded periphery and gradually
increasing chambers. Suture is depressed, broadly rounded periphery without
keel. The umbonal area is shallowly depressed, excavated, septal bridges are
irregular and walls finely perforated. Specimen shown distinct papillate
structure along the surface and also near the umbilicul region. View X600.
b. Distinct pippilate structure along the suture and near the central region. View
X1400.
c. Enlarged surface view showing randomly oriented closely placed pores. View
X5000.
4. Elphidium Species
a. Side view showing granular surface structure, rounded periphery and gradually
increasing chambers as added. View X430.
b. Enlarged view shows tightly held elongated grains. View X1400.

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Chapter 6: Micropaleontological Studies

Palte 6-: Nonionoides gratiloupi, Ammonia tepida, Elphedium cf excavatum and


Elphedium species.

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Chapter 6: Micropaleontological Studies

6.4 Discussion

The micro-paleontological analysis of the sediment from the two levels,


that is lithounit 2 (152-342 cm) and lithounit 4 (344-416 cm) reveal the presents of
foraminifera and ostracods (Table 6- and Figure 6-). Both the units have a Total
Foraminifera Number (TFN) are comparatively lower than the Total Microfossil
Number (TMN). From the taxonomic point of view, assemblage of foraminifera is
well preserved and most of the forms are tiny. In majority the assemblage is
juvenile in nature and the frequency is very low. The presence of abraded forms is
very low as compared to the well preserved forms. The sample also shows a very
low diversity and are represented by benthic forms Ammonia tepida, Murayinella
murrayi, Nonionoides auris, Nonionoides gatiloupi, Bulimina marginata,
Boluvina pusilla, Quinquloculina seminulum, Cassidulina cf laevigata, Haynesina
simplex, Elphedium cf excavatum, Elphidium sp., Fissurina cf indica and
planktonic forms Gallitella vivans, Globigerina bulloides. In general, these benthic
foraminiferal assemblages can be interpreted to a shallow water intertidal marine
origin. The occurrence of Planktonic foraminifera of Globigerina bulloides and
Gillitella vivans indicates strong events of tidal/storm environments, which is
responsible for the deposition of planktonic forms. This is also supported by the
present day occurrence of planktonic foraminifera in the beach rocks of west coast
and present day intertidal deposits of Narmada and Tapti estuary (Ghosh et al.,
2009). The two intertidal layers are (lithounit 2 and 4) separated by sandy fluvial
sediments (Figure 6-). Both these levels have identical foraminiferal assemblage
and thereby, do not differ from each other. Along with the foraminiferal
assemblage a rich number of ostracod is also reported.

The presence of foraminifera and ostracode assemblage in the Late


Holocene sediments confirms the activity of marine fluvial interface inland up to
56 km in the past. But the major question arises here is level of unit 4, which is 3.5

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Chapter 6: Micropaleontological Studies

to 4.2 meter above the present water level. It coins three possible explanations for
the deposition, viz. Eustatic sea level change, monsoonal upwelling of western
coast (Ghosh et al., 2008) or a base level change.

Elphidium sp Lithounit 4
Elphidium cf excavatum
Ammonia tepida
Nonionoides gatiloupi
Nonionoides auris
Haynesina simplex
Murayinella murrayi
Bulimina marginata
Cassidulina cf laevigata
Bolivina pusilla
Globigerina bulloides
Gallitella vivans
Fissurina cf lucida
Quinquloculina seminulum

0 20 40 60 80
Percentage

Elphidium sp Lithounit 2
Elphidium cf excavatum
Ammonia tepida
Nonionoides gatiloupi
Nonionoides auris
Haynesina simplex
Murayinella murrayi
Bulimina marginata
Cassidulina cf laevigata
Bolivina pusilla
Globigerina bulloides
Gallitella vivans
Fissurina cf lucida
Quinquloculina seminulum

0 20 40 60 80
Percentage

Figure 6-: Histogram showing relative percentages of foraminiferal species at lithounit


2 and lithounit 4.

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Chapter 6: Micropaleontological Studies

Figure 6-: Litholog of Uchediya sequence showing sedimentological characteristics of


foraminifera bearing lithounits.

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Chapter 6: Micropaleontological Studies

In the present stand point of view and considering chronology of the


section there is no evidence to prove the sea level change or a base level change in
a short period of ≈500 years. However, considering occurrence of planktonic and
benthic foraminiferal assemblage, lower-upper bounding surfaces and the
sedimentological characteristics together suggests that these muddy facies were
deposited during catastrophic monsoonal storm with coastal upwelling.

6.5 Inferences

1. The late Holocene section exposed at Uchediya village in the southern


bank of Lower reaches of Narmada preserve evidence of marine influences.
2. The present finding of foraminiferal assemblage at two levels above the
present channel reveals occurrence of repeated palaeo-storm events in the
lower reaches of Narmada valley through Arabian Sea.
3. The presence of Bulimina marginata; a low temperature marine fauna
indicate a low temperature in the period during the deposition of the lower
lithounit 2.
4. Presents of Gallitella vivans; a planktonic verity in the intertidal deposit
indicate a post monsoonal upwelling of Gulf of Khambath and it has
significantly modify the morphological setting of fluvial environment at
the part of Lower reaches of Narmada.

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CHAPTER 7: ENVIRONMENTAL MAGNETISM AND
GEOCHEMICAL STUDIES
Chapter 7: Environmental Magnetic and Geochemical Studies

7.1 Environmental Magnetic Studies

Magnetic property of the sediment quantifies omnipresent occurrence of


iron oxides formed in situ or transported through various processes. The
application of environmental magnetic studies thus have been widely accepted for
their role in all environments viz., climate (Kukla et al., 1988; An et al., 1991;
Basavaiah and Khadkikar, 2004; Deotare et al., 2004; Juyal et al., 2004; Cui et al.,
2005; Pant et al., 2005; Suganuma et al., 2009; Warrier and Shankar, 2009; Ao,
2010; Basavaiah, 2011); sediment transportation pathways (Ellwood et al., 2006;
Rotman et al., 2008; Alagarsamy, 2009; Dessai et al., 2009; Cioppa et al., 2010; Liu
et al., 2010b; Wang et al., 2010a); transporting medium (Thompson and Oldfield,
1986; Verosub and Roberts, 1995; Dekkers, 1997; Maher and Thompson, 1999;
Evans and Heller, 2003; Basavaiah and Khadkikar, 2004; Sangode et al., 2007);
grain size distribution (Thompson and Morton, 1979; King et al., 1982; Oldfield
and Yu, 1994; Peters and Dekkers, 2003; Booth et al., 2005; Booth et al., 2008);
depositional settings such as aeolian- loess (Heller and Tung‐sheng, 1986; Kukla et
al., 1988; Begét et al., 1990; An et al., 1991; Heller et al., 1991; Beer et al., 1993;
Verosub et al., 1993), lacustrine environment (King et al., 1982; Snowball, 1993;
Zhu et al., 2003), marginal marine environment (Rajshekhar et al., 1991; Liu et al.,
2003; Pattan et al., 2008; Rotman et al., 2008; Alagarsamy, 2009; Liu et al., 2010a;
Wang et al., 2010b) and fluvial environment (Thompson and Morton, 1979; Cui et
al., 2005; Sangode et al., 2007; Sinha et al., 2007a; Ao, 2010).

7.1.1 Sample and Analysis


The magnetic characterisation of sediment samples were carried out on
three aspects viz., 1. Measurement of magnetic susceptibility carried out at a 2 cm
sample interval (In all 401 samples were analysed); 2. Measurement of Saturation
Isothermal Remnant Magnetization (SIRM) carried out at 2 cm interval for fine
facies and 10 cm interval for coarse sedimentary facies (In all 276 samples were
analysed) and 3. Separation of Ferrimagnetic Mineral Concentration (FMC) carried

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Chapter 7: Environmental Magnetic and Geochemical Studies

out for 10 cm interval, however, significant sediment units were further analysed
at 2 cm interval (In all 205 samples were analysed) were also carried out.

7.1.2 Sample Preparation for Magnetic Studies


For magnetic measurements bulk samples collected from field was packed
tightly in 10 cc plastic bottles (Standard bottle for measurement). The weight of
empty plastic bottles and plastic bottles tightly packed with sample were recorded.
The magnetic measurements were carried out in the Environmental Magnetic
Laboratory at Indian Institute of Geomagnetism Panvel, Mumbai. For separation
of FMC, 2 sets of 10 grams of representative samples were separated and packed in
aluminium foil. One set was used for the FMC separation and another set was
preserved and used for cross checking of the recorded FMC.

7.1.3 Environmental Magnetic Measurement


The samples were measured for mainly three parameters: 1. Low frequency
volume susceptibility (lf), 2. High frequency volume susceptibility (hf) and 3.
Saturation Isothermal Remnant Magnetization (SIRM). Mass specific Susceptibility
(χlf) and Frequency dependent of Susceptibility (χfd) were further calculated. As
the measurements are simple and fast, the magnetic susceptibility often ideal in
reconnaissance studies, where a large sample set are to be analysed (Thompson and
Oldfield, 1986; Verosub and Roberts, 1995; Dealing et al., 1996; Evans and Heller,
2003; Basavaiah, 2011).

The low field magnetic susceptibility is the most fundamental and


extensively used parameter at room temperature. The mass normalized
susceptibility (χlf) is a first order estimate of ferromagnetic concentration and is an
important parameter when used with other parameters. Another extremely
important susceptibility parameter is Frequency dependency (χfd), is the difference
in susceptibility observed when the instrument is used at two different
frequencies. This is particularly important in detecting the sediment magnetic

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Chapter 7: Environmental Magnetic and Geochemical Studies

mineral gain size domain. Table 7- summarizes the parameters, its units and
descriptions used in the study.

Table 7-: Parameters, units and descriptions used for the environmental magnetic
studies

Parameter Unit Description


High frequency Volume susceptibility measured at high
volume frequency of 3904 Hz with field strength
susceptibility Dimensionless 113 A/m. Defined as =M/H; M is volume
(hf) magnetization induced, H- is intensity of
field.

Low frequency Volume susceptibility measured at high


volume frequency of 976 Hz with field strength 113
susceptibility Dimensionless A/m. Defined as =M/H; M is volume
(lf) magnetization induced, H- is intensity of
field

Mass specific Is measured as the ratio of low frequency


Susceptibility X10 -6 m kg
3 -1 volume susceptibility to density. ÷=/ñ
(χlf)

Frequency Percentage of variation in ÷ between low


dependent of frequency and high frequency.
Percentage
Susceptibility
(χfd %)

Saturation Measured as the highest volume of


isothermal magnetic remanence that can be produced
remnant X10-5 Am2kg-1 in a sample by application of very high
magnetization field. SIRM relate to both mineral type and
(SIRM) concentration.

Laboratory measurement for lf and hf were carried out using Multi-
function automated MFK-1 Kapabridge (Agico AGICO Inc. Brno, Czech Republic)
Magnetic Susceptibility meter having a high sensitivity of 2 x 10-6 (SI unit) at
optimum conditions. The measurements were done at two different frequencies
976 Hz and 3904 Hz with field strength of 113 A/m. The SIRM is measured after
exposing the sample to a high saturating magnetic field of 1 tesla. The intensity of
Isothermal Remnant Magnetization can be measured at this stage. Initially the

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Chapter 7: Environmental Magnetic and Geochemical Studies

samples were exposed to a high magnetic field of 1.00 tesl in a Pulse Magnetiser
and the saturation isothermal remanence is measured using a Molspin
Magnetometer.

7.1.3.1 Calculation of Mass Specific Susceptibility

Environmental studies often measure magnetic susceptibility on materials,


which due to their nature or preparation have widely different bulk densities. This
makes comparison of  values difficult. Therefore single sample susceptibility is
not normally expressed on volumetric basis (), but not on dry mass. In order to
obtain mass specific susceptibility, the corrected  value is divided by the bulk
density of the sample.

Mass specific magnetic susceptibility () is expressed as:

 = /

Where,
 is the volume susceptibility
 is sample density

7.1.3.2 Calculation of Frequency Dependent Susceptibility

The measurement made at two frequencies is used to detect the presence of


ultrafine (<0.03 µm) super paramagnetic minerals occurring as crystals. The
procedure involves making a  reading in magnetic fields created at two different
frequencies (976 Hz and 3904 Hz). Sample comprising of ultrafine minerals will
show lower values when measured at high frequencies. The Kapabridge sensor
allows the choice of low frequency (LF) or high frequency (HF) range. Frequency
dependent susceptibility may be expressed either as a percentage of the original LF
values or as a mass specific frequency dependent susceptibility values for
frequencies of the sensor. The calculations are simple expression of the same data
in relative and absolute forms analogous to the type and concentration of magnetic
minerals respectively. Percentage frequency dependent susceptibility (fd% or more
commonly fd%) is:

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Chapter 7: Environmental Magnetic and Geochemical Studies

 
 x 100

Where
lf is the corrected reading at low frequency
hf is the corrected reading at high frequency

7.1.4 Ferrimagnetic Mineral Concentration

A 10 gram of sample is resampled after conning and quartering of the bilk


sample. The method adopted for separation ferrimagnetic mineral is that used for
preparation for Frantz magnetic separator. The resampled fraction is taken in parts
and spread over an aluminium foil. A hand magnet covered with a thin plastic film
is repeatedly moved over the sediment at a certain distance. During this process,
the magnetic minerals fly and stick to the magnet. The magnetic minerals are then
transferred to another aluminium foil. The experiment is repeatedly done for
several iterations till no grain is observed attracted towards the magnet. This
confirms all the magnetic minerals are separated from the bulk sample. The
magnetic mineral fractions are further enriched by a similar process removing
other grains that have got attracted because of electrostatic charge generated on
the nonmagnetic mineral. The ferromagnetic minerals are further observed under
a binocular microscope for confirmation. Weight of both magnetic and
nonmagnetic materials were measured and converted to weight percentage values
for the further analysis. Similar studies were used to infer the flood events from a
vertical section in Mahi River basin (Sant et al., 2006).

7.1.5 Results and Discussion

The mineral magnetic properties namely, Low-frequency Magnetic


susceptibility (lf) and Saturation Isothermal Remnant Magnetisation (SIRM) are
plotted along the depth profile and further used for different bivariate scatter
plots. Frequency dependent susceptibility (χfd) is calculated for the sequence shows
a very low dependency (less than 5%) which indicate absence of ultrafine
magnetic grains and in turn suggest fresh sediments as a consequence χfd record is

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Chapter 7: Environmental Magnetic and Geochemical Studies

not considered for interpretation The overall characteristic of magnetic mineral in


the fluvial sediment is tabulated in Table 7-.

The plot of lf against SIRM record shows contribution of ferrimagnetic


minerals is proportional to concentration of all remanence carrying minerals
(Figure 7-). The plot of lf and SIRM record along depth profile of the sediment
sequence under study also show overall similar variation along the depth of the
sequence (Figure 7-). The significant variation in values of χlf is recorded in Figure
7-.

Table 7-: The mineral magnetic properties for Late Holocene flood plain sediment
along depth profile.

Units No. of Minimum Maximum Mean Standard


samples deviation
lf 10-6 m3 Kg-1 401 216 1693 598 205
10-5 Am2
SIRM Kg-1 276 563.3683 18361.03 6965.747 2438

30100

25100

20100
SIRM

15100

10100

5100

100
0 500 1000 1500 2000
lf

Figure 7-: Plot of lf against SIRM

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Chapter 7: Environmental Magnetic and Geochemical Studies

Figure 7-: Depth wise variation of magnetic parameters from the Uchediya section.

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Chapter 7: Environmental Magnetic and Geochemical Studies

χlf
0 500 1000 1500 2000
800

700

600

500
Depth (cm)

400

300

200

100

Figure 7-: Depth wise variation of lf values for


Uchediya sequence

In Figure 7-, the mean value of lf between 0 cm and 148 cm is 452 SI units
with 3 significant peaks at 32 cm (883 SI units), 54 cm (970 SI unit) and 108 cm (838
SI units). The values of lf shows consistent decrease from 152 cm (808 SI unit) to 212
cm ( 216 SI units) thereafter the values show gradual increase up to 292 cm (734 SI
units) with 3 minor peaks at 222 cm (454 SI units), 252 cm (520 SI units) and 268 cm
(677 SI units). The lf values show a sharp rise from 292 cm (734 SI units) to 306 cm

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Chapter 7: Environmental Magnetic and Geochemical Studies

(1693 SI units) and falls down to 310 cm (597 SI units) where after the values ranges
between 350 and 791 up to 402 cm with average of 545 SI units. The lf values show
wide variation from 456 cm to 600 cm showing 5 significant peaks at 480 cm (939 SI
unit), 510 cm (953 SI unit), 546 cm (1072 SI unit), 572 cm (1401 SI unit) and 582 cm
(1070 SI unit). The lf values from 604 cm (464 SI units) to 660 cm (748 SI units) show
a significant increase of 144 SI units. Two significant peaks are found to occur at 620
cm (636 SI unit) and 636 cm (623 SI units). In the top 100 cm (Between 700 cm to 800
cm), lf values show a slight variation without any prominent peaks.

The characterisation of each sediment units is done using minimum, maximum


and average values of χlf SIRM and FMC (Table 7- and Figure 7-). To derive
representative values for minimum, maximum and average values of χlf, SIRM and
FMC for each unit, the values along the unit margins showing wide deviations were
not considered. This omission of values avoids skewing of model. The values of χlf
show a wide variation in maximum and minimum values at Unit 3 (216 to 1693 SI
Units). There after a wide variation is observed in lithounit 6, the range goes from 458
to 1401 SI units. Lithounit 1 also shows a moderate variation in the minimum and
maximum values that range from 240 to 970 SI units. Whereas, Lithounits 2, 4, 5 and
7 shows a minimum range of variation in the calculated χlf value (Lithounit 2- 320 to
696; Lithounit 4- 351 to 667; Lithounit 5- 527 to 940 and Lithounit 7- 476 to 757).
Even is a wide variation in the χlf value is observed in different units the average
value shows a minimum range of variation from 449 to 828 SI units.

In case of SIRM also, the pattern of variation in the maximum and minimum
value shows a same trend as χlf. The maximum variation is observed in the Unit 3
(2744 to 27372), followed by Unit 6 (5723 to 18361) and Unit 1 (563 to 8653). The
minimum variations are observed in Unit 2 (822 to 5703), Unit 4 (3422 to 6956) Unit
5 (6048 to 12258) and Unit 6 (5723 to 18361). However the average value of SIRM
shows a variation from 4106 to 10351.

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Chapter 7: Environmental Magnetic and Geochemical Studies

Table 7-: Average magnetic parameters of each lithounit

Depth
χlf * χFd %* SIRM* FMC*
Lithounit
cm Mini Max Av Mini Max Av Mini Max Av Mini Max Av

Unit 7 608-800 476.46 757.19 609.11 0.48 4.67 2.43 563.37 8652.86 6046.87 0.68 9.17 2.76

Unit 6 510-600 457.87 1400.89 827.86 0.21 2.46 1.14 5722.69 18361.03 10350.86 1.59 13.48 4.54

Unit 5 432-492 526.95 939.50 689.02 1.04 1.90 1.55 6048.41 12257.82 8258.84 1.13 12.70 3.90

Unit 4 366-416 350.63 666.68 510.21 1.27 4.12 2.14 3422.19 6955.65 5063.63 2.65 6.52 4.30

Unit 3 162-342 216.24 1693.68 563.05 0.14 4.23 1.93 2743.75 27372.48 7702.32 1.18 18.94 11.17

Unit 2 122-150 320.47 696.92 460.68 1.70 3.19 2.42 844.67 5307.39 4106.17 1.30 4.13 3.00

Unit 1 0-114 240.34 970.16 448.78 1.46 3.52 2.31 3363.57 12240.35 5782.33 9.12 16.57 11.65

*Anomalous values at the contact of each unit are neglected for the calculation.

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Chapter 7: Environmental Magnetic and Geochemical Studies

The FMC characterise values for lithounits. Lithounit 3 shows wide variation
in maximum and minimum values; lithounit 1 shows high average values of FMC;
lithounit 5 and 6 have relatively uniform FMC values; lithounit 4 has the minimum
deviation with average values similar to lithounit 2, 4, 5, 6 and 7. It is observed form
the analysis that lithounit 1 and 3 have high average values of FMC and also wide
variation in the maximum and minimum value.

Figure 7-: Minimum, maximum and average values of different parameters

The plot of FMC vs SIRM shows that SIRM values fall within range of 3000 to
9000 SI units with increase in FMC from 0.68 % to 19%, suggesting ferrimagnetic
minerals concentrated in the samples have similar magnetic property for lithounits 1,
2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 suggesting similar source for the sediments (Figure 7-). However, the
SIRM values for lithounit 6 show a scatter. Within scatter, the samples having FMC
below 5%, the SIRM scatters between 6300 and 17000 SI unit whereas for samples
having FMC between 10% and 15 %, the SIRM varies between 5900 and 18400 SI
unit. The scatter of SIRM could be influenced by role of secondary magnetic mineral

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Chapter 7: Environmental Magnetic and Geochemical Studies

or role of deposition and reworking of primary deposit. However as χfd values show
less than 5% variation, this rules out the possible role of secondary magnetic mineral.

FMC vs SIRM
Lithounit 7 Lithounit 6 Lithounit 5 Lithounit 4 Lithounit 3 Lithounit 2 Lithounit 1
2.01
x 10000

1.51
SIRM

1.01

0.51

0.01
1 6 FMC 11 16

Figure 7-: Plot of ferrimagnetic mineral weight percent verses SIRM

7.2 Geochemical Studies

The chemical composition of fluvial sedimentary sequence depends on the


provenance, weathering, climate and the subsequent denudational pathways
(Johnsson, 1993). The fine facies transported as suspension load gets deposited as
overbank or in residual channels acting as natural sediment traps captures provenance
and weathering effects over an entire drainage. Therefore, bulk geochemical analyses
on bulk samples are highly representative to describe fluvial sediment composition on
a basin-wide scale (Ottesen et al., 1989). The chemical records of clastic sediments has
been widely used for deciphering provenance (Nath et al., 2000; Singh and Rajamani,
2001b; Singh and Rajamani, 2001a; Pinto et al., 2004; Lee et al., 2005; Sifeta et al.,

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Chapter 7: Environmental Magnetic and Geochemical Studies

2005; Roddaz et al., 2006; Das and Krishnaswami, 2007b; Tripathi et al., 2007; Singh,
2009; Singh, 2010), source area weathering (Nesbitt and Markovics, 1980; Nesbitt and
Young, 1982; Nesbitt et al., 1996; Nesbitt and Young, 1996; Nath et al., 2000; Price
and Velbel, 2003; Singh et al., 2005; Tripathi et al., 2007), climate (Nesbitt and Young,
1982; Zicheng et al., 2008) and regional uplift in the source region (Sinha et al.,
2007b).

7.2.1 Methodology

Geochemical records for seven representative samples, along the depth profile

were analysed using ICP AES, a facility made available by Department of Earth

Science, Indian Institute of Technology, Powai. The major elements such as Al, Fe, Ti,

K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Ca and Si were quantified.

A standard procedure adopted for geochemical analysis of major elements is

summarised. 10 gm of bulk samples was taken using conning and quartering. The

fraction is further pulverised to <200 mesh. A 0.250 gm of pulverised sample was

mixed with 0.75 g lithium meta-borate, LiBO2 (Aldrich Chemical Company) and 0.50

g of lithium tetra borate, LiB4O7 in a platinum crucible and fused at 1050°C for 10 min

in a muffle furnace. After cooling, the crucible was carefully immersed in 80 ml of 1

M HCl contained in a 150-ml glass beaker and then magnetically stirred for 1 hour

until the fusion bead had dissolved completely. Both the stirring bar and dish were

removed and rinsed. Sample volume is made to 100ml using standard flask. The

solution is further analysed in the ICP- AES (Jobin Vyon Horiba, Ultima-2) using

USGS rock standards for calibration. Weight percentage of major elements (SiO2,

Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, K2O, MgO, Na2O, TiO2, MnO and P2O5) were calculated and

further used for the analysis.

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Chapter 7: Environmental Magnetic and Geochemical Studies

7.2.2 Results and Discussion

Abundance of oxides percentage for all seven samples, representing different

depths, were plotted together to understand the relative variation of along the depth

profile (Table 7- and Figure 7-). The plot suggests a relatively high variation in Al2O3,

Fe2O3 and CaO.

Table 7-: Major elemental geochemistry and CIA of samples


Lithounit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Sample UCH UCH UCH UCH UCH UCH UCH
no 60 120 160 210 280 330 400
Depth (cm) 680-682 560-562 480-482 380-382 240-242 140-142 0-2
SiO2 62.95 64.15 73.47 62.54 84.76 60.55 82.56
Al2O3 12.87 10.06 8.25 12.65 5.29 13.28 6.17
Fe2O3 11.20 11.07 7.25 10.48 3.20 11.15 3.74
CaO 5.20 6.74 4.48 6.90 2.95 7.72 3.06
Element (Wt %)

MgO 2.65 2.83 2.04 2.48 0.99 2.64 1.09


TiO2 2.09 2.25 1.38 1.99 0.54 1.91 0.55
Na2O 1.33 1.26 1.25 1.27 0.84 1.21 1.03
K2O 1.29 1.29 1.65 1.33 1.29 1.11 1.60
MnO 0.17 0.14 0.09 0.11 0.05 0.15 0.11
P2O5 0.13 0.13 0.11 0.13 0.06 0.14 0.08
LO1 0.11 0.08 0.04 0.13 0.03 0.15 0.03
CIA 62.20 52.0 52.80 57.12 51.00 56.95 52.01

Table 7-: Correlation coefficient of major elemental concentration


SiO2 Al2O3 CaO Fe2O3 K2O MgO MnO Na2O P2O5 TiO2 LO1
SiO2 1.00
Al2 O3 -0.97 1.00
CaO -0.94 0.88 1.00
Fe2O3 -0.99 0.94 0.91 1.00
K2O 0.56 -0.58 -0.62 -0.54 1.00
MgO -0.97 0.89 0.90 0.99 -0.48 1.00
MnO -0.82 0.82 0.67 0.84 -0.42 0.80 1.00
Na2O -0.86 0.81 0.70 0.88 -0.08 0.89 0.78 1.00
P2O5 -0.99 0.94 0.90 0.99 -0.47 0.99 0.86 0.91 1.00
TiO2 -0.97 0.89 0.88 0.99 -0.49 0.99 0.79 0.88 0.98 1.00
LOI -0.91 0.96 0.89 0.87 -0.72 0.80 0.75 0.64 0.86 0.79 1.00

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Chapter 7: Environmental Magnetic and Geochemical Studies

Figure 7-: Depth wise variation of individual major elemental composition along Uchediya sequence compared with sediment
subfacies.

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Chapter 7: Environmental Magnetic and Geochemical Studies

The plots further suggest in lithounit 1 and 4 with decrease in SiO2, Al2O3,
Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, and TiO2 increasing significantly. Whereas along lithounit 1 and 2
increase in SiO2 values of other oxides decreases.

To understand mutual relation a correlation matrix among the ten major


oxides is attempted (Table 7-). It shows SiO2 (ranges from 62.543 % to 84.764 %)
having strong negative correlation (- 0.9889 to - 0.8199 significance) with other 8
oxides (Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO, Na2O, MgO, MnO and P2O5). However, SiO2 shows
moderate positive correlation with K2O (0.558). The correlation matrix further
suggests that the oxides namely Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO, Na2O, MgO, MnO and P2O5
have strong positive (0.9937 to 0.66559) among each other except K2O with which
they show moderate to low negative correlation (-0.6236 to -0.0815). To understand
the positive correlation of K2O with all other elements, variation of K2O is plotted
with respect to the depth (Figure 7-). The figure shows that, the percentage of K2O is
comparatively high in lithounit 1 (140 cm) and lithounit 5 (480 cm).

Figure 7-: Concentration of K2O plotted againest depth shows a relative high
concentration at 140 cm depth and 480 cm depth.

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Chapter 7: Environmental Magnetic and Geochemical Studies

Figure 7-: Concentration of major elements other than Silica plotted for each samples

Figure 7- gives understanding of overall variation in abundance of major oxides. It


suggests that the geochemistry of all samples shows similar pattern however in
lithounit 6 shows abnormal increase in Fe2O3.

The variation diagram (major oxides plotted against SiO2) shows a linear
arrangement of points (Figure 7-). The elements (Al2O3, TiO2, Fe2O3, Na2O, CaO, ,
MgO, MnO , P2O5) concentrate in fines (transported as saltation and suspension)
for it tends toward 100% SiO2 whereas element (K2O) concentrate in coarse
fraction (bed load) for it tend towards 0% SiO2.

The binary plot of two immobile elements Al2O3 vs Fe2O3, Al2O3 vs TiO2
and Fe2O3 vs TiO2 (Figure 7-) shows three distinct groups. Whereas, the plots of
mobile elements K2O vs Na2O, K2O vs P2O5, CaO vs P2O5 and CaO vs Na2O show
scatter as these elements are likely to get fractionated during denudational
processes.

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Chapter 7: Environmental Magnetic and Geochemical Studies

Figure 7-: Variation diagram of major oxides with respect to SiO2

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Chapter 7: Environmental Magnetic and Geochemical Studies

Figure 7-: Bivariant plot capturing relative variation between major oxides.

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Chapter 7: Environmental Magnetic and Geochemical Studies

Figure 7-: Plots of CaO+Na2O vs Fe2O3+TiO2

The plots of CaO+Na2O vs FeO3+TiO2 were plotted to understand the


possible source of iron bearing minerals. The plot shows that iron minerals
(FeO3+TiO2) have positive trend with Feldspar (CaO+Na2O), indicate Basaltic
terrain as a source (Figure 7-).

An estimation of the degree of chemical weathering of each lithounit is


obtained by calculating the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA-Table 7-) (Nesbitt
and Young, 1982). These parameters have extensively used by different
researchers to understand the chemical maturity and province weathering (Singh
and Rajamani, 2001a; Lee et al., 2005; Das and Krishnaswami, 2007a; Tripathi et
al., 2007; Manikyamba et al., 2008; Oh et al., 2008; Roy et al., 2008; Singh, 2009;
Singh, 2010). The CIA values of fresh rocks and minerals are consistently near 50.
The samples with CIA values below 60 display low chemical weathering, between
60 and 80 indicate moderate chemical weathering and more than 80 exhibit
extreme chemical weathering (Fedo et al., 1995). All lithounits except lithounit 7
indicate a low chemical weathering of 51 to 57, whereas, lithounit 7 indicates a
moderate chemical weathering of the sediments (62.20). Low weathering/
diagenesis of the sequence is also suggested by significantly low value of χfd%.

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Chapter 7: Environmental Magnetic and Geochemical Studies

7.3 Inferences

1 The magnetic susceptibility of all the sediments vary form 216-1693 10-6 m3kg-1
and standard deviation of 205 10-6 m3kg-1, indicate that the sediment is
composed of relatively high magnetic susceptible minerals.
2 A low dependency value (1.9 to 4.67 %) of all the sediments shows that the
sediment is composed of single domain magnetic grains.
3 Each unit in the vertical section is characterized by a break in the magnetic
properties whereas the average value of each unit shows a minimum variation
indicates uniform source for the sediments.
4 Major element geochemistry of 7 represented samples from each lithounit
shows a minor compositional variation.
5 Silica shows a well negative correlation with all other elements other than
K2O. With K2O (0.56) which shows a positive correlation.
6 Binary plots of mobile and immobile elements show that lithounit 5 is
chemically distinct from other lithounits.
7 Chemical index of alteration indicate that the sediments are chemically
unaltered except unit 7 which shows a low chemical weathering.

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CHAPTER 8: AGGRADATION HISTORY AND
DEPOSITIONAL MODEL FOR UCHEDIYA SURFACE

―A disciple of the sage Bhruga, from whose name the present Broch is said
to be corrupted, one day, complaining to him of the distance he had to go to wash
his cloths, was told that his grievance would be at an end if, the next time he went
to wash, he on his way home, dragged his clothes after him and did not look
behind him. The advice was followed, and the man, on turning round to look,
when he reached his own door, found that the river flowed at his feet instead of
Ankaleswar‖

Bombay Presidency Gazetteer (1877-1905, p.342)


Chapter 8: Aggradation History and Deposition Model…

8.1 Integration of Multi-proxy Records

Lower reaches of Narmada Valley preserves an assemblage of landforms


belonging to broader age bracket providing an opportunity for a researcher to
comprehend continental response over a range of climatic phases. The channel of
River Narmada in its lower reaches, further gives a wisdom to build up step wise
segmental changes, which otherwise is a multifarious. The river segment under
present study is identified as a sandy segment that preserves evidence for both
landform accretion and erosion. The study area is noteworthy for having
Archaeological importance (Bharuch mount: Desai, 1993, a Fort wall – built
during year AD 1094 to 1143, tenure of Hon. Sidh Raj Jaisinhji of Anhilwara),
Historical important constructions (Golden bridge -build during British rule-
Preliminary work started from 1864 followed by construction phase from
December 1877 and was completed in May 1881), historical documents for human
response to undergoing changes in the river channel (Bombay Presidency
Gazetteer) and meteorological record (from Garudeshwar station: 1948 to 2009)
(Section 1.4).

The proposed aggradation model of QS2 for past 500 years is based on high
resolution multi-proxy record generated from sandy muddy sequence
representing QS2 (Uchediya surface), meteorological records, historical
documentations and observations on present channel.

The illustrative sequence of Uchediya surface (QS2) is analysed at high


resolution for sedimentology and magnetic studies supported by geochemistry and
microfaunal studies on representative samples. High resolution granulometric
records were further used to calculate various sedimentological parameters that
capture depositional environments, palaeohydrological conditions and change in
both with time. The high resolution magnetic records were further used to
calculate mass specific susceptibility (χlf) and SIRM that capture relationship with

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Chapter 8: Aggradation History and Deposition Model…

mean grain size. Ferrimagnetic Mineral Concentration was fractionated from bulk
sample.

The trend analysis within and across multi-proxy records provide a


rationale in developing multi-proxy aggradation model. The sandy muddy
intercalated Uchediya sequence is further subdivided into seven subfacies based on
high resolution granulometric record (Chapter 5). Various sedimentological
parameters Mean (), Sorting (σ1), Skewness (Sk1) and Kurtosis (KG) were worth to
distinguish 7 lithounits along distinctive depths (Section 5.4.2).

The plots of Mean () verses FMC shows three distinct clusters (Figure 8-).
Cluster -I comprises of lithounits 2, 4 and 7 dominated in muddy facies, the
cluster-II comprises of lithounits 3, 5 and 6 and the cluster-III comprises of
lithunits 1, 3, 5 and 6 are dominated by sandy facies. The plot further suggests
lithounit 5 has association with lithounit 6 suggesting same depositional site if not
similar sub facies, however lithounit 6 shows wide scatter.

Mean vs FMC U7
20.50
U6
18.50
16.50 U5

14.50 U4
12.50 U3
FMC %

10.50
U2
8.50
U1
6.50
4.50
2.50
0.50
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
Mean Φ

Figure 8-: Bivarient plot of Mean grain Size verses Ferrimagnetic mineral weight
percentage

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Chapter 8: Aggradation History and Deposition Model…

A 1600 Mean vs χlf


U7
1400 U6

1200 U4
U2
1000
χlf (SI Unit)

800

600

400

200

0
2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
Mean (Φ)

B Mean vs χlf
1800

1600 U6
1400 U5

1200 U3
χlf(SI Unit)

U1
1000

800

600

400

200

0
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5
Mean (Φ)

Figure 8-: Bivarient plots of Mean grains size verses χlf

The plots of Mean () vs magnetic susceptibility (χlf) shows two clear trends
within sandy and muddy facies. The values of χlf increases with decrease in grain
size within lithounits 2, 4 and 7 dominated by muddy facies (Figure 8-A), whereas
the values of χlf increases with increase in grain size within the lithounits 1,3 and 5

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Chapter 8: Aggradation History and Deposition Model…

dominating in sandy facies (Figure 8-B) . However the lithounit 6 that comprises
all the sediment subfacies other than StMS+CS follows a scatter. The lithounit 6
therefore indicate major transition phase during aggradation of QS1.

The plots of FMC vs SIRM show two distinct trends within muddy facies
and sandy facies (Figure 8-). The values of SIRM increases with increase in FMC
along lithounits 1,3,5, and 6 that dominates sandy facies, suggest that SIRM are
associated with grain size of FMC and magnetic saturation attained by magnetic
minerals is attained over a long period of time within sandy facies. The values of
SIRM flatten with increase in FMC in the muddy facies where magnetic saturation
is attaining in short time within finer facies.

FMC vs SIRM
2.01
x 10000

Lithounit 7
1.51
Lithounit 6
SIRM (SI Unit)

Lithounit 5
1.01 Lithounit 4
Lithounit 3

0.51 Lithounit 2
Lithounit 1

0.01
1 6 FMC (%) 11 16

Figure 8-: Bivarient plot of Ferrimannetic mineral concentration and SIRM

The plots of Magnetic Susceptibility (χlf) vs Fe2O3 + TiO2 (Figure 8-) show a
linear trend, where, χlf increases with Fe2O3 + TiO2, suggesting titanomagnetite as
a major mineral for increase in χlf. The plots of Magnetic Susceptibility (χlf) vs CaO
+ Na2O (Figure 8-) follows that same imprint with a difference made by decrease

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Chapter 8: Aggradation History and Deposition Model…

in CaO + Na2O of lithounit 7. The higher values of Fe2O3 + TiO2 for lithounit 7
suggest role of diagenesis in lithounit 7 that caps the sequence.

χlf vs Fe2O3 + TiO2


Lithounit 7

16 Lithounit 6
14
Lithounit 5
12
Fe2O3 + TiO2

Lithounit 4
10
8 Lithounit 3

6 Lithounit 2
4 Lithounit 1
2
200 400 600 800
χ lf

Figure 8-: Bivarient plots of χlf vs Fe2O3 + TiO2

χlf vs CaO + Na2O


10
Lithounit 7
Lithounit 6
8 Lithounit 5
CaO + Na2O

Lithounit 4
6 Lithounit 3
Lithounit 2
4 Lithounit 1

2
200 400 600 800
χ lf

Figure 8-: Bivarient plots of χlf vs CaO + Na2O

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Chapter 8: Aggradation History and Deposition Model…

8.2 Depositional Environment

Each lithounit is distinguished by subfacies, magnetic character, FMC and


major element geochemistry. The two muddy lithounits viz., lithounit 2 and
lithounit 4 were examined for microfaunal studies (Chapter-6). The multi-proxy
records generated further assist to derive at depositional environments viz., 1.
Channel deposits 2. Channel margin Deposits (CD), 3. Transitional Deposits (TrD),
4. Over bank Deposits (OBD), and 5. Catastrophic Monsoonal Storm with Coastal
Upwelling Deposits (CMS_CU).

8.2.1 Channel Deposit


The Channel Deposit (CD) is characterized by sandy facies having an
overall average mean grain size range between 1.68Φ and 1.81Φ. The sandy facies
are further classified into three subfacies viz., SmFS+MS subfacies, StMS+FS+CS subfacies
and StMS+CS showing well to moderately well sorting. The sandy subfacies aggrades
in couplets namely, StMS+FS+CS subfacies and SmFS+MS subfacies (thin couplets) and
StMS+FS+CS subfacies and StMS+CS subfaices (30 cm to 60 cm thick couplet). The overall
average values of FMC and χlf of the sandy facies are 11.5 wt % (high) and 448 to
563 SI respectively. At Uchediya sequence CD is well exposed along the base (114
cm thick: lithounit1) and between 152 cm and 342 cm (190 cm thick: lithounit 3).
These sediment characteristics single out sandy facies as rapidly aggraded facies
under high energy condition within channel. The occasional occurrence of basalt
pebbles within the sandy facies further suggests sediment source in immediate
upstream within the sandy channel. The suite analysis (Figure 5-) suggests that
both lithounits 1 and 3 were deposited at a lower level along the channel. The
sandy deposits are therefore depicted as rapid aggradation, resultant rapid sand
movement within the channel during adjustment of thalweg line. Similar activities
are observed within present Narmada channel at about decadal scale.

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Chapter 8: Aggradation History and Deposition Model…

8.2.2 Channel Margin Deposits


The Channel Margin Deposit (CMD) is also characterized by sandy facies
having an overall average mean grain size of 2.44 Φ. The sandy facies are well
sorted and classified as SlFS+VFS subfacies. The SlFS+VFS subfacies aggrades as a single
unit. The overall average FMC and χlf of the sandy facies are 3.9 wt % and 689 SI
respectively. Lower variation in magnetic characteristics suggests shift in the
source from CD to relative distal portion within active channel. At Uchediya
sequence, CMD is exposed between 418 cm and 492 cm (74 cm thick; lithounit 5).
The sediment characteristic and suite analysis (Figure 5-5 and 5-6) indicates that
the SlFS+VFS subfacies aggraded in phases under relatively calm conditions away
from the thalweg line along channel margins resulting a laminated sequence. The
aggradation of these facies takes place under bank full conditions.

8.2.3 Transitional Deposits


The Transitional Deposits (TrD) are characterized by sandy facies having
an overall average mean grain size of 2.72 Φ. The sandy facies are further classified
into five subfacies FmSILT+VFS subfacies, FmSILT+VFS+FS subfacies, SlFS+VFS subfacies,
SmFS+MS subfacies, and StMS+FS+CS subfacies showing moderate sorting. The sandy
subfacies aggrades in intercalations of subfacies inconsistently. The overall
thickness of subfacies varies from 6 cm to 12 cm attaining minimum 2 cm and
maximum 20 cm in thickness. The overall average FMC and χlf of the sandy facies
is 4.54 wt % and 828 SI respectively. At Uchediya sequence TrD is well exposed
between 494 cm and 600 cm (106 cm thick: lithounit 6). In consistency in couplets
of subfacies and their thickness suggest short events of variable energy condition
during the aggradation. The suite analysis suggests overall deposition is at lower
level showing variability. The aggradation of such assemblage of subfacies would
occur above eroding channel margins during shift of the thalweg line towards the
channel margin.

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Chapter 8: Aggradation History and Deposition Model…

8.2.4 Overbank Deposit


The Overbank Deposits (OBD) is characterized by silty facies having an
overall average mean grain size of 4.39 Φ. The silty facies are further classified into
two subfacies namely, FmSILT+VFS subfacies and FmSILT+VFS+FS subfacies, showing
poor sorting. The silty subfacies aggrades in intercalations. The overall thickness of
subfacies varies from 2 cm to 8 cm attaining minimum 2 cm and maximum 36 cm
in thickness. Average ferrimagnetic mineral percentage and Xlf of the silty facies
are 5.05 wt % and 609 SI respectively. At Uchediya sequence, OBD is well exposed
between 602 cm and 802 cm (200 cm thick: lithounit 7). Consistency of subfacies
couplets with variable thickness suggests repeated occurrence of short as well
moderate events under influence of flood condition. The suite analysis suggests
deposition occurred at higher elevation. The sediments aggrade when water flows
over the channel margin. Such a process records overall growth in channel banks.
These deposits preserve historical flooding events.

8.2.5 Catastrophic Monsoonal Storm with Coastal Upwelling Deposits


The Catastrophic Monsoonal Storm with Coastal Upwelling Deposits
(CMS_CU) are characterized by silty facies having an overall average mean grain
size of 5.28 -4.72 Φ. The silty facies are further classified into two subfacies
namely, FmSILT+VFS (T) subfacies and FmSILT+VFS+FS subfacies, showing poor sorting.
The silty subfacies aggrade both as single facies (FmSILT+VFS (T) subfacies: 30 cm
thickness) as well as with intercalation of FmSILT+VFS+FS subfacies (2 cm to 4cm
thickness) within FmSILT+VFS (T) subfacies. Overall, the average ferrimagnetic
mineral percentage and Xlf of the silty facies ranges from 3 to 4.30 wt % and 444 to
510 SI respectively. At Uchediya sequence, CMS_CU deposit is exposed at two
levels between 116 cm and 150 cm (single FmSILT+VFS (T) subfacies: 34 cm thick:
lithounit 2) and 344 cm and 416 cm (intercalation of FmSILT+VFS (T) and FmSILT+VFS+FS

subfacies: 72 cm: lithounit 4). The most significant aspect of FmSILT+VFS of CMS_CU
deposit is the presence of benthic and planktonic microfossils compared to

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Chapter 8: Aggradation History and Deposition Model…

FmSILT+VFS of OBD. The suite analysis suggests CMS_CU deposits got accreted at
higher elevation over the channel deposits under catastrophic storm condition
resulting in tidal upwelling and influx of tidal water. Similar events arise from
Arabian Sea and extend inland in majority of cases during erratic pre monsoon and
monsoon time.

8.3 Model for Aggradation History of Late Holocene Flood plain

The OSL chronology [three OSL dates: 495 ± 60 years before 2009 (Year
1514 AD: 0-2cm), 515 ± 40 years before 2009 (Year 1492 AD: 600-602 cm) and 130
± 30 years old (Year 1879 AD: 750-752cm)]. The laboratory has opined that the
aggradation sediments from base up to 600 cm from base be deposited within
relatively a very short time span (not more than 100 years) suggesting significant
land-forming activity which took place in the 15th century AD and at the onset of
the 16th century AD. The global climatic records identify this period under
influence of Little Ice Age (LIA), where monsoon became erratic and weak. The
onset of the Little Ice Age in the higher latitudes in the Northern hemisphere
dates to the early 14th century A.D with relatively delayed response in lower
latitudes (Grove, 1988; Wang et al., 2005).

The historical records on the Fort wall built on the right bank of Narmada
at Bharuch city advocate that construction of the Fort Wall was done during the
tenure of Hon. Sidh Raj Jaisinhji of Anhilwara during 1094 AD to 1143 AD
(Bombay Presidency Gazetteer, 1877-1950, page 551). A primary objective for
building the Fort Wall was to protect city from floods and prevent erosion of land.
The time span (1094 AD to 1143 AD) on global climatic records evoke for
Medieval Warm Epoch (Crowley, 2000; Crowley and Lowery, 2000; Cronin et al.,
2003; Yamada et al., 2010). The Narmada channel during this time phase flowed
along both the banks throughout the year which made Hon. Sidh Raj Jaisinhji of
Anhilwara feel the necessity of building the Fort wall. The Bombay Presidency

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Chapter 8: Aggradation History and Deposition Model…

Gazetteer, 1877-1950 further records strengthening and rebuilding of the Fort wall
during 1526 to 1536, in the tenure of Hon. Bahadur Shah. The record hints at
prior to 1526 (onset of 16th Century), the Fort wall was badly damaged. The cause
of destruction could be possibly none other than catastrophic flooding in the
Narmada River at the onset of 16th Century. The strengthening and rebuilding of
the Fort Wall therefore imply change in the river dynamics under the influence of
climate transformation from Medieval Warm Epoch to Little Ice Age, leading to
increase in uncertainty.

The sedimentological and chronological records on Uchediya sequence


suggest that channel deposits exposed at the base of the sequence (0-114 cm) got
initiated to accrete during the onset of 16th Century (Year 1514 AD OSL date),
advocating for large scale sand movement within the channel under high energy
condition. The coarse sandy facies with occasional presence of basalt pebbles
suggests source in the immediate upstream within channel. During this phase, the
River was on its way to adjust the thalweg line, scour the floor of the channel in
upstream and to deposit the sandy facies further downstream.

The CD is further overlaid by CMS_CU deposits (116 cm to 150 cm). These


deposits are characterized by sedimentology, magnetics and microfossil assemblage
records. During CMS_CU arises from Arabian Sea dynamics, upwelling the coastal
waters and raise of High Water Line leading to inlet of tidal flux inland the
Narmada channel for a short time span. The evidence of CMS_CU deposits
suggests erratic behaviour of southwest Indian Monsoon.

The CMS_CU deposits were preserved as a result of rapid deposits of CD


inland (152 cm to 342 cm). The unique feature with this sediment unit is that
sediment facies gradually increase from finer sandy facies to coarser sandy facies,
reach the peak followed by gradual decrease in sediment facies from coarser sandy

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Chapter 8: Aggradation History and Deposition Model…

facies to finer sandy facies, capturing increase and decrease in overall movement of
sand within the channel. The event further justifies partial stabilization of a bar.

The CD is further overlaid by second event of CMS_CU deposits (344 cm to


416 cm). The second event of CMS_CU deposits further justifies erratic southwest
Indian monsoon in epoch of Little Ice Age (Figure 8-).

Figure 8-: Stabilisation of channel bar preserves CMS_CU deposit within CD.

The CMS_CU deposits are preserved as a result of rapid deposition of CMD (418
cm to 492 cm). The CMD is characterized by sedimentological records. CMD facies
records continuation of high energy condition and state of floods in the river
channel. During this phase, the thalweg line has shifted north, away from the
discussed site of aggrading sediment facies (Figure 8-).

The CMD are overlaid by TrD (494 cm to 600 cm). The TrD facies are
characterized by sedimentological, magnetic and ferrimangnetic mineral
percentage records. The unique feature with this sediment unit is that, it
incorporates thin beds of verity of sediment facies except StMS+CS (recorded only in
second CD). The heterogeneity in the sediment facies captures rapid variation in

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Chapter 8: Aggradation History and Deposition Model…

energy condition during short time span and on-going shift in thalweg line to the
south eroding the aggraded bar.

Figure 8-: Northward shifting of thalweg line and aggradation of bar. CMD & TrD
accreated along River bank.

Figure 8-: Aggradetion of OBD, stabilisation of Uchediya through periodic flooding.

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Chapter 8: Aggradation History and Deposition Model…

Figure 8-: Major flood events and their multi-proxy records from Over Bank Deposit

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Chapter 8: Aggradation History and Deposition Model…

The TrD are overlaid by OBD (600 cm to 800 cm). The OBD facies are
characterized by sedimentological, magnetic and ferrimangnetic mineral
percentage records. The onset of deposition of OBD suggests stabilization of neo-
bank (Figure 8-). The OBD aggraded over the neo bank during periodic significant
flooding state of the river. The OBD from 600 cm to 750 cm records 6 major
flooding events in the past 465 years whereas; from 750 cm to 800 cm preserves
evidence of 5 major flood records in past 132 years (Figure 8-).

****************

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Publications

PUBLICATIONS

(1) Publications from the thesis

Sukumaran, P., Parvez, I.A., Sant, D.A., Rangarajan, G., and Krishnan, K., 2011,
Profiling of late Tertiary-early Quaternary surface in the lower reaches of
Narmada valley using microtremors: Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, v. 41, p.
325-334.
Sukumaran, P., Sant, D.A., Krishnan, K., and Rangarajan, G., (2012), High
Resolution Facies record on Late Holocene Flood Plain Sediments from
Lower reaches of Narmada Valley, Western India: Journal of the Geological
Society of India, v. 79, p. 41-52.
Sukumaran, P., Rajshekhar, C., Sant, D.A., and Krishnan, K., (2012), Late
Holocene Storm Records from Lower Reaches of Narmada Valley, western
India: Journal of the Geological Society of India, v. 79, p.403-408.

(2) Publications other than from thesis

Sant, D.A, Wadhawan, S. K, Ganjoo, R. K, Basavaiah, N., Sukumaran, P., and


Bhattacharya, S., 2011a, Morphostratigraphy and palaeoclimate appraisal of
the Leh valley, Ladakh Himalayas, India: Journal of the Geological Society
of India, v. 77, p. 499-510.

Sant, D.A., Wadhawan, S.K., Ganjoo, R.K., Basavaiah, N., Sukumaran, P., and
Bhattacharya, S., 2011b, Linkage of Paraglacial Process from Last Glacial to
Recent Inferred from Spituk Sequence, Leh valley, Ladakh Himalayas, India:
Journal of the Geological Society of India, v. 78, p. 147-156.

Rajesh, S. V., and Sukumaran, P., (In press) Distribution of Classical Harappan and
Regional Chalcolithic Sites in Gujarat, in Proceedings International Round
Table Conference on Gujarat Harappans and Chalcolithic Cultures, Bhuj.

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Thank You….