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Technical University “Gheorghe Asachi”,Iaşi

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Building Services

Chapter 1
Technical Report
The present project includes technical documentation of construction works to achieve
the object “Block of flats UG+GT+6F”. The function requirements of the building consist in a
block for living, which has the structural system a frame structure made of reinforced concrete.
Each reinforced concrete plane frame consists of columns and girders, which are fixed
connected. The columns are square in section and are placed at the all intersection points of the
transverse with longitudinal axes.
The system of the all floors consists in a concrete beam slab system. The arrangement
of the beams within flooring system is a two-way spanning arrangement.
The site is located in the city of Iași, being bounded on three sides by private properties
and on one side by the street.
The height regim is UG+GT+6F, the height of the floors being 2,80 m and the height
profile of the building is 20.5 m.
On each floor, there are eight apartments (two of them with one room and the other six
with two rooms). The basement will be used as a storage space for residents. Also the building
has two staircases, on transversal side, and two elevators.
The placement of the building
According to H.G.T 766/1991, Art. 1, c) the importance catergory of the structure is
„C”.
According to the Seismic Desing Code - Part I - Design Stipulations for buildings,
indicative P100-1/2013, Table 4.2, the importance class of the building is III, having the
importance coeficient γI = 1. In this seismic zone the peak ground accelaration is equal with
0,25 ∙ g , for earthquakes with median time of recurrence IMR=225 years and have the corner
period TC = 0,7 s.
According to norm C107/2005, the construction site is in the climate zone III (with
Ti = 20o C, Te = −18o C).
According to SR EN 1991-1-3(CR1-1-3/2012), the site is located in an area with a
kN
characteristic value of snow load at the ground s0,k = 2,5 , with IMR=50 years.
m2

Because the horizontal loads which come from seismic action are much greater than the
horizontal loads which come from wind loads, the wind action upon the structure is neglected.

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Technical University “Gheorghe Asachi”,Iaşi
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Building Services

The structure

Foundations (Infrastructure)
The foundation system adopted for this structure is network of foundation beams, made
of C20/25 concrete class, reinforced with BST500 structural steel. The foundation depth is 4.25
m. On the contour of the building there are structural walls made of reinforced concrete. The
plate from the base of the basement is also made of reinfored concrete.
The Superstructure
The structure of the building is realized from reinforced cocrete columns and girders (
frames) on both directions and reinforced concrete slabs:
 the reinforced concrete frames have the columns with a rectangular cross-
section of 60x60 cm
 the girders have the cross-section of 25x45 cm, on longitudinal direction,
respectively 25x55 cm, on transverse direction
 the slab has the height equal to 13 cm
The structural walls are made from ceramic bricks with vertical holes. The partitioning
walls and closures will be built using masonry bricks and gypsum boards:
 30 cm for exterior walls, made of ceramic bricks
 25 cm for inner walls, made also of ceramic brick
 12,5 cm for partitioning walls made of gypsum boards
The roof is a terrace roof, with no access for circulation. On the perimeter of building
an attic, with a height of 90 cm is made of ceramic bricks ( 30 cm in width), having the
role to lead the water (from rain) to the drains.
Utilities
The site area has the conditions to ensure the following utilities:
 Auto and pedestrian access will be made from existing streets
 Power supply will be done by connecting at the existing electrical grid, with the
electricity supplier accord
 The building will be connected to water networks and sewage existent area
 Heating of the building will be done individually for each apartment through
central heating running on gas fuel
Envirenmental proctection
During construction on site it will not be used products which have a bad influence upon
the environment. Resulting waste will be disposed according to a contract with one of the
sanitation companies.
Temporary storage of waste and construction materials shall be made in such a way to
avoid soil infestation, but also to avoid blocking of the access paths.

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Technical University “Gheorghe Asachi”,Iaşi
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Building Services

Household waste will be collected in waste cans placed on a platform and periodically
picked up by a specialized unit, under contract with the local city hall.
Durability and material properies
Durability
Indicative strength class for durability Annex E from Eurocode 2, Table E.1N gives the
indicative strength class of concrete based on the exposure class.
The exposure class is XC1, so, it results that the indicative strength class of concrete is
c20/25.The concrete cover is the distance between the surface of the resistance reinforcement
closet to the concrete surface and the nearest concrete surface.
For the same exposure conditions, the concrete cover can be different and depends on
the concrete member.
The nominal cover shall be specified on the drawings. The nominal concrete cover is
given by :
cnom = cmin + Δcdev
cmin,b
cmin = max {cmin,dur + ∆cdur
10 mm

Where:
 cmin − minimum concrete cover
 Δcdev − allowance in desing for deviation
 cmin,b − minimum cover due to bond requirement
 cmin,dur − minimum cover dure to environmental
 ∆cdur = 0, depends on additive safety element and reduction of minimuim cover
for use of stainless steel, reduction of mionimum cover for use of additinal
protection
For this concrete structure Δcdev = 5 mm and
15 mm − slab
20 mm − girder
cmin,b ={
25 mm − column
30 mm − foundation

concrete member cmin [mm] ΔCdev [mm] cnom [mm]


slab 15 5 20
girder 20 5 25
column 25 5 30
foundation 30 5 35
Table 1.1 Working table to calculate the nominal cover
for each structural member

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Technical University “Gheorghe Asachi”,Iaşi
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Building Services

Material properties

Characteristics strength
In Table 3.1 from EC-2 the strength characteristics of concrete are given:
Characteristics Symbol Value -
Characteristic compressive cylinder strength of concrete fck 20 MPa
Mean value of concrete cylinder compressive strength fcm 28 MPa
Mean value of axial tensile strength of concrete fctm 2,2 MPa
Characteristic axial tensile strength with fractile of 0,05 fctk,0,05 1,5 MPa
Elasticity modulus Ecm 30 GPa
Table 1.2 Working table containing strength characteristics of concrete strength class, which
are considered in designing of this structure
Design strength of concrete
 design compressive strength
fck
fcd = αcc ∙
γc
Where:
 αcc − coefficient taking account of long term effects on the compressive
strength and of unfavorable effects from the way the load is applied, equal to 1
 γc − partial safety factor of concrete, equal to 1,5
20
fcd = 1 ∙ 1,5 = 13,133 MPa

 design tensile strength


fctk,005
fctd = αct ∙
γc
Where:
 αct − coefficient taking account of long term effects on tensile strength and of
unfavorable effects resulting the way the load is applied, equal to 1
1,5
fctd = 1 ∙ 1,5 = 1 MPa

Reinforcing steel
The reinforcing steel should fulfill the strength and ductility requirements specified in
Annex C of EC-2.
The involved reinforcing steel at the design of the building is BST500 of C class of
ductility.

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Technical University “Gheorghe Asachi”,Iaşi
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Building Services

Reinforcing steel characteristics Symbol Value -


Characteristic yield strength fyk 500 MPa
Tensile strength ft 620 MPa
Ductility class - C -
Ductility ratio k 1,24 -
Elasticity modulus Es 200000 MPa
Table 1.3 Working table with strength characteristics of BST500 reinforcing steel
Design strength of the reinforcing steel
 design yield strength
fyk
fyd =
γs
Where:
 γs − partial safety factor for steel, equal to 1,15
500
fyd = 1,15 = 434,783 MPa