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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 4. Conjugate roots : Irrational roots and complex roots occur in conjugate pairs i.e. if one root α + iβ, then other root α – iβ if one root α + 2. Quadratic equation : An equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, a ≠ 0, a, b, c ∈ R has two and only two roots, given by α= 3.
−b + b2 − 4ac 2a

QUADRATIC EQUATION & EXPRESSION
1. Quadratic expression : A polynomial of degree two of the form ax2 + bx + c, a ≠ 0 is called a quadratic expression in x.

β , then other root α –

β

5.

Sum of roots : S=α+β=

and

β=

−b − b2 − 4ac 2a

−Coefficient of x −b = Coefficient of x2 a

Nature of roots : Nature of the roots of the given equation depends upon the nature of its discriminant D i.e. b2 – 4ac. Suppose a, b, c ∈ R, a ≠ 0 then (i) (ii) (iii) If D > 0 If D = 0 If D < 0

Product of roots : P = αβ =

cons tant term c = Coefficient of x2 a

⇒ ⇒

roots are real and distinct (unequal) roots are real and equal (Coincident)

6.

.ormation of an equation with given roots : x2 – Sx + P = 0

roots are imaginary and unequal i.e. ⇒ non real complex numbers. Suppose a, b, c ∈ Q a ≠ 0 then 7.

x2 – (Sum of roots) x + Product of roots = 0

(i) (ii)

If D > 0 and D is a perfect square ⇒ roots are rational & unequal If D > 0 and D is not a perfect square ⇒ roots are irrational and unequal.

Roots under particular cases : .or the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, a ≠ 0 (i) (ii) (iii) If b = 0 ⇒ roots are of equal magnitude but of opposite sign. If c = 0 ⇒ one root is zero and other is –b/a If b = c = 0 ⇒ both roots are zero

.or a quadratic equation their will exist exactly 2 roots real or imaginary. If the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 is satisfied for more than 2 distinct values of x, then it will be an identity & will be satisfied by all x. Also in this case a = b = c = 0.
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(iv) If a = c ⇒ roots are reciprocal to each other.

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (v) If a > 0, c < 0 or a < 0, c > 0 ⇒ roots are of opposite signs (vi) If a > 0, b > 0, c > 0 or a < 0, b < 0, c < 0 ⇒ both roots are –ve (vii) If a > 0, b < 0 , c > 0 or a < 0, b > 0, c < 0 roots are +ve. 8. Symmetric function of the roots : If roots of quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c, a ≠ 0 are α and β, then (i) (α – β) = (viii) α2 + αβ + β2 = (α + β)2 – αβ = ={(α + β)2 –2αβ}2 – 2α2β2 MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (vi) α4 + β4 = (α2 + β2)2 – 2α2β2

.b =G H

2

− 2ac a2

I J K

2

–

2c2 a2

⇒ both
(vii) α4 – β4 =(α2 + β2) (α2 – β2) =

−b(b2 − 2ac) b2 − 4ac a4 b2 + ac a2

(α + β) − 4αβ = ±

2

b2 − 4ac a

(ix)

α α 2 + β2 (α + β)2 − 2αβ β + = = β αβ αβ α

(ii)

α2 + β2 = (α + β)2 – 2αβ =

b2 − 2ac a2 −b b2 − 4ac a2

(x)

.G α IJ H βK

2

+

. βI G αJ H K

2

=

α4 + β4 [(b2 − 2ac)2 − 2a2c2 ] = α 2 β2 a2c 2

(iii)

α2 – β2 = (α + β)

(α + β) − 4αβ =

2

9.

Condition for common roots : The equations a1 x2 + b1 x + c1 = 0 and a2x2 + b2x + c2 = 0 have (i) One common root if

−b(b2 − 3ac) (iv) α3 + β3 = (α + β)3 – 3(α + β) αβ = a3
(v) α 3 – β3 = (α – β) [α2+ β2 – αβ] =

b1c2 − b2c1 c1a2 − c2a1 c1a2 − c2a1 = a1b2 − a2b1

(α + β)2 − 4αβ [α2+ β2 – αβ] (b2 − ac) b2 − 4ac a3
(ii)

a1 b1 c1 Both roots common if a = b = c 2 2 2

=

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 10. Maximum and Minimum value of quadratic expression : MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (v) If both the roots lies in the interval (k1, k2) D ≥ 0, a.f(k1) > 0, a.f(k2) > 0, k1 < (vi) If k1, k2 lies between the roots expression has minimum value a.f(k1) < 0, a.f(k2) < 0 (vii) λ will be the repeated root of f(x) = 0 if f(λ) = 0 and f'(λ) = 0 12. .or cubic equation ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0 : We have α + β + γ = 11. Location of roots : Let f(x) = ax2 + bx + c, a ≠ 0 then w.r.to f(x) = 0 (i) (ii) If k lies between the roots then a.f(k) < 0 (necessary & sufficient) If between k1 & k2 their is exactly one root of k1, k2 themselves are not roots f(k1) . f(k2) < 0 (iii) (necessary & sufficient) αβ + αγ + αδ + βγ + βδ + γδ =
c e and αβγδ = a a −b c −d , αβ + βγ + γα = and αβγ = a a a

In a quadratic expression ax Where D = b2 – 4ac (i) If a > 0, quadratic

2

L. b I + bx + c = a MG x + 2a J K MNH

2

D 4a2 ,

OP PQ

−b < k2 2a

−b 4ac − b2 at x = and there is no maximum value. 2a 4a
(ii) If a < 0, quadratic expression has maximum value
−b 4ac − b2 at x = and there is no minimum value. 2a 4a

where α, β, γ are its roots. 13. .or biquadratic equation ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + dx + e = 0 : We have α + β + γ + δ = –

−d b , αβγ + βγδ + γδα + γδβ = a a

If both the roots are less than a number k D ≥ 0, a.f(k) > 0,

−b <k 2a

(necessary & sufficient)

(iv) If both the roots are greater than k D ≥ 0, a.f(k) > 0,
−b >k 2a

(necessary & sufficient)

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK * * * * * z – z = 2i Im(z) = purely imaginary z z = |z|2

COMPLEX NUMBER
1. Complex Number : A number of the form z = x + iy (x, y ∈ R, i =
−1 ) is called a complex number, where x is called a real part i.e. x = Re(z) and y is called an imaginary part i.e. y = Im(z).

z1 + z2 +....+zn = z 1 + z 2 + .......... + z n z1 − z2 = z 1 – z 2 z1z2 = z 1 z 2

Modulus |z| =

x2 + y2 ,

amplitude or amp(z) = arg(z) = θ = tan–1 (i) Polar representation : x = r cosθ, y = r sinθ, r = |z| = (ii) Exponential form : z = reiθ , where r = |z|, θ = amp.(z) (iii) Vector representation :

y . x

* *

.G z I Hz J K
1 2

=

.z I Gz J H K
1 2

(provided z2 ≠ 0)

ez j
n

= ( z )n = z

x2 + y2

* *

c zh

If α = f(z), then α = f( z ) Where α = f(z) is a function in a complex variable with real coefficients.

P(x, y) then its vector representation is z = OP 2. Integral Power of lota : i=
2 3 4 −1 , i = –1, i = –i , i = 1

* * 4.

z + z = 0 or z = – z ⇒ z = 0 or z is purely imaginary z= z

z is purely real

Modulus of a complex number : Magnitude of a complex number z is denoted as |z| and is defined as |z| = (i) (ii) (iii)

Hence i4n+1 = i, i4n+2 = –1, i4n+3 = –i, i4n or i4(n+1) = 1 3. Complex conjugate of z : If z = x + iy, then z = x – iy is called complex conjugate of z * * *
E D U C A T I O N S

(Re(z))2 + (Im(z))2 , |z| ≥ 0

z z = |z|2 = | z |2 z–1 =

z is the mirror image of z in the real axis.
|z| = | z | z + z = 2Re(z) = purely real
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z |z|2

|z1 ± z2|2 = |z1|2 + |z2|2 ± 2 Re (z1 z2 )
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (iv) |z1 + z2|2 + |z1 – z2|2 = 2 [|z1|2 + |z2|2] (v) |z1 ± z2| ≤ |z1| + |z2|
a + ib = ±

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 6. Square root of a complex no.

(vi) |z1 ± z2| ≥ |z1| – |z2| 5. Argument of a complex number : Argument of a complex number z is the ∠ made by its radius vector with +ve direction of real axis. arg z = θ, = –θ, (i) (ii) (iii) z ∈ 1st quad. z ∈ 3rd quad.
th

L M M N L M M N

|z|+a |z|−a +i , for b > 0 2 2 |z|+a |z|−a −i , for b < 0 2 2

O P P Q

= ±

O P P Q

= π – θ , z ∈ 2nd quad. = θ – π , z ∈ 4 quad. arg (any real + ve no.) = 0 arg (any real – ve no.) = π arg (z – z ) = ± π/2

7.

De-Moiver's Theorem : It states that if n is rational number, then (cosθ + isinθ)n = cosθ + isin nθ and (cosθ + isinθ)–n = cos nθ – i sin nθ

8.

Euler's formulae as z = reiθ, where eiθ = cosθ + isinθ and e–iθ = cosθ – i sinθ

(iv) arg (z1.z2) = arg z1 + arg z2 + 2 k π (v) arg

eiθ + e–iθ = 2cosθ and eiθ – e–iθ = 2 isinθ

.G z I Hz J K
1 2

= arg z1 – arg z2 + 2 k π

9.

nth roots of complex number z1/n = r1/n cos

(vi) arg ( z ) = –arg z = arg

. 1I G zJ H K

, if z is non real (i) (ii)

L . 2mπ + θ I + i sin. 2mπ + θ I O M G n J G n JP , K H KQ N H

= arg z, if z is real (vii) arg (– z) = arg z + π, arg z ∈ (– π , 0] = arg z – π, arg z ∈ (0, π ] (viii) arg (zn) = n arg z + 2 k π (ix) arg z + arg z = 0 argument function behaves like log function.

where m = 0, 1, 2, ......(n – 1) Sum of all roots of z1/n is always equal to zero Product of all roots of z1/n = (–1)n–1 z

10. Cube root of unity : cube roots of unity are 1, ω, ω2 where ω=

−1 + i 3 and 1 + ω + ω2 = 0, ω3 = 1 2
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 11. Some important result : If z = cosθ + isinθ (i) z+ or MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

z − z1 z − z1 z − z2 + z − z2 = 0
z− z1 + z 2 2

1 = 2cosθ z
1 = 2 isinθ z 1 = 2cosnθ zn

or or

=

|z 1 − z 2 | 2

(ii)

|z – z1|2 + |z – z2|2 = |z1 – z2|2

(iii)

zn +

Where z1, z2 are end points of diameter and z is any point on circle. 13. Some important points : (i) (ii) (b) yz + zx + xy = 0 (d) x + y + z = 3xyz
3 3 3

(iv) If x = cosα + isinα , y = cos β + i sin β & z = cosγ + isinγ and given x + y + z = 0, then (a) (c)

Distance formula PQ = |z2 – z1| Section formula .or internal division =

1 1 1 + + =0 y x z
x +y +z =0
2 2 2

m1z2 + m2 z1 m1 + m2

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - P 12. Equation of Circle : * * * * * * |z – z1| = r represents a circle with centre z 1 and radius r. |z| = r represents circle with centre at origin. |z – z1| < r and |z – z1| > r represents interior and exterior of circle |z – z1| = r. z z + a z + a z + b = 0 represents a general circle where a ∈ c and b ∈ R. Let |z| = r be the given circle, then equation of tangent at the point z1 is z z 1 + z z1 = 2r2 diametric form of circle : arg .or external division = (iii)

m1z2 − m2 z1 m1 − m2

Equation of straight line. * Parametric form z = tz1 + (1 – t)z2 where t ∈ R

* Non parametric form

z z1 z2

z 1 z1 1 z2 1

= 0.

.z − z I Gz − z J H K
1 2

π = ± , 2

* Three points z1, z2, z3 are collinear if

z1 z2 z3

z1 1 z2 1 = 0 z3 1

or slope of AB = slope of BC = slope of AC.
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (xii) If z1, z2, z3 be the vertices of a triangle, then the triangle is equilateral iff (z1 – z2)2 + (z2 – z3)2 + (z3 – z1)2 = 0. (xiii) If z1, z2, z3 are the vertices of an isosceles triangle, right angled at z2, then z12 + z22 + z32 = 2z2 (z1 + z3). (xiv) z1, z2, z3. z4 are vertices of a parallelogram then z1+ z3 = z2 + z4

z − z1 (iv) The complex equation z − z 2
(v)

= k represents a circle

if k ≠ 1 and a straight line if k = 1. The triangle whose vertices are the points represented by complex numbers z1, z2, z3 is equilateral if

1 1 1 z2 − z3 + z3 − z1 + z1 − z2 = 0
i.e. if z12 + z22 + z32 = z1z2 + z2z3 + z1z3. (vi) |z – z1| = |z – z2| = λ , represents an ellipse if |z1 – z2| < λ , having the points z1 and z2 as its foci and if |z1 – z2| = λ , then z lies on a line segment connecting z1 & z2 (vii) |z – z1| ~ |z – z2| = λ represents a hyperbola if |z1 – z2| > λ , having the points z1 and z2 as its foci, and if |z1 – z2| = λ , then z lies on the line passing through z1 and z2 excluding the points between z1 & z2. (viii) If four points z1, z2, z3, z4 are concyclic, then (ix) (x)

.G z Hz

1

1

− z2 − z4

I .z J Gz K H

3 3

− z4 − z2

I J K

is purely real.

If three complex numbers are in A.P., then they lie on a straight line in the complex plane. If z1, z2, z3 be the vertices of an equilateral triangle and z0 be the circumcentre, then z12 + z22 + z32 = 3z02. If z1, z3, z3 ....... zn be the vertices of a regular polygon of n sides & z0 be its centroid, then z12 + z22 + ......... + zn2 = nz02.
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E D U C A T I O N S

(xi)

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (iv) If out of n objects, 'a' are alike of one kind, 'b' are alike of second kind and 'c' are alike of third kind and the rest distinct, then the number of ways of permuting the n objects is 4.

PERMUTATION & COMBINATION
1. .actorial notation The continuous product of first n natural numbers is called factorial i.e. n or n! = 1. 2. 3........(n – 1).n n! = n(n – 1)! = n(n – 1)(n – 2)! & so on or

n! a! b! c!

Restricted Permutations (i) The number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time, when m particular things always occupy definite places = n–mpr–m The number of permutations of n different things taken r at a time, when m particular things are always to be excluded (included) =
n–m

n! n (n – 1)......... (n – r + 1) = (n − r)!

Here 0! = 1 and (–n)! = meaningless. 2. .undamental principle of counting (i) Addition rule : If there are two operations such that they can be done independently in m and n ways respectively, then either (any one) of these two operations can be done by (m + n) ways. Addition ⇒ OR (or) Option (ii) Multiplication rule : Let there are two tasks of an operation and if these two tasks can be performed in m and n different number of ways respectively, then the two tasks together can be done in m × n ways. Multiplication ⇒ And (or) Condition (iii) Bijection Rule : Number of favourable cases = Total number of cases – Unfavourable number of cases.

(ii)

Pr (n–mCr–m × r!)

5.

Circular Permutations When clockwise & anticlockwise orders are treated as different. (i) The number of circular permutations of n different things taken r at a time (ii)
n

Pr r

The number of circular permutations of n different things taken altogether
n

Pn = (n – 1)! n

3.

Permutations (Arrangement of objects) (i) The number of permutations of n different things taken r at a time is npr = (ii) (iii)

When clockwise & anticlockwise orders are treated as same. (i) The number of circular permutations of n different things
n

n! (n − r)!
(ii)

taken r at a time

Pr 2r
n

The number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken all at a time is npn = n! The number of permutations of n distinct objects taken r at a time, when repetition of objects is allowed is nr.
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E D U C A T

The number of circular permutations of n different things taken all together

1 Pn = (n – 1)! 2 2n
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 6. Combination (selection of objects) The number of combinations of n different things taken r at a time is denoted by nCr or C (n, r)
n

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (iv) Total number of selections of zero or more objects from n identical objects is n + 1. (v) Total number of selections of zero or more objects out of n different objects =
n

Cr =

n! r !(n − r)!

=

n

Pr r!

C0 + nC1 + nC2 + nC3 + ....... +

n

Cn = 2n

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii)

n n n n n

Cr = nCn–r Cr + nCr–1 = n+1Cr Cr = nCs
n

r = s or r + s = n

(vi) The total number of selections of at least one out of a1 + a2 + ...... + an objects where a1 are alike (of one kind), a2 are alike (of second kind), ......... an are alike (of nth kind) is [(a1 + 1) (a2 + 1) (a3 + 1) + ...... + (an + 1)] – 1 (vii) The number of selections taking atleast one out of a1 + a2 + a3 + ....... + an + k objects when a1 are alike (of one kind), a2 are alike (of second kind), ........ an are alike (of kth kind) and k are distinct is [(a1 + 1) (a2 + 1) (a3 + 1) .......... (an + 1)] 2k – 1 9. Division and distribution (i) The number of ways in which (m + n + p) different objects can be divided into there groups containing m, n, & p different objects respectively is (ii)

C0 = Cn = 1 C1 = nCn–1 = n Cr = Cr =
n r
n–1

n

Cr–1

n

1 (n – r + 1) nCr–1 r

7.

Restricted combinations The number of combinations of n distinct objects taken r at a time, when k particular objects are always to be (i) (ii) (iii) included is n–kCr–k excluded is n–kCr included and s particular things are to be excluded is
n–k–s

(m + n + p)! m! n! p!

Cr–k

The total number of ways in which n different objects are to be divided into r groups of group sizes n1, n2, n3, ............. nr respectively such that size of no two groups

8.

Total number of combinations in different cases (i) (ii) The number of selections of n identical objects, taken at least one = n The number of selections from n different objects, taken at least one = nC1 + nC2 + nC3 + ....... + (iii)
n

n! is same is n ! n !............n ! . 1 2 r
(iii) The total number of ways in which n different objects are to be divided into groups such that k1 groups have group size n1, k2 groups have group size n2 and so on, kr groups have group size nr, is given as

Cn = 2n – 1

The number of selections of r objects out of n identical objects is 1.
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n! (n1 !) (n2 !) .............(nr !)k r k1 ! k 2 !............ k r !
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (iv) The total number of ways in which n different objects are divided into k groups of fixed group size and are distributed among k persons (one group to each) is given as (number of ways of group formation) × k! 10. Selection of light objects and multinomial theorem (i) (ii) The coefficient of xn in the expansion of (1 – x–r) is equal to n + r – 1Cr – 1 The number of solution of the equation x1 + x2 + .......... + xr = n, n ∈ N under the condition n1 ≤ x1 ≤ n'1, n2 ≤ x2 ≤ n'2 , ................ nr ≤ xr ≤ n'r where all x'is are integers is given as Coefficient of xn is
n1

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (b) Number of total triangles formed by joining the n points on a plane of which m(< n) are collinear is
n

C3 –

m

C3.

(c) (d)

Number of diagonals in a polygon of n sides is
n

C2 – n.

If m parallel lines in a plane are intersected by a family of other n parallel lines. Then total number of parallelogram so formed is mC2 × nC2. Given n points on the circumference of a circle, then number of straight lines nC2 number of triangles nC3 number of quadrilaterals nC4

(e)

(f)

Lex M N

+x

n1 +1

+...+x

n'1

j ex

n2

+x

n2 +1

+...+x

n'2

j...ex

nr

+x

nr +1

+...+ x

n'r

jOQP

If n straight lines are drawn in the plane such that no two lines are parallel and no three lines are concurrent. Then the number of part into which these lines divide the plane is = 1 + Σn Number of rectangles of any size in a square of n × n is
n

11. Derangement Theorem (i) If n things are arranged in a row, then the number of ways in which they can be rearranged so that no one of them occupies the place assigned to it is

(g)

r =1

∑ r3

n

and number of squares of any size is

r =1

∑ r2 .

L 1 + 1 − 1 + 1 −....+(−1) 1 OP = n! M1 − n!Q N 1! 2! 3! 4!
n

(h)

Number of rectangles of any size in a rectangle of n × p is

(ii)

If n things are arranged at n places then the number of ways to rearrange exactly r things at right places is
n! = r

np (n + 1) (p + 1) and number of squares 4

LM1 − 1 + 1 − 1 + 1 +....+(−1) N 1! 2! 3! 4!

n− r

1 (n − r)!

OP Q

of any size is

r =1

n

(n + 1 – r) (p + 1 – r).

12. Some Important results (a) Number of total different straight lines formed by joining the n points on a plane of which m(<n) are collinear is n C2 – mC2 + 1.
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E D U C A T I O N S

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (vi) P(AB) ≤ P(A) P(B) ≤ P(A + B) ≤ P(A) + P(B) (vii) P(Exactly one event) = P(A B ) + P( A B) (viii) P( A + B ) = 1 – P(AB) = P(A) + P(B) – 2P(AB) = P(A + B) – P(AB) (ix) (x) P(neither A nor B) = P ( A B ) = 1 – P(A + B) When a coin is tossed n times or n coins are tossed once, the probability of each simple event is (xi)
1 . 2n

PROBABILITY
1. Mathematical definition of probability : Probability of an event = Note :

No. of favourable cases to event A Total no. of cases
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 0 ≤ P (A) ≤ 1 Probability of an impossible event is zero Probability of a sure event is one. P(A) + P(Not A) = 1 i.e. P(A) + P( A ) = 1

When a dice is rolled n times or n dice are rolled once, the probability of each simple event is
1 . 6n

2.

Odds for an event : If P(A) =
m n−m and P( A ) = n n

Then odds in favour of A =

P(A) m = P(A) n−m
P(A) n−m = P(A) m

(xii) When n cards are drawn (1 ≤ n ≤ 52) from well shuffled deck of 52 cards, the probability of each simple event is
52

1 . Cn

and odds in against of A =

(xiii) If n cards are drawn one after the other with replacement, the probability of each simple event is

3.

Set theoretical notation of probability and some important results : (i) (ii) (iii) (v) P(A + B) = 1 – P( A B )

1 . (52)n

(xiv) P(none) = 1 – P (atleast one) (xv) Playing cards : (a) (b) (c) (d) Total cards : 52 (26 red, 26 black) .our suits : Heart, diamond, spade, club (13 cards each) Court (face) cards : 12 (4 kings, 4 queens, 4 jacks) Honour cards : 16 (4 Aces, 4 kings, 4 queens, 4 Jacks)
PAGE # 22

P(AB) P(A/B) = P(B)
P(A + B) = P(AB) + P( A B) + P(A B ) P( AB ) = P(B) – P(AB)
PAGE # 21
E D U C A T I O N S

(iv) A ⊂ B ⇒ P(A) ≤ P(B)

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (xvi) Probability regarding n letters and their envelopes : If n letters corresponding to n envelopes are placed in the envelopes at random, then (a) Probability that all the letters are in right envelopes = (b) MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 5. Conditional probability : P(A/B) = Probability of occurrence of A, given that B has already happened =

P(A ∩ B) P(B)

1 n!

P(B/A) = Probability of occurrence of B, given that A has already happened = Note :

Probability that all letters are not in right envelopes = 1 –
1 n!

P(A ∩ B) P(A)

If the outcomes of the experiment are equally

(c)

Probability that no letters are in right envelope
1 1 1 1 = – + .... + (–1)n 2! 3! 4! n!

likely, then P(A/B) = (i) (ii)

No. of sample pts. in A ∩ B . No. of pts. in B

If A and B are independent event, then P(A/B) = P(A) and P(B/A) = P(B) Multiplication Theorem : P(A ∩ B) = P(A/B). P(B), P(B) ≠ 0 or P(A ∩ B) = P(B/A) P(A), P(A) ≠ 0

(d)

Probability that exactly r letters are in right

1 envelopes = r!

L 1 − 1 + 1 +.....+(−1) M2! 3! 4! N

n− r

1 (n − r)!

OP Q

Generalized : P(E1 ∩ E2 ∩ E3 ∩ ............... ∩ En) = P(E1) P(E2/E1) P(E3/E1 ∩ E2) P(E4/E1 ∩ E2 ∩ E3) ......... If events are independent, then P(E1 ∩ E2 ∩ E3 ∩ ....... ∩ En) = P(E1) P(E2) ....... P(En) 6. Probability of at least one of the n Independent events : If P1, P2, ....... Pn are the probabilities of n independent events A, A2, .... An then the probability of happening of at least one of these event is. 1 – [(1 – P1) (1 – P2)......(1 – Pn)] or P(A1 + A2 + ... + An) = 1 – P ( A 1 ) P ( A 2 ) .... P( A n )

4.

Addition Theorem of Probability : (i) When events are mutually exclusive i.e. n (A ∩ B) = 0 (ii) ⇒ P(A ∩ B) = 0
∴ P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B)

When events are not mutually exclusive i.e. P(A ∩ B) ≠ 0

P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A ∩ B) P(A + B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(AB) P(A + B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A) P(B)
PAGE # 23
E D U C A T

or (iii)

When events are independent i.e. P(A ∩ B) = P(A) P (B)

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 7. Total Probability : Let A1, A2, ............. An are n mutually exclusive & set of exhaustive events and event A can occur through any one of these events, then probability of occurence of A P(A) = P(A ∩ A1) + P(A ∩ A2) + ............. + P(A ∩ An) =
n

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (a) (b) (c) (d) (i) mean E(x) = np E (x2) = npq + n2 p2 Variance E(x2) – (E(x))2 = npq Standard deviation = npq

10. Truth of the statement : If two persons A and B speaks truth with the probability p1 & p2 respectively and if they agree on a statement, then the probability that they are speaking truth will be given by

r =1

P(Ar) P(A/Ar)

8.

Baye's Rule : Let A1, A2, A3 be any three mutually exclusive & exhaustive events (i.e. A1 ∪ A2 ∪ A3 = sample space & A1 ∩ A2 ∩ A3 = φ) an sample space S and B is any other event on sample space then,

p1p2 p1p2 + (1 − p1 ) (1 − p2 ) .
(ii) If A and B both assert that an event has occurred, probability of occurrence of which is α then the probability that event has occurred. Given that the probability of A & B speaking truth is p1, p2.

P(B / A i)P(A i ) P(Ai/B) = P(B / A )P(A ) + P(B / A )P(A ) + P(B / A )P(A ) , 1 1 2 2 3 3
i = 1, 2, 3 9. Probability distribution : (i) If a random variable x assumes values x1, x2, ......xn with probabilities P1, P2, ..... Pn respectively then (a) (b) (c) (ii) P1 + P2 + P3 + ..... + Pn = 1 mean E(x) = Σ Pixi
2

αp1p2 αp1p2 + (1 − α) (1 − p1) (1 − p2 )
(iii) If in the second part the probability that their lies (jhuth) coincides is β then from above case required probability will be

Variance = Σx Pi – (mean) = Σ (x ) – (E(x))
2 2

2

αp1p2 αp1p2 + (1 − α) (1 − p1) (1 − p2 ) β .

Binomial distribution : If an experiment is repeated n times, the successive trials being independent of one another, then the probability of r success is nCr Pr qn–r atleast r success is
n

k =r

n

Ck Pk qn–k

where p is probability of success in a single trial, q = 1 – p
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (iv) If A1, A2,...... An are n A.M's between a and b, then A1 = a + d, A2 = a + 2d,...... An = a + nd, where d = (v)
b−a n+1 n (a + b) 2

PROGRESSION AND SERIES
1. Arithmetic Progression (A.P.) : (a) (b) General A.P. — a, a + d, a + 2d, ...... , a + (n – 1) d where a is the first term and d is the common difference General (nth) term of an A.P. — Tn = a + (n – 1)d [nth term from the beginning] If an A.P. having m terms, then nth term from end = a + (m – n)d (c) Sum of n terms of an A.P. — Sn =
n n [2a + (n – 1)d] = [a + Tn] 2 2

Sum of n A.M's inserted between a and b is

(vi) Any term of an A.P. (except first term) is equal to the half of the sum of term equidistant from the term i.e. an = 2.

1 (a + an+r), r < n 2 n–r

Note : If sum of n terms i.e. Sn is given then Tn = Sn – Sn–1 where Sn–1 is sum of (n – 1) terms. (d) Supposition of terms in A.P. — (i) (ii) (iii) (e) (i) Three terms as a - d, a, a + d .our terms as a – 3d, a – d, a + d, a + 3d .ive terms as a – 2d, a – d, a, a + d, a + 2d A.M. of n numbers A1, A2, ................ An is defined as
A1 + A 2 +.........+ A n ΣA i Sum of numbers = = n n n

Geometric Progression (G.P.) (a) General G.P. — a, ar, ar2 , ...... where a is the first term and r is the common ratio (b) General (nth) term of a G.P. — Tn = arn–1 If a G.P. having m terms then nth term from end = arm–n (c) Sum of n terms of a G.P. — Sn = = (d) (e)
a − Tnr a(1 − r n ) = , r<1 1−r 1−r Tnr − a a(r n − 1) = ,r>1 r −1 r −1

Arithmetic mean (A.M.) :

A.M. = (ii)

Sum of an infinite G.P. — S ∞ = Supposition of terms in G.P. — (i) (ii) (iii) Three terms as .our terms as .ive terms as

a , 1−r

|r|<1

.or an A.P., A.M. of the terms taken symmetrically from the beginning and from the end will always be constant and will be equal to middle term or A.M. of middle term. If A is the A.M. between two given nos. a and b, then A=

a , a, ar r

(iii)

a a , , ar, ar3 r3 r a a , , a, ar, ar2 r2 r
PAGE # 28

a+b i.e. 2

2A = a + b
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (f) Geometric Mean (G.M.) — (i) Geometrical mean of n numbers x1, x2, .......... xn is defined as G.M. = (x1 x2 ............... xn)1/n. (i) If G is the G.M. between two given numbers a and b, then G2 = ab ⇒ G = (ii)
ab

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

(c) (d) (e) (f) 5.

Σn = 1 + 2 + 3 + .... + n
3 3 3 3

3

Ln(n + 1) O = M N 2 P Q

2

Σa = a + a + .... + (n times) = na Σ(2n – 1) = 1 + 3 + 5 + .... (2n – 1) = n2 Σ2n = 2 + 4 + 6 + .... + 2n = n (n + 1)

If G1, G2, .............. Gn are n G.M's between a and b, then G1 = ar, G2 = ar ,..... Gn
2

Harmonic Progression (H.P) (a) (b) General H.P. —
1 1 1 , , +...... a a + d a + 2d

. bI = ar , where r = G J H aK
n

1/n+1

General (nth term) of a H.P. — Tn =

(iii)

Product of the n G.M.'s inserted between a & b is (ab)n/2

1 1 = th n term coresponding to A.P. a + (n − 1)d

(c)

Harmonic Mean (H.M.) (i) (ii) If H is the H.M. between a and b, then H =
2ab a+b

3.

Arithmetico - Geometric Progression (A.G.P.) : (a) (b) (c) (d) General form — a, (a + d)r, (a + 2d) r2, .............
d(1 − r n−1) a + r. (1 − r)2 1−r

General (nth) term — Tn = [a + (n – 1) d] rn–1 Sum of n terms of an A.G.P — Sn = Sum of infinite terms of an A.G.P.
S∞ =

If H1, H2,......,Hn are n H.M's between a and b, then H1 =

ab(n + 1) ab(n + 1) , ....., Hn = bn + a na + b 1 1 & , then their a b

dr a + (1 − r)2 1−r
6.
n(n + 1) 2

or first find n A.M.'s between reciprocal will be required H.M's.

4.

Sum standard results : (a) (b) Σn = 1 + 2 + 3 + ..... + n =

Relation Between A.M., G.M. and H.M. (i) (ii) (iii) AH = G2 A ≥ G ≥ H If A and G are A.M. and G.M. respectively between two +ve numbers, then these numbers are A±

Σn2 = 12 + 22 + 32 + ..... + n2 =

n(n + 1)(2n + 1) 6

A 2 − G2

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 3. Properties of Binomial coefficients : .or the sake of convenience the coefficients
n n

BINOMIAL THEOREM
1. Binomial Theorem for any +ve integral index : (x + a) n = nC0 xn + nC1 xn–1 a + nC2 xn–2 a2 + ....... + nCr xn–r ar + .... + nCn an = (i) (ii) (iii)

C0 ,

n

C1 ,

C2 .....

n

Cr ..... n Cn are usually denoted by C0, C1 ,.....

C r .......... Cn respectively. * * * * C0 + C1 + C2 + ..... + Cn = 2n C0 – C 1 + C2 – C3 + ..... + C n = 0 C0 + C 2 + C4 + ..... = C1 + C 3 + C5 + .... = 2n–1
n


r=0
th

n

n

Cr xn–r ar

General term - Tr+1 = nCr xn–r ar is the (r + 1)th term from beginning. (m + 1) term from the end = (n – m + 1) from beginning = Tn–m+1
th

middle term

Cr =

.n I (a) If n is even then middle term = G + 1J H2 K
(b) If n is odd then middle term =

n n −1 nn−1 Cr −1 = r r r −1
2n! n−r ! n+r !

n−2

Cr −2 and so on ...

th

term

*

2n

.G n + 1IJ H 2K

Cn + r =
n

th

c

hc

h

and

* * * * * *

n

Cr +

Cr − 1 =

n+1

Cr

.G n + 3I H 2J K
2.

th

term

C1 + 2C2 + 3C3 + ... + nCn = n.2n–1 C1 – 2C2 + 3C3 ......... = 0 C0 + 2C 1 + 3C2 + ......+ (n + 1)Cn = (n + 2)2n–1 C02 + C 12 + C22 + ..... + Cn2 = C02 – C 12 + C22 – C32 + ..... =

Binomial coefficient of middle term is the greatest binomial coefficient. To determine a particular term in the given expasion :

. Let the given expansion be G x H
and for x0, n α – r (α + β) = 0

α

±

1 xβ

I J K

c2nh! cn!h
2

=

2n

Cn

n

, if xn occurs in

Tr+1 (r + 1)th term then r is given by n α – r (α + β) = m

R | Sc−1h | T

n/2 n

0,

if n is odd

Cn/2 , if n is even

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK
2n + 1

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK
n! xr ys z t s! r !t !

Note :
2n + 1

2n + 1

C0 +

2n + 1

C1 + .... +
2n

2n + 1

Cn =

Cn + 1 +

(ii)

(x + y + z)n =

r + s + t =n

Cn + 2 + .....

2n + 1

C2n + 1 = 2

Generalized (x1 + x2 +..... xk)n =
1 n+1 ∑ n! r1 r2 rk r1 ! r2 !....rk ! x1 x2 ..... xk

*

C0 +

C1 C2 Cn 2n+1 − 1 + + ..... + = 2 3 n+1 n+1
C1 C2 C3 (−1)n C n + – .... + 2 3 4 n+1

r1 +r2 +...rk =n

*

C0 –

=

6.

Total no. of terms in the expansion (x1 + x2 +... xn)m is m+n–1 C n–1

4.

Greatest term : (i) If
(n + 1)a ∈ Z (integer) then the expansion has two x+a

greatest terms. These are kth and (k + 1)th where x & a are +ve real nos. (ii) If
(n + 1)a ∉ Z then the expansion has only one greatx+a

est term. This is (k + 1)th term k =

LM(n + 1)aOP , N x+a Q

{[.] denotes greatest integer less than or equal to x} 5. Multinomial Theorem : (i) (x + a)n = ∑
n
n
n

r =0

Cr xn–r ar, n ∈N

= ∑

r =0

n! n! xn–r ar = r +∑=n x s ar , s (n − r)! r ! s! r !

where s = n – r
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 3. Trigonometric identities : (i) sin2θ + cos2θ = 1 (ii) cosec2θ – cot2θ = 1 (iii) sec2θ – tan2θ = 1 Sign convention : y II quadrant sin & cosec are +ve x' O III quadrant tan & cot are +ve y' 5. T-ratios of allied angles : The signs of trigonometrical ratio in different quadrant. Allied∠ of (–θ) 900 ± θ 1800 ± θ 2700 ± θ 3600 ± θ T-ratios sinθ cosθ tanθ cotθ
2

TRIGONOMETRIC RATIO AND IDENTITIES
1. Some important results : (i) Arc length AB = r θ Area of circular sector = (ii)

1 2 r θ 2 π n π a cot n 2

4.

.or a regular polygon of side a and number of sides n (a) (b) (c) (d) Internal angle of polygon = (n – 2)

I quadrant All +ve x IV quadrant cos & sec are +ve

Sum of all internal angles = (n – 2) π Radius of incircle of this polygon r =

Radius of circumcircle of this polygon R
a π = cosec 2 n

(e) (f)

Area of the polygon = Area of triangle =

1 na2 cot 4

.G π IJ H nK

π 1 2 a cos n 4
2

–sinθ cosθ –tanθ –cotθ

cosθ

(g)

. a πI Area of incircle = π G cot J H 2 nK
Area of circumcircle = π

m sinθ m cotθ

m sinθ –cosθ
±tanθ

–cosθ ±sinθ

±sinθ cosθ ±tanθ

(h)

. a cos ec π IJ G2 H nK

secθ cosecθ 6.

±cotθ ±cotθ m tanθ secθ ±cosecθ secθ m cosecθ –secθ –cosecθ secθ ±cosecθ m cosecθ –sec θ

m cotθ m tanθ

2.

Relation between system of measurement of angles :

Sum & differences of angles of t-ratios : (i) sin(A ± B) = sinA cosB ± cosA sinB (ii) cos(A ± B) = cosA cosB ± sinA sinB (iii) tan (A ± B) =

D G 2C = = π 90 100

& π radian = 1800

tan A ± tanB 1 m tan A tan B
PAGE # 36

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (iv) cot (A ± B) =
cot A cot B m 1 cot B ± cot A

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 7. .ormulaes for product into sum or difference and viceversa : (i) (ii) (iii) 2sinA cosB = sin(A + B) + sin(A – B) 2cosA sinB = sin(A + B) – sin(A – B) 2cosA cosB = cos(A + B) + cos(A – B)

(v) sin(A + B) sin(A – B) = sin2A – sin2B = cos2 B – cos2 A (vi) cos(A + B) cos (A – B) = cos2A – sin2B = cos2B – sin2A (vii) tan(A + B + C) =

(iv) 2sinA sinB = cos(A – B) – cos(A + B)

S1 − S3 tan A + tanB + tan C − tan A tan B tan C = 1−S 1 − tan A tan B − tanB tan C − tan C tan A 2

Generalized tan (A + B + C + ......... )

S1 − S3 + S5 − S7 +...... = 1 − S + S − S + S −...... 2 4 6 8
Where S1 = Σ tan A S2 = Σ tan A tan B, S3 = Σ tan A tan B tan C & so on (viii) sin (A + B + C) = Σ sin A cos B cos C – Π sin A (ix) = Π cos A (Numerator of tan (A + B + C)) cos (A + B + C) = Π cos A – Σ sin A sin B cos C = Π cos A (Denominator of tan (A + B + C)) for a triangle A + B + C = π

. C + D I cos . C − D I G 2 J G 2 J H K H K . C + D I . C − DI (vi) sinC – sinD = 2cos G 2 J sin G 2 J H K H K . C + D I cos . C − D I (vii) cosC + cosD = 2cos G H 2 J G 2 J K H K . C + D I sin . D − C I (viii) cosC – cosD = 2sin G H 2 J G 2 J K H K
(v) sinC + sinD = 2sin (ix) tanA + tanB =
sin(A + B) cos A cos B

Σ tan A = Π tan A Σ sin A = Σ sin A cos B cos C 1 + Π cos A = Σ sin A sin B cos C
(viii) sin75 =
0

8.

T-ratios of multiple and submultiple angles : (i) sin2A = 2sinA cosA =
2 tan A 1 + tan2 A

3 +1 2 2 3 −1 2 2

= (sin A + cos A)2 – 1 = 1 – (sin A – cos A)2 = cos15
0

⇒ sinA = 2sinA/2 cosA/2 =
= sin150
0

2 tan A / 2 1 + tan2 A / 2

(ix) (x) (xi)
E D U C A T I O N S

cos750 =
0

(ii)

cos2A = cos2A – sin2A = 2cos2A – 1 = 1 – 2sin2A =

tan75 = 2 + cot750 = 2 –

3 = cot15

1 − tan2 A 1 + tan2 A

0 3 = tan15

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK
2 tan A tan2A = 1 − tan2 A

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (ii) (iii) (v) cos2A + cos2B + cos2C = –1– 4cosA cosB cosC sinA + sinB + sinC = 4cosA/2 cosB/2 cosC/2 sin2A + sin2B + sin2C = 1 – 2sinA sinB cosC

(iii)

2 tan A / 2 ⇒ tanA = 1 − tan2 A / 2

(iv) sin3θ = 3sinθ – 4sin3θ = 4sin(600 – θ ) sin(600 + θ ) sin θ = sin θ (2 cos θ – 1) (2 cos θ + 1) (v) cos3θ = 4cos3θ – 3cosθ = 4cos(60 – θ ) cos(60 + θ ) cos θ
0 0

(iv) cosA + cosB + cosC = 1 + 4 sinA/2 sinB/2 sinC/2 (vi) cos2A + cos2B + cos2C = 1 – 2cosA cosB cosC (vii) tanA + tanB + tanC = tanA tanB tanC (viii) cotB cotC + cotC cotA + cotA cotB = 1 (ix) (x) (xi)

= cos θ (1 – 2 sin θ ) (1 + 2 sin θ )

3 tan A − tan3 A (vi) tan3A = 1 − 3 tan2 A
= tan(600 – A) tan(600 + A)tanA (vii) sinA/2 =
1 − cos A 2 1 + cos A 2 1 − cos A 1 − cos A = , A ≠ (2n + 1)π sin A 1 + cos A

Σ tan A/2 tan B/2 = 1 Σ cot A cot B = 1 Σ cot A/2 = Π cot A/2

11. Some useful series : (i) sinα + sin(α + β) + sin(α + 2β) + .... + to nterms

sin α +
=

(viii) cosA/2 =

L . n − 1IβO sinLnβ O M G 2 J P M2P N H K Q N Q , β ≠ 2nπ
sin β 2

(ix)

tanA/2 =

(ii)

cosα + cos(α + β) + cos(α + 2β) + .... + to nterms

9.

Maximum and minimum value of the expression : acosθ + bsinθ Maximum (greatest) Value = a2 + b2 Minimum (Least) value = – a2 + b2 (iii)

cos α +
=

L . n − 1I βO sin nβ M G 2JP 2 N H KQ β ≠ 2nπ
sin β 2 sin 2n α , α ≠ nπ 2n sin α

cosα .cos2α . cos22α ....cos(2n–1 α) =

10. Conditional trigonometric identities : If A, B, C are angles of triangle i.e. A + B + C = π, then (i) sin2A + sin2B + sin2C = 4sinA sinB sinC i.e. Σ sin 2A = 4 Π (sin A)
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E D U C A T I O N S

= 1 , α = 2kπ = –1 , α = (2k+1)π

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK Thus the equation reduces to form cos(θ – α) =
c a + b2
2

TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS
1. General solution of the equations of the form (i) (ii) (iii) sinθ = 0 cosθ = 0 tanθ = 0

= cosβ(say)

⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒

θ = nπ,

n∈I
π , n∈I 2

now solve using above formula 3. Some important points : (i) If while solving an equation, we have to square it, then the roots found after squaring must be checked wheather they satisfy the original equation or not. If two equations are given then find the common values of θ between 0 & 2π and then add 2nπ to this common solution (value).

θ = (2n + 1) θ = nπ, θ = 2nπ + θ = 2πn θ = 2nπ –

n∈I

(iv) sinθ = 1 (v) cosθ = 1

π 2

(ii)

(vi) sinθ = –1 (vii) cosθ = –1 (viii) sinθ = sinα (ix) (x) (xi) cosθ = cosα

π 3π or 2nπ + 2 2

θ = (2n + 1)π θ = nπ + (–1)nα

θ = 2nπ ± α θ = nπ ± α θ = nπ ± α θ = nπ ± α

tanθ = tanα ⇒ sin2θ = sin2α

θ = nπ + α

⇒ ⇒

(xii) cos2θ = cos2α (xiii) tan2θ = tan2α 2.

.or general solution of the equation of the form a cosθ + bsinθ = c, where c ≤

a2 + b2 , divide both side by

a2 + b2
and put
a a +b
2 2

= cosα,

b a + b2
2

= sinα.
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK cosec–1 (cosec θ ) = θ provided –
π 2

INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC .UNCTIONS
1. If y = sin x, then x = sin–1 y, similarly for other inverse Tfunctions. Domain and Range of Inverse T-functions : .unction sin
–1

≤ θ < 0 π 2

or 0 < θ ≤ (ii) sin (sin–1 x) = x provided – 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 cos (cos–1 x) = x provided – 1 ≤ x ≤ 1

2.

Domain (D) – 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 – 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 – ∞ < x < ∞ – ∞ < x < ∞ x ≤ – 1, x ≥ 1 x ≤ – 1, x ≥ 1

Range (R)
π – 2

x

≤ θ ≤

π 2

tan (tan–1 x) = x provided – ∞ < x < ∞ cot (cot–1 x) = x provided – ∞ < x < ∞ sec (sec–1 x) = x provided – ∞ < x ≤ – 1 or 1 ≤ x < ∞ cosec (cosec–1 x) = x provided – ∞ < x ≤ – 1 or 1 ≤ x < ∞

cos–1 x tan–1 x cot–1 x sec–1 x cosec–1 x

0 ≤ θ ≤ π –

π π < θ < 2 2
(iii)

0 < θ < π 0 ≤ θ ≤ π, θ ≠

π 2

sin–1 (– x) = – sin–1 x, cos–1 (– x) = π – cos–1 x tan–1 (– x) = – tan–1 x cot–1 (– x) = π – cot–1 x cosec–1 (– x) = – cosec–1 x sec–1 (– x) = π – sec–1 x

π π – , θ ≠ 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2 2

3.

Properties of Inverse T-functions : (i) sin–1 (sin θ ) = θ provided –
π 2 π ≤ θ ≤ 2

cos–1 (cos θ ) = θ provided θ ≤ θ ≤ π tan–1 (tan θ ) = θ provided – cot
–1

(iv) sin–1 x + cos–1 x =

π , 2
π , 2

∀ x ∈ [– 1, 1]

π π < θ < 2 2

tan–1 x + cot–1 x =

(cot θ ) = θ provided 0 < θ < π

∀ x ∈ R

sec–1 (sec θ ) = θ provided 0 ≤ θ <

π π or < θ ≤ π 2 2

sec–1 x + cosec–1 x =

π , x ∈ (– ∞ , – 1] ∪ [1, ∞ ) 2 ∀

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 4. Value of one inverse function in terms of another inverse function : (i) sin–1 x = cos–1 = sec–1 = tan–1 MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 5. .ormulae for sum and difference of inverse trigonometric function : (i) tan–1x + tan–1y = tan–1

1−x

2

x 1 − x2

= cot–1

1 − x2 x

1 1−x
2

= cosec–1

1 , 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 x

(ii)

(ii)

cos–1 x = sin–1 1 − x2 = tan–1

1 − x2 = cot–1 x
, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1

x 1 − x2

(iii)

= sec–1

1 = cosec–1 x x 1 + x2

1 1 − x2

(iv)

(iii)

tan–1 x = sin–1

= cos–1

1 1 + x2

= cot–1

1 x

(v) (vi)

= sec–1

–1 1 + x2 = cosec

1 + x2 , x ≥ 0 x

. x + y I ; if x > 0, y > 0, xy < 1 G 1 − xy J H K . x + y I ; if x > 0, y > 0, xy > 1 tan x + tan y = π + tan G H 1 − xy J K . x−yI tan x – tan y = tan G 1 + xy J ; if xy > –1 H K . x − y I ; if x > 0, y < 0, xy < –1 tan x – tan y = π + tan G H 1 + xy J K . x + y + z − xyz I tan x + tan y + tan z = tan G H 1 − xy − yz − zx J K L O sin x ± sin y = sin Mx 1 − y ± y 1 − x P ; N Q
–1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1

2

2

if x,y ≥ 0 & x2 + y2 ≤ 1

(iv) sin–1

.G 1 I H xJ K .G 1 I H xJ K .G 1 I H xJ K

2 2 (vii) sin–1x ± sin–1y = π – sin–1 x 1 − y ± y 1 − x ;

= cosec–1 x , ∀ x ∈ (– ∞ , 1] ∪ [1, ∞ )

L M N

O P Q

if x,y ≥ 0 & x2 + y2 > 1

(v)

cos–1

= sec–1 x, ∀ x ∈ (– ∞ , 1] ∪ [1, ∞ )

2 2 (viii) cos–1x ± cos–1y = cos–1 xy m 1 − x 1 − y ;

L M N

O P Q

if x,y > 0 & x2 + y2 ≤ 1

(vi) tan–1

=

R cot x S− π + cot x | T
−1 −1

for x > 0 for x < 0

2 2 (ix) cos–1x ± cos–1y = π – cos–1 xy m 1 − x 1 − y ;

L M N

O P Q

if x,y > 0 & x2 + y2 > 1

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 6. Inverse trigonometric ratios of multiple angles (i) (ii) (iii) 2sin–1x = sin–1(2x MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

PROPERTIES & SOLUTION O. TRIANGLE
Properties of triangle : 1. A triangle has three sides and three angles. In any ∆ABC, we write BC = a, AB = c, AC = b
A A c B B a b C C
2 2

1 − x2 ), if –1 ≤ x ≤ 1

2cos–1x = cos–1(2x2 –1), if –1 ≤ x ≤ 1 2tan–1x = tan–1

. 2x I = sin . 2x IJ = cos .G 1 − x IJ G1 − x J G1 + x K H K H H1 + x K
2
–1

2

–1

(iv) 3sin–1x = sin–1(3x – 4x3) (v) 3cos x = cos (4x – 3x)
–1 –1 3

(vi) 3tan–1x = tan–1

. 3x − x I G 1 − 3x J H K
3 2

and ∠BAC = ∠A, ∠ABC = ∠B, ∠ACB = ∠C 2. In ∆ABC : (i) A + B + C = π (ii) a + b > c, b +c > a, c + a > b (iii) 3. a > 0, b > 0, c > 0

Sine formula :
a b c = = = k(say) sin A sinB sin C

or

sin A sinB sinC = = = k (say) a b c

4.

Cosine formula : cos A =
b2 + c2 − a2 2bc

cos B =

c2 + a2 − b2 2ac a2 + b2 − c2 2ab
PAGE # 48

cos C =
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 5. Projection formula : a = b cos C + c cos B b = c cos A + a cos C c = a cos B + b cos A Napier's Analogies : tan tan tan 7.
A −B a−b = cot 2 a+b B−C b−c = cot 2 b+c C−A c−a = cot 2 c+a C 2 A 2 B 2

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

(c)

tan

A = 2
B = 2 C = 2

(s − b) (s − c) s (s − a) (s − c) (s − a) s (s − b) (s − b) (s − a) s (s − c)

6.

tan

tan

8.

∆, Area of triangle : (i) (ii)
1 1 1 ∆ = 2 ab sin C = 2 bc sin A = 2 ca sin B

Half angled formula - In any ∆ABC : (a) sin
A = 2

∆ =

s(s − a) (s − b) (s − c)

(s − b) (s − c) bc
(s − c) (s − a) ca (s − a) (s − b) ab

sin

B = 2
C = 2

9.

tan

A B s −c tan = 2 2 s B C s −a tan = 2 2 s C tan 2 A s −b = 2 s

tan where 2s = a + b + c tan

sin

(b)

cos

A = 2

s (s − a) bc s (s − b) ca s (s − c) ab
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E D U C A T I O N S

B cos = 2
cos
C = 2

10. Circumcircle of triangle and its radius : (i) R=

a b c = = 2sin A 2sinB 2sin C abc 4∆
Where R is circumradius
PAGE # 50

(ii)

R=

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 11. Incircle of a triangle and its radius : (iii) r=
∆ s A B C = (s – b) tan = (s – c) tan 2 2 2

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (iv) r1 + r2 + r3 – r = 4R (v)

1 1 1 1 r1 + r2 + r3 = r 1
2 r1

(iv)

r = (s – a) tan

(vi)

+

1
2 r2

+

1
2 r3

+

1 r2

=

a2 + b2 + c2 ∆2

(v)

r = 4R sin

A B C sin sin 2 2 2

(vii)

(vi) cos A + cos B + cos C = 1 +

r R

1 1 1 1 + + = 2Rr bc ca ab

(viii) r1r2 + r2r3 + r3r1 = s2 (ix) ∆ = 2R2 sin A sin B sin C = 4Rr cos

B C A C B A a sin sin b sin sin c sin sin 2 2 = 2 2 = 2 2 (vii) r = A B C cos cos cos 2 2 2
12. The radii of the escribed circles are given by : (i) r1 =
∆ ∆ ∆ , r2 = , r3 = s−a s −b s−c A B , r2 = s tan , r3 = s tan 2 2 A B C cos cos , 2 2 2 A B C sin cos , 2 2 2 A B cos sin 2 2 C 2 C 2

A B C cos cos 2 2 2

a cos
(x) r1 =

B C C A cos b cos cos 2 2 2 2 , r2 = , A B cos cos 2 2 A B cos 2 2 C cos 2

c cos
r3 =

(ii)

r1 = s tan r1 = 4R sin r2 = 4R cos r3 = 4R cos

(iii)

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (ii) d = h (cotα – cotβ)

HEIGHT AND DISTANCE
1. Angle of elevation and depression : If an observer is at O and object is at P then ∠ XOP is called angle of elevation of P as seen from O.

h α d β

If an observer is at P and object is at O, then ∠ QPO is called angle of depression of O as seen from P. 2. Some useful result : (i) In any triangle ABC if AD : DB = m : n

∠ ACD = α , ∠ BCD = β & ∠ BDC = θ
then (m + n) cotθ = m cotα – ncot β

C α β

A A m D

θ n

B

B

= ncotA – mcotB [m – n Theorem]
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (C) .or circumcentre of a triangle : Circumcentre of a triangle is equidistant from vertices i.e. PA = PB = PC. Here P is circumcentre and PA is radius. (i) Circumcentre of an acute angled triangle is inside the triangle. (ii) Circumcentre of a right triangle is mid point of the hypotenuse. (iii) Circumcentre of an obtuse angled triangle is outside the triangle.

POINT
1. Distance formula : Distance between two points P(x1, y1) and Q(x2, y2) is given by d(P, Q) = PQ = =
(x 2 − x1)2 + (y2 − y1 )2

(Difference of x coordinate)2 + (Difference of y coordinate)2

Note :

(i) d(P, Q) ≥ 0 (ii) d(P, Q) = 0 ⇔ P = Q (iii) d(P, Q) = d(Q, P) (iv) Distance of a point (x, y) from origin (0, 0) =

3.

Section formula : (i) Internally :

x2 + y2

AP m = = λ , Here λ > 0 BP n
m A(x 1 , y1 ) P n B(x 2 , y2 )

2.

Use of Distance .ormula : (a) In Triangle : Calculate AB, BC, CA (i) If AB = BC = CA, then ∆ is equilateral. (ii) If any two sides are equal then ∆ is isosceles. (iii) If sum of square of any two sides is equal to the third, then ∆ is right triangle. (iv) Sum of any two equal to left third they do not form a triangle i.e. AB = BC + CA or BC = AC + AB or AC = AB + BC. Here points are collinear. (b) In Parallelogram : Calculate AB, BC, CD and AD. (i) If AB = CD, AD = BC, then ABCD is a parallelogram. (ii) If AB = CD, AD = BC and AC = BD, then ABCD is a rectangle. (iii) If AB = BC = CD = AD, then ABCD is a rhombus. (iv) If AB = BC = CD = AD and AC = BD, then ABCD is a square.
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E D U C A T

P (ii)

.G mx + nx H m+n
2

1

,

my 2 + ny1 m+n

I J K
m n P

Externally :
AP m = = λ BP n

A(x 1, y 1 )

B(x 2, y 2 )

P

.G mx − nx H m−n
2

1

,

my 2 − ny1 m−n

I J K

(iii)

Coordinates of mid point of PQ are

.x G H

1

+ x2 y1 + y2 , 2 2

I J K

(iv) The line ax + by + c = 0 divides the line joining the points

(ax1 + by + c) (x1, y1) & (x2, y2) in the ratio = – (ax + by + c) 2 2

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (v) .or parallelogram – midpoint of diagonal AC = mid point of diagonal BD MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 5. Area of Polygon : Area of polygon having vertices (x 1, y1), (x2, y2), (x3, y3) ........ (xn, yn) is given by area

(vi) Coordinates of centroid G (vii) Coordinates of incentre I

.x G H

1

+ x 2 + x 3 y1 + y 2 + y 3 , 3 3

IJ K

x1 x2 x3
=
1 2

y1 y2 y3 M yn y1
. Points must be taken in order.

.G ax + bx + cx H a+b+c
1 2

3

ay + by 2 + cy 3 , 1 a+b+c

I J K

(viii) Coordinates of orthocentre are obtained by solving the equation of any two altitudes. 4. Area of Triangle : The area of triangle ABC with vertices A(x1, y1), B(x2, y2) and C(x3, y3).
x1 y1 1 y2 1 y3 1

M xn x1

6.

Rotational Transformation : If coordinates of any point P(x, y) with reference to new axis will be (x', y') then x x' → cosθ y' → –sinθ

∆=

1 2

x2 x3

(Determinant method)

B

y

sinθ cosθ

B

x1
=

y1 y2 y3 y1
[Stair method] =

7.

x2 1 2 x3 x1

1 [x y + x2y3 + x3y1 – x2y1 – x3y2 – x1y3] 2 1 2

Note : (i) Three points A, B, C are collinear if area of triangle is zero. (ii) If in a triangle point arrange in anticlockwise then value of ∆ be +ve and if in clockwise then ∆ will be –ve.

Some important points : (i) Three pts. A, B, C are collinear, if area of triangle is zero (ii) Centroid G of ∆ABC divides the median AD or BE or C. in the ratio 2 : 1 (iii) In an equilateral triangle, orthocentre, centroid, circumcentre, incentre coincide. (iv) Orthocentre, centroid and circumcentre are always collinear and centroid divides the line joining orthocentre and circumcentre in the ratio 2 : 1 (v) Area of triangle formed by coordinate axes & the line ax + by + c = 0 is
c2 . 2ab

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (ix) Intercept form : Equation of a line making intercepts a
x y + = 1. a b Parametric or distance or symmetrical form of the line : Equation of a line passing through (x1, y1) and

STRAIGHT LINE
1. Slope of a Line : The tangent of the angle that a line makes with +ve direction of the x-axis in the anticlockwise sense is called slope or gradient of the line and is generally denoted by m. Thus m = tan θ . (i) Slope of line || to x-axis is m = 0 (ii) Slope of line || to y-axis is m = ∞ (not defined) (iii) Slope of the line equally inclined with the axes is 1 or – 1 (iv) Slope of the line through the points A(x1, y1) and

and b respectively on x-axis and y-axis is (x)

making an angle θ , 0 ≤ θ ≤ π , θ ≠ +ve direction of x-axis is

π with the 2

y2 − y1 B(x2, y2) is x − x . 2 1
(v) Slope of the line ax + by + c = 0, b ≠ 0 is –

(vi) Slope of two parallel lines are equal. (vii) If m1 & m2 are slopes of two ⊥ lines then m1m2 = – 1. 2. Standard form of the equation of a line : (i) Equation of x-axis is y = 0 (ii) Equation of y-axis is x = 0 (iii) Equation of a straight line || to x-axis at a distance b from it is y = b (iv) Equation of a straight line || to y-axis at a distance a from it is x = a (v) Slope form : Equation of a line through the origin and having slope m is y = mx. (vi) Slope Intercept form : Equation of a line with slope m and making an intercept c on the y-axis is y = mx + c. (vii) Point slope form : Equation of a line with slope m and passing through the point (x1, y1) is y – y1 = m(x – x1) (viii) Two point form : Equation of a line passing through the points (x1, y1) & (x2, y2) is 3.

a b

(xi)

x − x1 y − y1 = = r cos θ sinθ x = x1 + r cos θ , y = y1 + r sin θ ⇒ Where r is the distance of any point P(x, y) on the line from the point (x1, y1) Normal or perpendicular form : Equation of a line such that the length of the perpendicular from the origin on it is p and the angle which the perpendicular makes with the +ve direction of x-axis is α , is x cos α + y sin α = p.

Angle between two lines : (i) Two lines a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 & a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 are (a) (b) (c)

a1 b1 c1 Parallel if a = b ≠ c 2 2 2
Perpendicular if a1a2 + b1b2 = 0

a1 b1 c1 Identical or coincident if a = b = c 2 2 2 a2b1 − a1b2 If not above three, then θ = tan–1 a a − b b 1 2 1 2
Two lines y = m1 x + c and y = m2 x + c are Parallel if m1 = m2 Perpendicular if m1m2 = –1

(d) (ii) (a) (b) (c)

y − y1 x − x1 y2 − y1 = x2 − x1

m1 − m2 If not above two, then θ = tan–1 1 + m m 1 2

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 4. Position of a point with respect to a straight line : The line L(xi, yi) i = 1, 2 will be of same sign or of opposite sign according to the point A(x1, y1) & B (x2, y2) lie on same side or on opposite side of L (x, y) respectively. Equation of a line parallel (or perpendicular) to the line ax + by + c = 0 is ax + by + c' = 0 (or bx – ay + λ = 0) Equation of st. lines through (x1,y1) making an angle α with y = mx + c is y – y1 = 7.
m ± tan α (x – x1) 1 m m tan α

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 12. Homogeneous equation : If y = m1x and y = m2x be the two equations represented by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 , then m1 + m2 = –2h/b and m1m2 = a/b 13. General equation of second degree : ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 represent a pair of

5. 6.

a h g h b f =0 straight line if ∆ ≡ g f c
If y = m1x + c & y = m2x + c represents two straight lines then m1 + m2 =

length of perpendicular from (x1, y1) on ax + by + c = 0 is
|ax1 + by1 + c| a2 + b2

−2h a , m1m2 = . b b

8.

Distance between two parallel lines ax + by + ci = 0, i = 1, 2 is
|c1 − c 2| a2 + b2

14. Angle between pair of straight lines : The angle between the lines represented by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 or ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0

9.

Condition of concurrency for three straight lines Li ≡ ai x + bi y + ci = 0, i = 1, 2, 3 is

2 h2 − ab is tanθ = (a + b)
(i) The two lines given by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 are (a) Parallel and coincident iff h2 – ab = 0 (b) Perpendicular iff a + b = 0 The two line given by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 are (a) Parallel if h2 – ab = 0 & af2 = bg2 (b) Perpendicular iff a + b = 0 (c) Coincident iff g2 – ac = 0

a1 b1 a2 b2 a3 b3

c1 c2 = 0 c3

(ii)

10. Equation of bisectors of angles between two lines :
a1x + b1y + c1 a +b
2 1 2 1

a2 x + b2 y + c 2 a2 + b2 2 2

11. .amily of straight lines : The general equation of family of straight line will be written in one parameter The equation of straight line which passes through point of intersection of two given lines L1 and L2 can be taken as L1 + λ L2 = 0
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13. Combined equation of angle bisector of the angle between the lines ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 is
x −y a−b
2 2

=

xy h

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 5. Concentric circles : Two circles having same centre C(h, k) but different radii r1 & r2 respectively are called concentric circles. Position of a point w.r.t. a circle : A point (x1, y1 ) lies outside, on or inside a circle S ≡ x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 according as S1 ≡ x12 + y12 + 2gx1 + 2fy1 + c is +ve, zero or –ve 7. 2. Central (Centre radius) form of a circle : (i) (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2 , where (h, k) is circle centre and r is the radius. (ii) x2 + y2 = r2 , where (0, 0) origin is circle centre and r is the radius. Diameter form : If (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) are end pts. of a diameter of a circle, then its equation is (x – x1) (x – x2) + (y – y1) (y – y2) = 0 Parametric equations : (i) The parametric equations of the circle x2 + y2 = r2 are x = rcosθ, y = r sinθ , where point θ ≡ (r cos θ , r sin θ ) (ii) (iii) The parametric equations of the circle (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2 are x = h + rcosθ, y = k + rsinθ The parametric equations of the circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 are x = –g + (iv)
g2 + f 2 − c cosθ, y = –f + g2 + f 2 − c sinθ

CIRCLE
1. General equation of a circle : x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 where g, f and c are constants (i) Centre of the cirle is (–g, –f) i.e. (ii)

6.

.G − 1 coeff. of x, −1 coeff. of yI J H 2 K 2
g2 + f 2 − c

Radius is

Chord length (length of intercept) = 2 r2 − p2 Intercepts made on coordinate axes by the circle : (i) (ii) x axis = 2 g2 − c y axis = 2 f 2 − c

8.

3.

9.

Length of tangent = S1

4.

10. Length of the intercept made by line : y = mx + c with the circle x2 + y2 = a2 is 2

a2 (1 + m2 ) − c2 1 + m2

or

(1 + m2) |x1 – x2|

where |x1 – x2| = difference of roots i.e.

D a

.or circle x2 + y2 = a2, equation of chord joining θ 1 & θ 2 is

11. Condition of Tangency : Circle x2 + y2 = a2 will touch the line y = mx + c if c = ±a

x cos

θ1 + θ2 θ + θ2 θ − θ2 + y sin 1 = r cos 1 . 2 2 2
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1 + m2

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 12. Equation of tangent, T = 0 : (i) Equation of tangent to the circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 at any point (x1, y1) is xx1 + yy1 + g(x + x1) + f(y + y1) + c = 0 (ii) (iii) Equation of tangent to the circle x2 + y2 = a2 at any point (x1, y1) is xx1 + yy1 = a2 In slope form : .rom the condition of tangency for every value of m. The line y = mx ± a 1 + m2 is a tangent to the circle x2 + y2 = a2 and its point of contact is MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 15. The point of intersection of tangents drawn to the circle x2 + y2 = r2 at point θ 1 & θ 2 is given as

. r cos θ + θ GG 2 θ −θ GH cos 2
1 1

2

2

θ1 + θ 2 2 , θ1 − θ2 cos 2 r sin

I J J J K

16. Equation of the chord of contact of the tangents drawn from point P outside the circle is T = 0 17. Equation of a chord whose middle pt. is given by T = S1 18. Director circle : Equation of director circle for x2 + y2 = a2 is x2 + y2 = 2a2. Director circle is a concentric circle whose radius is
2 times the radius of the given circle.

. GH

±am 1 + m2

,

±a 1 + m2

I J K
θ , a sin θ ) to the

(iv) Equation of tangent at (a cos

circle x2 + y2 = a2 is x cos θ + y sin θ = a.

19.

Equation of polar of point (x1, y1) w.r.t. the circle S = 0 is T = 0

13. Equation of normal : (i) Equation of normal to the circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 at any point P(x1, y1) is

20. Coordinates of pole : Coordinates of pole of the line lx + my + n = 0 w.r.t the circle x + y = a
2 2 2

. −a l −a mI are G n , n J K H
2 2

y1 + f y – y1 = x + g (x – x1) 1
(ii) Equation of normal to the circle x + y = a point (x1, y1) is xy1 – x1y = 0
2 2 2

21. .amily of Circles : (i) at any (ii) (iii) S + λS' = 0 represents a family of circles passing through the pts. of intersection of S = 0 & S' = 0 if λ ≠ –1 S + λ L = 0 represent a family of circles passing through the point of intersection of S = 0 & L = 0 Equation of circle which touches the given straight line L = 0 at the given point (x1, y1) is given as (x – x1)2 + (y – y1)2 + λL = 0.
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14. Equation of pair of tangents SS1 = T2

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (iv) Equation of circle passing through two points A(x1, y1) & B(x2, y2) is given as
x y 1

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 25. Equation of tangent at point of contact of circle is S 1 – S2 = 0 26. Radical axis and radical centre :

(x – x1) (x – x2) + (y – y1) (y – y2) + λ

x1 x2

y1 1 y2 1

= 0.

(i) (ii)

Equation of radical axis is S – S1 = 0 The point of concurrency of the three radical axis of three circles taken in pairs is called radical centre of three circles.

22. Equation of Common Chord is S – S1 = 0. 23. The angle θ of intersection of two circles with centres C1 & C2 and radii r1 & r2 is given by
2 2 r1 + r1 − d2 cosθ = , where d = C1C2 2r1r2

27. Orthogonality condition : If two circles S ≡ x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 and S' = x2 + y2 + 2g'x + 2f'y + c' = 0 intersect each other orthogonally, then 2gg' + 2ff' = c + c'.

24. Position of two circles : Let two circles with centres C1, C2 and radii r1, r2 . Then following cases arise as (i) (ii) (iii) C1 C2 > r1 + r2 ⇒ do not intersect or one outside the other, 4 common tangents. C1 C2 = r1 + r2 ⇒ Circles touch externally, 3 common tangents. |r1 – r2| < C1 C2 < r1 + r2 ⇒ Intersection at two real points, 2 common tangents. C1 C2 < |r1 + r2| ⇒ one inside the other, no tangent.

(iv) C1 C2 = |r1 – r2| ⇒ internal touch, 1 common tangent. (v)

Note : Point of contact divides C1 C2 in the ratio r1 : r2 internally or externally as the case may be
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

PARABOLA
1. Standard Parabola :
Imp. Terms Vertex (v) .ocus (f) Directrix (D) Axis L.R. .ocal distance Parametric Coordinates Parametric Equations x = at2 y = 2at x = – at2 y = 2at x = 2at y = 2at2 x = 2at y = – at2 (at2, 2at) (– at2, 2at) (2at, at2) (2at, – at2) y2 = 4ax y2 = – 4ax x2 = 4ay (0, 0) (a, 0) x = –a y = 0 4a x + a (0, 0) (–a, 0) x = a y = 0 4a a – x (0, 0) (0, a) y = –a x = 0 4a y + a x2 = – 4ay (0, 0) (0, –a) y = a x = 0 4a a – y

y2 = – 4ax

x2 = 4ay

y2 = 4ax

x2 = – 4ay
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 2. Special .orm of Parabola * Parabola which has vertex at (h, k), latus rectum l and axis parallel to x-axis is (y – k)2 = l (x – h) MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 4. Equations of tangent in different forms : (i) Point .orm / Parametric form Equations of tangent of all other standard parabolas at (x1, y1) / at t (parameter)
Equation y 2=4ax y 2 =–4ax x =4ay
2


*

axis is y = k and focus at

.Gh + l , kIJ H 4 K .Gh, k + l IJ H 4K

Tangent at yy 1 =2a(x+x1 ) xx 1 =2a(y+y1 )

Parametric coordinates't' (at2, 2at) (2at, at )
2

Tangent of 't' ty=x+at 2 ty=–x+at2 tx=y + at 2 tx =–y+at2

of parabola (x 1, y1)

Parabola which has vertex at (h, k), latus rectum l and axis parallel to y-axis is (x – h)2 = l (y – k)

yy 1=–2a(x+x 1 ) (–at2, 2at) xx 1=–2a(y+y 1 ) (2at, –at2)

x 2 =–4ay


*

axis is x = h and focus at

(ii) Slope form Equations of tangent of all other parabolas in slope form
Equation of parabolas Point of contact in terms of slope(m) y2 = 4ax Equations of tangent in terms of slope (m) y = mx + Condition of Tangency

Equation of the form ax2 + bx + c = y represents parabola. i.e.
b 4ac − b2 y – = a x+ 2a 4a
2

. G H

I J K

2

,with vertex

. − b , 4ac − b I GH 2a 4a J K

and axes parallel to y-axis

.a Gm H

2

,

2a m

I J K

a m

c =

a m

Note : Parametric equation of parabola (y – k)2 = 4a(x – h) are x = h + at2, y = k + 2at 3. Position of a point (x1, y1) and a line w.r.t. parabola y2 = 4ax. * The point (x1, y1) lies outside, on or inside the parabola y2 = 4ax according as y12 – 4ax1 >, = or < 0 * The line y = mx + c does not intersect, touches, intersect a parabola y2 = 4ax according as c > = < a/m Note : Condition of tangency for parabola y2 = 4ax, we have c = a/m and for other parabolas check disc. D = 0.
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y2 = – 4ax x2 = 4ay x
2

.− a G m H

2

,

2a m

I J K
2

y = mx –

a m
2

c = –

a m

(2am, am2) (–2am, –am )

y = mx – am2 y = mx + am

c = –am2 c = am2

= – 4ay

5.

Point of intersection of tangents at any two points P(at12, 2at1) and Q(at22, 2at2) on the parabola y2 = 4ax is (at1t2, a(t1 + t2)) i.e. (a(G.M.)2, a(2A.M.))

6.

Combined equation of the pair of tangents drawn from a point to a parabola is SS' = T2, where S = y2 – 4ax, S' = y12 – 4ax1 and T = yy1 – 2a(x + x1)
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 7. Equations of normal in different forms (i) Point .orm / Parametric form Equations of normals of all other standard parabolas at (x1, y1) / at t (parameter)
Eqn. of parabola Normal at (x1, y1) y–y1 = Point 't' Normals at 't'

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK Note : (i) In circle normal is radius itself. (ii) Sum of ordinates (y coordinate) of foot of normals through a point is zero. (iii) The centroid of the triangle formed by taking the foot of normals as a vertices of concurrent normals of y2 = 4ax lies on x-axis. 8. Condition for three normals from a point (h, 0) on x-axis to parabola y2 = 4ax (i) We get 3 normals if h > 2a (ii) (iii) We get one normal if h ≤ 2a. If point lies on x-axis, then one normal will be x-axis itself. If normal of y2 = 4ax at t1 meet the parabola again at t2 then t2 = – t1 –

y2 = 4ax

−y1 (x–x1) (at2, 2at) 2a y1 (x–x1) 2a

y+tx = 2at+at3

y2 = –4ax

y–y1 =

(–at2, 2at)

y–tx = 2at+at3

x2 = 4ay

y–y1 = –

2a x1

(x–x1)

(2at, at2)

x+ty = 2at+at3

9.

(i)

x2 = –4ay

y–y1 =

2a x1

(x–x1)

(2at, –at2)

x–ty = 2at+at3

2 t1

(ii)

(ii)

Slope form Equations of normal, point of contact, and condition of normality in terms of slope (m)
Eqn. of parabola y2 = 4ax y
2

The normals to y2 = 4ax at t1 and t2 intersect each other at the same parabola at t3, then t1t2 = 2 and t3 = – t1 – t2 Equation of focal chord of parabola y2 = 4ax at t1 is y =
2 t1

10. (i)

2t1 −1

Point of contact

Equations of normal

Condition of Normality

(x – a)

(am2, –2am) y = mx–2am–am3 c = –2am–am3

= – 4ax (–am2, 2am) y = mx+2am+am3 c = am+am3

(ii)

If focal chord of y2 = 4ax cut (intersect) at t1 and t2 then t1t2 = – 1 (t1 must not be zero) Angle formed by focal chord at vertex of parabola is tan θ =

x2 = 4ay

. − 2a , a I G m mJ H K
2

y = mx+2a+

a m
2

c = 2a+

a m
2

2 |t2 – t1| 3

x2 = –4ay

. 2a , − a I Gm m J H K
2

(iii)
y = mx–2a–

a m
2

c = –2a–

a m2

Intersecting point of normals at t1 and t2 on the parabola y2 = 4ax is (2a + a(t12 + t22 + t1t2), – at1t2 (t1 + t2))
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 11. Equation of chord of parabola y2 = 4ax which is bisected at (x1, y1) is given by T = S1 12. The locus of the mid point of a system of parallel chords of a parabola is called its diameter. Its equation is y =
2a . m

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (v) Angle included between focal radius of a point and perpendicular from a point to directrix will be bisected of tangent at that point also the external angle will be bisected by normal.

(vi) Intercepted portion of a tangent between the point of tangency and directrix will make right angle at focus. (vii) Circle drawn on any focal radius as diameter will touch tangent at vertex. (viii) Circle drawn on any focal chord as diameter will touch directrix.

13. Equation of polar at the point (x1, y1) with respect to parabola y2 = 4ax is same as chord of contact and is given by T = 0 i.e. yy1 = 2a(x + x1) Coordinates of pole of the line l x + my + n = 0 w.r.t. the parabola y2 = 4ax is

. n , −2amI Gl l J H K

14. Diameter : It is locus of mid point of set of parallel chords and equation is given by T = S1 15. Important results for Tangent : (i) Angle made by focal radius of a point will be twice the angle made by tangent of the point with axis of parabola The locus of foot of perpendicular drop from focus to any tangent will be tangent at vertex. If tangents drawn at ends point of a focal chord are mutually perpendicular then their point of intersection will lie on directrix.

(ii) (iii)

(iv) Any light ray travelling parallel to axis of the parabola will pass through focus after reflection through parabola.

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK Note : If P is any point on ellipse and length of perpendiculars from to minor axis and major axis are p1 & p2, then |xp| = p1 , |yp| = p2 ⇒
2 p1

ELLIPSE
1. Standard Ellipse (e < 1) Ellipse Imp. terms
Centre Vertices Length of major axis Length of minor axis .oci Equation of directrices Relation in a, b and e Length of latus rectum

Rx | Sa | T
.or a > b (0, 0) (±a, 0) 2a 2b (±ae, 0) x = ±a/e

2

2

+

y

2

b2

U | = 1V | W
.or b > a (0, 0) (0, ±b) 2b 2a (0, ±be) y = ±b/e a2 = b2(1 – e2) 2a2/b

a2

+

p2 2 b2

= 1

a > b

b2 = a2(1 – e2) 2b2/a

Ends of latus rectum

. ±ae, ± b I G aJ H K
2

. ± a , ± beI GH b JK
2

Parametric coordinates

(a cos φ , b sin φ ) (a cos φ , b sin φ ) 0 ≤ φ < 2π

.ocal radii

SP = a – ex1 S'P = a + ex1 SP + S'P = 2ae 2a/e x = –a, x = a

SP = b – ey1 S'P = b + ey1 2a 2b 2be 2b/e y = b, y = – b

Sum of focal radii Distance bt
n

foci

b > a

Distance btn directrices Tangents at the vertices

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 2. Special form of ellipse : If the centre of an ellipse is at point (h, k) and the directions of the axes are parallel to the coordinate axes, then its equation is MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (ii) Slope form : If the line y = mx + c touches the ellipse
x2 a2

cx − hh
a2

+

y2 b2

= 1, then c2 = a2m2 + b2. Hence, the

2

+

(y − k)2 b2

= 1.

straight line y = mx ± Point of contact : Line y = mx ±
x2 a2 y2 b2

a2m2 + b2 always represents the tangents to the ellipse. a2m2 + b2 touches the ellipse

3.

Auxillary Circle : The circle described by taking centre of an ellipse as centre and major axis as a diameter is called an auxillary circle of the ellipse. If
x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1 is an ellipse then its auxillary circle is (iii)

+

= 1 at

. G H

±a2m a2m2 + b2

,

±b2 a2m2 + b2

I J. K

x2 + y2 = a2. Note : Ellipse is locus of a point which moves in such a way that it divides the normal of a point on diameter of a point of circle in fixed ratio. 4. Position of a point and a line w.r.t. an ellipse : * The point lies outside, on or inside the ellipse if S1 = *
2 x1 2 2 y1 2

Parametric form : The equation of tangent at any point (a cos φ , b sin φ ) is
x y cos φ + sin φ = 1. a b

6.

Equation of pair of tangents from (x1, y1) to an ellipse
x2 a2

a

+

b

– 1 > , = or < 0

+

y2 b2

The line y = mx + c does not intersect, touches, intersect, the ellipse if a2m2 + b2 < = > c2 7.

= 1 is given by SS1 = T2

Equation of normal in different forms : (i) Point form : The equation of the normal at (x1, y1) to the ellipse
x2 a
2

5.

Equation of tangent in different forms : (i) Point form : The equation of the tangent to the ellipse
x
2

+

y2 b2

= 1 is

a2

+

y

2

b2

= 1 at the point (x1, y1) is

xx1 a2

+

yy1 b2

= 1.
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a2 x b2x – = a2 – b2. y1 x1

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (ii) Parametric form : The equation of the normal to the ellipse
x2 a2

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (v) Sum of square of intercept made by auxillary circle on any two perpendicular tangents of an ellipse will be constant.

+

y2 b2

= 1 at (a cos φ , b sin φ ) is
2 2

ax sec φ – by cosec φ = a – b . (iii) Slope form : If m is the slope of the normal to the ellipse
x2 a2

(vi) If a light ray originates from one of focii, then it will pass through the other focus after reflection from ellipse. 9. Equation of chord of contact of the tangents drawn from the external point (x1, y1) to an ellipse is given by

+

y2 b2

= 1, then the equation of normal

is y = mx ±

m (a2 − b2 ) a2 + b2m2

.

xx1 a
2

+

yy1 b2

= 0 i.e. T = 0.

The co-ordinates of the point of contact are

. GH

±a2 a2 + b2m2

,

±mb2 a2 + b2m2

I J. K

10. The equation of a chord of an ellipse mid point is (x1, y1) is T = S1.

x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1 whose

Note : In general three normals can be drawn from a point (x1, y1) to an ellipse

x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1.

11. Equation of chord joining the points (a cos θ , b sin θ ) and (a cos φ , b sin φ ) on the ellipse
x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1 is

8.

Properties of tangents & normals : (i) Product of length of perpendicular from either focii to any tangent to the ellipse will be equal to square of semi minor axis. The locus of foot of perpendicular drawn from either focii to any tangent lies on auxillary circle. The circle drawn on any focal radius as diameter will touch auxillary circle. (ii)

x cos a
(i)

θ+φ y + sin b 2

θ+φ = cos 2

θ−φ 2

(ii) (iii)

Relation between eccentric angles of focal chord

tan

θ1 , tan 2

θ2 ±e − 1 = 2 1±e

(iv) The protion of the tangent intercepted between the point and directrix makes right angle at corresponding focus.
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Sum of feet of eccentric angles is odd π. i.e.

θ 1 + θ 2 + θ 3 + θ 4 = (2n + 1) π .
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 12. Equation of polar of the point (x1, y1) w.r.t. the ellipse
x2 a2

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (c) If CP, CQ be two conjugate semi-diameters of the ellipse
x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1 is given by

xx1 a2

+

yy1 b2

= 0 i.e. T = 0.

+

y2 b2

= 1 and S, S' be two foci

The pole of the line l x + my + n = 0 w.r.t. the ellipse
x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1 is

. −a l , −b nI G n n J. H K
2 2

of the ellipse, then SP.S'P = CQ2 (d) The tangents at the ends of a pair of conjugate diameters of an ellipse form a parallelogram.

13. Eccentric angles of the extremities of latus rectum of the ellipse 14. (i)

x2 a
2

+

y2 b
2

= 1 are tan–1

. ± b IJ . G aeK H

15. The area of the parallelogram formed by the tangents at the ends of conjugate diameters of an ellipse is constant and is equal to the product of the axis i.e. 4ab. 16. Length of subtangent and subnormal at p(x1, y1) to the ellipse
x2 a2

Equation of the diameter bisecting the chords of slope in the ellipse
b2 a2m x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1 is

+

y2 b2

a2 = 1 is – x1 & (1 – e2) x1 x1

y = – (ii)

x

Conjugate Diameters : The straight lines y = m1x, y = m2x are conjugate diameters of the ellipse
x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1 if m1m2 = –

b2 a2

.

(iii)

Properties of conjugate diameters : (a) If CP and CQ be two conjugate semi-diameters of the ellipse
x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1, then

CP2 + CQ2 = a2 + b2 (b) If θ and φ are the eccentric angles of the extremities of two conjugate diameters, then

θ – φ = ±

π 2
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

HYPERBOLA
1. Standard Hyperbola : Hyperbola
x2 a2

–

y2 b2

= 1

–

x2 a2 x2 a2

+

y2 b2 y2 b2

= 1

Imp. terms Centre Length of transverse axis Length of conjugate axis .oci Equation of directrices Eccentricity Length of L.R. Parametric co-ordinates .ocal radii (0, 0) 2a 2b (±ae, 0) x = ±a/e e = 2b2/a (a sec φ , b tan φ ) 0 ≤ φ < 2π SP = ex1 – a S'P = ex1 + a 2a

or

–

= – 1

(0, 0) 2b 2a (0, ±be) y = ± b/e
2

Hyperbola

.a + b I G a J H K
2 2 2

e = 2a2/b

.a + b I GH b JK
2 2

(b sec φ , a tan φ ) 0 ≤ φ < 2π SP = ey1 – b S'P = ey1 + b 2b y = – b, y = b x = 0 y = 0 Conjugate Hyperbola

S'P – SP Tangents at the vertices x = – a, x = a Equation of the y = 0 transverse axis Equation of the x = 0 conjugate axis

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 2. Special form of hyperbola : If the centre of hyperbola is (h, k) and axes are parallel to the co-ordinate axes, then its equation is
(x − h)2 a2

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (b) Parametric form : The equation of tangent to the hyperbola
x2 a2

–

(y − k)2 b2

= 1.

–

y2 b2

= 1 at (a sec φ , b tan φ ) is

3.

Parametric equations of hyperbola : The equations x = a sec φ and y = b tan φ are known as the parametric equations of hyperbola

x y sec φ – tan φ = 1. b a
(c) Slope form : The equations of tangents of slope m to the hyperbola

x2 a
2

–

y2 b
2

= 1

x2 a2

–

y2 b2

= 1 are y = mx ±

a2m2 − b2 and the

4.

Position of a point and a line w.r.t. a hyperbola : The point (x1, y1) lies inside, on or outside the hyperbola
x2 a2 y2 b2

co-ordinates of points of contacts are

–

= 1
2 x1 2 y1

.± GH
6.
x2 a2

a2m a2m2 − b2

b2 a2m2 − b2

I J. K

Equation of pair of tangents from (x1, y1) to the hyperbola –
y2 b2

according as

a2

–

b2

– 1 is +ve, zero or –ve.

= 1 is given by SS1 = T2

The line y = mx + c does not intersect, touches, intersect the hyperbola according as c2 <, =, > a2m2 – b2. 5. Equations of tangents in different forms : (a) Point form : The equation of the tangent to the hyperbola
x2 a2 y2 b2

7.

Equations of normals in different forms : (a) Point form : The equation of normal to the hyperbola
x2 a2

–

y2 b2

= 1 at (x1, y1) is

a2 x b2y + = a2 + b 2 . y1 x1

–

= 1

(b)

Parametric form : The equation of normal at (a sec θ , b tan θ ) to the hyperbola

at (x1, y1) is

xx1 a
2

–

yy1 b
2

= 1.

x2 a2

–

y2 b2

= 1 is ax cos θ + by cot θ = a2 + b2

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (c) Slope form : The equation of the normal to the hyperbola
x2 a
2

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 11. Equation of chord joining the points P(a sec φ 1, b tan φ 1) and Q(a sec

–

y2 b
2

= 1 in terms of the slope m of
m (a + b ) a2 − b2m2
2 2

φ 2, b tan φ 2) is

the normal is y = mx m (d)

x cos a

.φ G H

1

− φ2 2

I J K

–

y sin b

.φ G H

1

+ φ2 2

I J K

= cos

.φ G H

1

+ φ2 . 2

I J K

Condition for normality : If y = mx + c is the normal of
x2 a2

–

y2 b2

12. Equation of polar of the point (x1, y1) w.r.t. the hyperbola is given by T = 0. The pole of the line l x + my + n = 0 w.r.t.

= 1,
m (a2 + b2 ) a2 − b2m2

then c = m (e)

or c2 =

m(a2 + b2 )2 (a2 − m2b2)

x2

, which

a2

–

y2 b2

= 1 is

. − a l , b mI G n nJ H K
2 2

is condition of normality. Points of contact : Co-ordinates of points of contact are

.± GH

a2 a2 − b2m2

,m

mb2 a2 − b2m2

I JK .

13. The equation of a diameter of the hyperbola
x2 a2

–

y2 b2

= 1 is y =

b2 a2m

x.

8.

The equation of director circle of hyperbola
x2 a2

14. The diameters y = m1x and y = m2x are conjugate if m1m2 =
b2 a2

–

y2 b2

= 1 is x + y = a – b .
2 2 2 2

9.

Equation of chord of contact of the tangents drawn from the external point (x1, y1) to the hyperbola is given by

15. Asymptotes of a hyperbola : * The equations of asymptotes of the hyperbola
x2 a2

xx1 a2

–

yy1 b2

= 1.

–

y2 b2

= 1 are y = ±

b x. a

10. The equation of chord of the hyperbola whose mid point is (x1, y1) is T = S1.
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x2 a2

–

y2 b2

Asymptote to a curve touches the curve at infinity. = 1 * The asymptote of a hyperbola passes through the centre of the hyperbola.
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK * The combined equation of the asymptotes of the hyperbola * MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK * Equation of tangent at (x1, y1) to xy

x2 a2

–

y2 b2

= 1 is

x2 a2

–

y2 b2

= 0.

The angle between the asymptotes of

x y = c2 is x + y = 2. 1 1
Equation of tangent at t is x + yt2 = 2ct

x
* * *

2

a

2

–

y b

2 2

= 1 is 2 tan–1

y

2

b2

or 2 sec–1 e.

*

Equation of normal at (x1, y1) to xy = c2 is xx1 – yy1 = x12 – y12

A hyperbola and its conjugate hyperbola have the same asymptotes. The bisector of the angles between the asymptotes are the coordinate axes. Equation of hyperbola – Equation of asymptotes = Equation of asymptotes – Equation of conjugate hyperbola = constant.

*

Equation of normal at t on xy = c2 is xt3 – yt – ct4 + c = 0. (This results shows that four normal can be drawn from a point to the hyperbola xy = c2)

* * *

16. Rectangular or Equilateral Hyperbola : * * A hyperbola for which a = b is said to be rectangular hyperbola, its equation is x2 – y2 = a2 xy = c2 represents a rectangular hyperbola with asymptotes x = 0, y = 0. Eccentricity of rectangular hyperbola is
2 and angle between asymptotes of rectangular hyperbola is 90º.

If a triangle is inscribed in a rectangular hyperbola then its orthocentre lies on the hyperbola. Equation of chord of the hyperbola xy = c2 whose middle point is given is T = S1 Point of intersection of tangents at t1 & t2 to the hyperbola xy = c2 is

*

. 2c t t Gt +t H
1

1 2 2

,

2c t1 + t 2

I J K

*

Parametric equation of the hyperbola xy = c2 are x = ct, y =

c , where t is a parameter. t

*

Equation of chord joining t1, t2 on xy = c2 is x + y t1t2 = c(t1 + t2)

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 3. Geometric Mean : (i) .or ungrouped data G.M. = (x1 x2 x3 .....xn)1/n
n

MEASURES O. CENTRAL TENDENCY AND DISPERSION
1. Arithmetic mean : (i) .or ungrouped data (individual series)

x =
(ii)

or

.1 I G.M. = antilog G n ∑ log x J H K
i i =1

x1 + x2 +......+ xn Σ xi = i=1 n(no. of terms) n
(ii) .or grouped data (continuous series)

n

.or grouped data
f f f G.M. = x11 x22 .... xnn

e

j
n

1 N

, where N =

∑f
i= 1

n

i

(a)

Direct method x =

i =1 n

Σ fixi
i=1

n

Σ fi

, where xi , i = 1 .... n

be n observations and fi be their corresponding frequencies (b)

. f log x I G∑ J G J = antilog G G ∑f J J H K
i i i =1 n i i= 1

Σfidi short cut method : x = A + Σf , i
where A = assumed mean, di = xi – A = deviation for each term

4.

Harmonic Mean - Harmonic Mean is reciprocal of arithmetic mean of reciprocals. (i) .or ungrouped data H.M. =

n

∑x
i=1

n

1
i

2.

Properties of A.M. (i) (ii) (iii) In a statistical data, the sum of the deviation of items from A.M. is always zero. If each of the n given observation be doubled, then their mean is doubled If x is the mean of x1, x2, ...... xn. The mean of ax1, ax2 .....axn is a x where a is any number different from zero. (ii) .or grouped data H.M. =

∑f
n i= 1 i =1

n

i

∑Gx J H K
i i

.f I

5.

Relation between A.M., G.M and H.M. A.M. ≥ G.M. ≥ H.M. Equality holds only when all the observations in the series are same.
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(iv) Arithmetic mean is independent of origin i.e. it is x effected by any change in origin.

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 6. Median : (a) Individual series (ungrouped data) : If data is raw, arrange in ascending or descending order and n be the no. of observations. If n is odd, Median = Value of MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (ii) .or series in descending order

.G n + 1IJ H 2 K

Median = u -

. N − CI G2 J H K
f

× i

th

observation
th

where u = upper limit of median class. 7. Mode : (i) .or individual series : In the case of individual series, the value which is repeated maximum number of times is the mode of the series. .or discrete frequency distribution series : In the case of discrete frequency distribution, mode is the value of the variate corresponding to the maximum frequency. .or continuous frequency distribution : first find the model class i.e. the class which has maximum frequency. .or continuous series Mode = l 1 +

1 If n is even, Median = [Value of 2

.G nIJ + value of H 2K . n + 1IJ ] observation. G2 K H
th

(ii)

(b)

Discrete series : .irst find cumulative frequencies of the variables arranged in ascending or descending order and Median =

(iii)

. n + 1I G 2 J H K

th

observation, where n is cumulative

(c)

frequency. Continuous distribution (grouped data) (i) .or series in ascending order

L f −f O M2f − f − f P Q N
1 0 1 0 2

× i

Where l 1 = Lower limit of the model class. f1 = .requency of the model class. class. f0 = .requency of the class preceding model f2 = .requency of the class succeeding model i = Size of the model class. 8. Relation between Mean, Mode & Median : (i) (ii) In symmetrical distribution : Mean = Mode = Median In Moderately symmetrical distribution : Mode = 3 Median – 2 Mean
PAGE # 96

Median = l + Where

. N − CI G2 J H K
f

× i class.

l = Lower limit of the median class. f = .requency of the median class. N = Sum of all frequencies. i = The width of the median class C = Cumulative frequency of the class preceding to median class.

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK Measure of Dispersion : The degree to which numerical data tend to spread about an average value is called variation or dispersion. Popular methods of measure of dispersion. 1. Mean deviation : The arithmetic average of deviations from the mean, median or mode is known as mean deviation. (a) Individual series (ungrouped data) Mean deviation =
Σ|x − S| n

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK fi = .requency of the corresponding xi (ii) N = Σ f = Total frequency Short cut method σ =
Σfd2 Σfd − N N

. I G J H K

2

or

σ=

Σd2 Σd − N N

. I G J H K

2

Where d = x – A = Derivation from assumed mean A f = .requency of item (term) N = Σf = Total frequency. Variance – Square of standard direction i.e. variance = (S.D.)2 = (σ)2 Coefficient of variance = Coefficient of S.D. × 100 =

(b)

Where n = number of terms, S = deviation of variate from mean mode, median. Continuous series (grouped data). Mean deviation =

Σ f | x − s| Σf |x − s| = Σf N

Note : Mean deviation is the least when measured from the median. 2. Standard Deviation : S.D. (σ) is the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squares of the deviations of the terms from their A.M. (a) .or individual series (ungrouped data) σ =

σ × 100 x

Σ(x − x)2 N

where x = Arithmetic mean of

the series (b) N = Total frequency .or continuous series (grouped data) (i) Direct method σ = Where

Σfi (xi − x)2 N

x = Arithmetic mean of series xi = Mid value of the class
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 4. Trace of a matrix : Sum of the elements in the principal diagonal is called the trace of a matrix. trace (A ± B) = trace A ± trace B trace kA = k trace A trace A = trace AT trace In = n when In is identity matrix. trace On = O On is null matrix. trace AB ≠ trace A trace B. 5. Addition & subtraction of matrices : If A and B are two matrices each of order same, then A + B (or A – B) is defined and is obtained by adding (or subtracting) each element of B from corresponding element of A Multiplication of a matrix by a scalar : KA = K (aij)m×n Properties : (i) (ii) (iii) 7. K(A + B) = KA + KB (K1 K2)A = K1(K2 A) = K2(K1A) (K1 + K2)A = K1A + K2A = (Ka)m×n where K is constant.

MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
MATRICES : 1. Matrix - A system or set of elements arranged in a rectangular form of array is called a matrix. Order of matrix : If a matrix A has m rows & n columns then A is of order m × n. The number of rows is written first and then number of columns. Horizontal line is row & vertical line is column 3. Types of matrices : A matrix A = (aij)m×n A matrix A = (aij)mxn over the field of complex numbers is said to be Name A row matrix A column matrix A rectangular matrix A square matrix A null or zero matrix A diagonal matrix A scalar matrix Properties if m = 1 if n = 1 if m ≠ n if m = n if aij = 0 ∀ i j. It is denoted by O. if m = n and aij = 0 for i ≠ j. if m = n and aij = 0 for i ≠ j = k for i = j i.e. a11 = a22 ....... = ann = k (cons.) Identity or unit matrix Upper Triangular matrix Lower Triangular matrix Symmetric matrix Skew symmetric matrix if m = n and aij = 0 for i ≠ j = 1 for i = j if m = n and aij = 0 for i > j if m = n and aij = 0 for i < j if m = n and aij = aji for all i, j or AT = A if m = n and aij = – aji ∀ i, j or AT = – A
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2.

6.

Multiplication of Matrices : Two matrices A & B can be multiplied only if the number of columns in A is same as the number of rows in B. Properties : (i) (ii) In general matrix multiplication is not commutative i.e. AB ≠ BA. A(BC) = (AB)C [Associative law]
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (iii) A.(B + C) = AB + AC [Distributive law] 1. MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK DETERMINANT : Minor & cofactor : If A = (aij)3×3, then minor of a11 is

/ (iv) If AB = AC ⇒ B = C
(v) If AB = 0, then it is not necessary A = 0 or B = 0

(vi) AI = A = IA (vii) Matrix multiplication is commutative for +ve integral i.e. Am+1 = Am A = AAm 8. Transpose of a matrix : A' or A T is obtained by interchanging rows into columns or columns into rows Properties : (i) (ii) (iii) (v) 9. (AT)T = A (A ± B)T = AT ± BT (AB) = B A
T T T

a22 M11 = a 32

a23 a33 and so.

cofactor of an element aij is denoted by Cij or .ij and is equal to (–1)i+j Mij or Cij = Mij, = –Mij, if i = j if i ≠ j

Note : |A| = a11.11 + a12 .12 + a13 .13 and a11 .21 + a12 .22 + a13 .23 = 0 2. Determinant : if A is a square matrix then determinant of matrix is denoted by det A or |A|. expansion of determinant of order 3 × 3

(iv) (KA)T = KAT IT = I

a1 b1 a2 b2 ⇒ a3 b3

c1 c2 c3

b2 = a1 b 3

c2 a2 –b1 a c3 3

c2 a2 b2 + c1 a b c3 3 3

Some special cases of square matrices : A square matrix is called (i) (ii) (iii) Orthogonal matrix : if AAT = In = ATA
2

or Properties :

b1 = –a2 b 3

c1 a1 + b2 a c3 3

c1 a1 b1 c3 – c2 a3 b3

Idempotent matrix : if A2 = A Involutory matrix : if A = I or A
–1

=A

(i) (ii) (iii)

|AT| = |A| By interchanging two rows (or columns), value of determinant differ by –ve sign. If two rows (or columns) are identical then |A| = 0

(iv) Nilpotent matrix : if ∃ p ∈ N such that Ap = 0 (v) Hermitian matrix : if Aθ = A i.e. aij = a ji

(vi) Skew - Hermitian matrix : if A = –Aθ

(iv) |KA| = Kn det A, A is matrix of order n × n

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (v) If same multiple of elements of any row (or column) of a determinant are added to the corresponding elements of any other row (or column), then the value of the new determinant remain unchanged. A nilpotent matrix is 0. An orthogonal matrix is 1 or – 1 A unitary matrix is of modulus unity. A Hermitian matrix is purely real. An identity matrix is one i.e. |In| = 1, where In is a unit matrix of order n. A zero matrix is zero i.e. |0n| = 0, where 0n is a zero matrix of order n A diagonal matrix = product of its diagonal elements. Skew symmetric matrix of odd order is zero. 2. MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK Properties : (i) (ii) (iii) (iii) (v) A(adj A) = (adjA) A = |A|In |adj A| = |A|n–1 (adjAB) = (adjB) (adjA) (adj AT) = (adjA)T (adj KA) = Kn–1(adj A)

(vi) Determinant of : (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) 3.

(iv) adj(adjA) = |A|n–2

Inverse of a matrix : (i) (ii) (iii) (v) A–1 exists if A is non singular i.e. |A| ≠ 0 A–1 =

adjA , |A| ≠ 0 | A|

A–1A = In = A A–1 (A–1)–1 = A

(iv) (AT)–1 = (A–1)T

Multiplication of two determinants : Multiplication of two second order determinants is defined as follows.

(vi) |A–1| = |A|–1 =

1 | A|

a1 b1 l1 m1 a1l1 + b1l2 × l m = a l +b l a2 b2 2 1 2 2 2 2

a1m1 + b1m2 a2m1 + b2m2
3.

(vii) If A & B are invertible square matrices then (AB)–1 = B–1 A–1 Rank of a matrix : A non zero matrix A is said to have rank r, if (i) (ii) Every square sub matrix of order (r + 1) or more is singular There exists at least one square submatrix of order r which is non singular.
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If order is different then for their multiplication, express them firstly in the same order. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS : 1. Adjoint of a matrix : adj A = (Cij)T , where Cij is cofactor of aij
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 4. Homogeneous & non homogeneous system of linear equations : A system of equations Ax = B is called a homogeneous system if B = 0. If B ≠ 0, then it is called non homogeneous system equations. 5. (a) Solution of non homogeneous system of linear equations : (i) Cramer's rule : Determinant method The non homogeneous system Ax = B, B ≠ 0 of n equations in n variables is Consistent (with unique solution) if |A| ≠ 0 and for each i = 1, 2, ........ n, (ii) MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (b) Solution of homogeneous system of linear equations : The homogeneous system Ax = B, B = 0 of n equations in n variables is (i) Consistent (with unique solution) if |A| ≠ 0 and for each i = 1, 2, ......... n xi = 0 is called trivial solution. Consistent (with infinitely many solution), if |A| = 0 (a) |A| = |Ai| = 0 (for determinant method) (for matrix method) (b) |A| = 0, (adj A) B = 0

det A i xi = , where Ai is the matrix obtained det A
from A by replacing ith column with B. Inconsistent (with no solution) if |A| = 0 and at least one of the det (Ai) is non zero. Consistent (With infinite many solution), if |A| = 0 and all det (Ai) are zero. (ii) Matrix method : The non homogeneous system Ax = B, B ≠ 0 of n equations in n variables is Consistent (with unique solution) if |A| ≠ 0 i.e. if A is non singular, x = A–1 B. Inconsistent (with no solution), if |A| = 0 and (adj A) B is a non null matrix. Consistent (with infinitely many solutions), if |A| = 0 and (adj A) B is a null matrix.

NOTE : A homogeneous system of equations is never inconsistent.

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK .UNCTION 1. Modulus function : MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK Properties : (i) (ii) (iii) loga 1 = 0 loga a = 1

Rx, x > 0 | |x| = S−x, x < 0 |0, x = 0 T
Properties : (i) (ii) (iii) |x| ≠ ± x |xy| = |x||y|
x |x| = y |y|

aloga b = b
if k > 0, k = blogb k

(iv) loga b1 + loga b2 + ...... + loga bn = loga (b1 b2 ........bn) (v) loga

.G bI H cJ K

= loga b – loga c

(iv) |x + y| ≤ |x| + |y| (v) |x – y| ≥ |x| – |y| or ≤ |x| + |y| (vi) ||a| – |b|| ≤ |a – b| for equality a.b ≥ 0. (vii) If a > 0 |x| = a |x| = –a |x| > a |x| ≤ a |x| < –a |x| > –a 2.

(vi) Base change formulae

logc b loga b = log a c
(vii) logam bn =
1 (viii) loga b

or

1 loga b = log a b

⇒ x=±a ⇒ no solution ⇒ x < – a or x > a ⇒ –a ≤ x ≤ a ⇒ No solution. ⇒ x∈R

n loga b m

.G I H J K

= – loga b = log1/a b

Logarithmic .unction : (i) (ii) (iii) logb a to be defined a > 0, b > 0, b ≠ 1 loga b = c loga b > c a>1 0<a<1 if a > 1 if 0 < a < 1
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E D U C A T

(ix) (x)

log1/a

. bI G cJ H K

= loga

. cI G bJ H K

b=a

c

alogb c = clogb a

b > ac, ⇒ or b < ac, (iv) loga b > loga c b > c, ⇒ or
E D U C A T I O N S

3.

Greatest Integer function : f(x) = [x], where [.]denotes greatest integer function equal or less than x. i.e., defined as [4.2] = 4, [–4.2] = –5 Period of [x] = 1
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b < c,

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK Properties : (i) x – 1 < [x] ≤ x (ii) [x + I] = [x] + I [x + y] ≠ [x] + [y] (iii) [x] + [–x] = 0, x ∈ I = –1, x ∉ I (iv) [x] = I, where I is an integer x ∈ [I, I + 1) (v) [x] ≥ I, x ∈ [I, ∞ ) (vi) [x] ≤ I, x ∈ (– ∞ , I + 1] (vii) [x] > I, [x] ≥ I + 1, x ∈ [I + 1, ∞ ) (viii) [x] < I, [x] ≤ I – 1, x ∈ (– ∞ , I) 4. .ractional part function : f(x) = {x} = difference between number & its integral part = x – [x]. Properties : (i) {x}, x ∈ [0, 1) (ii) {x + I} = {x} {x + y} ≠ {x} + {y} (iii) {x} + {–x} = 0, x ∈ I = 1, x ∉ I (iv) [{x}] = 0, {{x}} = {x}, {[x]} = 0 Signum function : MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 6. Definition : Let A and B be two given sets and if each element a ∈ A is associated with a unique element b ∈ B under a rule f, then this relation (mapping) is called a function. Graphically - no vertical line should intersect the graph of the function more than once. Here set A is called domain and set of all f images of the elements of A is called range. i.e., Domain = All possible values of x for which f(x) exists. Range = .or all values of x, all possible values of f(x). Table : Domain and Range of some standard functions .unctions Polynomial function Identity function x Constant function K Reciprocal function
1 x

Domain R R R R0 R R

Range R R (K) R0 R+ ∪{x} R {-1, 0, 1} R+ ∪{x} R- ∪{x} 1 [0, 1] [0, ∞ ] R+ R
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x2, |x| (modulus function) x3, x|x| Signum function

5.

R−1 | |0 S f(x) = sgn (x) = | |1 T
or f(x) =

|x| x

R R R R R [0, ∞ ) R R+

, x ∈R− , x=0 , x ∈R+

x +|x| x -|x| [x] (greatest integer function) x - {x}

|x| , x

x ≠ 0 x=0
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E D U C A T

x
ax (exponential function) log x (logarithmic function)

= 0,

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK Trigonometric .unctions sin x cos x tan x cot x sec x cosec x Inverse Trigo .unctions sin cos
-1

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 7. Kinds of functions : (i) One-one (injection) function - f : A → B is one-one if f(a) = f(b) ⇒ a = b or a≠b

Domain R R R-

Range [-1, 1] [-1, 1]

R± π , ± 3π ,...U S2 2 V T W R± π , ± 3π ,...U S2 2 V T W

⇒ f(a) ≠ f(b), a, b ∈ A
Graphically-no horizontal line intersects with the graph of the function more than once. (ii) (iii) Onto function (surjection) - f : A → B is onto if R (f) = B i.e. if to each y ∈ B ∃ x ∈ A s.t. f(x) = y Many one function : f : A → B is a many one function if there exist x, y ∈ A s.t. x ≠ y but f(x) = f(y) Graphically - atleast one horizontal line intersects with the graph of the function more than once. (iv) Into function : f is said to be into function if R(f) < B (v) One-one-onto function (Bijective) - A function which is both one-one and onto is called bijective function.

R R R - (-1,1) R - (-1,1) Range

R- {0, ± π , ± 2 π ,...} R -

R- {0, ± π , ± 2 π } Domain

x x

(-1, 1] [-1,1] R R R -(-1,1)

LM −π , π OP N 2 2Q
[0, π ]

8.

Inverse function : f–1 exists iff f is one-one & onto both f–1 : B → A, f–1(b) = a

-1

⇒ f(a) = b

tan-1 x cot-1 x sec-1 x

.G −π , π IJ H 2 2K
(0, π )

9.

Transformation of curves : (i) Replacing x by (x – a) entire graph will be shifted parallel to x-axis with |a| units. If a is +ve it moves towards right. a is –ve it moves toward left. Similarly if y is replace by (y – a), the graph will be shifted parallel to y-axis, upward if a is +ve downward if a is –ve.
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π [0, π ]2

RU SV TW

cosec-1 x

R - (-1,1)

LM− π , π OP- {0} N 2 2Q
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (ii) Replacing x by –x, take reflection of entire curve is yaxis. Similarly if y is replaced by –y then take reflection of entire curve in x-axis. (iii) Replacing x by |x|, remove the portion of the curve corresponding to –ve x (on left hand side of y-axis) and take reflection of right hand side on LHS. MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (g) (h) (i) Zero function i.e. f(x) = 0 is the only function which is even and odd both. If f(x) is odd (even) function then f'(x) is even (odd) function provided f(x) is differentiable on R. A given function can be expressed as sum of even & odd function. i.e. f(x) =
1 1 [f(x) + f(–x)] + [f(x) – f(–x)] 2 2

(iv) Replace f(x) by |f(x)|, if on L.H.S. y is present and mode is taken on R.H.S. then portion of the curve below x-axis will be reflected above x-axis. (v) Replace x by ax (a > 0), then divide all the value on xaxis by a. Similarly if y is replaced by ay (a > 0) then divide all the values of y-axis by a. 10. Even and odd function : A function is said to be (i) (ii) Even function if f(–x) = f(x) and Odd function if f(–x) = –f(x).

= even function + odd function. 12. Increasing function : A function f(x) is an increasing function in the domain D if the value of the function does not decrease by increasing the value of x. 13. Decreasing function : A function f(x) is a decreasing function in the domain D if the value of function does not increase by increasing the value of x. 14. Periodic function: .unction f(x) will be periodic if a +ve real number T exist such that

11. Properties of even & odd function : (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) The graph of an even function is always symmetric about y-axis. The graph of an odd function is always symmetric about origin. Product of two even or odd function is an even function. Sum & difference of two even (odd) function is an even (odd) function. Product of an even or odd function is an odd function. Sum of even and odd function is neither even nor odd function.
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∀ x ∈ Domain. There may be infinitely many such T which satisfy the above equality. Such a least +ve no. T is called period of f(x).
f(x + T) = f(x), (i) If a function f(x) has period T, then Period of f(xn + a) = T/n and Period of (x/n + a) = nT (ii) If the period of f(x) is T1 & g(x) has T2 then the period of f(x) ± g(x) will be L.C.M. of T1 & T2 provided it satisfies definition of periodic function. If period of f(x) & g(x) are same T, then the period of af(x) + bg(x) will also be T.

(iii)

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK .unction sin x, cos x sec x, cosec x tan x, cot x sin (x/3) tan 4x cos 2πx |cos x| sin x + cos x
4 4

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 15. Composite function : If f : X → Y and g : Y → Z are two function, then the composite function of f and g, gof : X → Z will be defined as gof(x) = g(f(x)), ∀ x ∈ X In general gof ≠ fog If both f and g are bijective function, then so is gof.

Period 2π π 6π π/4 1 π π/2 6π 2π/3 2π 2π π 1 1

2 cos

.G x − π I K H 3 J
4

sin3 x + cos3 x sin x + cos x
3

sin x sin5x

tan2 x – cot2 x x – [x] [x] NON PERIODIC .UNCTIONS :
2 3 x, x , x , 5

cos x2 x + sin x x cos x cos x
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 5. Limit of the greatest integer function : Let c be any real number
lim Case I : If c is not an integer, then x → c [x] = [c]

LIMIT
1.
lim Limit of a function : x → a f(x) = l (finite quantity)

2.

lim Existence of limit : x → a f(x) exists iff xlim− f(x) = xlim+ f(x) = l →a →a

Case II: If c is an integer, then xlim− [x] = c – 1, xlim+ [x] = c →c →c

lim and x → c [x] = does not exist
6. Methods of evaluation of limits : (i)

3.

Indeterminate forms :

0 ∞ , , ∞ – ∞ , ∞ × 0, ∞ 0 , 0∞ , 1∞ 0 ∞

4.

Theorems on limits : (i) (ii) (iii)
x→a

f(x) 0 is of form g(x) 0 then factorize num. & devo. separately and cancel the lim .actorisation method : If x → a 0 form. 0 Rationalization method : If we have fractional powers on the expression in num, deno or in both, we rationalize the factor and simplify. When x → ∞ : Divide num. & deno. by the highest power of x present in the expression and then after removing
common factor which is participating in making the indeterminate form, replace

lim (k f(x)) = k lim f(x), x→a

k is a constant. (ii)

x→a

lim (f(x) ± g(x)) = lim f(x) ± Lim g(x) x→a x→a lim f(x).g(x) = lim f(x). Lim g(x) x→a x→a lim f(x) x→a f(x) lim = lim g(x) , provided x → a g(x) ≠ 0 g(x) x→a

x→a

(iii)

(iv)

x→a

lim

1 1 , 2 ,.. by 0. x x

(v)

x→a

lim f(g(x)) = f lim g(x) , provided value of x→a

. H

I K

(iv) (v)

n n lim x − a = nan–1 x→a x −a By using standard results (limits) :

g(x) function f(x) is continuous. (vi)
x→a

lim [f(x) + k] = lim f(x) + k x→a

(a) (b) (c) (d)

x→0

lim x lim sinx = 1 = x → 0 x sin x x lim tan x = 1 = lim x→0 x tan x lim sinx = 0
lim cosx = lim x→0 1 =1 cos x
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lim lim (vii) x → a log(f(x)) = log x → a f(x)
lim (viii) x → a (f(x))g(x) =

. H

I K

x→0

L lim f(x)O M P N Q
x→a

x→0

x→a

lim g(x)

x→0

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK
0 lim sin x = π x→0 180 x −1 x lim sin x = 1 = lim x→0 x→0 sin−1 x x −1 x lim tan x = 1 = lim x→0 x→0 tan−1 x x

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (vi) By substitution : (a) If x → a, then we can substitute x=a+t ⇒ t=x–a If x → a, t → 0. (b) When x → – ∞ substitute x = – t ⇒ t → ∞ (c) When x → ∞ substitute t =
x2 x3 + + ..... 2! 3! x2 x3 – + ..... 2! 3! x2 x3 + – ...... 2 3 x2 x3 – –..... 2 3 (x loge a)2 (x loge a)3 + + ...... 2! 3!

(e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m)

1 ⇒ t → 0+ x

(vii) By using some expansion : ex = 1 + x + e–x = 1 – x +

lim a − 1 = log a x→0 e x
x lim e − 1 = 1 x→0 x

x

lim log(1 + x) = 1 x→0 x 1 lim loga (1 + x) = x→0 loga x
x→0

log(1 + x) = x – log(1 – x) = –x –

lim (1 + x) − 1 = n x lim sinx = lim cos x = 0 x→∞ x x
sin 1 x 1 x

n

ex ln a = ax = 1 + xlogea + sinx = x –

x→∞

x3 x5 + –....... 3! 5! x2 x4 + –...... 2! 4! 2 x3 + x5 + ..... 15 3

cosx = 1 – =1 tanx = x +

(n)

x→∞

lim

(o)

x→0

lim (1 + x)1/x = e = lim x→∞
1/x lim = ea x → 0 (1 + ax)

(p)

.G1 + 1 IJ H xK . aI = lim G1 + J H xK
x
x→∞

7.
x

n(n − 1) 2 x + ..... 2! Sandwich Theorem : In the neighbour hood of x = a f(x) < g(x) < h(x)
(1 + x)n = 1 + nx +

lim f(x) = lim h(x) = l, then lim g(x) = l. x →a x →a x →a


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l < lim g(x) < l. x →a
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 2. .UNDAMENTAL RULES .OR DI..ERENTIATION : (i)
Derivative nxn – 1

DI..ERENTIATION
1. SOME STANDARD DI..ERENTIATION :
.unction A cons. (k) Derivative 0 .unction xn

d f(x) = 0 if and only if f(x) = constant dx d dx
d dx

(ii)

ccf(x)h

= c

d f(x), where c is a constant. dx
=
d f(x) ± dx d g(x) dx

loga x ax sin x tan x cosec x

1 x loge a
ax loge a cos x sec2 x –cosec x cot x
1 1−x
2

loge x ex cos x cot x sec x

1 x
ex –sin x –cosec2 x sec x tan x
1 1 − x2

(iii)

cf(x) ± g(x)h

(iv)

d dv du (uv) = u + v , where u & v are functions dx dx dx
of x. (Product rule) or
d du dv dw (uvw) = vw + uw + uv . dx dx dx dx

sin–1 x

,–1<x<1

cos–1x

–

,–1<x<1

(v)
sec–1 x
1 |x| 1 − x
2

If

,|x|>1

cosec–1 x –

1 |x| 1 − x2

d d f(x) = φ(x), then f (ax + b) dx dx

,–1|x|>|

= a φ(ax + b)

tan–1 x

1 1+x
2

,x ∈ R

cot–1 x

–

1 1 + x2

, x ∈R

(vi)

d dx

.G u I H vJ K

=

v

du dv −u dx dx 2 v

(quotient rule)

[x]

0, x ∉ I

|x|

x , x≠ 0 | x|

(vii) If y = f(u), u = g(x) [chain rule or differential coefficient of a function of a function] then
dy dy du = × dx dx du

NOTE :

d [x] does not exist at any integral Point. dx
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E D U C A T I O N S

llly If y = f(u), u = g(v), v = h(x), then
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (xii) Differentiation of implicit function : If f (x, y) = 0, differentiate w.r.t. x and collect the terms containing

dy dy du dv = × × dx du dv dx
i.e if y = un ⇒
dy du = nun–1 dx dx

dy at one side and find dx

dy . dx

OR (viii) Differentiation of composite functions Suppose a function is given in form of fog(x) or f[g(x)], then differentiate applying chain rule
d f[g(x)] = f'g(x) . g'(x) i.e., dx

[The relation f(x, y) = 0 in which y is not expressible explicitly in terms of x are called implicit functions]

(xiii) Differentiation of parametric functions : If x = f(t) and y = g(t), where t is a parameter, then

(ix)

d dx

.G 1I H uJ K

=

−1 u2

du , u ≠ 0 dx

(x) (xi)

u du d |u| = , |u| dx dx

dy g'(t) dy dt = = f'(t) dx dx dt
(xiv) Differentiation of a function w.r.t. another function : Let y = f(x) and z = g(x), then differentiation of y w.r.t. z is

u ≠ 0

Logarithmic Differentiation : If a function is in the
f1 ( x ) f2 ( x ).... form (f(x))g(x) or g ( x ) g ( x ).... We first take log on 1 2

both sides and then differentiate. (a) (b) (c) loge (mn) = logem + logen loge

dy / dx f'(x) dy = = g'(x) dz / dx dz
(xv) Differentiation of inverse Trigonometric functions

m = logm – logen n
(d) (f) logn m aloga
x

loge (m)n = nlogem

logm n = 1

using Trigonometrical Transformation : To solve the problems involving inverse trigonometric functions first try for a suitable substitution to simplify it and then differentiate. If no such substitution is found then differentiate directly by using trigonometrical formula frequently.

m (e) logan xm = loga x n

= x

(g) loge e = 1

(h)

loge m logn m = log n e
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 3. Important Trigonometrical .ormula : (i) sin2x = 2sinx. cosx =
2 tan x 1 + tan2 x

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

(xvi) sin–1 sin (x) = x, for –

π 2

≤ x ≤

π 2

cos–1 (cos x) = x, for 0 ≤ x ≤ π tan–1 (tan x) = x, for –
π π < x < 2 2

(ii) cos2x =

1 − tan2 x 1 + tan2 x

= 2 cos2 x – 1 = 1 – 2 sin2 x

(viii) tan2x = (iii)

2 tan x 1 − tan2 x

(xvii) sin–1 (–x) = –sin–1 x, tan–1 (–x) = – tan–1 x, cos–1 (–x) = π – cos–1 x

sin3x = 3sinx – 4sin3 x (xviii) sin–1

(vi) cos3x = 4cos3 x – 3cosx
3 tan x − tan3 x 1 − 3 tan2 x

. 1I G xJ H K . 1I G xJ H K . 1I G xJ H K

= cosec–1 x, cos–1

. 1I G xJ H K

= sec–1 x,

(ix) (x) (xi)

tan3x =

tan–1

= cot–1 x, cot–1

. 1I G xJ H K

= tan–1 x,

sin–1 x + cos–1 x = π /2 sec–1 x + cosec–1 x = π /2 sec–1

= cos–1 x, cosec–1

(xii) tan–1 x + cot–1 x = π /2

. 1I G xJ H K

= sin–1 x

(xiii) tan–1 x ± tan–1 y = tan–1

. x ± y IJ G 1 m xy K H I K

(xix) sin–1 (cos θ ) = sin–1

(xiv) sin–1 x ± sin–1 y = sin–1 x 1 − y2 ± y 1 − x2

. H

.sin . π − θI I G G 2 JJ H H KK

=

π – θ 2

(xv) cos–1 x ± cos–1 y = cos–1

. xy m H

1 − x2

1 − y2

IK

cos–1 (sin θ ) = cos–1

.cos . π − θI I G G 2 JJ H H KK . tan . π − θI I G G 2 JJ H H KK

=

π – θ 2
π – θ 2

tan–1 (cot θ ) = tan–1

=

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 4. Some Useful Substitutions : Part A Expression 3x – 4x3 4x3 – 3x
3x − x3 1 − 3x 2

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK Part B Expression Substitution x = a tan θ or x = a cot θ

Substitution x = sinθ x = cosθ

.ormula 3sinθ – 4sin3 θ 4cos3 θ – 3cosθ
3 tan θ − tan3 θ 1 − 3 tan2 θ

Result sin3θ cos3θ

a2 + x2
a− x a+ x or a+ x a− x

x = a tan θ x = a sin θ or x = a cos θ

a2 – x2 tan3θ
a+x or a−x a−x a+x

x = tanθ

x = a cos θ x = a sec θ or x=acosec θ

2x 1+x 2x 1−x
2 2

x = tanθ

2 tan θ 1 + tan2 θ 2 tan θ 1 − tan θ
1 – 2sin2 θ 2cos2 θ – 1 1 – sin2 θ 1 – cos2 θ sec θ – 1
2

sin2θ

x 2 – a2

x = tanθ x = sinθ x = cosθ x = sinθ x = cosθ

2

tan2θ cos2θ cos2θ cos2 θ sin2 θ tan θ
2

a2 + x2 a2 − x2

or

a2 − x2 a2 + x2

x2 = a2 cos θ

1 – 2x2 2x2 – 1 1 – x2

5.

Successive differentiations or higher order derivatives : (a) If y = f(x) then
dy = f'(x) is called the first derivadx

tive of y w.r.t. x
d2 y dx
2

x

2

– 1

x = secθ x = cosecθ

cosec2 θ – 1 1 + tan2 θ 1 + cot2 θ

cot 2 θ sec2 θ cosec2 θ

=

d dx

. dy I G dx J H K

=

d f'(x) dx

c

h

1 + x2

x = tanθ x = cotθ

is called the second derivative of y w.r.t. x

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

llly

d3 y dx3

=

d2 dx2

cf'(x)h

etc......

(f)

If y = sin (ax + b), then yn = an sin ax + b +

. G H

nπ 2

I J K

Thus, This process can be continued and we can obtain derivatives of higher order Note : To obtain higher order derivative of parametric functions we use chain rule i.e. if x = 2t, y = t2 (i) 6.

If y = cos (ax + b), then yn = an cos nth Derivatives of Some .unctions :
dn dxn dn dx
n

.ax + b + nπ I G J H 2K

dy = t dx
d2 y dx 2 d dx

ex j
n

= n!


(b)

=

. dy I G dx J H K

(ii) =
d dt 1 (t) = 1. = dx dx t

csin xh

nπ = sin x + 2

. G H

I J K
πn 2

If y = (ax + b)m m ∉ I, then yn = m(m–1) (m–2) ..... (m–n+1) (ax + b)m–n .an

(iii)

dn dx
n

(cos x) = cos x +

. G H

I J K

(c)

If m ∈I, then ym = m! am and ym+1 = 0

(iv)

dn dx n dn dx n

(emx ) = mn emx

(d)

(−1)n n! 1 If y = , then yn = an (ax + b)n+1 ax + b
(−1)
n−1

(v)

(log x) = (– 1)n–1 (n–1)! x–n If u = g(x) is such that g'(x) = K (constant)
dn dx
n

NOTE : (e) If y = log (ax + b), then yn =
(n − 1)! (ax + b)n

an then

f g(x)

c h

= Kn

Ld Mdu M N

n n

f(u)

O P P Q

u= g(x)

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 7. Differentiation of Infinite Series : method is illustrated with the help of example
x if y = x
x− −∞

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 9. Differentiation of Determinant :

then function becomes y = xy now taking log

on both sides i.e logy = y log x, differentiating both sides w.r.t. x we get

∆ =

R1 R2 R3

= |C1 C2 C3|

1 y

dy 1 dy = y + logx dx dx x

R'1 ∆' = R 2 R3

R1 R'2 + R3

R1 R2 + R'3

dy = dx

.G 1 − log xI J K Hy

y x

y2 = x(1 − y log x)

= |C'1 C2 C3| + |C1 C'2 C3| + |C1 C2 C'3|

8.

L-hospital rule : if as x → a f(x) & g(x) either both → 0 or both → ∞, then
lim f(x) f'(x) = lim x →a g'(x) g(x)

x →a

(a)

it can be applied only on 0/0 or ∞/∞ form

(b) Numerator & denominator are differentiated separately not (c)
u formulae. v

If R.H.S. exist or d'not exist because value → ∞, then L.H rule can be applied. But if value fluctuate on R.H.S. then L.H. rule can't be applied. If it is applied continuously then at each step 0/0 or ∞/∞ should be checked.

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 7. Length of intercepts made on axes by the tangent :

APPLICATION O. DERIVATIVES
TANGENT AND NORMAL : 1. 2. Geometrically f'(a) represents the slope of the tangent to the curve y = f(x) at the point (a, f(a)) If the tangent makes an angle ψ (say) with +ve x direction then f'(x) = 3.

x – intercept = x1

R | y | – S . dy I | G dx J |H K T

1

(x , y ) 1 1

U | | V | | W

.G dy IJ H dx K

(x1 , y1)

= tan ψ = slope of the tangent.

y – intercept = y1 – x1

. dy I G dx J H K

(x , y ) 1 1

If the tangent is parallel to x-axis, ψ = 0

.G dy IJ H dx K

8.
(x1 , y1)

Length of perpendicular from origin to the tangent :

= 0.

4.

π If the tangent is perpendicular to x-axis, ψ = 2

y1 − x1
=


5.

.G dy IJ H dx K

. dy I G dx J H K . dy I 1+G J H dx K
2

(x1 ,y1 )

(x1 , y1 )

(x1 , y1)

→ ∞
9. Slope of the normal =–

If the tangent line makes equal angle with the axes, then

.G dy IJ H dx K

1 Slope of the tan gent

(x1 , y1)

= ± 1. =–

6.

Equation of the tangent to the curve y = f(x) at a point (x1, y1) is y – y1 =

. dx I G dy J H K

(x 1 , y 1 )

.G dy I K H dx J

10. If normal makes an angle of φ with +ve direction of x-axis, then

(x1 , y1)

(x – x1)

dy = – cot φ . dx

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 17. Angle of intersection of the two curves :
(x1 , y1)

11. If the normal is parallel to x-axis ⇒

.G dy IJ H dx K

= 0. tanθ = ±

12. If the normal is perpendicular to x-axis ⇒

.G dy IJ H dx K

(x1 , y1)

= 0.

13. If normal is equally inclined from both the axes or cuts equal intercept then

. dy I − . dy I G dx J G dx J H K H K . dy I . dy I 1−G J G J H dx K H dx K
1 1 2

2

where

. dy I G dx J H K

1

is the slope of first

2

. dy I G dx J H K
1

= ± 1.

14. The equation of the normal to the curve y = f(x) at a point (x1, y1) is y – y1 = –

.G dy I of second. If both curves intersect orthogoH dx J K . dy I . dy I nally then G dx J G dx J = –1 H K H K
curve &
1 2

. dy I G dx J H K

(x – x1) 18. Length of tangent, normal, subtangent & subnormal :

(x1 , y1 )

15. Length of intercept made on axes by the normal : x – intercept = x1 + y1

. dy I G dx J H K . dx I G dy J H K

y 1+
Length of tangent =

(x1 ,y1 )

dy dx

. dy I G dx J H K

2

y – intercept = y1 + x1

(x1 ,y1 )

16. Length of perpendicular from origin to normal :

Length of normal = y

1+

. dy I G dx J H K

2

x1
=

. dy I +y G J H dx K . dy I 1+G J H dx K
1

Length of sub-tangent =
2

y dy / dx dy dx

(x1 ,y1 )

Length of sub-normal = y

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MONOTONICITY, MAXIMA & MINIMA : 1. A function is said to be monotonic function in a domain if it is either monotonic increasing or monotonic decreasing in that domain At a point function f(x) is monotonic increasing if f'(a) > 0 At a point function f(x) is monotonic decreasing if f'(a) < 0 3. In an interval [a, b], a function f(x) is Monotonic increasing if f'(x) ≥ 0 Monotonic decreasing if f'(x) ≤ 0 constant if f'(x) = 0 ∀ x ∈ (a, b) Strictly increasing if f'(x) > 0 Strictly decreasing if f'(x) < 0 4. Maximum & Minimum Points : Maxima : A function f(x) is said to be maximum at x = a, if there exists a very small +ve number h, such that f(x) < f(a), ∀ x ∈ (a – h, a + h), x ≠ a. Minima : A function f(x) is said to be minimum at x = b, if there exists a very small +ve number h, such that f(x) > f(b), ∀ x ∈ (b – h, b + h), x ≠ b. Remark : (a) (b) The maximum & minimum points are also known as extreme points. A function may have more than one maximum & minimum points. 7. 6. MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (ii) Sufficient condition : (a) The value of the function f(x) at x = a is maximum if f'(a) = 0 and f"(a) < 0. (b) The value of the function f(x) at x = a is minimum if f'(a) = 0 and f"(a) > 0.

2.

Working rule for finding local maxima & Local Minima : (i) .ind the differential coefficient of f(x) w.r.to x, i.e. f'(x) and equate it to zero. (ii) Solve the equation f'(x) = 0 and let its real roots (critical points) be a, b, c ...... (iii) Now differentiate f'(x) w.r.to x and substitute the critical points in it and get the sign of f"(x) for each critical point. (iv) If f"(a) < 0, then the value of f(x) is maximum at x = 0 and if f"(a) > 0, then the value of f(x) is minimum at x = a. Similarly by getting the sign of f"(x) for other critical points (b, c, ......) we can find the points of maxima and minima. Absolute (Greatest and Least) values of a function in a given interval : (i) A minimum value of a function f(x) in an interval [a, b] is not necessarily its greatest value in that interval. Similarly a minimum value may not be the least value of the function. (ii) If a function f(x) is defined in an interval [a, b], then greatest or least values of this function occurs either at x = a or x = b or at those values of x for which f'(x) = 0. Thus greatest value of f(x) in interval [a, b] = max [f(a), f(b), f(c), f(d)] Least value of f(x) in interval [a, b] = min. [f(a), f(b), f(c), f(d)] Where x = c, x = d are those points for which f'(x) = 0.
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5.

Conditions for Maxima & Minima of a function : (i) Necessary condition : A point x = a is an extreme point of a function f(x) if f'(a) = 0, provided f'(a) exists.
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 8. Some Geometrical Results : In Usual Notations Area of equilateral and its perimeter Area of square Perimeter Area of rectangle Perimeter Area of trapezium Results MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK ROLLE'S THEOREM & LAGRANGES THEOREM: 1. Rolle's Theorem : If f(x) is such that (a) It is continuous on [a, b] (b) It is differentiable on (a, b) and (c) f(a) = f(b), then there exists at least one point c ∈ (a, b) such that f'(c) = 0. 2. Mean value theorem [Lagrange's theorem] : (i) If f(x) is such that (a) It is continuous on [a, b] (b) It is differentiable on (a, b), then there exists at least one c ∈ (a, b) such that
f(b) − f(a) = f'(c) b−a

3 (side)2. 4
3 (side) (side)2 4(side) l × b 2(l × b)

1 (sum of parallel sides) 2
× (distance between them) πr2 2πr
4 3 πr 3

Area of circle Perimeter Volume of sphere Surface area of sphere Volume of cone Surface area of cone Volume of cylinder Curved surface area Total surface area Volume of cuboid Surface area of cuboid Area of four walls Volume of cube Surface area of cube Area of four walls of cube

(ii)

If for c in lagrange's theorem (a < c < b) we can say that c = a + θ h where 0 < θ < 1 and h = b – a the theorem can be written as f(a + h) = f(a) + h f'(a + θ h), 0 < θ < 1, h = b – a

4πr2
1 2 πr h 3

πrl πr2h 2πrh 2πr(h + r) l × b × h 2(lb + bh + hl) 2(l × b) h l3 6l2 4l2
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK .unction

INDE.INITE INTEGRATION
1. (i)
d If .(x) = f(x), then dx

Here

integrand, c is any real no. (integrating constant)

d (ii) dx
(iii) (iv) (v) 2.

z

z ch z ch

zch

zm r

zch

z cos x

Integration sin x + c tan x + c – cot x + c sec x + c –cosec x + c –log|cos x| + c = log|sec x| + c log|sin x| + c = –log|cosec x| + c log|sec x + tan x|+c = log tan

f x dx = .(x) + c

dx is the notation of integration, f(x) is the

f x dx = f(x)

f' x dx = f(x) + c, c ∈ R

k f x dx = k f(x) dx

(f x ± g x ) dx =

ch ch

z

zch zch
h
n+1

f x dx ± g x dx

.UNDAMENTAL .ORMULAE : .unction Integration

z zc
z

x dx
ax + b dx

n

x + c, n ≠ –1 n+1

n+1

z z z z z z z z z z z

z

dx

sec2 x dx

cos ec2x dx sec x tan x dx

cos ec x cot xdx tanx dx cot x dx sec x dx cos ec x dx dx 1 − x2 dx a −x
dx 1 + x2
2 2

. π + x I +c G 4 2J H K

x log|cosec x – cot x|+c = log tan +c 2

sin–1 x + c = –cos–1x + c

h

n

1 ax + b . a n+1

c

+ c, n ≠ –1

sin–1

x x + c = –cos–1 + c a a

z z z z
E D U C A T I O

1 dx x

log|x| + c

tan–1x + c = –cot–1x + c
x 1 x −1 tan–1 + c = cot–1 a + c a a a

1 dx ax + b ex dx ax dx sinx dx

1 (log|ax + b|) + c a
ex + c

dx a2 + x2
dx |x| x2 − 1 dx |x| x2 − a2

ax + c loge a
–cos x + c
PAGE # 141
E D U C A T

z z

sec–1x + c = –cosec–1x + c
1 x sec–1 + c = a a x −1 cosec–1 a + c a

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 3. INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION : By suitable substitution, the variable x in MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK SOME RECOMMENDED SUBSTITUTION :

into another variable t so that the integrand f(x) is changed into .(t) which is some standard integral. Some following suggestions will prove useful. .unction Substitution ax + b = t Integration

z

f x dx is changed

ch

.unction
a −x ,
2 2

Substitution

1 a2 − x2 1 x + a2 1 x2 − a2 a+ x , x
2

, a2 – x 2

x = a sin θ or a cos θ

x2 + a2 , x −a ,
2 2

, x2 + a2 , x 2 – a2

x = a tanθ or x = a sinhθ x = a sec θ or x = a cosh θ

zc h zch ch z d c hi c h z cc hh
fφx
f' x f x dx

f ax + b dx

1 .(ax + b) + c a

f x f' x dx

f(x) = t

dfcxhi
2

2

x , a+ x

+c

φ x dx

φ(x) = t

z ch

1 x a+ x . x a+ x

c c

h

c

h

x = a tan2 θ

f t dt

x , a− x

a− x , x

f(x) = t

log|f(x)| + c

x a−x ,

h

x a− x x−a , x

c

1

h

x = a sin2 θ

z d c hi c h z cc hh
f x
n

f' x dx

f(x) = t

cf(x)h

n+1

n+1

+ c, n ≠ – 1

x , x−a x x−a , a− x , a+ x
x−α , β−x

c

h

x a− x a+x a−x

c

1

h

x = a sec2 θ

f' x

fx

dx

f(x) = t

2[f(x)]1/2 + c

x = a cos 2θ x = α cos2 θ + β sin2 θ

cx − αh cβ − xh ,(β > α)

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK IMPORTANT RESULTS USING STANDARD SUBSTITUTIONS : .unction Integration MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK INTEGRATION O. .UNCTIONS USING ABOVE STANDARD RESULTS : .unction + c

z
z z z

1 x −a
2 2

x−a 1 log x+a 2a
=

x −1 coth–1 a + c when x > a a

1 a −x
2 2

dx

a+ x 1 log a− x 2a

+ c

z z
z

Method

1 ax + bx + c 1
2

dx or

Express : ax2 + bx + c =

ax2 + bx + c

dx or

a x+

L. MG MH N

b 2a

I J K

2

+

4ac − b2 4a
2

O P P Q

x 1 = tanh–1 a + c, when x < a a dx x −a
2 2

(ax2 + bx + c) dx px + q ax + bx + c px + q ax2 + bx + c
2

then use appropriate formula

log{|x +

x − a |} + c
2 2

= cosh–1

. xI + c G aJ H K
x2 + a2 |} + c

z z
z

dx or

Express : px + q

dx or

= λ

d (ax2 + bx + c) + µ dx

dx x +a
2 2

log{|x +

(px + q) (ax2 + bx + c) dx

evaluate λ & µ by equat ing coefficient of x and

= sinh–1

. I G J H K
x a

+ c

constant, the integral reduces to known form

z z z
E D U C A T I O N S

a − x dx
2 2

1 1 2 x a2 − x2 + a sin–1 2 2

.G x IJ + c H aK
x − a |} + c x2 + a2 |} + c
2 2

z ax

P(x)
2

+ bx + c

dx ,

Apply division rule and express it

x − a dx
2 2

1 1 x x2 − a2 – a2 log {|x + 2 2 1 1 x x2 + a2 + a2 log {|x + 2 2

where P(x) is a polynomial of degree 2 or more

in form Q(x) +

R x
2

ax + bx + c

ch

x2 + a2 dx

The integral reduces to known form

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z
or

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

1 a sin x + b cos2 x + c
2

dx Divide numerator & denominator
by cos x,
2

z
z

zc

z

x2 x + kx 2 + a 4
4

dx

Divide numerator & denominator by 2 and then add & sub. a2. Thus the form reduces as above.

1 a sin x + b cos x

h

2

dx

then put tanx = t & solve.

dx dx a sin x + b cos x + c

Replace sin x =

2 tan x / 2 1 + tan2 x / 2

,

z
4.

dx x + kx2 + a2
4

Divide num & deno. by 2a2 and then add & sub x2. Thus the form reduces to the known form.

cos x =

1 − tan2 x / 2 1 + tan2 x / 2

INTEGRATION BY PARTS : when integrand involves more than one type of functions the formula of integration by parts is used to integrate the product of the functions i.e. (i)

then put tan x/2 = t and replace 1 + tan2 x/2 = sec2 x/2
a sin x + b cos x dx c sin x + d cos x

Express : num. = λ(deno.) +
d (deno.) Evaluate λ & µ. Thus dx integral reduces to known form.

µ

z

u. υ dx = u. υ dx –

z
z

or

a sin x + b cos x + c dx p sin x + q cos x + r

Express : Num. = λ(deno.) +

zc
z

z

z LMN .Hz
du dx

υ dx

I O dx KP Q

1st fun. . 2nd fun. dx

h c

h

d (deno.) + ν Evaluate λ, µ, ν. dx Thus integral reduces to known form.
µ
x 2 ± a2 x 4 + kx 2 + a 4 dx

= (1st fun) (ii)

2nd fun. dx –

z LMN.GH

d 1st fun. dx

I ez 2nd fun.dxjO dx J P K Q

Divide numerator & denominator

Rule to choose the first function : first fun. should be choosen in the following order of preference (ILATE). [The fun. on the left is normally chosen as first function] I – Inverse trigonometric function L – Logarithmic function A – Algebraic function T – Trigonometric function E – Exponential function

by x2 and put

.x ± a I GH x JK
2

= t, the

integral becomes one of standard forms.
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(iii) (a) (b)

(c)

z z z

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 5. INTEGRATION O. RATIONAL ALGEBRAIC .UNCTIONS USING PARTIAL .RACTION : Every Rational fun. may be represented in the form
Px

ex f x + f' x dx = ex f(x) + c e
mx

ch ch

mf x + f' x dx = e

ch ch

mx

f(x) + c

emx f x +

L f' cxh O dx Mc h m P M P N Q

=

emx f x m

ch

+ c.

where P(x), Q(x) are polynomials. If degree of numerator is less than that of denominator, the rational fun. is said to be proper other wise it is improper. If deg (num.) ≥ deg(deno.) apply division rule i.e.

c h, Qcxh

(iv)

NOTE : Breaking (iii) & (iv) integral into two integrals. Integrate one integral by parts and keeping other integral as it is by doing so we get the result (integral).

z z

xf' x + f x dx = x f(x) + c.

ch ch

ch gcxh
f x

= q(x) +

c h , for integrating rcxh , resolve the gcxh gcxh
r x

fraction into partial factors. The following table illustrate the method. Types of proper rational functions Types of partial fractions
A B + x−a x −b A B C + + x−a x −b x−c

(v)

eax sinbx dx and
e ax a2 + b2 e
2 ax 2

z

eax sin bx + c dx

c

h

c
c

px + q x−a x−b , a ≠ b

hc
hc
2

h

px2 + qx + r , x−a x−b x−c

=

(a sin bx – b cos bx) + k and

a, b, c are distinct

hc

h

a +b

[a sin (bx + c) – b cos(bx + c)] + k1

cx − ah cx − bh , a

px2 + qx + r

≠ b

A + x−a

cx − ah

B

2

+

C x−b

(vi)

z

e

ax

cos bx dx and
e ax

z

e

ax

cos bx + c dx

c

h

c

x − a x2 + bx + c , where

px2 + qx + r

he

j

Bx + C A + 2 x−a x + bx + c

x2 + bx + c can not be factorised

=

a +b

2

2

cacos bx + b sinbxh c h

+ k

ex h
+ k1.
PAGE # 149
E D U C A T I O N

px3 + qx2 + rx + s
2

+ ax + b x2 + cx + d ,
2

je

j

Ax + B x + ax + b
2

+

Cx + D x + cx + d
2

and

eax a2 + b2

a cos bx + c + b sin bx + c

c

where x + ax + b, x2 + cx + d can not be factorised
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 6. INTEGRATION O. IRRATIONAL ALGEBRAIC .UNCTIONS : (i) (ii) If integrand is a function of x & (ax + b)1/n then put (ax + b) = tn If integrand is a function of x, (ax + b)1/n and (ax + b)1/m then put (ax + b) = tp where p = (L.C.M. of m & n). (iii) To evaluate (viii) To evaluate MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

z

dx quad. quad

or

z

linear quad. quad

dx

and if the quadratic not under the square root can be resolved into real linear factors, then resolve

1 or quadratic

. linear I G quadratic J K H

into partial fractions and

z z
z

dx linear linear dx quad. linear dx

split the integral into two, each of which is of the put

linear = t

form :

z

dx linear quad.

(iv) To evaluate

put linear = t2

7.

(v) To evaluate

linear. quadratic dx

put linear = 1/t

INTEGRATION USING TRIGONOMETRICAL IDENTITIES : (A) To evaluate trigonometric functions transform the function into standard integrals using trigonometric identities as (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) sin2 mx = cos2 mx =
1 − cos 2 mx 2

or

zc zc

linear . quadratic x dx

h h

2

1 + cos 2mx 2 mx mx cos 2 2

or

linear . quadratic

2

sin mx = 2sin sin3 mx = cos3 mx = tan2 mx cot2 mx 2 cos A 2 sin A 2 sin A

(vi) To evaluate

z z

dx pure quad. pure quad

put

3 sin mx − sin 3mx 4 3 cos mx + cos 3mx 4

pure quad = t

(vii) To evaluate

dx pure quad. pure quad

put x =

1 and t

then is the resulting integral, put

pure quad = u

(vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x)

= sec2 mx – 1 = cosec2 mx – 1 cos B = cos (A + B) + cos (A – B) cos B = sin (A + B) + sin (A – B) sin B = cos (A – B) – cos (A + B)
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

(B)

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)

z

sinm x cosm xdx .
if m is odd put cos x = t if m is even put sin x = t if m & n both odd put sin x or cos x as t if m & n both even use the formula of sin2x & cos2x if m & n rational no. & put tan x = t

m+n−2 is –ve integer 2

z z z

secn x dx

n−2 secn−2 x tan x + I n − 1 n–2 n−1

cos ecnx dx

–

n−2 cos ecn−2 x cot x + I n − 1 n–2 n−1

sinm x cosn x dx

cosn−1 x sinm+1 x + n − 1 Im, n−2
–sinm–1x cosn+1x + (m – 1) Im–2,n

c cm + nh

h

8.

INTEGRATION BY SUCCESSIVE REDUCTION (REDUCTION .ORMULA) : .unction

z z z z z z

Integration

xneaxdx , n ∈ N

1 n ax n x e – I a a n–1
where In–1 =

NOTE : These formulae are specifically useful when m & n are both even nos.

z

xn−1eax dx

xn sin x dx sinn x dx

–xn cos x + nxn–1sin x – n(n – 1) In–2 –
n−1 sinn−1 cos x + In–2 n n

cosn x dx

n−1 cosn−1 x sin x + In–2 n n

tann x dx

ctanxh
–

n−1

n−1
n−1

– In–2

cotn x dx

ccot xh

n−1

– In–2

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

DE.INITE INTEGRATION
II. 1. Definite Integration : If

z
b a

f x dx = – f x dx
b

ch ch

zch
a

z
b a

z

f x dx = .(x) + c, then

ch

III.

z
b a a b

f x dx =

zch
c a
a b

f x dx +

zch
b c

f x dx where a < c < b

f x dx = . x + c

ch

ch

b a

= .(b) – .(a) is called definite integral

This property is mainly used for modulus function, greatest integer function & breakable function IV.

of f(x) w.r.t. x from x = a to x = b Here a is called lower limit and b is called upper limit. Remarks : * To evaluate definite integral of f(x). .irst obtain the indefinite integral of f(x) and then apply the upper and lower limit. .or integration by parts in definite integral we use following rule.
b

zch zc
f x dx =
−a

f a + b − x dx or

h

0

zch
a

f x dx =

zc
a 0

f a − x dx

h

V.

z

a

f x dx =

ch

z ch
a 0

f x + f −x dx

c h

*

z

uv dx =

a

{uz v.dx}

b a

b

–

z .GH z
a

du . v. dx dx dx

IJ K

=

R2 f x dx |zch S | 0 T
a 0

, if f x is an even function

ch , if f cxh is an odd function

*

When we use method of substitution. We note that while changing the independent variable in a definite integral, the limits of integration must also we changed accordingly.

2a

VI.

zch
0 0

f x dx =

R |2 fcxh dx S | 0 | T

z

a

0

c h ch , if f c2a − xh = − f cxh
, if f 2a − x = f x

VII. PROPERTIES O. DE.INITE INTEGRAL :

If f(x) is a periodic function with period T, Then
nT

I.

zch
b a
N S

f x dx =

z
b a

f t dt

ch

zch

f x dx = n f x dx
0

zch
T

and further if a ∈ R+, then
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK
a+nT

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (ii) If the function φ(x) and ψ(x) are defined on [a, b] and differentiable at a point x ∈ (a, b), and f(x, t) is continuous, then,
d dx

nT

zch

f x dx =

zch zch
a nT

f x dx ,

f x dx = (n – m) f x dx ,
0

0

mT

zch
T

b +nT

a+ nT

zch zch
b

f x dx =

f x dx

a

L M M N

ψ (x)

φ(x)

z

f (x, t) dt

O P= P Q

ψ (x)

φ(x)

z

f (x, t) dt +

Rdψ (x) U f(x, S dx V T W

VIII. If m and M are the smallest and greatest values of a function f(x) on an interval [a, b], then m(b – a) <

ψ(x)) –

Rdφ(x) U f(x, S dx V T W
π /2

φ(x)).

zch
b a b a

3.

Reduction .ormulae :
π /2

f x dx < M(b – a)
(i)

IX.

z
b a

f x dx

ch

<

z ch

z
a

cosn x dx =

z
0

sinn x dx

|f x dx|
=

X. 2.

If f(x) < g(x) on [a, b], then

z
b a

f x dx ≤

ch

zch
b a v(x)

R n − 1 . n − 3 ..... 2 .1, | n n−2 3 Sn − 1 n − 3 1 π | n . n − 2 ...... 2 . 2 , | T
π /2

if n is odd if n is even

g x dx
(ii) .or integration steps (a) (b) (c)

Differentiation Under Integral Sign : Leibnitz's Rule : (i) If f(x) is continuous and u(x), v(x) are differentiable

z
0

sinm x cosn x dx follow the following

If m is odd put cos x = t If n is odd put sin x = t If m and n are even use sin2x = 1– cos2x or cos2x = 1 – sin2x and then use
π /2

d functions in the interval [a, b], then, dx d d f{v(x)} {v(x)} – f{u(x)} {u(x)}. dx dx
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E D U C A T I O N S

u(x)

z

f(t) dt =

z
0

π /2 n

sin x dx or

z
0

cosn x dx

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E D U C A T I O N S

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 4. Summation of series by Definite integral or limit as a sum :

(iii)

z
0

e

− ax

cos bx dx =

a a2 + b2

(iv)

z
0

e−ax sinbx dx =

b a + b2
2

(i)

zch
b a n→∞

lim f x dx = h→0 h[f(a) + f(a + h) + f(a + 2h) +.....
+f(a + (n – 1)h]

(v)

z
0

where nh = b – a.

e −ax xndx =

n! a +1
n

(ii)

lim

π /2

(vi)

z
0

r 1 f n r =1 n

.I ∑G J HK
n

=

zch
1 0

f x dx

sinn x cosm x dx

[i.e. exp. the given series in the form

∑ n f G nJ H K
1

.rI

=

L m − 1 . m − 3 .... 2 . 1 Mm+n m+n−2 3 +n 1+n M M m − 1 . m − 3 .... 1 . n − 1. n − 3 .... 2 Mm + n m + n − 2 2 + n n n − 2 3 M Mm − 1. m − 3 .... 1 . n − 1. n − 3.... 1 . π Mm + n m + n − 2 2 + n n n − 2 2 2 N

; if m is odd and n may be even or odd ; if m is enen and n is odd ; if m is even and n is even

OP PP PP PP Q

replace

r 1 by x and by dx and the limit of the n n

sum is

These formulae can be expressed as a single formula :
π /2

zch
1 0

f x dx ]

z
0

sinm x cos n x dx

5.

Key Results :
π /2

=

[(m − 1) (m − 3)....] [(n − 1) (n − 3) .....] (m − n) (m + n − 2) ....
by
π when m and n are both even 2

*

z
0

π /2

logsin x dx =

z
0

logcos x dx =

−π log2 2

π /2

to be multiplied integers.

*

z
0

c h f csin xh + fccos xh dx =
f sin x

π /2

zc
0

f sin x + f cos x dx

f cos x

c h h c h

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

π /2

=

z

0

f tan x + f cot x

c

f tan x

c

h c

h

π /2

h

dx =

z
0

c h dx f csec xh + f ccos ecxh
f sec x f cot x

*

ze
a 0

x dx

a2 + x2

j

3/2

dx =

1 2a2

.

=

zc

f cos ec x

f cos ec x + f sec x

c

h c

h

π /2

h

dx=

z

0

c h dx = π/4. fctan xh + fccot xh

*

z
a 0

x2 a2 − x2 dx =

πa4 16

π /2

*

z
0

π /2

sinmx sin nx dx =

z
0

cos mx . cos nx dx

*

z
a 0

x2

π 2 a2 − x2 − dx = a3 4 3 a+ x

. G H

I J K

if a > 0

=

R0 |π S |2 T

if m, n are different + ve int egers if m = n

2a

*

z
0

2ax − x2 dx =

πa2 2

*

z
a 0

a2 − x2 dx =

π 2 a 4

* *

If n ∈ N, then If a < b then

ze
a 0

a2 − x2

j

n

2. 4. 6...... 2n 2n+1 dx = 3.5 . 7..... 2n + 1 a

c

c h

h

*

z
a 0

π 1 dx = 2 a2 − x2

(i)

*

z
a 0

z
b a

dx x−a b−x

x a − x2
2 2

dx = a
(ii)

*

z
a 0
N S

z
a 0 a 0

x−a π b−a dx = a+x 2

c

h

x

a2 − x2

dx =

3a πa + 6 8

2

2

(iii)

zc

x − a b − x dx = π b − a 2 2

hc

h

c

h

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK * ab > 0 If f(x) is continuous on [a, b] then there exists a point c ∈ (a, b) s.t

(iv) *

z
b

a

x

cx − ahcb − xh

dx

=

π ab

2

If a > 0 then (i)

zch
b a

f x dx = f(c) [b – a]. The no.

z
a 0

a a+x π +2 dx = 2 a−x

c

h
*

f(c) =

1 f x dx is called the mean value of the b−a
a

zch
b

(ii)

z
a 0

fun. f(x) on the interval [a, b]. The above result is called the first mean value theorem for integrals.
2k

a− x a π −2 a + x dx = 2

c

h

zd
0 a

x − x dx = k, where k ∈ I,

i

(iii)

(iv) *

z z
a 0 a 0

a+ x a− x

dx =

10 a a 3

*

Q x – [x] is a periodic function with period 1. If f(x) is a periodic fun. with period T, then
a+ T

a+ x a − x dx =

. π + 1I a G2 J H K
*
π 2a a

π /4

If a > 0, n ∈ N, then

(i)

z
0

zch z c
0

f x dx is independent of a.

log 1 + tan x dx =

h

π log2 8

x e −ax dx =

a > 0

(ii)

z

e −r

2 2

x

dx =

0

π (r > 0) 2r

(iii)

z
0

e−ax − e −bx dx = loge(b/a) (a, b > 0) x

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (B) Variable Separable .orm : Differential equation of
dy = f(x) g(y) dx This can be integrated as

DI..ERENTIAL EQUATIONS
1. Order of a differential equation : The order of a differential equation is the order of the highest derivative occurring in it. Degree of a differential equation : The degree of a differential equation is the degree of the highest order derivative occurring in it when the derivatives are made free from the radical sign. Eg. (i)
d2 y dx
2

the form

2.

z

dy = g(y)

(C)

Homogeneous Equations : It is a differential equation

z

f(x) dx + c

+

dy + 5y = 0 dx

f(x, y) dy = , where f(x, y) and g(x, g(x, y) dx y) are homogeneous functions of x and y of the same degree. A function f(x, y) is said to be homogeneous
of the form
y of degree n if it can be written as xn f x

(ii)

dy y = x + dx

. dy I 1+G J H dx K
2

2

. I G J H K

x or yn f y .

. I G J H K

(iii)

. d yI G dx J H K
3 3

2

+

.1 + dy I G dx J H K

+ 5y = 0 (D)

Such an equation can be solved by putting y = vx or x = vy. After substituting y = vx or x = vy. The given equation will have variables separable in v and x. Equations Reducible to Homogeneous form and variable separable form .orm where

order of (i) 2 (ii) 1 & (iii) 3, degree of (i) 1 (ii) 2 & (iii) 2 3. SOLUTIONS O. DI..ERENTIAL EQUATIONS O. THE .IRST ORDER AND .IRST DEGREE : (A) Differential equation of the form
dy = f(y) dx dy = f(x) or dx

*

ax + by + c dy = Ax + By + C dx

........... (1)

a b ≠ A B This is non Homogeneous Put x = X + h and y = Y + k in (1)
∴ dy dY = Put ah + bk + c = 0, Ah + Bk + C = 0, dX dx find h, k dY aX + bY = . This is homogeneous. dX AX + BY Solve it and then put X = x – h, Y = y – k we shall get the solution.

Integrate both sides i.e. or

z

dy = f(y)

z

z

dy =

z

f(x) dx

Then

dx to get its solution.
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK * .orm where MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK * In x :
dx + Rx = S, where R, S are functions of y dy

ax + by + c dy = Ax + By + C dx a b = = k say A B

..... (1),

alone or constant. its solution x e where

k (Ax + By) + c dy = ∴ Ax + By + C dx
Put Ax + By = z

z

R dy

=

z

S. e

z

R.dy

dy + c

dy dz A + B = dx dx

e

z

R.dy

is called the integrating factor (I...) of

the equation. (.) Equation reducible to linear form : * Differential equation of the form
dy dx

dz kz + c = A + B dx z+c

This is variable separable form and can be solved. *
dy .orm = f(ax + by + c) dx

+ Py = Qyn

Put

ax + by = z

a + b

dy dz = dx dx

where P and Q are functions of x or constant is called Bernoulli's equation. On dividing through out by yn, we get y–n Put

dz = a + b f(z) dx

This is variable separable form and can be solved. (E) * Linear equation : In y :

dy + py–n dx
y–n
+ 1

+ 1

= Q

= z

dy + Py = Q, where P, Q are function of x dx

⇒ The given equation will be linear in z and can be solved in the usual manner.
Note : In general solution of differential equation we can take integrating constant c as tan–1 c, ec, log c etc. according to our convenience.

alone or constant. its solution ye

z

P dx

=

z

Qe

z

P dx

dx + c

where

e

z

P dx

is called the integrating factor (I...) of

the equation.
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 4. Vectors in terms of position vectors of end points -

VECTORS
1. Types of vectors : (a) Zero or null vector : A vector whose magnitude is zero is called zero or null vector. r a Vector a $ (b) Unit vector : a = |a = | Magnitude of a (c) Equal vector : Two vectors a and b are said to be equal if |a| = |b| and they have the same direction.

AB = OB – OA = Position vector of B – position vector of A i.e. any vector = p.v. of terminal pt – p.v. of initial pt.
5. Multiplication of a vector by a scalar : r r If a is a vector and m is a scalar, then m a is a vector and r magnitude of m a = m|a|
r $ $ i and if a = a1 $ + a2 j + a3 k r $ $ then m a = (ma1) $ + (ma2) j + (ma3) k i

2.

Triangle law of addition : AB + BC = AC

6.

Distance between two points : Distance between points A(x1, y1, z1) and B(x2, y2, z2)

c = a + b
– b – + a

C

= Magnitude of AB = 7.

–c =

– b

(x2 − x1 )2 + (y2 − y1)2 + (z2 − z1 )2

A

– a

B

3.

Parallelogram law of addition : OA + OB = OC

a + b = c
B – b C

Position vector of a dividing point : r (i) If A( a ) & B( b ) be two distinct pts, the p.v. c of the point C dividing [AB] in ratio m1 : m2 is given by r r m1b + m2a r c = m +m 1 2 (ii) (iii) p.v. of the mid point of [AB] is

1 [p.v. of A + p.v. of B] 2

If point C divides AB in the ratio m1 : m2 externally, then p.v. of C is c =

D

where OC is a diagonal of the parallelogram OABC

– a

A

m1 b − m2 a m1 − m2

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (iv) p.v. of centriod of triangle formed by the points A( a ), MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 10. Coplanar and non coplanar vector : (i) If a , b , c be three non coplanar non zero vector then x a + y b + z c = 0

r r a+b+c B( b ) and C ( c ) is 3
(v) p.v. of the incentre of the triangle formed by the points r r r A( α ), B( β ) and C( γ ) is

⇒ x = 0, y = 0, z = 0
(ii) If a , b , c be three coplanar vectors, then a vector

c can be expressed uniquely as linear combination of aα + bβ + cγ where a = |BC|, b = |CA|, c = |AB| a+b+c
8. Some results : (i) If D, E, . are the mid points of sides BC, CA & AB respectively, then AD + BE + C. = 0 (ii) (iii) If G is the centriod of ∆ABC, then GA + GB + GC = 0 If O is the circumcentre of a ∆ABC, then
OA + OB + OC = 3 OG = OH where G is centriod and H is orthocentre of ∆ABC.

remaining two vectors i.e. c = λ a + µ b (iii) Any vector r can be expressed uniquely as inner combination of three non coplanar & non zero vectors a ,
b and c i.e. r = x a + y b + z c

11. Products of vectors : (I) (i) (ii) Scalar or dot product of two vectors :

a . b = |a| |b| cosθ
Projection of a in the direction of b =

a. b | b|

(iv) If H is orthocentre of ∆ABC, then

HA + HB + HC = 3 HG = OH
9. Collinearity of three points : (i) (ii) Three points A, B and C are collinear if AB = λ AC for some non zero scalar λ. The necessary and sufficient condition for three points with p.v. a , b , c to be collinear is that there exist three scalars l, m, n all non zero such that l a + m b + n c = 0, l + m + n = 0 (iv) (v)

a. b & Projection of b in the direction of a = | a|

(iii)

r. a Component of r on a = |a 2 |

Component of r ⊥

. I G Ja H K . r. a I to a = r – G H|a| J a K
2

$ . $ = $ . $ = k .k = 1 $ $ j j i i $ . $ = $ .k = k . $ = 0 $ i j $ i j

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (vi) If a and b are like vectors, then a . b = | a || b | and If a and b are unlike vectors, then a . b = –| a || b | (vii) a , b are ⊥ ⇔ a . b = 0 (viii) ( a . b ). b is not defined (ix) (x) (xi) ( a ± b )2 = a2 ± 2 a . b + b2 | a + b | = | a| + | b | | a + b |2 = |a|2 + |b|2 (x) MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (vii) a × ( b × c ) = ( a × b ) × c (viii) a × ( b + c ) = ( a × b ) + ( a × c ) (ix)

$ $ $ $ × $ = $ × $ = k × k = 0, $ × $ = k , j j j i i i $ $ $ j × k = $, k × $ = $ j i i Area of triangle :
(a) (b)

⇒ a || b ⇒ a ⊥ b
a ⊥ b

1 2

AB × AC

(xii) | a + b | = | a – b | work done = . . d , is displacement vector.

If a , b , c are p.v. of vertices of ∆ABC, then =

(xiii) work done by the force : where . is force vector and d (xi)

1 |( a × b ) + ( b × c ) + ( c × a )| 2

Area of parallelogram : (a) If a & b are two adjacent sides of a parallelogram, then area = | a × b | (b) If a and b are two diagonals of a parallelogram, then area =

(II) Vector or cross product of two vectors : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)
$ a × b = |a| |b| sinθ n

if a , b are parallel

a × b

= 0

a × b = –( b × a )
$ n =±

1 |a × b | 2

a×b | a × b|

(xii) Moment of .orce : Moment of the force . acting at a point A about O is Moment of force = OA × . = r × .

$ $ $ $ let a = a1 $ + a2 j + a3 k & b = b1 $ + b2 j + b3 k , then i i $ $ $ k i j a a2 a3 a × b = 1 b1 b2 b3

a. a a. b (xiii) Lagrange's identity : | a × b |2 = a. b b. b
(III) Scalar triple product : r r $ $ (i) If a = a1 $ + a2 $ + a3 k , b = b1 $ + b2 $ + b3 k and j j i i r $ c = c1 $ + c2 $ + c3 k then j i

(vi)

a × a =0
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (d) If r b r a r c
r r r a , b , c are coplanar, then so are r r r × c , c × a and r r r r r r r + b , b + c , c + a and a – b , r – a are also coplanar. r r a × b,

r r r r r r ( a × b ). c = [ a b c ] =

a1 a2 a3 b1 b2 b3 c1 c 2 c 3

r r b – c,

r r r and [ a b c ] = volume of the parallelopiped whose r r r coterminus edges are formed by a , b , c r r r r r r r r r (ii) [ a b c ] = [ b c a ] = [ c a b ], r r r r r r r r r but [ a b c ] = – [ b a c ] = – [ a c b ] etc. r r r r r (iii) [ a b c ] = 0 if any two of the three vectors a , b , r c are collinear or equal. r r r r r r (iv) ( a × b ). c = a .( b × c ) etc.

(v)

r r r r r r (vi) If λ is a scalar, then [λ a b c ] = λ[ a b c ] r r r r r r r r r r (vii) [ a + d b c ] = [ a b c ] + [ d b c ] r r r r r r (viii) a , b , c are coplanar ⇔ [ a b c ] = 0 1 | AB × AC . AD | 6 r r r r (x) .our points with p.v. a , b , c , d will be coplanar if r r r r r r r r r r r r [d b c ] + [d c a] + [d a b] = [a b c ] (xi) .our points A, B, C, D are coplanar if

[$ $ k] = 1 i j $

(IV) Vector triple Product : r r r r r r If a , b , c be any three vectors, then ( a × b ) × c r r r and a × ( b × c ) are known as vector triple product and is defined as r r r r r r r r r ( a × b ) × c = ( a . c ) b – (b . c ) a r r r r r r r r r and a × ( b × c ) = ( a . c ) b – ( a . b ) c r r r r r r Clearly in general a × ( b × c ) ≠ ( a × b ) × c but r r r r r r r r ( a × b ) × c = a × ( b × c ) if and only if a , b r & c are collinear 12. Application of Vector in Geometry : (i) (ii)

(ix) Volume of tetrahedron ABCD is

a b c r $ $ $ Direction cosines of r = ai + bj + ck are r , r , r . |r | |r | |r |
Incentre formula : The position vector of the incentre r r r aa + bb + cc of ∆ ABC is . a+b+c Orthocentre formula : The position vector of the r r r a tan A + b tan B + c tan C orthocentre of ∆ ABC is tan A + tanB + tan C

(iii)

[ AB AC AD ] = 0 r r r r (xii) (a) [ a + b b + c r r r r (b) [ a – b b – c r r r r (c) [ a × b b × c
E D U C A T I O N S

r r r r r c + a ] = 2[ a b c ] r r c – a] = 0 r r r r r c × a ] = [ a b c ]2
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(iv) Vector equation of a straight line passing through a r fixed point with position vector a and parallel to a r r r r given vector b is r = a + λb .
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (v) The vector equation of a line passing through two r r points with position vectors a and b is r r r r r =a+ λb−a . MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (viii) The equation of the plane passing through a point r r r having position vector a and parallel to b and c is r r r r rrr rrr r = a + λb + µc or [ r bc ] = [ abc ], where λ and µ are scalars. (ix) Vector equation of a plane passing through a point r r r r rrr abc is r = 1 − s − t a + sbt + c r r r r r r r rrr or r. b × c + c × a + a × b = [ abc ].

e

j

(vi) Shortest distance between two parallel lines : Let l1 and l2 be two lines whose equations are l 1 : r r r r r r r = a1 + λb1 and l2 : r = a2 + µb2 respectively. Then, shortest distance

e

c

h

j

(x)

PQ =

cb

1

× b2 . a2 − a1 |b1 × b2 |

h c

h=

b1 b2 a2 − a1 |b1 × b2 |

c

h
(xi)

The equation of any plane through the intersection r r r r of planes r . n1 = d1 and r . n2 = d2 is r r r . n1 + λn2 = d1 + λd2, where λ is an arbitrary

shortest distance between two parallel lines : The r r r shortest distance between the parallel lines r = a1 + λb

r r r | a2 − a1 × b| r r r r and r = a2 + µb is given by d = . |b|

c

h

constant. The perpendicular distance of a point having position r r r vector a from the plane r.n = d is given by r r |a.n − d| r p= . |n| r r (xii) An angle θ between the planes r1.n1 = d1 and

c

h

If the lines

r r r r = a1 + λb1 and

r r r r = a2 + µb2 intersect,

then the shortest distance between them is zero. Therefore, [ b1 b2 a2 − a1 ] = 0

n1 . n2 r r r2 .n2 = d2 is given by cos θ = ± |n ||n | . 1 2
(xiii) The equation of the planes bisecting the angles r r between the planes r1 .n1 = d1 r r r r |r.n1 − d1| |r.n2 − d2| r r = r r and r2 .n2 = d2 are |n1| |n2| r r r r (xiv) The plane r .n = d touches the sphere | r − a | = R, r r |a.n − d| r if = R. |n| (xv) If the position vectors of the extremities of a diamr r eter of a sphere are a and b , then its equation is r r r r r r r r r r ( r − a ).( r − b ) = 0 or | r |2 – r. a − b + a.b = 0.

c

h

r r r r [ a2 − a1 b1b2 ] = 0

c

h

r ca

2

r r r − a1 . b1 × b2

h e

j = 0.

r (vii) Vector equation of a plane normal to unit vector n and at a distance d from the origin is r $ r . n = d. r If n is not a unit vector, then to reduce the equation r r r r . n = d to normal form we divide both sides by | n | r r n r d d $ r. r = r to obtain or r . n = r . |n| |n| |n|
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e

j

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK * Coordinates of the centroid of a triangle are

THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY
1. Points in Space : (i) (ii) (iii) (v) Origin is (0, 0, 0) Equation of x-axis is y = 0, z = 0 Equation of y-axis is z = 0, x = 0 Equation of YOZ plane is x = 0

.x G H

1

+ x 2 + x3 y1 + y2 + y 3 z1 + z 2 + z3 , , 3 3 3

I J K
I J K

*

Coordinates of centroid of a tetrahedron

(iv) Equation of z-axis is x = 0, y = 0 (vi) Equation of ZOX plane is y = 0 (vii) Equation of XOY plane is z = 0 2. Distance formula : (i) Distance between two points A(x1, y1, z1) and B(x2, y2, z2) is given by AB = (ii)
(x 2 − x1 )2 + (y 2 − y1 )2 + (z 2 − z1 )2

.G x H

1

+ x2 + x3 + x 4 y1 + y2 + y3 + y 4 z1 + z 2 + z 3 + z 4 , , 4 4 4

Note : * Area of triangle is given by ∆ =
∆2 + ∆2 + ∆2 x y z

y1 1 y 2 Where ∆x = 2 y 3

z1 1 z2 1 z3 1

and so.

Distance between origin (0, 0, 0) & point (x, y, z) =
2 2 2 x1 + y1 + z1

*

x1 − x2 y1 − y2 z1 − z2 Condition of collinearity x − x = y − y = z − z 2 3 2 3 2 3 x1 x2 x3 x4 y1 y2 y3 y4 z1 z2 z3 z4 1 1 1 1

(iii)

Distance of a point p(x, y, z) from coordinate axes OX, OY, OZ is given by

*

Volume of tetrahedron =

1 6

y 2 + z2 ,
3. Section formula :

z2 + x2 and

x2 + y2
4.

Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line : * If
α , β , γ are the angles which a directed line

The coordinates of a point which divides the join of (x1, y1, z1) and (x2, y2, z2) in the ratio m : n * Internally are

*

Externally are

. mx + nx G m+n H . mx − nx G m−n H
2 2

1

,

my 2 + ny1 mz 2 + nz1 , m+n m+n my2 − ny1 m−n
2

1

,

IJ K mz − nz I , J m−n K
1

segment makes with the +ve direction of the coordinate axes, then l = cos α , m = cos β , n = cos γ are called direction cosines of the line and cos2 α + cos2 β + cos2 γ = 1 i.e. l 2 + m2 + n2 = 1, where 0 ≤
α, β, γ

≤ π

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK * If l , m, n are direction cosines of a line and a, b, c are proportional to l , m, n respectively, then a, b, c are called direction ratios of the line and MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

x − x1 y − y1 z − z1 x2 − x1 = y2 − y1 = z2 − z1
* The angle θ between the lines whose d.c.'s are l 1, m1, n1 and l 2, m2, n2 is given by cos θ = l 1 l 2 + m1m2 + n1n2. The lines are || if

m n l = = =± a b c
*

l 2 + m2 + n2 a2 + b2 + c 2

1 a + b2 + c2
2

.

Direction cosines of x-axis are 1, 0, 0, similarly direction cosines of y-axis and z-axis are respectively 0, 1, 0 and 0, 0, 1. If l , m, n are d.c.s of a line OP and (x, y, z) are coordinates of P then x = l r, y = mr and z = nr where r = OP. Direction cosines of PQ = r, where P is (x1, y1, z1) and Q(x2, y2, z2) are
x2 − x1 y2 − y1 z 2 − z1 , , r r r

m1 n1 l1 l2 = m2 = n2 and

*

The lines are ⊥ if l 1 l 2 + m1m2 + n1n2 = 0 * The angle θ between the lines whose d.r.s are a1, b1, c1 and a2, b2, c2 is given by cos θ = ±

*

a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2
2 2 2 a1 + b1 + c1

a2 + b2 + c2 2 2 2

*

If a, b, c are direction no. of a line, then a2 + b2 + c2 need not to be equal to 1. *

The lines are || if

a1 b1 c1 = b = c and a2 2 2

Note : Direction cosines of a line are unique but the direction ratios of line are not unique. If P(x1, y1, z1) & Q(x2, y2, z2) be two points and L be a line with d.c.'s l , m, n, then projection of [PQ] on L = l (x2 – x1) + m(y2 – y1) + n(z2 – z1) 5. Straight line in space : * Equation of a straight line passing through a fixed point and having d.r.'s a, b, c is
x − x1 y − y1 z − z1 = = (is the symmetrical a c b

The lines are ⊥ if a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0 Length of the projection of PQ upon AB with d.c.,

l , m, n
= (x2 – x1) l + (y2 – y1)m + (z2 – z1)n, where p(x1, y1, z1) and Q(x2, y2, z2). * Two straight lines in space (not in same plane) which are neither parallel nor intersecting are called skew lines. Shortest distance between two skew lines,

*

x − x1 y − y1 z − z1 = = and m1 l1 n1 x − x2 y − y2 z − z2 = = is given m2 l2 n2

*

form) Equation of a line passing through two points is

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK * Normal form of the equation of plane is l x + my + nz = p, where l , m, n are the d.c.'s of the normal to the plane and p is the length of perpendicular from the origin. * ax + by + cz + k = 0 represents a plane || to the plane ax + by + cz + d = 0 and ⊥ to the line
x y z = = . a c b

x2 − x1
s.d. = ±

l1 l2

y2 − y1 z2 − z1 m1 n1 m2 n2

(m1n2 − m2n1)2 + (n1 l2 − l1n2 )2 + (l1m2 − m1 l2 )2

*

Two straight lines are coplanar if they are intersecting or parallel

x2 − x1 l1 condition l2

y2 − y1 m1 m2

z2 − z1 n1 = 0 n2

*

Equation of plane through three non collinear points is

6.

Plane : A plane is a surface such that if two points are taken in it, straight line joining them lies wholly in the surface. * * * Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 represents a plane whose normal has d.c.s proportional to A, B, C. Equation of plane through origin is given by Ax + By + Cz = 0. Equation of plane passing through a point (x1, y1, z1) is A(x – x1) + B(y – y1) + C(z – z1) = 0, where A, B, C are d.r.'s of a normal to the plane. Equation of plane through the intersection of two planes P ≡ a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 = 0 and Q ≡ a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0 is P + λ Q = 0. * Equation of plane which cuts off intercepts a, b, c respectively on the axes x, y and z is
x y z + + = 1. a c b
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x x1 x2 x3

y y1 y2 y3

z 1 z1 1 z2 1 z3 1

= 0

or *

x − x1 x2 − x1 x3 − x1

y − y1 z − z1 y2 − y1 z2 − z1 y3 − y1 z3 − z1

= 0

*

The angle between the two planes is given by cos θ = ±

a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2
2 2 2 a1 + b1 + c1 a2 + b2 + c2 2 2 2

where θ is the angle between the normals. plane are ⊥ if a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0

a1 b1 c1 plane are || if a = b = c = 0. 2 2 2

, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510
E D U C A T I O N S

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK * If AP be the ⊥ from A to the given plane, then it is || to the normal, so that its equation is
x−α y−β z−γ = = = r (say) a c b

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 7. Line and Plane : If ax + by + cz + d = 0 represents a plane and

x − x1 y − y1 z − z1 = = represents a straight line, then m l n
* * * * The line is ⊥ to the plane if
a b c = = l m n

Any point P on it is (ar + α , br + β , cr + γ ) * Length of the ⊥ from P(x1, y1, z1) to a plane ax + by + cz + d = 0 is given by
ax1 + by1 + cz1 + d a2 + b2 + c 2

The line is || to the plane if a l + bm + cn = 0. The line lies in the plane if a l + bm + cn = 0 and ax1 + by1 + cz1 + d = 0 The angle θ between the line and the plane is given by sin θ =

p= *

Distance between two parallel planes (ax + by + cz + d1 = 0, ax + by + cz + d2 = 0) is given by
d2 − d1 a + b2 + c2
2

al + bm + cn a2 + b2 + c2 l2 + m2 + n2

*

General equation of the plane containing the line
x − x1 y − y1 z − z1 = = is n m l

*

Two points A(x1, y1, z1) and B(x2, y2, z2) lie on the same or different sides of the plane ax + by + cz + d = 0, according as the expression ax1 + by1 + cz1 + d and ax2 + by2 + cz2 + d are of same or different sign. *

A(x – x1) + B(y – y1) + C(z – z1) = 0. where A l + Bm + Cn = 0. Length of the perpendicular from a point (x1, y1, z1) to the line

*

Bisector of the angles between the planes a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 = 0 and a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0 are

x−α y−β z−γ = = is given by m l n
+ m(y1 – β ) + n(z1 – γ )]2

p2 = (x1 – α )2 + (y1 – β )2 + (z1 – γ )2 – [ l (x1 – α )

a1x + b1y + c1z + d1
2 2 2 a1 + b1 + c1

= ±

a2 x + b2 y + c2 z + d2 a2 + b2 + c2 2 2 2

if a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 is –ve then origin lies in the acute angle between the planes provided d1 and d2 are of same sign.
, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510
E D U C A T I O N S

PAGE # 185
E D U C A T I O N S

, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510

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