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News analysis Health Business

Makerere under Babies born to Why 2019 could be Uganda’s oil sector
Prof. Nawangwe mums with HIV good for businesses expects US$ 1bn

Issue No. 554 Jan. 11 - 17, 2019 Ushs 5,000,Kshs 200, RwF 1,500, SDP 8

FDC, Kadaga
face-off exposes
Among, Katuntu
Legal fight over COSASE looms

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Dec. 14 - 20 2018
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Issue No. 551 Dec. 14 - 20 2018

News analysis Business Health Arts Motoring

Cover story
FDC, Kadaga face-off exposes Among, Katuntu
Legal fight over COSASE looms

4 The Week
31 Comments
Cholera reported in
Kampala Museveni shouldn’t limit
alternative leaders
9 The Last Word
Museveni’s land politics: Why the
president’s defence of squatters is humane
but economically retrogressive
28 Health
Babies born to
mums with HIV, face higher
14 Analysis risks even though they’re HIV
negative
Makerere’s demigods: How Prof.
Nawangwe is creating a class of
untouchables at Uganda’s top varsity
34 Arts & Culture
20 Business
Book Review: African leaders
Why 2019 could be good and democratic rules
for businesses

STRATEGY & EDITORIAL DIRECTOR: Andrew M. Mwenda WRITERS:Ronald Musoke, Flavia Nassaka, Ian Katusiime,
MANAGING EDITOR: Joseph Were Agnes Nantaba, Julius Businge.
INVESTIGATIONS EDITOR: Haggai Matsiko DESIGN/LAYOUT: Sarah Ngororano
BUSINESS EDITOR: Isaac Khisa CARTOONIST: Harriet Jamwa
PHOTOGRAPHER: Jimmy Siya

PUBLISHER: Independent Publications Limited, Plot 82/84, Kanjokya Street, P. O. Box 3304, Kampala, Uganda
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circulation@independent.co.ug | Website: www.independent.co.ug

2 Jan. 11 - 17, 2019
Offline

St. Petersburg, Russia:
President Vladimir Putin fires
an artillery piece at noon
as part of a long standing
tradition, during his visit to
the Peter and Paul Fortress.

Rome, Italy: Pope Francis twirls
a soccer ball presented to him
by a member of the Circus of
Cuba during his weekly public
audience at the Vatican

Zhejiang, China: Workers
assemble power cables on
380-metre-tall pylons to
connect Zhoushan’s Jintang
and Cezi islands as part of an
ultra-high voltage project

Jan. 11 - 17, 2019 3
week

Ugandan wins
environmental
research grant
Ketty Adoch, a Ugandan
innovator in the Agriculture
sector has been named among
eleven innovators nominated
for the Artificial Intelligence
(AI) for Earth Innovation
Awards. Adoch, a geographical
information systems specialist
in agriculture works towards
monitoring change detection for
Land Cover Mapping around
the areas surrounding the Mur-
chison Falls National Park. Also
on the list of grants is Torsten
Bondo, a business development
manager and senior remote
sensing engineer from Denmark
who applies AI to improve crop
water efficiency in Uganda President Yoweri Museveni flags off phase one construction of the Kampala Flyover Project on
using machine learning. December 19, 2018 at Nakivubo Blue Primary School.
The Artificial Intelligence (AI)
for Earth Innovation Awards
are organized by Microsoft
and the National Geographic
Society (NGS), to provide funds
I wasn’t a member of Boda Boda 2010, Kitatta
to innovators for research on Former Boda Boda 2010 time of his arrest, he was at a Inspector General of Police
global environmental chal- patron Abdullah Kitatta hotel where he always held Kale Kayihura to give him
lenges in the key focus areas of started his defense at the meetings as a leader. security because his life was
climate, agriculture, water and army court in Makindye “My story can be in danger because of the
biodiversity conservation. on Jan.07. Kitatta who was verified by the nature of work he was doing
The grants are awarded to speaking in Luganda denied footage of the for the NRM.
research teams and organi- possessing any guns and hotel’s CCTV In December last year,
zations working across five said that he has never been camera. This a seven member panel
continents to advance scientific a member of the notorious is the only chaired by Court Mar-
exploration and research on Boda Boda 2010 motorcycle evidence tial boss Lt Gen Andrew
critical environmental chal- group but rather worked in that can save Gutti found Kitatta and
lenges with the power of Artifi- two offices – one of the ruling me from these his co-accused liable of the
cial Intelligence. National Resistance Move- allegations,” charges and asked them to
Each recipient will be given ment Party and another of the he said while prepare their defense against
access to Microsoft Azure and National Union of Drivers in the dock. With among others possession of
AI tools that includes in the Cyclists and Allied Workers further interroga- fire arms which are a preserve
National Geographic Explorer Association in Nateete. tions, he added that President of the defense forces.
community. He explained that at the Museveni had asked then

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4 Jan. 11 - 17, 2019
Week

Cholera reported in Kampala Soldiers attempt coup to oust
The Ministry of Health buli, Mbale and Hoima. In
confirmed on Jan.07 that two
cases had tested positive for
September 2018, the govern-
ment launched a national
ailing Gabon president
cholera and seven other sus- cholera vaccination cam- A message was read out and the deputy commander
pected samples were being paign that aimed to vacci- on Jan.07 at state television of the Republican Guard, as
tested at the Central Public nate over one million people headquarters in Libreville well as the head of a group
Health Laboratories for fur- in cholera prone areas. calling people to rise up called the Patriotic Youth
ther analysis. The patients With the scare in Kampala, against President Ali Bongo Movement of the Gabo-
who are being treated at the the public is being encour- who is currently seeking nese Defense and Security
China – Uganda Friendship aged to be keen on symp- treatment for his stroke in Forces, began to read the
hospital in Naguru were toms like, diarrhea, fever, Morocco. message. Later government
picked from Wankulukuku vomiting, dehydration and According to reports by announced that the four had
in Rubaga Division in Kam- decreased urine output and local media in Gabon, gun been arrested and calm was
pala after showing signs of report any case for imme- shots were heard around the restored.
the bacterial infection. diate treatment. The disease state media headquarters However, there has been
Naguru hospital Execu- is easily transmitted in dirty at about the same time as a chaos in the country since
tive Director Dr. Emmanuel places as it’s caused by young man identifying him- 2016 when president Bongo
Batibwe said the patients eating food or drinks con- self as Lt Kelly Ondo Obiang narrowly won the election.
are responding to treat- taminated with a bacterium
ment. “We have admitted called Vibrio cholera. Doc-
them in the isolation ward
and so far, they are stable
tors recommend increased
level of personal hygiene
500 get Health Ministry scholarships
and responding to treat- especially hand washing On Jan.04, the Ministry of scholarships will be reviewed
ment.” Last year, more than with clean water or use Health signed scholarship every year to see their progress
four cholera outbreaks were of alcohol hand sanitizers agreements with over 500 in the studies. “We are going
reported in the districts of while executing duties and students from 28 training to require training institutions
Kween, Kampala, Bulam- before eating. institutions from across the to formally submit to us prog-
country. The scholarships are ress reports on the students
Congo postpones election results intended to improve skills in
the provision of Reproduc-
under your care along with
an invoice at the end of each
The Electoral Commission a trick by the ruling govern- tive, Maternal, Neonatal, semester to enable us process
of the Democratic Republic of ment to have their handpicked Child and Adolescent Health payments due in time for the
Congo announced on Jan.06 Emmanuel Ramazani Shadary Services. The courses include following semester”.
that results would not be sail through. Although Presi- but are not limited to: Masters She said the Ministry of
released as they had earlier dent Joseph Kabila could not in: Anaesthesia, Paediatrics, Health is bonding the ben-
scheduled. Without giving a stand again, having already Obstetrics, General Surgery, eficiary students to serve the
new date, Corneille Nangaa served his constitutionally Radiology, Pathology, Internal health sector in any part of the
the head of the Electoral body mandated two terms and been Medicine, and Laboratory country for a period equivalent
said tally sheets were trickling in power since 2001, he chose Science. Bachelors include: to the length of your course
in slowly and so it would not Shadary to be his successor and Anaesthesia and Bio Medical and that those that get retakes
be possible to release the results many in the opposition feel by Engineering. Other beneficia- will not be paid for.
and only asked citizens to his winning, it will meet there ries will pursue diplomas in 720 scholarships have
remain patient until all data is hasn’t been any change since he Midwifery, Anaesthesia, Child been offered under this
consolidated. is only a puppet. 21 candidates and Adolescent Mental Health Shs7.94billion programme of
Elections were held on stood to be elected in the presi- among others. which 184 were awarded in
Dec.30 and now members of dential election where more Dr. Diana Atwiine, the Per- academic year 2017/18 and 536
the opposition and observers than 46million Congolese regis- manent Secretary in the Min- have awarded this academic
are worried that this could be tered to vote. istry said the recipients of the year 2018/19.

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Jan. 11 - 17, 2019 5
Week
Controversy over Bobi Wine’s new song based on popular christian hymn
Musician and politician Robert Kyagu- Radiology, Pathology, Internal Medi-
lanyi Bobi Wine released a new song cine, and Laboratory Science. Bachelors
dubbed ‘Tuliyambala Engule’ and sang include: Anaesthesia and Bio Medical
it at the Buganda Kingdom organized Engineering. Other beneficiaries will
Enkuuka show during which the Kabaka pursue diplomas in Midwifery, Anaes-
usually closes the previous and usher his thesia, Child and Adolescent Mental
subjects into the New Year. It has since Health among others.
caught on especially among supporters Dr. Diana Atwiine, the Permanent Sec-
of the politician’s People Power move- retary in the Ministry said the recipients
ment. With a tone similar to a hymn, Pastor Sserwadda Pastor Ssempa of the scholarships will be reviewed
Bobiwine speaks of how Ugandans every year to see their progress in the
will wear a crown when the struggle is Also, the State Minister in charge studies. “We are going to require training
over and it includes re known pastor peace and culture Peace Mutuuzo said institutions to formally submit to us
and musician Wilson Bugembe, other that government will soon start banning progress reports on the students under
musicians King Saha, Ronald Mayinja, political songs because to her the plat- your care along with an invoice at the
Nubian Lee and Irene Ntale among form seems to be getting misused by ele- end of each semester to enable us process
others. Politician Asuman Basalirwa is ments to push personal agenda. payments due in time for the following
also seen in the video. Health Ministry awards scholarships to semester”.
However, after the song was released, over 500, bonds them to work here She said the Ministry of Health is
several pastors including Martin Ssempa On Jan.04, the Ministry of Health bonding the beneficiary students to
of Makerere Community Church and signed scholarship agreements with over serve the health sector in any part of the
Joseph Sserwadda of Victory Christian 500 students from 28 training institutions country for a period equivalent to the
Church who also heads the Born Again from across the country. The scholar- length of your course and that those that
Faith in Uganda came out to castigate the ships are intended to improve skills in get retakes will not be paid for.
musician for involving politics in matters the provision of Reproductive, Maternal, 720 scholarships have been offered
of religion. While Ssempa says Bobiwine Neonatal, Child and Adolescent Health under this Shs7.94billion programme of
attempted to equate himself to Jesus, Ser- Services. The courses include but are which 184 were awarded in academic
wadda warned him to stop using God’s not limited to: Masters in: Anaesthesia, year 2017/18 and 536 have awarded this
property in blasphemous situations. Paediatrics, Obstetrics, General Surgery, academic year 2018/19.

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6 Jan. 11 - 17, 2019
Humour Did you know?

A bishop recently said President Yoweri Museveni was sent by God to bless and serve Uganda.

Going vegan could
improve sleep
Going vegan has many benefits.
First, there’s the obvious ‘you’re
not eating animals’, environmental
factors and improvements to your
health. On the latter, research has
linked veganism with benefits such
as lowered blood pressure and cho-
lesterol, as well as reducing rates of
heart disease, type 2 diabetes and
cancer. But there’s another advantage
too, that could help you in everyday
life. More specifically, your sleeping
patterns. Thanks to the specific diet,
veganism could be the key to a good
night’s rest, according to Neil Rob-
inson, who is the Chief Sleep Officer
Makerere Vice Chancellor Prof. Barnabas Nawangwe asked sacked lectures who had absconded at bed and mattress manufacturer,
from duty to return public funds they received for no work done. Sealy UK. Serotonin, tryptophan,
and melatonin are found in many
vegan foods, and these nifty chemi-
cals are imperative in helping you
snooze. Melatonin, a hormone that
all humans produce, is sometimes
also added into diets on its own
as a medicinal supplement to help
adjust the body clock when messing
with sleeping patterns (like suffering
heavy jet lag after a long flight). But
as Robinson points out, you can get
a natural dose of these elements
through foods that fit a vegan life-
style. So, what should you be eating?
Kale (sukuma wiki), bananas, ground
nuts, and avocado are some of the
healthy treats you should be having.

Kyadondo East MP Robert Kyagulanyi also known as Bobi Wine hugged and shook hands with
fellow musician Moses Ssali, also known as Bebe Cool.

Jan. 11 - 17, 2019 7
Allahabad, India: A Naga sadhu, or a Hindu holy man, has a smoke before participating in a procession towards the Triveni Sangam, the confluence of the
Ganges and Yamuna Rivers, ahead of the Kumbh Mela mass pilgrimage
The Last Word Opinion

Museveni’s land politics
By Andrew M. Mwenda
Why the president’s defence of squatters is
humane but economically retrogressive

D
uring his New Year speech, Presi- control the production process i.e. did vice of his master and his hours of work,
dent Yoweri Museveni reiterated not decide what to produce, using which pay or length of his apprenticeship were
his commitment to defend squat- technology, in what quantities, and for regulated by the guild. There was no bar-
ters being evicted by “land grab- which market. Those who tilled the land gaining between master and servant.
bers”. Yet he also promised to protect the did not own it. This made feudalism ret- The situation pertaining to land and
ownership rights of title holders. In trying to rogressive because the owner of the asset labour in Uganda today that Museveni is
please both, Museveni may be doing good did not control the production process. trying to protect is similar to this medi-
politics but it is bad economics. Here is why. Capitalism is dynamic because it fuses eval economically retrogressive feudal
At the heart of capitalist develop- user and ownership rights. system. The peasants Museveni is pro-
ment (all “advanced” countries in the In Uganda, the 1998 Land Act recreated tecting do not hold land as real estate
world today are capitalist) is the transi- feudal relations in agriculture. It left the i.e. a commodity to be bought and sold
tion of most people’s livelihoods from holders of title as legal owners and gave as circumstances warrant. Rather they
depending on agriculture to depending security of tenure to squatters by issuing hold it for its subsistence and customary
on industry and moving from rural to them “certificates of occupancy.” This value. They use the land to meet their
urban areas. The persistence of peasant made both sides losers. While the tenant subsistence needs, a factor that makes the
agriculture in Uganda as the main source has security of tenure via his certificate market secondary to their lives. The cus-
of livelihood for the vast majority of our of occupancy, the land is encumbered by tomary value of land is embedded in the
people is only a re-statement of our con- a title held by the landlord. The landlord fact that for many (if not most) peasants,
tinued backwardness and poverty. has title but it is also encumbered by the it is inconceivable to sell it. This is because
In most of Europe, the transition from certificate of occupancy of the squatter. some have their graves on it and selling it
agriculture to industry was brutal. It Under these circumstances, a bank would offend the dead, anger their ances-
involved the forceful expropriation of would find it difficult to lend anyone of tral spirits or raise the ire of the gods.
land from peasants to commercial inter- them because of these competing user Museveni may not realise that his
ests. This paved way for commercial rela- and ownership claims. Equally someone humane actions actually stifle progress
tions to penetrate and transform agrarian trying to buy such land has to negotiate to commoditisation of both land and
structures. The expropriated peasants with the user and the owner thereby labour. The persistence of the subsistence
were reunited to the land through the increasing transaction costs and creating economy makes it difficult to release
initiative of capital. The other expropri- uncertainty. This undermines land as a human beings in agriculture to be avail-
ated peasants went into cities where, commodity that can be easily traded. able for industry as labour. The peasant
destitute, they were willing to accept Capitalism is dynamic because it com- will not accept to migrate to cities to earn
substandard wages in factories. This moditises land and labour. In medieval substandard wages in industry if he can
made growth of manufacturing possible, times, land and labour did not exist as live by his garden.
thereby paving way for the industrialisa- freely and easily traded commodities. Thus, in the short term, Museveni is
tion of Western Europe. Labour existed only as human beings protecting the peasant’s current subsis-
Contrary to ahistorical but popular and land as soil to be tilled. But the idea tence. But this is at the price of crippling
beliefs common most especially among of abstract land and abstract labour i.e. as the mechanism, brutal and dehuman-
African elites and their cheer leaders in agents of production – impersonal, dehu- ising though it is, that transforms the
the West, the rise of the West from poverty manised economic entities, did not exist. peasant into an industrial proletariat.
to affluence was not initiated by kind and There were lands of course – estates, And this process will, in the long term,
benign leaders seeking to improve the wel- manors, and principalities. But they were make the peasant better off. Secondly, it
fare of the vast majority of their citizens. not “real estate” as we know it today is very difficult to create a large market
Rather it was championed by a very small, available for buying and selling as the when peasants are self-sufficient i.e.
selfish and greedy group of industrial- occasion warranted. Land could be sold produce most of what they consume.
ists, merchants and commercial farmers under some circumstances (with many Without land, peasants meet their needs
who allied with the state to expropriate strings attached) but was not gener- purely from the market.
ordinary peasants of their land and exploit ally for sale. Nobles owned land but no Rampant land grabbing is suggestive
workers via substandard wages. Due to the self-respecting nobleman would sell his that commercial agriculture is becoming
inhumanity of this process, Karl Marx said estates – exactly the same way Museveni attractive business. In blocking land
capitalism came to the world “dripping cannot sell Karamoja to Kenya today. grabbers, Museveni is being humane
with the blood of labour”. The same situation pertained to labour. but not developmental. There may be
Pre-capitalist Europe was feudal; a The medieval world had serfs, peasants, humane ways to eliminate the peas-
mode of production characterised by cobblers, journeymen, apprentices who antry but they are a very slow process.
land. Land was owned by landlords, laboured. But these did not constitute Historically, this transformation has not
tilled by peasants. The peasant decided today’s vast network of job-seeking involved kissing and hugging. Musev-
what to produce e.g. rare chicken or individuals selling their services to the eni’s saving grace is that Uganda’s poli-
goats, plant beans or peas. He would pay highest bidder. The peasant tilled the tics may not allow short term costs that
the landlord rent in kind or in money. master’s land and paid rent in money or make possible transformation in the long
Thus those who owned land did not in kind. The apprentice entered the ser- term.

Jan. 11 - 17, 2019 9
cover story

FDC, Kadaga
face-off exposes
Among, Katuntu
Legal fight over COSASE looms

By Haggai Matsiko

Jan. 14 could see sparks in parliament in a dispute between Speaker Rebecca Kadaga and leaders of the
opposition over the tenure of the committee on Commissions, Statutory Authorities and State Enterprises
(COSASE).

10 Jan. 11 - 17, 2019
cover story

Speaker Kadaga addresses journalists. FILE PHOTO

L
ed by Bugweri County MP Abdul representation in the House”. should have approached the Opposition
Katuntu and his deputy, Bukedea Section (5) adds that: “Parties or organisa- Chief Whip, who designates these roles
Woman MP Anita Among, COSASE tions shall have powers to withdraw and and made this point. This would have been
has become one of the most impor- relocate members from individual commit- understandable.”
tant committees for its handling of what is tees.” Instead, Ochan said, they skipped this
being billed as parliament’s biggest investi- The function of whips in selecting chair- office and went direct to the Speaker cre-
gation in many years; the investigation into persons of committees is also addressed ating a sense that they undermined the
the central bank’s closure of seven defunct under section Rule 15 section (10) under other offices.
banks, which started in October last year. “Other functions of the Government Chief “When you do things in what appears to
Leadership of COSASE has over time Whip, Opposition Chief Whip and Party be bad faith,” she told The Independent,
become a platform of prestige, political Whip shall include—“(c) supplying lists of “you cause these kinds of unnecessary con-
influence and posturing, and some say, Members to serve on Standing and sectoral flicts.”
financial gain. Committees”. She said her colleagues Katuntu and Anita
The committee’s tenure and that of 11 Opposition chief whip, Semujju Nganda Among had “politicised the whole issue”.
other committees expires on Jan.13 but who shuffled the COSASE leadership, told But as the FDC leadership insisted on their
the Speaker has singled out COSASE and The Independent that as the opposition, position, Kadaga told a press conference at
indicated that she prefers its current leaders they would stick to the law and reject Kada- parliament that her decision would be final.
to continue in their positions, a position ga’s move to extend Katuntu and Among’s “I am the head of this institution and
opposed by the Forum for Democratic tenure. my proposal is good for the institution,”
Change (FDC) which appointed them and “If they insist,” Nganda warned, “there Kadaga said, “What we are doing is the
has shuffled them. will be no COSASE come January 13. They work for the people of Uganda not for par-
In the rules of parliament, the appoint- might go ahead with their investigation but ties. COSASE is winding up on the Bank
ment of chairpersons of sectoral committees there will be no report. Someone will go to of Uganda investigations. We expect them
such as COSASE is covered under Rule 184 court and it will be null and void.” to write the report and hand it over to the
which covers the “Composition of Sectoral House before they move.”
Committees”. Katuntu is the problem Ochan disagreed with Kadaga on this.
Section (2) of Rule 184 states that: “In The Leader of Opposition, Gulu Woman “I have enormous respect for her and I
the selection of Members of Sectoral MP Betty Aol Ochan, told The Indepen- agree that she is the head of parliament,
Committees, the parties or organisations dent that Katuntu’s approach is part of the which makes her the custodian of our
represented in Parliament shall designate problem. laws,” Ochan told The Independent, “That
through the Whips, Membership to Com- “If the issue was really that they had not is why she should not be the one that abuse
mittees on the basis of party or organisation concluded their work,” Ochan said, “they the same laws and best practices.”

Jan. 11 - 17, 2019 11
cover story
For Ochan, respecting those practices Amama Mbabazi, among others, Interna- the law in the face of Kadaga’s request “that
means respecting the offices below her. She tional Bank, formerly owned by the Emma has since turned into a command”.
said that indeed that is why the speaker Kato family, Cooperative Bank, Global Asked whether he did not share in con-
previously wrote requesting and not com- Trust Bank, and Crane Bank. cerns the change of the COSASE leadership
manding. The COSASE team has over the last two could affect the investigation, Nganda said
Going forward, the LoP said they would months revealed several excesses by offi- he stands for what is right and legal.
be insisting on the rules and procedures. cials at BoU notably that they closed and “I do not care who and what they affect,”
“We know she has the power to bend sold the assets of these banks irregularly. he told The Independent, “If you allow
some rules,” Ochan said, “We will insist on The committee had not concluded this these kinds of excuses you end up with a
what is right and see how she handles the work by the end of the year and its tenure situation where rules are always waived at
situation.” and that of 11 others expires on Jan.13. peoples’ whims.”
But Ochan appears to have a rebellion Realising that COSASE would not have Semujju said that he had looked at the
in her ranks as Among and others appear concluded by that time, Kadaga agreed and rules guiding parliament and they did not
equally determined to have their way. that they be given more time and requested allow that sort of extension.
“We have one leader in Parliament,” she the opposition leadership to allow the team He said not even the Speaker of Parlia-
said, “that is the Speaker. If she says we to go ahead until Feb.20. ment is allowed to extend the tenure once it
leave, we have no problem. We have an However FDC, which as a result of has come to an end.
assignment that we must complete.” having the biggest number of opposition More specifically on the investigation,
MPs selects leaders of several committees, Semujju asked: “Who says those who are
taking over the leadership of COSASE
cannot do the work the current team has
been doing?”
“Katuntu has done very commendable
work,” Semujju said, “He is a fantastic
person but unfortunately the rules do not
allow that sort of extension.”
He added that as a way forward, he had
written to the Speaker advising that the new
team should go ahead and take office and
then co-opt Katuntu to conclude the inves-
tigation.
He cited a precedent to make his point.
When (former Deputy Chief Justice) Ste-
phen Kavuma’s term expired, Semujju said,
he was in the midst of handling election
petitions, the authorities did not say let
us extend your tenure. He left and other
people took over.
“Tenure always has to come to an end,”
Ssemujju Nganda Anita Among Semujju added, “Sometimes people die. So
what do you do in case someone has died?”
He emphasised that their position was
FDC fighting regime sympathisers declined the request. that the tenure of all the 12 committees has
They instead insisted that Katuntu and come to an end and they would go ahead
COSASE has become a hot potato for his deputy, Among, step down and are and reconstitute new ones.
its investigation into the central bank’s replaced by new appointees Kawempe While the impasse appears to affect only
closure of seven defunct banks, namely; South MP Mubarak Munyagwa and two people—Katuntu and Among—it
Teffe, Greenland Bank; formerly owned by Rubaga North’s Moses Kasibante as has much wider implications according to
the late Sulaiman Kigundu, National Bank chairman and deputy respectively. observers.
of Commerce (NBC), formerly owned by Semujju Nganda told The Independent At one level, Kadaga has said that
tycoon Amos Nzeyi, former Prime Minister, that as the opposition, they would stick to replacing the two could jeopardise the

12 Jan. 11 - 17, 2019
cover story
investigation into BoU, which is at a critical
point.
Katuntu and Among are also more knowl-
edgeable about BoU issues owing to their
involvement in the central bank’s affairs for
almost a year now.
President Museveni selected Katuntu to
lead a team to investigate a controversial
Feb.8 staff reshuffle at BoU. This investiga-
tion, which they concluded late last year
exposed them to the several other issues at
BoU that could be of use even as they inves-
tigate the closure of the seven banks and
write their report.
But for critics this might also be the
problem with Katuntu’s leadership. Some
suspect that his close association with BoU
over the year might have compromised him
and his team. A previous session of COSASE. FILE PHOTO
Matters are not helped by the fact that
Katuntu and Among are seen by hardcore But it was not lost on many that indeed positions and not make monthly contribu-
opposition as regime sympathisers even what characterised Amuriat’s changes— tions to the party.
though both of them are members of the was that he used the changes to reward They also agreed to form a pressure group
FDC. loyalists, also known as the `defiance camp’ in parliament and support and campaign
Some have even claimed that President with allegiance to FDC stalwart Kizza for independent candidate Kassiano Wadri
Museveni has considered the two for cab- Besigye’s faction and a purge of those in Arua Municipality. Wadri would later
inet positions in his effort to further poach opposed to them. trounce the FDC candidate. The party has
from the opposition. These claims are fueled Initially the intention was to have all lost other four by-elections.
by the fact that the two have been closely affected by the changes quit office. But If the law did not provide that once a
working with President Museveni on dif- many defied this position citing the law. legislator quits a party on whose ticket they
ferent things. “Parliament is not run by Najjanakumbi were voted, they lose their seats, insiders
(FDC headquarters), we have rules of pro- say the MPs would have united with Gen.
Divided opposition cedure and the head of parliament is the Muntu to form a new political party and
The insistence by the FDC leadership to speaker and she is the custodian of the rules quit the FDC.
kick Katuntu and Among out of COSASE of procedure, when you look at the rule 146 Still in order to bypass the law, some of
before they complete their investigation on standing committee, they are supposed the legislators have since been working
could further drive a wedge between them to serve for two and half years,” Among behind the scenes as part of the New For-
and the opposition leadership. said at the time. mation, an outfit formed by Muntu and
Already, there is no love lost. Months after Indeed, it is on the basis of that rule that his loyalists which is aimed at building
defeating General Mugisha Muntu to FDC leaders of standing committees stayed on momentum until 2020, when they can form
party presidency last year, Patrick Amuriat the job. a political party and participate in elections.
Oboi, reshuffled opposition leadership in But the development had already esca- It is against this background that observers
parliament. lated tensions between those who stood to say the new tensions in parliament only
In that reshuffle, Betty Aol Ochan, lose the jobs and those who stood to gain serve to further divide and weaken the
replaced Winnie Kizza as the Leader of them. opposition.
Opposition; Budadiri West MP Nandala “How many reports has Hon Katuntu These sorts of things are also at the heart
Mafabi replaced Angelina Ossege as the submitted on the plenary?” Munyagwa said of why legislators Andrew Baryayanga of
leader of the Public Accounts Committee at the time, “Munyagwa will always follow Kabale Municipality and Medard Sseggona
(PAC). matters to their logical conclusion not this of Busiro East are working on a Private
Other Amuriat appointments included; business of exciting the public.” Member’s Bill intended at amending the
William Nzoghu, Busongora County North, In a bid to calm down the tempers, Administration of Parliament Act.
as a representative in the Pan-African Parlia- Amuriat said the changes were intended The FDC and the ruling party NRM
ment, FrankaAkello, Agago Woman MP, to give others a chance to serve. He also are opposed to the Bill because if it goes
as the new head of the committee on Local said that he was guided by party loyalty in through, it will give MPs powers to select
Government, Gilbert Olanya of Kilak South, picking the new group. The other factor, he their own leaders as opposed to the current
as her deputy and Kaps Hassan Fungaroo, added, was contribution to the party finan- arrangement where the parties they belong
Obongi County MP, the new head of the cially. to do. This would deal the opposition a big
Public Assurance committee. What is significant to note, however, is blow.
Most importantly, Oboi appointed that this reshuffle triggered the exodus from Away from this, given their numbers—the
Munyagwa to replace Katuntu as the new FDC by Muntu’s stalwarts. entire opposition controls under 30 per
chairman COSASE with Kasibante as his “The best thing to ever happen to our cent of MPs in parliament, the opposition
deputy. cause is this reshuffle or blunder,” former has also tended to find strength in working
“This wasn’t a reshuffle but a purge,” FDC Secretary General Alice Alaso said on well with the speakership. If the current
Katuntu said immediately after the WhatsApp group of Muntu loyalists, “The fight damages that relationship, parliament,
reshuffle. Days later he said a purge was an sooner we build our outfit the better for us FDC, and the entire opposition will be the
overstatement given that Semujju Nganda and for this country.” losers.
who also supported Gen Mugisha Muntu Indeed following the reshuffle, several
was retained as opposition chief whip. FDC legislators met and resolved to reject

Jan. 11 - 17, 2019 13
News Analysis

Makerere’s
demigods
How Prof. Nawangwe is creating a class
of untouchables at Uganda’s top varsity
By Flavia Nassaka when they want,” he said, “This can’t con-

P
tinue happening.”
rof. Barnabas Nawangwe, the 63- “We used the right legal processes to
year old vice chancellor of Mak- reach this decision. We are ready to defend
erere University Kampala has a ourselves if parliament summons us,” he
tough job. The university is rarely said.
without a fire he must put out. Squeezed Then he issued another warning; all staff
by a cocktail of scandals, strikes, and mal- who speak ill of the university in public
administration, Nawangwe nonetheless will also be punished. It was not a harm-
often attempts to cut a calming pose with less threat as some lecturers had already
apt smile, neat navy blue suits, matching learnt. One of these is Dr. Stella Nyanzi, a
university stripped ties, and a close-cut to popular activist and medical anthropolo-
his balding head. But this ruse failed on gist with special interest in sexual anthro-
Jan.03. pology and youth health.
He was addressing journalists a week As Nawangwe spoke, Nyanzi was lan-
after he fired 45 teaching staff over guishing in Luzira Maximum Security
offences ranging from sexual harassment Prison near Kampala on charges of cyber
of students, insubordination, fraud, and harassment and offensive communication
absconding from duty among others. Riled against President Yoweri Museveni. The “I’ve realised what plagues Makerere is
by Nawangwe’s decision, the sacked dons university had earlier suspended her from the recycling of these same leaders. The
had petitioned the Speaker of the national her job for allegedly insulting the First same people are given different positions
parliament to get the decision reviewed, Lady Janet Museveni. at different times. They just keep rotating
and Nawangwe was not impressed. He Dr. James Ocita from the literature and covering for each other,” the don said,
called a press conference and, in a move department of the faculty of Arts is another adding that Makerere as an institution
that was likely to inflame the situation than victim of Nawangwe’s tough rules on needs a clean up to get rid of leaders who
diffuse it, he revealed that lecturers he had speaking out. He was fired for alleged feel they own the institution.
fired over absconding duty will now also slander and insubordination. Dr. Deus Kamunyu Muhwezi, a lecturer
have to return salaries they earned without Ocita says in reality, his troubles arose and head of the Makerere University Aca-
working. from him criticizing some leaders of the demic Staff Association (MUASA) agrees.
“We wonder why they had to run to university; including Nawangwe and Prof. “Makerere is presided over by demi-
lawyers and parliament yet there’s a staff Mahmood Mamdani; the Director of Mak- gods,” he told The Independent on Jan.06
tribunal where they can appeal if they feel erere Institute of Social Research (MISR) after Nawangwe’s tough press confer-
they weren’t fairly heard,” said the tense- for abuse of office. Nyanzi is also from ence.
looking Nawangwe, “We can’t tolerate MISR. “Even the visitation committee found
staff working elsewhere and earning from Ocita says he and many of his colleagues some of these leaders not deserving to hold
us without any service rendered. We are were unfairly fired. these positions. This institution should
going to write to them.” be bigger than individuals but they will
The Independent has established that the Silence voices tell you that I will deal with you and they
government remits about Shs122 billion to Nawangwe’s actions have had a chilling surely deal with you,” he said.
the university annually to be added to col- effect on debate at the university. Muhwezi says although MUASA had
lections from paying private students and A lecturer in the College of Humanities recommended that one Prof. Bruce Kabasa
donations and grants. In total, 75% of the who spoke on condition of anonymity for who heads the appointments board to be
budget is spent on salaries and 25% is used fear of being punished described the situa- dropped because of his incompetence, the
to undertake other activities. tion tersely. University Council retained him in recent
Nawangwe said some of the beneficiaries “You can’t speak out. You can’t get jus- appointments.
of the 75% have not worked for it and he tice,” the don said, “Most of the colleges Makerere University has a record of
is ready to battle any free riders. He added are suffering in silence.” controversy from students, staff, and the
that the lecturers’ reaction to his recent The don referred to the case of Stella administration. Many controversies often
move is an indicator that they do not Nyanzi who had to stage a controversial spill on the streets as students protest and
want to be accountable and are now being nude protest out of frustration because she police chase them with teargas and batons.
forced out of their comfort zone. was not listened to when she complained President Museveni in November 2016
“What has been happening is that they about the poor leadership of Prof. Mam- ordered the university closed over similar
can choose to be absent, release results dani. issues and appointed a Visitation Com-

14 Jan. 11 - 17, 2019
News Analysis
he had sought to eliminate might in fact
defeat him.

Nawangwe’s tough stance has its
admirers.
In an earlier interview, Prof Eli Katun-
guka- Rwakishaya who is the vice chan-
cellor of the second biggest university;
Kyambogo, in Kampala, told the Inde-
pendent that Makerere has a problem
of workers who earn without actually
working. He said one of the things the uni-
versity needed to do is to review the work
load of staff such that they can have appro-
priate numbers to match the work. He pro-
posed this in 2016 just after the President
had ordered closure of Makerere.
“The over a thousand lecturers at Mak-
erere don’t do research but have resorted
to trotting around the many private uni-
versities sprouting as they get free money
from government since they are employed
on permanent terms,” he said.
Katunguka proposed a complete over-
haul of the human resource system to
remove problems at the management level
created by the Universities and Tertiary
Institutions Act.
“It democratised management,” he said,
Prof. Nawanga implying that is something bad. In fact,
he said, the Act needs to be amended
to ensure members of the University
mittee headed by the late Dr. Abel Rwe- tion when all this was happening. He did Council –which is the top governing body,
deire that inquired into the affairs of the nothing and he is now threatening people are appointed by the government and
university and recommended setting up by sacking and yet he knows it’s not the not elected as is the case today. He says
a dispute management system headed by solution.” Council members should also be reduced
persons with a clean record. Many say Nawangwe should be focusing from the current 23 -26 members to 9-11
But Muhwezi says lecturers do not trust more on putting place a credible system people.
they can find justice in the tribunal. He for disputes management, handling strike Katunguka says vice chancellors, deans
said the tribunal, which Nawangwe wants triggers, and improving quality of learning and deputy vice chancellors of public
them to run to, gave aggrieved lecturers instead of allowing to be used in “fighting universities should be appointment by
three days to submit their appeals and yet political wars”. the President of the country and vetted
the Employment Act provides for 14 days. by parliament instead of being elected
“Where is fairness there?” Muhwezi told Nawangwe’s defence by Council. He says staff associations in
The Independent on Jan.06. Nawangwe could counter that with what public universities should be regulated and
Some lecturers say to get to the bottom of he has campaigned on; among others, their powers reduced.
their grievances, a forensic audit needs to restoring the institution’s integrity, coming “With this administrators will shift from
be done and a review of all appointments. up with a new policy against sexual fighting for their survival to working,” he
They say that’s why they sent a petition to harassment, and implementing a new fees says, “There is a lot of infighting and sec-
parliament. policy. tarianism. People at Makerere do nothing
It is not clear how Nawangwe’s tough He could argue that his zero tolerance to but fight every day.”
handling of situations will affect such indiscipline policy which partly involved Meanwhile, as the fighting rages, Mak-
behavior but it has disappointed some of suspending students who take part in erere University’s appeal and popularity
those who cheered when he was named endless strikes and punishing lecturers as a centre of academic excellence appears
vice chancellor in August 2017. by firing, is an extension of the same neat, to be suffering. Student numbers are dwin-
Nawangwe had been the deputy of then orderly, and disciplined attitude he adapts dling as many resort to other universities,
Vice Chancellor John Ddumba Ssentamu, everywhere; including in selecting his suits especially the paying private students.
a mild-mannered gentleman who handled and ties. The university currently has 39,000 stu-
administrative matters as delicately as a Of course, Nawangwe has always dents, most of them self – sponsored but
glass dealer handling vases. Many called favoured ties with thick red strikes that the decline in the numbers has hurt the
for Ddumba’s removal and Nawangwe’s evoke his love for authority and leader- institution financially too. For instance,
entry because they argued, as deputy in ship, and fiery coloured pocket-kerchiefs in the Financial Year 2015/2016 when the
charge of Finance, Administration, and to adorn his chest and reflect his hot side. university experienced numerous strikes,
Development; he possibly could manage But Makererians are only seeing that it’s estimated that it lost up to Shs70billion
the challenges at the university better. significance now. And they are accusing because of a reduction in paying students
“They were mistaken,” says a lecturer, him of being intolerant and dictatorial. numbers.
“Nawangwe was there with a big posi- Many predict that the culture of chaos that

Jan. 11 - 17, 2019 15
News Analysis

Negotiating infrastructure
deals with China
Four things African governments need to get right
By Folashade Soule

President Xi Jinping at the Beijing Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation 2018. EPA

Y
ou don’t negotiate with China !” I ects in East Africa appear to be a good My ongoing research into China
was quickly told when I started in- example. In Kenya, the Standard Gauge funded infrastructure projects is con-
terviewing African public servants Railway is the largest infrastructure firming that African governments can
about their infrastructure deals project since independence from Britain learn from best practice in this area. The
with Beijing. There is a widespread view in in 1963. China Eximbank provided most best deals depend on the following four
Africa that you accept whatever terms are of the finance for the first phase – 472 conditions being met.
offered, for fear that the money might go kilometres of track between Nairobi and
somewhere else instead. Mombasa – at a cost of US$3.2 billion. 1. Involve everyone
China is the leading infrastructure In neighbouring Ethiopia, an electric The process in Chinese deal-making
finance provider on the continent – as train line from Addis Ababa to Djibouti, tends to go like this: Beijing will begin by
demonstrated by a recent pledge of which is also Chinese-financed, opened making financial pledges, often aimed
US$60 billion (£47 billion), most of which two years ago. The cost for this more at a number of countries; these are fol-
is for infrastructure projects. Big projects expensive type of railway was US$3.4 lowed by meetings at state level between
on the slate include hydropower plants billion – for 756 kilometres. Kenya claims a Chinese delegation and the African
in Angola and Guinea, an oil refinery in that its railway cost more for reasons like head of state and their senior officials.
Nigeria, and a new city in Egypt. the terrain and the need to carry higher Infrastructure projects under discussion
Yet, when you look closely at what hap- volumes of cargo. At the same time, how- have often already been passed over by
pens on the ground, some African coun- ever, many believe other issues to have Western donors.
tries are much better at negotiating with been at play – including failures around Once a project is broadly agreed, the
the Chinese than others. Railway proj- the negotiation process. relevant Chinese contractors, mostly

16 Jan. 11 - 17, 2019
News Analysis
state owned enterprises, will typically
contact African civil servants in the
relevant branches of government to get
detailed negotiations underway – with
support from the Chinese trade mis-
sion and local embassy. Topics to be
discussed will include costs, but also the
use of materials and workers; technology
transfer; and the effect of national regula-
tions in areas like labour, construction,
and the environment.
In countries like Togo and Cameroon,
key ministries like finance, planning or
even the cabinet will lead the negotia-
tion. In the likes of Benin and Senegal,
the relevant technical ministry, such as
transport or housing, will lead instead or
take over. They are supposed to consult
with departments like finance and plan-
ning, but they often press ahead on their
own to speed up the process – sometimes
without any experience of dealing with
China.
In practice, such deals can be less ben-
eficial to the country in question. Where
one arm of government is not clear about
what another is doing, it increases the
potential for corruption – there has been New Kenya Railways locomotive. EPA
a corruption investigation in the case of
the new Kenyan railway, for example, ences in Chinese and African negotiating 3. Keep the public onside
and I have been told during my research styles.
that this was also linked to coordination The Chinese often adopt a take-it-or- China tends to be popular in Africa –
failures during the negotiations. leave-it approach. In many cases, Afri- more so than the U.S. in around 60% of
When all relevant government depart- cans are not confrontational enough in countries on the continent. Yet the public
ments are involved in a negotiation, it return. They don’t appreciate that China also see negatives: many think Chinese
does take longer. The process is more has a surplus of domestically produced products are poor quality, while there is
coherent, however, and the resulting materials they are seeking to offload, a growing perception that dealing with
project is less likely to breach national for example. Wiser negotiators will play China tends to favour Chinese labourers.
regulations. China off against other countries seeking African governments need to bear these
to finance infrastructure projects on the concerns in mind. If not, they risk being
2. Empower the negotiators continent, such as South Korea or the denounced by the media or civil society
The president or his senior advisors United Arab Emirates. organisations – as has happened in
also frequently intervene during negotia- Kenya over the railway, for instance.
tions. This is likely to be politically moti-
4. Increase knowledge
African
vated – a need to fulfill electoral prom-
ises around infrastructure development, African governments are still relatively
perhaps, or pressure from the Chinese new to dealing with China; they should
authorities.
Where civil servant negotiators are
governments are take every opportunity to share lessons
with one another. There is a role for
being pressed to hurry up, it can mean
that national regulations get ignored. In still relatively African universities here. They should
set up more centres of Asian studies to

new to dealing
Benin, for example, during negotiations close the gap in information and knowl-
over road projects several years ago, the edge.
Chinese contractors were unhappy about Some have argued in the past that
certain conditions being imposed. Then
president Yayi Boni agreed to intervene
with China; they many African governments fail to
negotiate successfully with the Chinese
on their behalf to bypass national regu-
lations in areas including labour and should take every because they lack a strategy. I actually
see plenty stratagems and tactics on the

opportunity to
construction. Such situations are best African side. What is required is a more
avoided. coordinated and coherent approach –
On the other hand, some outside something China has been working on
interventions can be positive. In Togo,
Senegal and Tunisia, and the current
share lessons from its own perspective. It is better for
African governments to have no deal
government in Benin, I’ve seen examples
of the cabinet hiring international law with one another. than a bad deal. With the right approach,
they can achieve much more than is often
firms with experts who have worked in thought to be the case.
the Chinese government and its develop- Folashade Soule is a Senior Research
ment banks. This can bridge the differ- Associate, University of Oxford

Jan. 11 - 17, 2019 17
News Analysis

A model of the moon lander for China’s Chang’e 4 lunar probe. NET PHOTO

Will China’s moon landing
launch a new space race?
By Wendy Whitman Cobb continue to accumulate, could the United focused on both launch vehicles and

C
States find itself engaged in a new space satellites - including communications,
hina became the third country to race? remote sensing and meteorology.
land a probe on the Moon on Jan. This does not mean the Chinese were
2. But, more importantly, it became China’s achievements in space not concerned about the global power
the first to do so on the far side of Like the U.S. and Russia, the People’s space efforts can generate. In 1992, they
the moon, often called the dark side. The Republic of China first engaged in space concluded that having a space station
ability to land on the far side of the moon is activities during the development of bal- would be a major sign and source of
a technical achievement in its own right, one listic missiles in the 1950s. While they did prestige in the 21st century. As such,
that neither Russia nor the United States has benefit from some assistance from the a human spaceflight program was re-
pursued. Soviet Union, China developed its space established leading to the development
The probe, Chang’e 4, is symbolic of program largely on its own. Far from of the Shenzhou spacecraft. The first Chi-
the growth of the Chinese space pro- smooth sailing, Mao Zedong’s Great nese astronaut, or taikonaut, Yang Liwei,
gram and the capabilities it has amassed, Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolu- was launched in 2003. In total, six Shen-
significant for China and for relations tion disrupted this early programs. zhou missions have carried 12 taikonauts
among the great power across the world. The Chinese launched their first sat- into low earth orbit, including two to
The consequences extend to the United ellite in 1970. Following this, an early China’s first space station, Tiangong-1.
States as the Trump administration con- human spaceflight program was put on In addition to human spaceflight, the
siders global competition in space as well hold to focus on commercial satellite Chinese have also undertaken scientific
as the future of space exploration. applications. In 1978, Deng Xiaoping missions like Chang’e 4. Its first lunar
One of the major drivers of U.S. space articulated China’s space policy noting mission, Chang’e 1, orbited the moon
policy historically has been competition that, as a developing country, China in October 2007 and a rover landed on
with Russia particularly in the context would not take part in a space race. the moon in 2013. China’s future plans
of the Cold War. If China’s successes Instead, China’s space efforts have include a new space station, a lunar base

18 Jan. 11 - 17, 2019
obituary
and possible sample return missions
from Mars.
The most notable feature of the Chinese
space program, especially compared
to the early American and Russian
programs, is its slow and steady pace.
Because of the secrecy that surrounds
many aspects of the Chinese space pro-
gram, its exact capabilities are unknown.
However, the program is likely on par
with its counterparts.
In terms of military applications, China
has also demonstrated significant skills.
In 2007, it undertook an anti-satellite
test, launching a ground-based missile to
destroy a failed weather satellite. While
successful, the test created a cloud of
orbital debris that continues to threaten
other satellites. The movie “Gravity”
illustrated the dangers space debris
poses to both satellites and humans. In
its 2018 report on the Chinese military,
the Department of Defense reported that
China’s military space program “con-
tinues to mature rapidly.”
Despite its capabilities, the U.S., unlike
other countries, has not engaged in any
substantial cooperation with China
because of national security concerns. In
fact, a 2011 law bans official contact with
Chinese space officials. Does this signal
a new space race between the U.S. and
China?
As a space policy researcher, I can say
the answer is yes and no. Some U.S.
officials, including Scott Pace, the execu-
tive secretary for the National Space
Council, are cautiously optimistic about
the potential for cooperation and do not Long March-3B rocket carrying Chang’e 4 lunar probe takes off from the Xichang Satellite Launch
see the beginning of a new space race.
NASA Administrator Jim Brindenstine ment for a new independent military onstrated, a greater global capacity for
recently met with the head of the Chinese branch, a Space Force. space exploration can also be beneficial
space program at the International Astro- Regardless, China’s abilities in space not only for saving stranded astronauts
nautical Conference in Germany and dis- are growing to the extent that is reflected but increasing knowledge about the uni-
cussed areas where China and the U.S. in popular culture. In Andy Weir’s 2011 verse where we all live. Even if China’s
can work together. However, increased novel “The Martian” and its later film rise heralds a new space race, not all con-
military presence in space might spark version, NASA turns to China to help sequences will be negative.
increased competition. The Trump rescue its stranded astronaut. While Wendy Whitman Cobb is Associate Professor
administration has used the threat posed competition can lead to advances in of Political Science, Cameron University
by China and Russia to support its argu- technology, as the first space race dem-

*terms and conditions apply

AfricellUG @AfricellUG

Jan. 11 - 17, 2019 19
Why 2019 could be
good for businesses
Local traders claim foreign nationals
involved in petty trade remains a
headache
By Isaac Khisa sector that also feeds into our manufac-
turing sector,” said Gideon Badagawa,
the executive director at the Private
Following the unexpected Sector Foundation of Uganda.
Data from World Bank shows that
past bad year for Uganda’s economy is projected to grow
businesses, there is a good at 6% in 2018/19 compared with 4.5% in
2016/17 and 2.5% in 2015/16. The global
chance that this could be bank cites increase in investments in
reversed sometime this various sectors across the country.
Badagawa said the agriculture and
year, some analysts say. tourism sectors expect to grow faster this
year subject to government’s involve-
ment seeking for viable markets. Beer production line at Nile Breweries Limited. The beer firm

T
The country’s agriculture sector has
heir hope is that the economy, which been growing at about 2% per annum “We hope that the issues surrounding
has shown signs of recovery, is likely over the last five years, which is well foreigners engaged in petty trade espe-
to remain sound to stimulate growth below the population growth rate and cially Chinese will be resolved,” he said
of businesses. below the 3-5% growth rates in other East adding, “we engaged government last
But the risk is that inflation, which the cen- African countries. year and we hope this will be concluded
tral bank has tried to control since last year, In the medium term, the agriculture this year.”
could make a comeback in the course of the growth rate is expected to remain around He says the government needs to come
year driven by a likely surge in food prices 2.5%, assuming reasonable weather con- up with a policy that clearly spells out
due to unpredictable weather conditions. ditions and no army worm infestations, trading activities that foreign nationals
Luckily, the conditions that pushed the according to the World Bank, even as it can engage in as it is in the neighbouring
central bank rate to 10% as at the end of employs more than 70% of the popula- countries such as Kenya.
2018, the lowest since 2011, still remain tion. “In Kenya, a foreign national cannot run
the same and the economy is seem to be Badagawa, however, said there has been a hotel that is below 3 star hotels,” Kay-
still performing well, according to the a hiccup in trade and commerce segment ondo said.
latest monetary policy report from Bank especially in the importation of capital Local traders have in the past two or so
of Uganda. equipment and machinery such as motor years protested against foreign nationals
The Gross Domestic Product grew vehicles since the government came up engaged in petty trade saying they are
between 7-8% for the first 10 months with a law that prohibits import of motor driving them out of business.
of last year and is expected to sustain vehicles above 15 years. On Nov. 08, 2016, traders in the
growth going forward supported by The new shift, Badagawa, says trig- northern Uganda town of Lira refused to
the ongoing investment in public infra- gered a sharp decline in motor vehicle open their shops for business protesting
structure such as the Karuma and Isimba imports since the end of last year, a what they termed as `unfair competi-
Hydropower dams. momentum expected to continue this tion’ from foreign traders mainly those of
Trade captains and analysts who spoke year. Indian origin.
to The Independent showed optimism for Everest Kayondo, the outgoing In 2017, Kampala traders marched
growth of businesses in 2019 citing likely chairman for Kampala City Traders around the city protesting Chinese
improvement in the economy. Association says though they expect involvement in small businesses.
“We are coming from periods of slow businesses to thrive following projected It is estimated that more than 600 for-
growth since 2016 but we have observed growth in the economy this year, their eigners, mainly of Chinese and Indian
some faster growth starting 2018 because worry is how the local population will origin trade in Uganda without the right
of the improvement in the agriculture participate in this growth. work permits or documents to operate

20 Jan. 11 - 17, 2019
business

the associated further increase in lending
rates.
Private sector credit was recorded at
10.5% as at the end of June 2018 com-
pared with 5.6% in the previous year due
to improving economic conditions.
Agriculture, personal and household
loans, and trade, together constituted
50% of the total private sector credit.
Okumu says realisation of Buy Uganda
Build Uganda (BUBU) policy could
cushion local traders and manufacturers
against cheaper imported foreign com-
modities.
“If all government entities could buy
commodities in Uganda such as statio-
nery from Picfare, we would save the
country from foreign currency woes and
help boost manufacturers capacity,”
Okumu said.
This, however, also faces a hurdle given
that the Bank of Uganda has persistently
opposed BUBU arguing that it contra-
venes the East African Community free
market protocol.

Going forward
Badagawa says there is need for gov-
ernment to come up with stabilisation
fund to help farmers remain in business
in periods of decline in commodity prices
as it has been with the recent case in Tan-
zania.
m has boosted capacity to meet the growing demand. COURTESY PHOTO. In November last year, the Tanzanian
government deployed military to buy
businesses, according to the ministry of cashew nuts from farmers to solve a row
trade. over prices.
Martin Okumu, the former director of President John Pombe Magufuli had a
communication at the Uganda National month earlier ordered for a 94% increase
Chamber of Commerce and Industry and of the crop prices to Tshs3, 000 per kilo-
now the executive director of Sapientia gramme to encourage farmers to grow the
Professional Consultants, however, says crop.
growth of local businesses is likely to
remain unchanged as a result of high In Kenya, a However, traders were reluctant to pur-
chase the commodity at the government

foreign national
interest rates, high transportation and prescribed price as farmers halted the sale
energy costs. of their crop for weeks, arguing that the
“Interest rates of about 18-25% per offers from private traders could not meet
annum are relatively high to borrow,
import goods, sell and make a break-
cannot run a the production costs.
“Someone (government) needs to plan
even,” he said.
“Most countries including whose hotel that is ahead on the quantities of crops that will
be produced so that farmers do not make

below 3 star
nationals are in Uganda – Chinese and losses as prices falls,” Badagawa said,
Europeans –are lending at 2-5% per in reference to government’s sponta-
annum. They buy goods from their own neous response to save farmers plight in
countries and bring them to the Ugandan
market at a lower price because they
hotels declining maize prices last year.
Patrick Mweheire, the Stanbic Bank
borrow their capital from their financial Chief Executive told The Independent last
institutions at low interest rates. This month that the New Year is expected
benefit, unfortunately, is not there for the to be good for businesses including the
local traders fighting for a share of the banking industry, carrying on momentum
same market.” from 2018.
This comes as private sector credit, He said the growth in businesses
though on a recovery path, remains below is likely to be driven by the expected
its historical trend, and its contribution to US$15-20bn investment in the oil and gas
economic growth could be weighed down industry ahead of production slated for
by increased borrowing requirements and the next three-four years

Jan. 11 - 17, 2019 21
feature

Uganda’s oil sector expects
US$ 1bn investment in 2019
But will oil companies pump money into key infrastructure
projects to meet new first oil timeline?
By Ronald Musoke recently that the government expects said, “That means Uganda’s first oil

U
a pick-up in activity in the sector this shifts.”
ganda’s oil and gas industry is year following a calm 2018 that involved At the time the government announced
expected to rake in investments designs of key production infrastruc- the 2020 first oil timeline; many
worth over US$ 1 billion this ture such as the East African Crude Oil observers said the schedule was quite
year,according to senior energy Pipeline and the two central processing ambitious considering the range and cost
ministry officials. facilities. of infrastructure involved.
The outlay for this year is part of the She said the government has also In the field, for instance, oil companies
close to US$20bn that the government revised its timelines for first oil by 24 needed to develop infrastructure to
expects over the next three years as the months to 2022 following a series of produce the oil. These included drilling
joint venture oil company partners step missed deadlines. and completing more than 400 wells,
up activities to commercialize Uganda’s According to the government’s original setting up two central processing facili-
petroleum resources which were discov- road map, first oil was scheduled for ties, laying of over 200km of in-field flow
ered over a decade ago. 2020 but the joint venture oil companies lines, laying approximately 150km of
The development of the upstream proj- failed to submit their final investment feeder pipelines, construction of base
ects are being taken forward by the three decisions in time. Muloni said the gov- camps and minor access roads, among
joint venture partners, CNOOC Uganda ernment had expected the key decisions others.
Ltd, Total E&P Uganda and Tullow to be made latest end of 2017 or in the Besides the crude oil pipeline and
Uganda Operations Pty Ltd. first quarter of 2018. refinery development, the oil companies
Eng. Irene Muloni, the Minister of “Unfortunately, it has not happened had to do Front End Engineering Designs
Energy and Mineral Development said and 2018 has come to an end,” Muloni before making their final investment

22 Jan. 11 - 17, 2019
feature
tional SRL (a General Electric company so construction of the pipeline can start.
domiciled in Italy) and SAIPEM SPA “We have gone a long way but there
(Italy). are a few areas that we have not agreed
Josephine Wapakhabulo, the Chief on because there are still a few points to
Executive Officer at the Uganda National agree on,” She said, “We expected the JV
Oil Company (UNOC) referred to the partners to make their FID to allow the
signing ceremony as a “game changer” construction of the pipeline.”
for the country. “We have invested a lot of time into this
But the agreement only became effec- process (and) I am confident that we will
tive from Sept.7, 2018, and the con- achieve a win-win situation.”
sortium is now undertaking technical Another stumbling block between the
studies (FEED and ESIA) together with government and the JV partners has
other pre-FID activities such as devel- revolved around Tullow Uganda Pty
oping a financing strategy, financial Ltd’s farm down of its stake in Uganda’s
modelling, raising capital and risk anal- oil operations.
ysis and the supply and demand consid- Although Tullow entered into a sale
erations for the project. and purchase agreement to farm down
Muloni said the government has given 21.5% of the participating interests to
the refinery consortium a maximum of Total and CNOOC for up to US$900 mil-
two years to reach a FID after which lion, it appears negotiations over how
they will embark on construction of the much capital gains tax is due the govern-
refinery. It is expected to be ready in ment has been quite contentious.
2023. When the transaction goes ahead,
The energy minister says Uganda has Tullow will remain with 11.7% partici-
also made progress with the construction pating interest and a non-operator.
of the US$3.5bn East Africa Crude Oil However, Muloni says, she gave “con-
Pipeline (EACOP) which is a 1445 heated ditional consent” on Nov.21, last year,
pipeline from Hoima in mid-western for the transaction to proceed, subject
Uganda to the Indian Ocean port of to Tullow’s payment of the tax obliga-
Tanga in Tanzania. tions as assessed by the Uganda Revenue
Muloni says the FEED for the crude Authority (URA). The URA says Tullow
pipeline was finalized last year and must pay US$ 167 million.
An Oil rig in Western Uganda during the submitted to the government. However, “For me, as a licensee, I have given con-
exploration phase. Uganda is now headed for a the two neighbouring states spent 2018 ditional consent to this transaction sub-
critical oil development phase. FILE PHOTO. negotiating with the JV partners on how ject to payment of the tax obligation as
the crude export pipeline should be assessed by URA,” Muloni said, “What
developed. now remains is that once this transaction
decisions for the two central processing So far, four rounds of negotiations gets out of the way, the companies need
facilities. of the host government agreements to make a final investment decision.”
These include the Tilenga project which between the government of Uganda and “Producing oil involves many stake-
covers Buliisa and Nwoya districts and the lead project sponsors have been held holders each with a key role and time-
the Kingfisher project which covers since February, 2018, but there remains lines to meet. That is why these pains-
Hoima and Kikuube districts—both esti- “sticking issues” on the economic model taking decisions have been taking long,”
mated to cost about US$ 8 billion. of the project and the allocation of Muloni said.
The Tilenga project will have a pro- pumped oil to both the refinery and the
cessing facility with capacity of up to EACOP. Government remains upbeat
190,000 barrels of oil per day and the Muloni says she expects the host gov- She, however, remains upbeat, saying
Kingfisher project, 40,000 barrels per ernment agreements to be signed “soon” Ugandans should appreciate the signifi-
day. These processing facilities will feed cant progress made so far in taking for-
into the refinery and the 1,445km crude ward the key projects leading to first oil.
oil pipeline. “We have already fallen off the
But putting in place the essential mid- schedule by a year. If we can catch up,
stream infrastructure, including a 60,000
barrels per day Greenfield refinery, a
Tilenga will then we can look at the tail end of 2021
or at least a slight cross into 2022.”
crude oil export pipeline and a products
pipeline—facilities needed almost at the
process up “As a country, our primary focus
should be on ensuring that the journey
same time— has proved difficult.
The government only managed to find to 190,000 towards first oil is one that brings in
maximum benefit to the country, by
investors for the US$4bn oil refinery in
Hoima in April, last year, following the barrels of oil ensuring that the oil and gas resources
are produced efficiently, and that Ugan-
signing of a project framework agree-
ment between the government and a per day dans can competitively participate
through provision of goods and ser-
consortium of companies led by the US vices.”
giant, General Electric (G.E). “There is no short cut for a country
The Albertine Graben Refinery Con- whose agenda is sustainable exploitation
sortium is comprised of YAATRA Africa of natural resources in order to create
(Mauritius), Lionworks Group Limited lasting value for society.”
(Mauritius), Nuovo Pignone Interna-

Jan. 11 - 17, 2019 23
Executive
business Style

Migration can stir economic growth
Give us a brief overview of Again, with many women
migration in Africa currently. Migration is and girls on the move now,
Who is migrating and where at the heart of gender-based violence (GBV)
is becoming rampant, some-
to? every discussion thing that certainly worries us.
Overall, migration in Africa on sustainable We are also seeing situations
is dominated by Africans
moving within Africa. They
development where migrants have their body
in Africa. Africa organs harvested.
move mostly to neighbour-
ing countries, or within the Renewal’s What economic gains do they
same region. Africa’s share of Zipporah Musau bring to host countries?
global migration, which over- spoke to Ashraf Migration has always been
all stands at 258 million, are historically positive and plays
36 million people of which 19
El Nour, the
a constructive role as a catalyst
million move within the con- Director of the of economic growth, a driver of
tinent and 17 million move International population dynamics around
outside Africa. Organization for the world and a blender enrich-
Migration (IOM) ing world culture and human
What does that mean? Office to the UN heritage and civilizations.
It means African migration Migrant workers across all skill
is predominantly pan-Afri-
in New York. ranges fill labour market gaps,
can, with about 53% of total promote trade and investment
movements originating from and bring innovation, skills and
Africa and staying within the knowledge to both host and
continent. That shows that origin countries. If you look at
African countries can simul- the recent report by the McK-
taneously be source, transit enzie Institute [International],
and destination countries. migrants contributed roughly
Africa has one of the busiest $6.7 trillion to the global GDP
movement corridors, the fifth output in 2015, which is $3 tril-
largest in the world. There are being the magnet. lion higher than they would
The fourth is the Gulf of We have seen images of mi-
migratory movements that have grants in the Sahara Desert… have produced had they stayed
been well-established for many Aden route. Here we have home. The other benefit is the
people coming from mainly These are mostly nonorga-
years and connect migrants nized movements facilitated remittances. In 2017 the World
with destination countries Somalia and Ethiopia, going Bank estimated that remit-
to Djibouti as a transit point to by smugglers and human traf-
because of historical, linguistic, fickers. They don’t go through tances by migrants globally
religious or cultural ties. Yemen. stood at $596 billion, of which
internationally recognized
borders. It’s a big business tar- $466 billion went to develop-
What are the major migratory Who in Africa is migrating ing countries, including Africa.
routes? most? geting young people who can-
not easily get passports, visas Remittances to sub-Saharan
Most of the contemporary These routes are populated Africa accelerated 11.4 % to $38
movement in Africa is struc- by young people. About 60% or tickets, and the only other
option is to look for recruit- billion in 2017. Migrants also
tured around three or four of people in irregular migra- contribute to the transfer of
migratory routes. First, we have tion are young people, many of ers who promise them a job
and organize the smuggling knowledge and the enriching of
the Horn of Africa migratory them under 20 years and some civilization.
route, which is the most domi- unaccompanied. The rest fall from one country to another,
nant in the East African region. into the 25 to 35 age bracket. from one group of smugglers Tell us about non-Africans
It starts from the Horn—Soma- to another. In the process the moving into Africa.
lia, Ethiopia, Eritrea—then goes Are there more men or women migrants are put at risk and IOM estimates that 2.3 mil-
through Sudan into Libya and moving? some of them are even kid- lion non-African migrants
then across the Mediterranean Of the 258 million migrants napped for ransom. have established themselves in
to Italy or Malta. globally, about 48% are female. What main challenges do mi- Africa. The majority of them
The second is the West Africa Within Africa the percentage grants face? are of Asian and European
route, starting from countries tends to drop a little bit, but One is the “commodifica- descent. Some of the Europeans
such as Nigeria, the Gambia, we could safely say 45% of all tion” of migrants. Migrants migrated after World War II
Côte d’Ivoire and Burkina Faso, African migrants are female.  becoming a commodity in the and settled in Africa—South
then going through Niger to We are, however, seeing an hands of smugglers and human Africa is a good example.
Algeria, then predominantly to increasing “feminization” of the traffickers as they pay for the There is also a large number of
Libya. Agadir is the main con- process because some women journey. Human trafficking Asians, predominantly Indians,
nection point from where they are participating as breadwin- and smuggling is becoming brought in during the colonial
move to Libya. ners, seeking employment in a big business in Africa, and time to construct railways. Most
The third route is from East new places. It is no longer like law enforcement cannot cope recently we have the Chinese.
Africa to South Africa through before, where men would leave because it is lucrative and there The China model of investment
Tanzania, Mozambique and home and women would stay are more people getting into brings not only the money but
Malawi, with South Africa behind. this field. also people to do the job.

24 Jan. 11 - 17, 2019
INSURANCE AVIATION ENTREPRENEURSHIP
IRA licenses 114 Uganda revises aviation law TEF opens applications
insurance players

E
for 5th Entrepreneurship

I
lectricity Regulatory Authority has
nsurance Regulatory Authority has
licenced 114 players to carryout insur-
ance business this year. These includes
reduced power tariffs for consum-
ers due strengthening shilling and Programme

T
easing inflation.
32 insurance companies; one Micro The domestic consumer tariff has been he Tony Elumelu Founda-
Insurance firm, one re-insurer, five Health reduced by Shs 0.5 from Shs 769.5 shillings
Membership Organizations (HMOs), 35 tion, the leading African-funded
of the 2018 fourth quarters to Shs 769 of and founded philanthropy com-
insurance brokers, two re-insurance brokers the first quarter of 2019.
and 24 Loss Assessors, adjusters, insureance mitted to empowering African
The average tariff for the commercial
surveyors and risk advisors. entrepreneurs, is now accepting applica-
consumers has been reduced by Shs 1.3
The Authority also licensed fourteen com- from Shs 686.1 of last quarter of 2018 to tions for the 2019 cohort of the TEF En-
mercial banks and two credit institutions to 684.8 of first quarter of this year. trepreneurship Programme.
sell insurance products to their clients. The Medium industrial consumers have  The Programme is a 10-year, $100 million
Authority renews licences of all insurance been rewarded with a Shs 1.2 reduction commitment to identify, train, mentor
players annually as a way of scrutinizing from average tariff of Shs 614.4 of fourth and fund 10,000 African entrepreneurs.
their suitability and therefore protect the 2018 quarter to Shs 613.2 during the same
interests of policyholders and beneficiaries. The Programme’s objective is to gener-
period under review.
However, effective next year, the Author- The tariffs for large industrial consum- ate at least 1,000,000 new jobs and create
ity will start issuing perpetual licenses and ers reduced by Shs 4.3 from average of Shs at least $10
as such the licenses issued will remain in 382 of 2018 last quarter to Shs 377.7 for the billion in
force until suspended, varied or revoked, as first quarter of 2019. Extra-large industrial new busi-
per Section 44 (2) of the Insurance Act 2017. consumers’ tariff reduced by 0.6 shillings ness revenue
“The public is advised to deal with only from average 312.5 of 2019 last quarter to across Africa.
licensed insurance players,” the Authority 311.9 shillings. Founder
said in a statement.
and UBA
ACCOUNTING Chairper-
son, Tony
ICPAU ready for new O. Elumelu,
said “The
reporting standards private sector

T
must be the
he Institute of Certified Public Ac-
core driver Tony Elumelu
countants of Uganda and its mem-
of Africa’s
bers are ready to implement the new
international accounting standards economic transformation, but this sector
that took effect at the beginning of this year, cannot attain its full potential if entre-
according to Frederick Kibeddi (CPA), the preneurs are left behind.”
president and Ruth Nseko, the vice presi- Now in its 5th year, the TEF Entrepre-
dent of the Institute. The standards include Ruth Nseko and Frederick Kibeddi neurship Programme has empowered
IFR9, IFR 15 and IFR 16. The standards 4,470 entrepreneurs, using a bespoke
have to do with monitoring of commercial November examinations for accounting stu- and robust selection, training and imple-
loans and their servicing and provisions for dents on Jan.03 in Kampala. mentation process to create visible and
leasing of property among other things. The The results included those for Accounting sustainable impact across all 54 African
Institute’s executives said the new standards Technicians Diploma (ATD), Certified Public
countries.
will reduce fraudulent reporting and related Accountants (CPA), and Certified Tax Advi-
sor (CTA) courses. A total of 6,202 candidates Last year, over 2,210 Ugandans entre-
criminal accounting practices. They said
attempted the examinations compared to preneurs applied for the program, rank-
implementing these standards will ensure
that companies grow and hence create vari- 6, 139 candidates who sat for the June, 2018 ing Uganda the third highest after Nige-
ous opportunities including jobs. examinations. The average pass rate for the ria and Kenya in submissions, with a
The duo was speaking to The Independent three courses was 47.4% compared to 40.3% total of 126 successful applicants receiv-
on the sidelines of an event for releasing the for June 2018. ing US$5000 as seed capital.

ELECTRICITY

Electricity tariffs drop The average tariff for the commercial con- The tariffs for large industrial consumers

E
sumers has been reduced by Shs 1.3 from reduced by Shs 4.3 from average of Shs 382
lectricity Regulatory Authority has Shs 686.1 of last quarter of 2018 to 684.8 of of 2018 last quarter to Shs 377.7 for the first
reduced power tariffs for consumers first quarter of this year. quarter of 2019. Extra-large industrial con-
due strengthening shilling and eas- Medium industrial consumers have been sumers’ tariff reduced by 0.6 shillings from
ing inflation. rewarded with a Shs 1.2 reduction from average 312.5 of 2019 last quarter to 311.9
The domestic consumer tariff has been average tariff of Shs 614.4 of fourth 2018 shillings.
reduced by Shs 0.5 from Shs 769.5 shillings quarter to Shs 613.2 during the same period
of the 2018 fourth quarters to Shs 769 of the under review.
first quarter of 2019.

Jan. 11 - 17, 2019 25
Business

Ongoing construction of Isimba HydrDam on River Nile. COURTESY PHOTO.

Uganda’s electricity boom
New generations could trigger a drop in tariffs
approximately 1.18million as at the end of from the current 20% to 30% at the end of
By Julius Businge

U
2017, according to ERA. this year and 60% by 2027.
ganda government is expected to Tibalwa said key transmission lines that “ERA urges all qualifying Ugandan
commission Isimba and Karuma are under construction including Tororo- households to embrace the policy and get
hydropower dams this year as one Opuyo-Lira, Bujagali-Tororo, Kawanda- connected to electricity which shall in turn
big step towards boosting the elec- Karuma, Karuma-Lira and Kawanda-Kap- increase electricity consumption in both
tricity supply in the country. eeka are expected to be completed this year. short and long term,” Tibalwa said
The commissioning of the two hydro- ERA’s Manager for Communication, Only consumers whose houses are
power plants with a combined capacity of Julius Wandera, said many areas country- located 30 to 90 meters from an existing
783MW will see the country’s installed elec- wide including northern region that has power distribution line qualify for free
tricity generation capacity increase from the been experiencing repeated power outages connections provided that their houses are
current 955MW to 1,738MW. will benefit from the new infrastructure that wired by certified electricians, according to
This development is expected to reduce is being constructed. the policy.
on the power cuts as well as drive the elec- “From a regulator’s point of view The regulator also expects that the newly
tricity cost downwards amidst the growing there are headaches that are going to be licensed mini-grids and off-grids small
demand from commercial and domestic answered…because of that infrastructure power plants in different parts of the coun-
consumers. coming onboard,” he said. try will allow more households and institu-
Currently, the average electricity retail Wandera said the regulator expects con- tions to access power.
base tariff rates applicable for the year 2019 tinued refurbishment of the ageing Jinja They include; the 0.3MW Kisizi hospital
as announced by the Electricity Regulatory based Nalubaale Power Station, formerly mini hydro-power plant, the 0.1 Bwindi
Authority (ERA) on December 24, 2018 for known as Owen Falls Dam to ensure con- Mini-hydro power plant, the 0.04 Swuam
the various consumer categories include; tinued supply of electricity from the facility Community Micro-Hydro-power plant
Shs769 per kWh for domestic consumers, to the national grid. in Bukwo, the 0.05MW Pamoja energy
Shs684.8 per kWh for commercial consum- Meanwhile, Tibalwa said they support power plant in Kamwenge, the 0.05MW
ers, Shs613 per kWh for medium industrial government initiatives geared towards Muduuma Biomass plant in Mpigi and
consumers and Shs377.7 per kWh for large growing electricity demand and supply the 0.23MW Kitobo small power plant on
industrial consumers. including ‘the energy rebate policy’ and the Kitobo Island.
Other are Shs311.9 per kWh for extra- ‘electricity connection policy.’ Others expected to be constructed in
large industrial consumers and Shs751.1 per Energy rebate policy deals with electricity 2019 include the 0.1MW plant in Bukasa
kWh for street lighting. compensation to an individual or firm that Island and the 0.03MW plant in Bunjako in
The Chief Executive Officer of the ERA, designs, finances and constructs electricity Mpigi district.
Ziria Tibalwa Waako told The Independent distribution infrastructure in an area that is ERA is developing a framework for
in an interview that “2019 is a glittering year not connected to the national electricity grid. regulation of these mini-grids to ensure
because of the infrastructure that is coming Tibalwa said the policy would continue they operate within agreeable terms and
onboard and the positives that it brings.” to encourage industrial customers in 2019 conditions and in line with the country’s
She also said key players in the sector including medium industrial, large indus- electricity framework.
including power distributor Umeme and trial and extra large industrial customers to The Uganda Manufacturers Association
transmitters would expect to invest more in invest in the electricity network. Executive Director, Daniel Birungi told The
the infrastructure this year to facilitate elec- She said more efforts will be geared Independent that they would continue to
tricity distribution to consumers. towards implementation of the 2018 gov- engage government on key policies geared
The country had 1.3million electricity ernment policy to connect consumers at no towards lowering power tariffs and elec-
consumers connected to the national grid cost. The policy implementation is expected tricity extension in their areas of operation
as at the end of September 2018, up from to increase consumer’s access to electricity to ease the cost of doing business.

26 Jan. 11 - 17, 2019
Business

Private sector activities rise

U
By Isaac Khisa rising costs of operations.
He said the performance
ganda’s private suggests that the underlying
sector activ- demand has significantly
ity increased improved and perhaps also
for December justifies the Monetary Policy
2018 signalling Committee maintaining a
improved busi- hawkish bias in light of these
ness environment. The Stanbic risks that could feed through
Bank Purchasing Manager’s into core inflation.
Index (PMI) for manufacturing Last month, the Bank of
and services rose to 56.6 for Uganda maintained its cen-
December from 55.7 recorded tral bank rate at 10 % saying
in the previous month owed to the outlook for inflation had
increased demand for various improved. The bank’s head
products and services. Any- of Fixed Income, Benoni
thing above 50 denotes growth; Okwenje said overall input
Airtel Uganda acting Marketing Director, Michael Lukyamuzi (R) hands over a brand anything below, contraction. prices increased again in
new motorcycle to the telecom’s mobile money agent from Zigoti Electrical Uganda This triggered companies December, with rises in both
Limited, George Ssenoga, in the ongoing Beera Millionaire with Airtel Money to increase their staffing purchase prices and staff
promo. COURTESY PHOTO. levels, purchasing activity costs contributing to overall
and inventories during the inflation.
month. Four of the five “Where purchase prices
broad sectors covered by rose, companies reported
the survey – agriculture, higher fuel costs and
industry, construction, increased prices for raw
wholesale & retail and ser- materials such as food items
vices sectors – saw employ- and cement,” he said.
ment rise, the exception The survey, sponsored by
being construction. Stanbic Bank and produced
Commenting on the survey by IHS Markit, has been
findings, Jibran Qureishi, the conducted since June 2016
regional economist E.A at and covers the agriculture,
Stanbic Bank said it has been industry, construction,
a strong finish for the private wholesale & retail and ser-
sector in 2018 despite of the vices sectors.
Dimension Data East Africa General Manager, Ndung’u Kahindo (L) and Ted
Ogonda, the Engineering Manager in charge of sub-Saharan Africa at Cisco
Systems, Kenya, address the media on business opportunities for 2019.
Dimension Data East Africa plans to launch its digital business solutions
including big data and analytics, artificial intelligence and machine learning
technologies this year. Courtesy Photo.
Weekly share price movement (Jan. 04, 2018)
Security Dec. 03 Jan. 04 Movement
BATU 30,000 30000 00
BABU 138 139 -0.7
CENT 1,071 980 9.2
QCL 190 249 -23.6
DFCU 822 845 -2.7
EABL 6,313 6,862 -8.0
EBL 1,242 1,434 -13.3
JHL 15,259 13,507 12.9
KA 319 347 -8.0
KCB 1,350 1,434 -5.8
NIC 14 15 -6.6
NMG 2,386 2,487 -4.0
NVL 338 337 0.2
Kenya’s Cabinet Secretary for Industrialization, Trade and
SBU 30 31 3.2
Cooperatives, Peter Munya, looks at some of the products during the
UCHM 29 24 20.8
recently concluded 19th EAC Jua Kali-Nguvu Kazi exhibition held at the
Eldoret Sports Club in Uasin Gishu County. Courtesy Photo. UCL 19 20 -5
UMEME 320 321 -0.3
ALSI -- -- --

Jan. 11 - 17, 2019 27
By Amy Slogrove, Kathleen M. Powis & Mary-Ann

O
Davies

ne of the most remarkable
public health successes of
the last decade in south-
ern Africa has been the The largest number of HIV-exposed but uninfected children are in South Africa. SHUTTERSTOCK
reduction in the number
of babies born with HIV.
This was achieved through the provision Babies born to
mums with HIV
of antiretroviral therapy to pregnant and
breastfeeding women living with HIV. For
example, the number of new HIV infections
in children in South Africa has come down
from a peak of 70 000 in 2003 to 13 000 in
2017.
They face higher risks even
Nevertheless, worldwide there are still an
estimated 14.8 million children under the
though they’re HIV negative
age of 15 who were born HIV uninfected
but have been exposed to their mother’s made it safer but sustained breastfeeding is mortality rate in both Botswana and South
HIV during pregnancy. still low. One study in South Africa showed Africa from around 30 deaths per 1000
A staggering 30% of pregnant women in that, irrespective of HIV-status, women infants to 35 deaths per 1000 in the year
South Africa have HIV. Their infants are stopped breastfeeding their babies on 2013.
exposed to both HIV and antiretroviral average when the infants were eight weeks Botswana and South Africa have adopted
drugs during pregnancy and breastfeeding. old. the World Health Organisation’s recom-
HIV-exposed but uninfected children don’t On top of this, HIV-exposed infants more mendation to provide lifelong antiretro-
have HIV, so what’s the big deal? often have mothers who are unwell or who virals to all pregnant and breastfeeding
It is a big deal because HIV-uninfected have died. And HIV-affected households women with HIV. But there’s a lack of
children born to mothers with HIV are experience challenging socioeconomic cir- research comparing the mortality of HIV-
prone to infections that are more severe, are cumstances that can make children more exposed to unexposed infants under these
at almost two times greater risk of dying vulnerable. These exposures in the first new guidelines. Our calculations are there-
before their first birthday, and are more 1000 days of life can be detrimental to early fore based on the year 2013, the most recent
likely to be born prematurely than children childhood development and have life-long year before policy shifts in both countries.
born to mothers without HIV. consequences. There is emerging evidence though of a per-
In our recent study we set out to try and In addition, infants born to women with sisting increase in mortality in HIV-exposed
quantify the contribution of deaths in HIV are subject to factors during pregnancy infants even with maternal antiretroviral
HIV-exposed but uninfected infants to the that unexposed infants aren’t. These include therapy.
overall infant mortality rates in Botswana exposure to HIV particles, that may make
and South Africa. their immune systems develop differently. What next
What we found was that because children And these infants are exposed to at least With 1 in every 4 children in Botswana
born to mothers with HIV make up almost three antiretroviral drugs given to the and South Africa being HIV and ARV-
1 in every 4 infants in Botswana and South mother during pregnancy. exposed, robust systems need to be put
Africa, and because they die more often in place to monitor the long-term safety
than children born to mothers without HIV What the research found of these exposures during pregnancy.
– even when they are HIV-uninfected them- To estimate the contribution of deaths in Countries need to invest in research to
selves – this contributed to a higher infant HIV-exposed but uninfected infants to the understand why HIV-exposed children
mortality rate in both countries. overall infant mortality rates we used previ- still have an increased risk of dying. And
ously published research comparing the countries need to ensure that routine child
The risks mortality risk in HIV-exposed uninfected health interventions, such as immunisa-
Even when they’re not HIV infected, chil- infants to risk of mortality in unexposed tions and promotion of optimal durations of
dren born to women with HIV experience a infants, as well as United Nations estimates breastfeeding, are uniformly reaching HIV-
complex package of detrimental exposures. of infant mortality in Botswana and South exposed children.
For example, HIV-exposed but uninfected Africa. Most critically, countries like South Africa
infants are still more often born preterm or In Botswana, HIV exposed uninfected and Botswana with high HIV infection rates
of low birth weight. This increases their risk infants accounted for 26% of the infant need to find responsible, transparent and
for complications and death early in life. population but 42% of all infant deaths. accurate ways of sharing what is known
They are also exposed to more infectious Similarly, in South Africa HIV exposed and being done about the risks of HIV-
pathogens in the home such as tuberculosis. uninfected infants accounted for 23% of exposure with HIV-affected families and
There are other problems too. Breast- the infant population but 38% of all infant involve them in finding solutions.
feeding has enormous nutritional and deaths. Source:theconversation
immunological benefits, but has often been Putting this into actual numbers, this extra
avoided in infants born to women with mortality in HIV exposed uninfected infants
HIV. Maternal access to antiretrovirals has increased the overall HIV-uninfected infant

28 Jan. 11 - 17, 2019
health

Children and violent films
Watching violence on screens makes
children more emotionally distressed

R
By Caroline Fitzpatrick the ages of three and four. Four years Child development
later, second grade teachers rated the
esearcher at Concordia’s PER- same childrens’ classroom behaviour The content of media to which young
FORM center and Assistant using a social behaviour question- children are exposed is closely related to
Professor of Psychology, Uni- naire – which covers behaviour such as child outcomes.
versité Sainte-Anne physical aggression, inattentiveness and Age-appropriate programmes – like
Children today can access emotional distress over the course of the `Sesame Street’ for kindergarteners–
media through both tradi- school year. Teachers were unaware of which aim to help children understand
tional devices, like televisions, and por- which children had been exposed to vio- words or ideas, are known to help them
table devices like laptops and tablets. lent media. develop language and mental skills.
With more access, children are more To rule out the impact of the home New technology can be useful too.
likely to be exposed to violent content – environment on the development of Video chat technologies – like Skype
like real-life or cartoons where force is these behaviours, we controlled for the or Facetime – which give children an
being used and harm is being done to a contribution of early childhood aggres- interactive, two-way live exchange with
person or character. Studies show that sion, parenting quality, maternal educa- adults facilitate language learning.
37% of media aimed at children have tion, parent antisocial behaviour and On the other hand, violent films and
scenes of physical or verbal violence. family structure. video games often feature attractive
What’s more, 90% of movies, 68% of According to our results, teachers rated protagonists that engage in a dispropor-
video games, 60% of TV shows, and exposed children as more antisocial. tionate number of aggressive actions.
15% of music videos have some form Antisocial behaviours include; a lack of Children exposed to this type of content
of violence. In some cases, it’s rising – remorse, lying, insensitivity to the emo- can develop a deformed perception of
the amount of violence in mainstream tions of others, and manipulating others. violence and its actual frequency in real
movies has been growing steadily over life.
the past 50 years. Eventually, this can give rise to the
Evidence shows that this can be detri- Our results also reveal significant asso- impression that the world is an overly
mental to young children. Around the ciations between exposure to violent dangerous place filled with ill-inten-
ages of three and four children begin to media and classroom attention problems. tioned people. People that have such a
develop perceptions and expectations Furthermore, exposed children were worldview are more likely to interpret an
about the world around them. These reported to show more signs of emo- ambiguous or accidental gesture as hos-
views are strongly influenced by their tional distress; in terms of sadness and a tile or as a personal attack.
daily experiences. If children are often lack of enthusiasm. There are steps that parents can take.
exposed to scenes of violence, they may The results were similar for boys and By modeling, positive non-violent behav-
develop a view of the world as a more girls. iour – like using respectful communica-
dangerous place than tion to solve problems
it actually is. rather than aggression
To investigate this – and having conversa-
further, and predict tions about the violent
the types of mental images their children
health outcomes this are exposed to, parents
has, my colleagues and can reduce the nega-
I examined the poten- tive effects of violent
tial long-term risks media on their child’s
associated with expo- development.
sure to violent media Parents should also
on children’s devel- keep bedrooms free
opment. We found from screens, closely
that those exposed to monitoring children’s
violence become more media usage, and shut-
antisocial and emo- ting off the internet at
tionally distressed. night.
Caroline Fitzpatrick
Exposed to violence is a Researcher at Con-
Through parent cordia’s PERFORM
reports, we measured center and Assistant
children’s exposure Professor of Psy-
to violent movies chology, Université
and programmes in Sainte-Anne
1,800 preschool aged Source:theconversation
children between Cartoons often have scenes of physical or verbal violence. CHRIS BECKETT/FLICKR

Jan. 11 - 17, 2019 29
COMMENT
By Benjamin Ahikiiriza
Nawangwe’s good intentions,bad ideas
Ensuring tranquility at Makerere University shouldn’t mean
students and staff fear robust debate of topical issues

T
he year 2018 witnessed an unprec- demic freedom and intellectual endow- can occasion double jeopardy.
edented clampdown from within ment in an increasing globalised and Several students have been warned or
Makerere University Kampala pluralistic society. The thread that runs suspended singlehandedly by the Vice
(hereinafter referred to as ‘Makerere’ throughout their book is that it is intel- Chancellor in utter contravention of
or ‘the University ‘) on freedom of expres- lectually harmful to overprotect students procedural and constitutional law appar-
sion and academic freedom through a bliz- from exposure to the many lines of dif- ently for engaging in activities deemed
zard of threats, warnings, suspensions and ference – opinions, behaviours, et cetera disruptive or inflammatory such as
online vitriol. in our society today. peaceful demonstrations(as sanctioned
Ever since its establishment, Makerere I wrote this as a sexualities researcher by the Constitution) and even flimsy
has enjoyed a deserved and vividly cre- at the university, Stella Nyanzi, was ones like stern social media posts.
ated image of a baobab of innovation, serving a suspension under the uni- These actions could be well inten-
activism, academic research and devel- versity’s regulations for using sexually tioned; that is motivated by good faith to
opment. Ranked alternately the 3rd or 4th explicit connotations in her scathing criti- score some public relations goals, ensure
best university on the African continent, cisms of the University Management. tranquility at the University conducive
Makerere stands head and shoulder The university in a tweet said it had for the forward movement of University
above many, alongside the greats in the amended its Human Resource Manual programmes and/or protect students
annals of Africa’s tumultuous history. to authorise the concurrent running of from “immoral contamination”.
However, there is an increasing and its internal administrative disciplinary However, they present a risk of stu-
widespread feeling across our society proceedings with criminal prosecution in dents cringing at robust debate over
that its prestigious image turns pale and Courts of Law, all against its employees. topical issues. Objectionable words and
blurry by the day. To many, an Institu- Forget the clear lack of constitutionality ideas become perceived as violence
tion globally acclaimed as a lion of the in the amendment; it is ostensibly a similar to throwing stones or wielding
Intellectual landscape is soon or later carefully constructed legal manouvre to sticks. In the long run students embark
turning instead into the lions’ Prey. circumvent the characteristically highly on dangerous practices like silencing
A veritable journalist and political procedural and strict proof criminal jus- disagreeable ideas. This is what Andrew
pundit, Andrew Mwenda, has for tice system. This serves the purpose of Mwenda is referring to when he says
example severally expressed dismay passing judgement against employees young Ugandans gave upon thinking
about the products manufactured and like Stella Nyanzi deemed parallel to the (debate, analysis) and are comfortable
churned out by the university. Recently university seemingly inward -looking with their pre-installed ideas and con-
in his weekly column that runs in The rules without due regard to the parallel ventional wisdom ( silencing disagree-
Independent Magazine he regretted that” criminal due processes which obviously able speakers). Going forward, none of
most of the students from that University us should stay silent about this dictato-
depress me by their utter intellectual rial moment at Makerere.
ineptness, close-mindness and mistaking Students must elect from among them
of political sloganeering for intellectual those who are well equipped through
analysis. These are young Ugandans who
gave up on thinking long ago”. Going forward, past leadership experiences to lead them
and not opportunistic demagogues since

none of us
Several other persons across the spec- some past student governments have
trum have expressed the same or similar proved incompetent and motivated
feelings; with business managers ques- by personal interests and have either
tioning the “employability” of the uni-
versity’s students and graduates.
should stay ended up too comfortable in their newly
found largesse or crumbling under the
The question then is how did we get
here – in a situation where students
silent about heavy weight of bribery and patronage.
Academic and non-academic staff must
decades long graduated are regarded
far better qualitatively educated than us. this dictatorial rise up-to the occasion. It’s rather embar-
rassing that whereas past national gov-

moment at
There are several answers to this ques- ernments have been at the forefront of
tion but key of them must be the ever chocking academic freedom, these days
shrinking space for academic freedom stifling of the same is internally inspired.
and freedom of expression.
Individual Rights Activist Greg Luki-
Makerere. There is urgent need to jealously pro-
tect its honour and dignity for the over-
anoff and Prof. Jonathan Haidt of New arching objective of ensuring qualitative
York University in their book, `The Cod- education of Human Resource critical
dling of the American Mind’ published for development of this generation and
in 2018 create an evidence based Nexus those beyond with their attendant chal-
between free speech, exposure and aca- lenges especially unemployment.

30 Jan. 11 - 17, 2019
COMMENT
Betty Aol Ochan
Museveni shouldn’t limit
alternative leaders
By denying the opposition space as his power retention
strategy, the President normalises the abnormal

T
he opposition, generally speaking, by his stage name—Bobi Wine. It aspirations to Uganda’s future, and
is a government in waiting. And is near- becoming acceptable in the fattening his ego by claiming to have
true to that, in democratic soci- eyes of Ugandans that the NRM grandeur ambitions that go beyond
eties, tables often turn with the and President Museveni can have as Uganda’s border, Museveni has
opposition taking over power and those much access to the electorate using become more opportunistic than
in power becoming the opposition. public resources while the opposi- nationalistic.
The regularity with which the power tion remains largely chained on poles The limiting of civic space for
table swings from opposition to ruling planted by the police and military. Ugandans has dire consequences for
party and from ruling party to the That is how tragic it has got; normali- Uganda, including but not limited to
opposition is usually an indicator of sation of the abnormal. stunting the growth of state institu-
the health of a county’s democracy, If you ask, who benefits from this tions that are critical for the growth
and how much power citizens have in cloudy and unbalanced sad situation and inculcation of a democratic cul-
choosing those they deem qualified to in which the opposition appears free ture. It also undermines the growth of
manage public affairs on their behalf. but when in real sense is chained? new emerging talent in both the oppo-
Equitable access to civic spaces by Certainly not Ugandans. The sole sition and ruling party—talent that
the ruling party, those in the centre, beneficiary of this situation is could offer Uganda solutions to chal-
and the opposition is sacred in a Museveni. But this comes at the cost lenges Museveni has failed to address
functioning democracy. However, of continuous psychological torture in the last 33 years.
in Uganda this space is alarmingly of Ugandans who are unsure of what The need for equitable access to
shrinking and becoming a monopoly will happen to the country without spaces in which the opposition and
of the ruling NRM party. him. By gluing his raw life-presidency the NRM must coexist to sell their
Denying spaces for the opposition agenda to the public for the benefit
and critics of the NRM is now an of Ugandans is not debatable. If the
established part of the power reten- opposition is perpetually stopped
tion strategy for President Yoweri
Museveni and his life- presidency
If the opposition from accessing the electorate, it
means Ugandans are being denied an
project. Some mistake this act of
opportunism for tactical astuteness on
is perpetually opportunity for the sprouting of new
political talent to widen leadership
the part of Museveni. Nothing can be
further from the truth. Bluntly put,
stopped from choices for citizens. Unfortunately,
this is what we are faced with. The
this primitive hogging of power has a
counterproductive effect on Uganda’s
accessing the consequence has been that Ugandans
have been disempowered, making
transition to democracy.
Already, Uganda is a black sheep in
electorate, it citizens weaker in the demand for
accountable leadership. This weak-
the original East African region—we
are the only country that has not had
means Ugandans ness of the citizenry is best illustrated
by the now infamous begging phrase:
a peaceful transition from one presi- are being denied Tusaba Govementi etuyambe (We ask the

an opportunity
dent to another. If the Democratic government to help us).
Republic of the Congo manages to

for the sprouting
pull off a peaceful transition from Betty Aol Ochan is Gulu woman MP and
President Joseph Kabila to another Leader of Opposition in the parliament of

of new political
leader, despite its flawed electoral Uganda
process, the blackness of Uganda

talent to widen
will cast a dark shadow beyond East
Africa.

leadership
Increasingly, it is no longer even
‘‘news’’ when members of the oppo-
sition are blocked from holding
meetings, rallies, prayers, and choices for
music concerts, as is the case with
singer and Member of parliament, citizens.
Robert Kyagulanyi better known

Jan. 11 - 17, 2019 31
COMMENT
By Maxwell Gomera
Nature vs. infrastructure
Environmentally reckless growth is not preordained;
it is possible to make smart, sustainable choices

I
n November 2017, scientists working in their arguments; the Amazon rainforest In the developed world, some govern-
Sumatra, Indonesia, made an exciting is a case in point. There, deforestation ments and businesses are making the
announcement: they had discovered a has reduced the production of vapour ethical choice by applying the “precau-
new species of orangutan, bringing to clouds that are essential to transporting tionary principle” to growth. Adopted
seven the number of great ape species glob- rain across South America. The drought in 1992 as part of the Rio Declaration
ally. that parched São Paulo between 2014 on Environment and Development, the
But one year later, the only home of and 2017 is believed to have been caused, principle embodies the conclusion that
the 800 wild Tapanuli orangutans is at least in part, by the absence of these it is wiser – and ultimately cheaper – to
being cleared for a $1.6 billion dam and “flying rivers.” As the Brazilian climate avoid environmental degradation in the
hydroelectric power plant. Although the scientist Antonio Nobre has noted, if first place.
project will contribute less than 1% of the these aerial water pumps are perma- The real challenge is to instill this ethos
country’s planned generating capacity, nently turned off, an area that accounts in developing economies, where the bulk
scientists say it will lead to the extinc- for 70% of South America’s gross of future infrastructure spending will
tion of this rare species. This raises, once national product would be turned into occur. Consider highway development.
again, a key question: what is nature desert. By 2050, there will be 15.5 million miles
worth? Of course, identifying critical natural of new paved roads, enough to circle the
Indonesia is not alone in making envi- capital is challenging, especially at Earth more than 600 times. More than
ronmentally detrimental trade-offs. The smaller scales. While many can agree 90% of this fresh pavement will be laid
twenty-first century will be a period of on the importance of protecting the in developing countries, which already
unprecedented infrastructure expansion, Amazon, it is harder to demonstrate the face huge environmental pressure. In
and a staggering $90 trillion will be spent value of preserving orangutans in Indo- the Amazon region, for example, there
over the next 15 years to build or replace nesia. But, over time, loss of the Tapanuli are nearly 53,000 mining leases encom-
dams, power plants, and other facilities. orangutan’s habitat would profoundly passing 21% of the basin’s land mass. In
In fact, more infrastructure will be built change the composition of the rainforest Guinea, a World Bank-supported dam
over the next decade and a half than cur- and disrupt its ecological services. At the is reportedly threatening a key chim-
rently exists. Naturally, habitats will be same time, the elimination of a species of panzee sanctuary. And in Tanzania, the
disrupted in the process. great ape – our closest kin – would erase government has approved a dam and
And yet, environmentally reckless an opportunity to understand better our hydroelectric plant in the Selous Game
growth is not preordained; it is possible own evolution and genetics. Reserve, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
to make smart, sustainable choices. To do With human needs increasing as
so, we must recognize the true value of populations and incomes grow, there
nature, and make environmental ethics are legitimate reasons to build more
and cost-benefit analyses part of every
project.
The real infrastructure. But if current trends
continue, short-term interests will strip
At the moment, this is not happening;
most infrastructure is planned and con-
challenge is to away the natural assets on which all life
depends. To plan for smart development,
structed on the basis of market assess-
ments that fail to account for nature. As
instill this ethos governments and business must
recognise nature’s role in supporting
a result, the world is facing a growing in developing economic activity and ensuring

economies,
crisis: the weakening of ecosystem ecological and human health. After all,
services – such as clean water, flood we do not – and cannot – live in a world

where the
defense, and bee pollination – that pro- where nature has no value.
tect biodiversity and form the foundation

bulk of future
on which human welfare depends. Maxwell Gomera, a 2018 Aspen New Voices
To change the status quo, we must make fellow, is Director of the Biodiversity and

infrastructure
an ethical choice not to expose critical Ecosystem Services Branch at the United
habitats and “natural capital” to greater Nations Environment Program.

spending will
danger – regardless of the possible eco-
nomic returns. Just as most of the world Copyright: Project Syndicate, 2018.

occur
has rejected the use of slave or child
labour, the permanent destruction of
nature must be repudiated.
Some economists have recognised this
by building environmental costs into

32 Jan. 11 - 17, 2019
COMMENT
Gordon Brown
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
As it marks 70 years millions do not sense that human
rights should mean universal rights of all

S
even decades after its adoption, the also undermined the credibility of collec- consider adopting a comprehensive legal
Universal Declaration of Human tive security, enabling increasingly flagrant instrument and civil accountability mecha-
Rights (UDHR) remains a beacon human-rights abuses. To address this, the nism for the protection of children in armed
of hope for the world, sending out Commission’s report recommends that the conflict.
an unequivocal message that an injustice Security Council’s permanent members Former US First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt –
anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere, voluntarily suspend their vetoes in situ- the driving force behind the UDHR – once
and that no abuse of human rights can be ations involving mass atrocities and, by declared that human rights begin “in small
allowed to continue without challenge. implication, allow more scope for the ICC. places close to home, so close and so small
While illiberalism and authoritarianism is And, beyond identifying the more detailed that they cannot be seen on any maps of the
on the rise, it is important to recall that the responsibilities of governments and interna- world. Unless these rights have meaning
UDHR – and the covenants and conven- tional institutions, new mechanisms should there, they have little meaning anywhere.”
tions it has inspired – champions every be created to ensure corporate compliance And indeed, `The Ordinary Virtues’ by the
person’s right to life, liberty, and security. with human rights. former Canadian politician Michael Igna-
Incorporated into many countries’ constitu- It is to the credit of the UDHR’s authors tieff, which grew from a Carnegie study,
tions, it stipulates that no one should be that, unlike the European Convention indicates that even in the world’s most
subjected to torture or to arbitrary arrest or on Human Rights, a single declaration desolate and lawless corners, individuals
detention. It enshrines the rights to a fair enshrines not only civil and political rights, have a strong sense of their own rights and
trial, privacy, free expression and associa- but also social and economic rights. But it is also, if to a lesser extent, of the importance
tion, and freedom of thought in religion and not enough to declare that such rights are of treating those close to them with decency.
conscience. Moreover, it emphasises impor- important. In South Africa, for example, a Yet, even as the world becomes more
tant social and economic rights, such as the modern constitution includes explicit com- deeply integrated, millions do not have a
right to work and form labor unions. mitments to upholding social rights. Yet the strong sense that human rights should be
But the authors of the UDHR – created country has found no satisfactory means of upheld as the universal rights of all. That
amid the Cold War politics of the 1940s enforcing them. is why the Commission, citing the work of
– could only agree on what rights people The desperate plight of the world’s Fonna Forman, founding Director of the
should have, not on why these rights should nearly 70 million displaced people and Center on Global Justice at the University
be regarded as fundamental, let alone how over 20 million refugees has just been rec- of California, San Diego, makes recom-
or by whom they should be protected. ognized in new agreements hammered mendations about how governments might
At the outset, there were no enforcement out in December this year. The Commis- actively encourage and support human-
treaties, no proper appeal mechanisms, and, sion’s report asserts unequivocally that the rights education – something few countries
until much later, not even basic covenants world’s refugee protection system should currently do.
countries could sign. A creature of its time, be strengthened, not least by reaching an After all, as Roosevelt pointed out, docu-
the UDHR also says little about the rights effective consensus on the balance between ments expressing ideals “carry no weight
of women, the disabled, the LGBTQ+ com- the right to movement and the power of unless the people know them, unless the
munity, and children. And so, despite major states to restrict it –with the long-term objec- people understand them, unless the people
advances over the last seven decades – such tive of a new international convention that demand that they be lived.” That simple
as the creation of the International Criminal supports Sustainable Development Goal truth must underpin the world’s agenda for
Court (ICC) and the UN’s Responsibility to 10.7, which commits states to “facilitate safe, championing human rights now and in the
Protect doctrine – human-rights abuses con- orderly, regular, and responsible migra- future.
tinue to be perpetrated at an alarming rate tion.” The Global Citizenship Commission
and with virtual impunity. One of the Commission’s most urgent sets report was made possible with editorial
To make recommendations relevant to of recommendations relates to the treat- help from K. Anthony Appiah, Craig Cal-
a review of the UDHR at 70, New York ment of children now at risk in the world’s houn, Andrew Hilland, Robert Shrum,
University convened the Global Citizenship 40-plus ongoing wars. A new report that Diane C. Yu, and many others. For the full
Commission (of which I was chair) under emerged this year from the Commission’s membership of the Commission, see gias.
the auspices of John Sexton and Paul Bog- work, Protecting Children in Armed Conflict, nyu.edu/2016/04/release-global-citizenship-
hossian. Our deliberations were informed edited by Shaheed Fatima QC, also calls commission-report/.
by a team of philosophers brilliantly led by for radical changes – for schools in conflict
Jeremy Waldron. zones to enjoy the same effective protec- Gordon Brown, former Prime Minister and
Beyond enumerating rights, the Commis- tion as hospitals; for states to take active Chancellor of the Exchequer of the United
sion argued for a new clarity about who measures to prevent sexual violence against Kingdom, is United Nations Special Envoy for
should carry out the corresponding duties, children and to prevent child abductions Global Education and Chair of the International
and how. Time and again, vetoes or threats and trafficking, and for a clear declaration Commission on Financing Global Education
of vetoes by the permanent members of that denial of humanitarian access is always Opportunity. He chairs the Advisory Board of
the UN Security Council have blocked unlawful where civilians are at risk of star- the Catalyst Foundation.
action. The resulting paralysis has not only vation. In the longer term, Fatima recom-
permitted massive loss of human life; it has mends that the international community

Jan. 11 - 17, 2019 33
book review

African leaders more constrained
by democratic rules than you think
A
frica is often imagined to be a By contrast, when a president respects
place in which presidents can do term limits and stands down, it goes largely
whatever they want, unencum- unnoticed. This has created the misleading
bered by constitutional or demo- impression that African leaders can break
cratic constraints. A large body of literature the rules at will. The reality is that in most
has developed around the idea that the law cases they can’t.
can be flouted at will, leading to a situation Reviewing every country in Africa from
in which what really matters is the person- 1990 to the present, Daniel Young and
ality of the president, not the rules of the Daniel Posner find that term limits are
game. twice as likely to be respected as broken.
The implications of this way of under- This is especially true for states that lack
standing the continent are profound not natural resources.
just for how we think about Africa, but Significantly, they also demonstrate that
also for how we study it. If democratic when one president respects term limits
institutions don’t constrain leaders, there it creates a powerful precedent that sub-
is no point in researching them. Instead sequent rulers feel bound to follow. To
we should spend all of our time looking at date, there is not a single country in which
informal processes such as ethnicity and a president has tried to outstay their wel-
patrimonialism. come after their predecessor willingly stood
But, although this image is often repeated Title: Institutions and Democracy in Africa down.
within policy circles and the media, it is
wrong. A new book I edited, `Institutions Author: Edited by Nic Cheeseman The shape of things to come
and Democracy in Africa’, argues that These examples are part of a broader
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
approaching the continent in this way cre- trend. In 2015, a sitting civilian Nigerian
ates a deeply misleading picture of poli- president lost power to another civilian
tics that underestimates the potential for ruler for the first time. In 2016, the same
democratisation. Repeatedly holding elections fosters new thing happened in Ghana. In 2017, it was
In other words, if we want to understand democratic openings that tend to make Gambia’s turn. Since then, Liberia and
democracy in Africa, we need to take the it more difficult for leaders to hold on to Sierra Leone have also seen opposition
official rules of the game more seriously. power in the long-run. victories.
The book covers a wide range of institu- From a few isolated examples in the early
tions, including political parties, legisla- Legislatures are tougher to manage 1990s, almost half of the continent has now
tures, constitutions and judiciaries. As a than before witnessed a transfer of power.
taster, here are three important ways in Moreover, it is not only when it comes to
which democratic rules constrain African The common depiction of African leg- elections that things are changing. In 2017
leaders more than you might think. islatures is that they are weak and feeble. Kenyan became the first country in Africa –
They’re portrayed as “rubber stamp” insti- and only the third in the world – in which
Holding elections promotes democracy tutions that can do little to hold govern- the election of a sitting president was nulli-
It’s often said that Africa features elections ments to account. But this is not an accurate fied by the judiciary.
without change. But repeatedly holding depiction of what happens in a number of Of course, this does not mean that all
elections not only creates opportunities for countries where conflict between parlia- presidents have to follow the rules, or
the opposition to compete for power. It also ments and presidents is becoming a more that all of these institutions are starting
promotes democratic consolidation. common. to perform well. The continent features
Looking at all elections held in Africa Significantly, parliaments are also begin- a remarkable variety of political systems
since the early 1990s; Carolien van Ham ning to play a role in some of the most and some of its states are on very different
and Staffan Lindberg find that as long as important decisions. In both Nigeria and political trajectories. In more authoritarian
a minimum threshold of quality is met, Zambia, it was the legislature that ulti- contexts such as Cameroon, the Democratic
holding elections increases the quality of mately rejected efforts by sitting presidents Republic of Congo, Uganda, Rwanda and
civil liberties. This in turn creates greater to extend their time in office beyond consti- Zimbabwe, the quality of elections remains
opportunities for opposition parties to tutionally mandated limits. extremely poor; even when leaders suffer a
mobilise. setback they may be able to bounce back.
That’s because elections have a number Term-limits are starting to bite But while the process of institutionalisa-
of democratising effects. These include On the theme of term limits, pretty much tion may be patchy and uneven, one thing
training voters in democratic arts, encour- the only time you will read about this par- is clear: Africa is not without institutions,
aging coordination between opposition ticular institution in the media is when an and we will deeply misunderstand its poli-
parties and increasing the pressure on African leader has changed the constitution tics unless we pay careful attention to the
ruling parties to reform the political pro- to remove them. In the last 20 years this rules of the game.
cess. This last happens for example by has happened in a number of countries Nic Cheeseman is Professor of Democ-
allowing for a more independent electoral including Burundi, Chad, Uganda and racy, University of Birmingham
commission. Rwanda. Source: the conversation

34 Jan. 11 - 17, 2019
Feature

The man I knew
Remembering Rt. Rev. Dr. Livingstone M. Nkoyoyo
By Rev Samuel Murangi

I
t was 1986. I had finished junior high
school in Fort Portal, Uganda and
moved to the Capital City Kampala, in
search of an opportunity to pursue high
school education. Mukono Diocese, which
was only two years old at the time, under
the leadership of the then Bishop Living-
stone Nkoyoyo was working with a young
man from England (Simeon Wiehler, now
a professor at the University of Rwanda) to
establish a home for street boys. By God’s
grace, Simeon invited me to join him, to
work as evening supervisor of the home in
exchange for tuition.
Our first home was a guest house, (adja-
cent to his Grace’s Residence). He had built
the house for missionaries. He allowed
Simon and a group of us teenagers to live
in the house for more than six months,
as we built our own round- houses on a
piece of land the diocese had donated to
be used for orphanage. Although I had
been brought up as an Anglican, confirmed
by an Anglican Bishop in Toro, living in
close proximity to an Anglican Bishop was
quite an experience. It was the first time
of sharing meals and jokes with a bishop,
riding in a bishop’s vehicle. Otherwise, it Fort Portal and ask anyone who attended or a need to build a Cathedral for Mukono
used to be the “Who” is “Who” who had the wedding, they will narrate his sermon, Diocese.
access to a bishop! yet it was preached in Luganda; a language On Tuesday January 2, 2018, I called to
In 1997, I came to the United States for not well spoken among the Batoro. wish him a Happy New Year, not knowing
further studies at Bryn Mawr College. Two In March of 2017, I flew to London to he was admitted at the hospital. After
years later, I heard his Grace was visiting spend a week with him while he was praying, the conversation turned to him
the East Coast of the United States and receiving cancer treatment. In spite of all the asking about my wife and two daughters
decided to invite him to visit the church I pain and side efforts from chemo, seldom and the Namugongo Marty’s Shrine he
had become affiliated with in Rosemont. was the conversation about his sickness. has been building. Two days later, I woke
Quite frankly, I never expected him to Every moment, he talked about Namu- to hundreds of WhatsApp messages
come. To my surprise, he did! gongo Marty’s Shrine, the orphan project, announcing his death.
I will never forget when he decided to For me, my family and many others, he
spend Easter holidays with me in Phila- was more than an Archbishop, he was the
delphia. Which prominent person leaves
his blood family and comfortable life in Through my man I knew who changed my life. I forever
cherish the special one on one time I spent
Uganda to spend Christmas with an ordi-
nary clergy, bachelor at the time, in a small interaction with his Grace, especially in Philadel-
phia, praying with him, reading scripture
house in the United States? But His Grace
did! with him, I together and listening to his considerable
wise council. I still hear his voice echoing,
There was one additional concern of
his, finding me a bride. That prayer was
gained a deep reminding me to be grateful to Jesus Christ
for his Grace and Mercy and for his free gift
answered in 2010 when I called and told
him and Mama Ruth that I had finally
appreciation for of salvation. Through my interaction with
him, I gained a deep understanding as well
found my missing Rib. He asked, what is
her name? I told him that her maiden name
the true meaning as appreciation for the true meaning of the
cross of Jesus Christ and the heavy price
is Kasiimo, which means a gift. When he
met her, he immediately agreed that indeed
of the cross of Christ paid for my (our) sins.
I am grateful to God for having given
I had a found a wonderful a gift from God.
In January 2011, his grace travelled to fort
Jesus Christ me an opportunity to interact with such a
special man. I will forever remember him as
Portal, spent four days with my family and friend, father and mentor.
officiated at our wedding ceremony and The very Rev Samuel Murangi, MSS, MDiv
also played a double role, as my Dad. Call Rector, Emmanuel Resurrection.

Jan. 11 - 17, 2019 35
Your brain dictates how many friends you have
Think about your closest friends—the ple could really only maintain relationships layer increases, the emotional closeness
people you call daily, share your secrets with an average of 148 people throughout of those relationships decreases. In other
with, and text at 2 a.m. when you need a their lifetime. The brain can only process so words, the smallest layer generally contains
favour or some emotional support. How much social information, and relationships three to five of your closest pals. The next
many people are you picturing? One? with about 150 friends, family members, layer overlaps and contains 10 additional
Three? Eight? If you’re like most people, and acquaintances seems to be the cut-off people—or 15 people total, counting your
you probably answered between three and point. Dunbar and friends in 2016 described five BFFs. The third layer has an additional
five. the concept of “layers of friends” within the 35 people, followed by a final layer with an
British anthropologist Dr. Robin Dunbar larger circle of 150 relationships and found additional 100. So if you have three to five
was the first researcher to discover that peo- that as the number of friends in any given true-blue friends, you’re on target.

Would you get this tattoo? 16-year-old footballer
There’s a cruel joy in some- stomach. This statement was turns out to be 28
one else’s terrible tattoo. We intended to win back the trust
don’t know for sure that this of Jose’s wife. It’s a wild thing Gourav Mukhi went from
tattoo is real, but we hope it is. to have permanently tattooed being celebrated as the youngest
That’d make it a lot more fun. on your body. Why any wife goal scorer in the history of the
According to tattoo artist Jorge, would want to be reminded of Indian Super League to being
who goes by @sickcat_13 on these things whenever they see suspended for six months, after
Instagram, a man named Jose their husband shirtless, we’ll authorities found that he wasn’t
L. Torres asked him to tattoo never know. actually 16-years-old, but 28. His
a statement on his chest and troubles started back in Octo-
ber, when the Jamshedpur FC
Artist turns his face striker scored a “historic goal”
into optical illusions against Bengaluru FC. It made
him the youngest scorer in the
history of India’s soccer league.
Luca Luce is a talented make- He was only 16 at the time, or
up artist who uses his expert at least that’s what his docu-
skills to turn his own head ments showed, but all the atten-
into mind-boggling 3D optical tion made people look at him
illusions. 40-year-old Luce has more closely, and some started
been working as a television expressing doubts about his age
makeup artist in Italy for over online. It didn’t take long for
18 years, but first made a name evidence of his deceit to come
for himself online in 2015, when out, as only three years prior, he
photos of his hand-painted opti- had been suspended from the
cal illusions went viral. He now National U16 Football Cham-
“carves”, “pierces” and “dis- pionship, for being much older
torts” using only makeup sup- than he claimed. So if he was
plies and mountains of talent. older than 16 three years ago,
how could he be 16 now?

British don’t want World’s most expensive live fish bought for a whopping Shs6.7bn
Prince Charles as king! S Legend, a red and white Fish farm in the Japanese city
Prince Charles wouldn’t Koi Carp bred in Japan became of Hiroshima. The female carp
exactly be the people’s choice the most expensive live fish won first prize at the presti-
to become the next king, ever sold, after fetching a mind- gious All Japan Koi Show last
according to a new poll in The blowing price of $1.8 million year, and is expected to bag her
Independent. A surprising (Approx. Shs6.7 billion), more second title this year, which
46 percent said they would than $1.3 million more than the greatly increased collectors’
want the heir apparent to previous record. interest. Fans and collectors of
abdicate immediately to allow The fish is 101cm-long (about Koi carp are now expected to
Prince William, the Duke of 3-foot rulers) and is a Koi Carp travel from all over the world
Cambridge, to take the crown in from the highly-regarded to catch a glimpse of the most
the event of Queen Elizabeth’s Kohaku variety. It was bought expensive fish ever sold.
demise. by a collector from Japan after
a fierce bidding war at the Saki

36 Jan. 11 - 17, 2019
Subaru’s X-Mode
What’s it and how does it work?
By Agencies

I
t reads like it might be a gimmick but X-
Mode is anything but…Here we explain
what X-Mode is and how it works.
Subaru’s symmetrical all-wheel
drive already makes its vehicles the most
capable in their segments across rough
or slippery ground. And X-Mode makes
them better.
Previously only available on Forester,
X-Mode is now also available on XV and
Outback.
What is X-Mode?

Activating X-Mode recalibrates things
like gearing and engine mapping to
soften the throttle which makes it easier
to drive on slippery roads, meaning
you’re less likely to over-rev and keep
breaking traction. Although, you can
slam the throttle into the carpet and it
will give you full power, like if you need
to build momentum to climb up a slip-
pery slope.
X-Mode also speeds up the locking
between front and rear axles by about
25% to improve grip in bumpy terrain,
and the traction control acts faster to
prevent wheelspin. It also works in both to control speeds via the cruise con- like when adjusting speed on a descent
forwards and reverse. trol stalk, X-Mode is controlled via the or when taking off on a slippery track.
What about the transmission? Well, throttle and brake pedals. So, if you inch Hill descent control is active up to
X-Mode tells the CVT to hold onto ‘gears’ over a crest at 5km/h and then step off 20km/h but it remains on-guard until
a little longer than normal to give you the throttle that’s the speed the car will you reach 40km/h. And the fact it works
more low-down grunt at lower speeds. maintain. If you want to go a bit quicker in reverse too allows you to control your
What else does X-Mode do? you simply squeeze the throttle. reverse descent should you decide not to
The other thing about X-Mode is it continue driving up the hill.
It activates hill descent control but, dulls the throttle sensitivity so that the Source: Internet
unlike some vehicles which require you car doesn’t lurch in delicate situations,

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Jan. 11 - 17, 2019 37
Andrew Stewart Tamale; East
Africa’s freestyle football champion
By Agnes E Nantaba Tamale’s achievements. He boasts in signing contracts for the game including

A
his favourite skill, ‘around the world’ with soda giants Crown Beverages and
ndrew Stewart Tamale, also trick which he uses to balance the ball the latest being digital TV service pro-
known as Andy Skillz, is a 22 year on the bridge of the foot, flick it up to vider GOtv. Tamale has participated in
old freestyle footballer who reigns knee-level, loop the leg round the ball as several national and international tour-
as two time East African free style it falls, and allow it to land back on the naments and received his first award
champion. Freestyle football is a sport in bridge. three years ago as Talented Youth Star
which athletes compete to perform various To him, freestyle football is more of a of the year for two consecutive counts.
tricks using a football. talent which is largely self-taught and He is also a two time champion for East
The game remains a rare and unique grasped out of passion. Africa; a title that he holds to date.
sport although it’s growing worldwide. Tamale is the last born of his parents. In Uganda, Tamale says that the sport
This explains why Tamale is the only He went to Kiwatule Parents School for is less developed and lacks competitions
known Ugandan who plays the juggles primary education. He joined Kyambogo to up the skills and interest more people.
the ball left right and centre. College School where he completed ordi- He, however, has plans of rolling out
Tamale says that the sport involves nary level but the environment couldn’t competitions locally so that more young
doing short performances of about three allow him explore his talent. people can get to know about the sport.
30-second performances or a single “Fellow students and teachers only got Tamale has plans of keeping within the
minute-long performance depending on to know about my skill in the media like sport for the next five years and quit at
the stage of competition and the compe- newspapers and TV,” he says. a time when more young people have
tition’s structure. In other countries, it’s It was during his advanced education taken it up.
played in teams but not in Uganda or at Rise and Shine High School that he
east Africa because it’s very hard since had greater opportunity to explore his
it’s largely self-taught. skill. During advanced level, he started
“Evaluation is based on difficulty, origi-
nality, all round skills, trick execution,
mistakes, and variety,” says Tamale,
“Players are not allowed to touch the
ball with the hands or arms”.
For the last four years, Tamale has been
performing for crowds and has starred in
company advertisements, opening school
games, and entertaining guests at corpo-
rate parties and weddings.
Tamale initially played ordinary
soccer in 11 and seven positions until
he chose to specialise in freestyle. For
him, watching Youtube videos featuring
famous soccer players like Cristiano
Ronaldo, Lionel Messi and Zinedine
Zidane sparked off his love and training
for the game. The videos showcased
players performing tricks that Tamale
never believed would be possible to pull
off but was pushed to replicate. And so
during his primary seven vacation, his
mother Josephine Kirabo (RIP) bought
his first ball and boots. Even when his
father, Prosperous Ssentongo (RIP) never
believed that he would craft a career out
of the game, he still pushed on and has
since never looked back.
“My father wanted me to focus on pur-
suing formal education,” he says,
“I stumbled a lot trying to replicate the
tricks for a long time until I grasped.”
His brother Isaac Mwesigwa who
also doubles as his manager took on
to pushing the passion and prides in

38 Jan. 11 - 17, 2019
Q&A
Andrew Stuart Tamale’s Liteside
Any three things that we don’t know hours a day. I also admire Sean Garnier style championship on two consecutive
about you? has achieved a lot from the sport. counts in 2017 were happy moments for
I am a humble person who likes to me. Signing my first big commercial con-
laugh and joke around often. It’s very What is your greatest extravagance? tract with GOtv was a happy moment.
hard to get me really pissed. I love travelling the world.
Which talent would you most like to
What is your idea of perfect happiness? What is the greatest thing you have ever have?
Every good moment is worth being done? I also do portraits although once in a
happy. Proving to many people who tried while. It’s one talent that I would love to
to pull me down that freestyle football push on alongside freestyle football.
What is your greatest fear? really works. There are several occa-
With God at the centre of my life, He sions when people tried to de-motivate If you could change one thing about your-
holds my fears. me and I kept pursuing my passion and self, what would it be?
here I am as the East African freestyle At least nothing.
What is the trait you most deplore in oth- champion
ers? What do you consider your greatest
Having negative energy and the belief What is your current state of mind? achievement?
that someone can’t make it. I don’t like I am a happy person. I don’t take it for less being East Africa
to associate with such people and those football freestyle champion.
who don’t appreciate other’s efforts. What does being powerful mean to you?
Having a true God at the centre of Where would you most like to live?
Which living person do you most admire? everything and making use of Him in life Uganda is my best destination to live
My brother Isaac Mwesigwa has is being powerful. because it presents several opportunities
everything I would love to have. He has to thrive and become a champion.
achieved a lot at his age and I have learnt On what occasion do you lie?
a lot. I also admire Andrew Henderson I was raised by honest people and cau- What is your most treasured possession?
the world free style champion; he works tioned against telling lies so I don’t tell I treasure the free styling skill.
really hard and trains for about eight lies.
What do you regard as the lowest depth of
What do you most dislike about your ap- misery?
pearance? Going days without food is very low.
I am perfectly made in the image of
God. What is your favorite occupation?
Freestyle football is something new and
Which living person do you most despise? unique in Uganda and I love to promote it.
I don’t focus my energy on hating too
much. What do you most value in your friends?
I have very few friends because I am so
What is the quality you most like in a picky with friends. I value positivity and
woman? value addition in friendship.
God fearing.
Who are your favorite writers?
What is the quality you most like in a I am not a good reader save for the
man? bible.
God fearing.
Which historical figure do you most iden-
What or who is the greatest love of your tify with?
life? I don’t have any as yet.
After the death of my parents, my
brother takes it all. He is one person Who are your heroes in real life?
who started from scratch and has made My brother Isaac Mwesigwa remains
it through. He started working at only my hero.
12 years and I have witnessed him raise
through levels and he remains my inspi- What is your greatest regret?
ration. I have had a chance to learn from Although it was beyond my control,
his mistakes and work to be better than I regret losing my mother before wit-
him. nessing me become a star.

When and where were you happiest? How would you like to die?
My mother was the first person to I don’t think about death now.
believe in my talent so I was very happy
having her around for my first big per- What is your motto?
formance. Winning the East African free- Work in progress.

Jan. 11 - 17, 2019 39
Global comment
By Carl Manlan
Africa’s philanthropic potential
Africans have the financial means to help the African
continent achieve its development objectives

I
t has now been more than three they do, and how they effect change well-resourced SMEs can maneuver to
years since the United Nations in the places where they operate. In take advantage. And when SMEs suc-
General Assembly adopted the other words, donors have little way of ceed, jobs are created, helping more
2030 Agenda for Sustainable knowing whether their money is being people find means of upward mobility.
Development, and the money required well spent. If African philanthropy is The African diaspora, as well as
to meet the Sustainable Development ever to serve as an effective catalyst Africans on the continent with
Goals (SDGs) – the agenda’s key targets of human progress, greater CSO disposable income, can help
– remains elusive. In fact, less than half transparency will be needed. governments achieve the SDGs by
of the $6 trillion in annual financing that Aware of these shortcomings, EPIC- directing resources to organisations that
is needed has even been pledged. Africa has formed a partnership with are best positioned to create African
But while the dearth of global funding the Rockefeller Foundation to create wealth. By strategically pooling their
could be viewed as a tragedy for the the African CSO Excellence Awards, financial resources, Africans could end
Global South, for Africa, it actually a program designed to recognise poverty, eradicate diseases, improve
represents a tremendous opportunity. organisational capacity on issues like health-care systems, and educate the
Foreign aid has long supported strategic ability, leadership, governance, continent’s children. All of this would
Africa’s progress. But Africans are financial health, and project monitoring. help Africa realise its economic potential
increasingly able to invest in their own The ultimate goal is to strengthen – including its potential to fuel global
solutions. By 2025, African household philanthropic infrastructure to make prosperity.
and business spending could hit $5.6 charities more effective and more Since 2015, Africa’s household
trillion, and Deloitte estimates that by accountable. spending growth has averaged 3.5%,
2030, a half-billion Africans will have Finally, Africa’s philanthropic push and by the end of 2019, consumer
disposable income. If every African with should target economic growth. One demand is forecast to add as much as
the means contributed a dollar a month of the best ways to shift Africans’ focus $1.1 trillion to African GDP – further
for a year to pool our own resources, the from poverty reduction to wealth evidence that a growing number of
benefits would be profound. creation is by supporting small and Africans have the financial means to
But before we can even begin to medium-size enterprises – including help the African continent achieve its
dream of legions of homegrown donors, female-run farms. That way, when gov- human-development objectives. What is
the immediate goal must be to create ernments build systems that connect needed now are the tools to adequately
networks and strategies to maximise intra-African trade to global value chains, channel Africans’ new philanthropic
the benefits of African giving. The capacity.
first step is to build philanthropic The international community should
infrastructure – the technological, legal, continue to support progress across
tax, and accountability systems needed Africa, and better resourced countries
to ensure that donations are secure.
While digital financial services have
While digital should fulfill their unmet SDG funding
commitments. But Africans do not
already made fundraising easier, the financial need to wait for the world to come to
scale of online giving in Africa remains the rescue; we have the resources we
small. For example, Africa’s largest services have need right here at home. After so many

already made
online fundraising platform, M-Changa, decades of dependence on foreign
launched in 2012, has collected money funding, it is time that wealth – and
from more than 340,000 donors for some
29,000 projects. China’s Tencent charity fundraising not poverty – dictates how the African
continent develops.
platform, by comparison, solicited 28
million donations in just three days last easier, the Carl Manlan, a 2016 New Voices Fellow
year.
Moreover, Africa’s civil-society
scale of online at the Aspen Institute, is Chief Operating
Officer at the Ecobank Foundation.
organisations (CSOs) must become
more adept at persuading potential
giving in Africa Copyright: Project Syndicate, 2019.
African donors that they are worthy aid remains small. www.project-syndicate.org
recipients. According to EPIC-Africa, a
Dakar-based nonprofit that tracks CSO
effectiveness, there is little credible data
on the number of African CSOs, what

40 Jan. 11 - 17, 2019
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