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**L. Holdsworth, X.G. Wu, J.B. Ekanayake and N. Jenkins
**

Abstract: The dynamic modelling of large (MW) capacity fixed and variable speed induction generator wind turbines is discussed. A reduced order dynamic machine model is derived suitable for modelling both k e d speed and douhly-fed asynchronous generator wind turbines, Control schemes for variable speed turbines. using doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG), are described and simulated. Speed control characteristics and converter protection of the DFIG are implemented in the model. The operation of the models during power system disturbances such as network voltage sags and three-phase faults, as well as the possibility of network voltage instability, are investigated. Simulation results are presented using typical turbine and network data for wind farm installations.

1 stator and rotor voltage stator, rotor and generated current generated active and reactive power power factor capacitor and transformer reactance generator, point of common coupling, infinite bushars stator, rotor machine resistance synchronous, base and rotor angular frequency flux linkage mutual inductance stator and rotor leakage inductance stator and rotor self-inductance rotor slip transient or short circuit reactance and open circuit reactance voltage behind transient reactance d-q components transient open circuit time constant inertia constant mechanical, electromagnetic, set point torque optimal power, torque and wind turbine constant stator and rotor active and reactive Dowers grid side, magnetising (no-load) and generated reactive power superscript indicates a per unit quantity

Introduction

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Throughout Europe, plans exist for a considerable increase in power generation from land and offshore wind farms. In the UK alone the Crown Estate has announced IS potential sites offshore, which are each likely to he some 60MW capacity using 2MW induction generator-based wind turbines. Elsewhere in Europe, offshore wind farms of up to IOOOMW capacity are being planned. Initial investigations have shown the importance of electrical stability of both the turbines and the network voltage with the continued increase of the ratio of wind farm generation capacity to the network short circuit level [I, 21. Therefore, suitable models and investigations of dynamic stability of wind farms with the power system are required. The majority of existing land-based UK wind turbines use fixed speed induction generators (FSIG). Investigations with fixed speed turbines have shown that depressed voltage, resulting from short circuits in ]he connecting networks, can lead to generator overspeed if the network short circuit level to generating capacity ratio is too low [3, 41. The induction generators may then depress the voltage further, causing instability due to high levels of reactive power being absorbed. Recently, various papers have presented variable speed wind turbine technologies and models, particularly the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) [>IO]. In this paper the performance of the FSIG and DFIG wind turbines during power system disturbances is studied. A reduced order dynamic asynchronous generator model is derived and control strategies are modelled for the DFIG wind turbine with simulations illustrating its operation. Application studies are performed to observe the perfomiance of the FSIG and DFIG wind turbines during voltage sags and faults on the network.

System configuration of induction generator 2 based wind turbines

I€€. 2003

IEE Proceeding.? online no. 20030251

doi:10.1049/ipgrd2W30?5 I Wper first rffnved 15th A p d 2W2 and in revixd form 19th December 2W2 L. Holdswonh is with the The Milnchester Centre for Electtical Encrby (MCEEI. UMIST. UK X.C. Wu and N.Jenkins are with the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research and MCEE. UMIST. UK J.B. Ekanayake is with the Dept. ofElcc1tic;d and Electronic Eng., University of Perddmiya. S i Lanka

IEE Proc-Gmm Trmsrn D l l t d . . Vol. 1.0, A'". 3, Mqv ZWi

As this paper addresses the electrical interaction of the wind turbine generator to the connecting network, the mechanical components of the system are not modelled in detail. The inertia constant for the dynarmc models is a lumped mass representation of the turbine, gearbox and the

343

is used for the DFIG based wind turbine.oltage and vd. 150. The stator currents are positive when flowing towards the network and real power and reactive power are positive when fed into the grid. For the control strategy modelled in The general procedure followed to create the electrical model was similar for both the FSIG and the DFIG. 3 Model implementation 3. this paper. power can be delivered to the grid through the stator. Multi-mass mechanical models of the wind turbine shaft and gearbox are presented in [9. and the rotor. is equal to zero. T r m m . as shown in Figs. is the power delivered by the stator. If the DFIG runs at a sub-synchronous speed. Papers have presented converter C2 as a shun-connected reactive power compensator. The equations were then transformed into a direct (4 and quadrature (4) axis reference frame with axes rotating at synchronous speed (ws = 2n. ? Fig.1 Fixed speed induction generator (FSIG) wind turbine Ths wind turbine uses a squirrel cage induction generator that is coupled to the power system through a connecting transformer. x i . 1. the rotor absotbs power and a fraction of the stator power enters the rotor circuits. 3. the DFIG is connected to the power system through a local transformer. . is to use converter C1 to provide speed control together with terminal voltage and power factor (PF) control for the overall system. is the power to the rotor. + 5i* (2) I Rotor voltages: = R . implemented by a number of manufacturers. converter C2 is used to maintain the DC bus voltage and provide a path for rotor power to and from the AC system at a unity power factor. x i* d = E. As the stator voltage of most wind turbine electrical generators is 690 V. The converter system enables variable speed operation of the wind turbine by decoupling the power system electrical frequency and the rotor mechanical frequency. 2. this transformer is essential for connection to the distribution network and should be considered when modelling the electrical interaction with the power system. As with the FSIG. which is also used to charge the interconnecting DC bus [6. 1 and 2. and modelled in this paper. In contrast.asx vqs = -R. W. The rotor winding is fed through a back-to-back variable frequency power converter. When deriving the model. x Th + i. the fourth-order model was simplified to a second-order model.1 Development of the asynchronous machine model xpFc T Fig..1 x s . By substitution of the flux linkage equations to eliminate the rotor currents. if the DFIG runs at super-synchronous speeds. 9-12]. One control scheme. i + O.2 Doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine An induction generator.. These are typically rated at around 30% of the wind farm capacity and are used to compensate the induction machine magnetising current. 1 Bmi<:configuration ofFS1G wind turbine 2. vq.? I d $ + $iqS x 2. As the model is primarily to be used for wind turbine applications. +$Id + s x 0.x A+ + &Xc ~ (3) ~ - The flux linkages in these equations were calculated from: Zdr = -i. with a wound rotor using slip rings to take current into or out of the rotating secondary winding.3 x I xi.L. No.fr) using standard transformations [1>14]. The system is typically two AC/DC IGBT based voltage source converters (VSC).generator rotor. while the rotor can also absorb power. x Id .X Tu. the q-axis was assumed to be 90" ahead of the d-axis in the direction of rotation and the d-axis was chosen such that it coincides with the maximum of the stator flux [7-91. x Zqr . the rotor produces power and power is delivered to the grid via the stator and rotor circuits [9]. 2. DkIrib. x - ~ = L. 1 I]. Therefore. equals the terminal-v. 2 &sic mnfqurufion of DFIG 344 ii td turblne (41 For representation of the induction machine in power system stability studies. Using the defined reference frame. Dependent upon the rotational speed of the DFIG. The equations describing an asynchronous machine in terms of phase variables were derived to develop the model with all rotor variables referred to the stator. a relationship for the stator IEE Proc-Gener. a generator convention was implemented. linked by a DC bus. A typical configuration of a FSIGbased wind turbine is shown schematically in Fig. permitting representation of only fundamental frequency components. Mop 2W3 . The machine and converters are protected by voltage limits and an overcurrent 'crowbar'. P. Pg is the total power generated and delivered to the grid. x . Induction machines consume reactive power and so it is conventional to provide power factor correction capacitors at each wind turbine. Vol. A typical configuration of a DFIGbased wind turbine is shown schematically in Fig. In the model the generated active power was calculated by: where P. the following per unit fourth-order asynchronous model was derived Stator voltages: em = -R x Idr . This corresponds to ignoring the DC component in the stator transient current.

2.second-order equiwlent circuit model IEE Pruc. points for each wind speed is illustrated in Fig.. The dq decoupled control procedure described in [IS] was implemented in the model to decouple the rotor current components. 3. The reduced order model transient reactances were defined as: .. shown in Fig.-Giner. ed = ~ -_ w. as in a practical implementation a voltage potential difference is created via the slip rings.L.< 3. This decouples converter C2 from Cl. is proportional to the wind speed U. this can be represented by an injected rotor voltiige. - - x = w. can be used to represent this [14].) will be wro.L. Therefore.+ x. the equations should be multiplied through by the base angular frequency. and the corresponding generator torque with U* and wf [16]. the time in seconds. Dimib.+ being used for the terminal voltage and power Factor control. x i . 180.. This is not the case for the DFIG (wound rotor). with U. The speed.. as: where the components of the voltage behind the transient reactance were defined as: = -id. the power increases with d and w:.= x. the rotor windings are shortcircuited and therefore the rotor voltages (Gqr and Ed. u>horp = 2rr f&. W. (5) and (6) represent a general secondorder asynchronous machine model where the short- (13) Fig. x i g uqs = -R.4 Maximum power ertruction cuntrd struteqy cume 345 .. The transient open-circuit time constant was defined as: The rotor speed was controlled by uqr. and e. The optimal characteristic for the model can be defined for optimal torque by [IO]: Top = %pw? Equation (5) and (6) provide a second order model suitable for the FSlG or DFIG.2 Development of DFIG converters and control scheme model For the model. circuited rotor is a special case. L. If the control strategy is applied to maintain Po. No. 3.L. The stator and rotor voltages were derived in the following per unit form: -~ vdr = -R.1 Modelled power extraction/speed control strategy: A typical wind turbine characteristic with the optimal power extractionspeed curve plotted to intersect the C. To obtain the complete dynamic model of the induction generator. output variables of the simulated model are required in rea! time. 3 Asynchronour machine .. that is.. (7) L. A voltage source injecting the required rotor voltage was implemented to represent the operation ofconverter C1 in the model. it was assumed that the converters are ideal and that the DC link voltage between the converters is constant. it is important to notice that the time derivative in (6) is a per unit quantity... Vol. For modelling purposes. 4. If the. (5) and (6) were combined with the rotor swing equation [14]: + 2'x Tqs + ed -X' x & + eq (5) 3. For a FSIG (squirrel cage). The second-order voltage behind a transient reactance asynchronous machine model equivalent circuit.and rotor voltages in terms of a voltage behind a transient reactance was obtained. when simulating the electrical model and observing the voltages and currents within the machine. the since rotor speed w. May 2003 generator speed Fig. The per unit rotor voltage components for the control model were expressed by substitution of the rotor fluxes in current component form into (3). Tranm. terminal voltage and power factor control of the DFIG model was implemented through converter Cl.

the control objective follows &E. This is between points B and C. Maintaining the reference frame = 1K. 5.~/W.May 2W3 . was defined as the total per unit reactive power absorbed by the machine at the stator terminals. which was applied for the controller model. $ following relationship was obtained between the total grid side reactive power and the rotor current &: ~ Qs= Qg"d ~- = U.i7 U* X T . and considering the total grid (stator) side reactive power given by: (16) Hence. Comparing the reference variable to the actual machine current. 150.. To determine the required rotor voltage. Owing to power converter ratings.acteristic/or turbine control s t m r r g ~ 3. = 0 and where 1 Vsl is the magnitude of the terminal voltage. which after some manipulation was imposed upon the DFIG rotor. Tm" I€€ P m . an error signal 346 The rotor current component Tb was subdivided into a generator magnetising component and a component for controlling reactive power flow (or terminal voltage) with the connecting network idr4. [I: v.. Dislrib. This control methodology is known as current-mode control [8]. 6. &. at essentially constant speed. for the machine model. as shown in Fig. Considering (16) with Udr assumed to he zero. therefore uyr = asx lb. cut-in Speed os generator speed Shutdown speed Fig.~. The total reactive power and Equation (17) was then was also divided into em<. the torque/speed CUNC was characterised by (13). a standard PI controller and the summation of the direct rotor current compensation term.2 Electromagnetic torque/speed control scheme: The torque-speed characteristic (Fig. This control scheme is shown in Fig. was calculated from (4) with &=O. as > = 0. Pitch regulation was not included in the developed model. then U = 1 and the " . The speed control scheme operates by modifying the electromechanical torque of the generator to respond to variations in the rotor speed. Qgrj. is shown in Fig.. The actual machine current. as shown in (15)... 7 Speed control sclwe: secondury stage Fig.. Rotational speed is also limited by aerodynamic noise constraint [16]. For very high wind speeds. the per unit electromagnetic torque was derived as 3. Vu/. The controller was developed by maintaining the reference frame with the stator resistance neglected. the pitch control will regulate input power until the wind speed shutdown limit is reached. Hence. pitch regulation takes over from the torque control to limit aerodynamic input power.. where the electromagnetic torque is constant. at which point the controller allows the torque to increase. the maximum possible energy is obtained from the turbine.2. with i. Given a rotor speed measurement.m. 5) was used as a dynamic reference for generator torque demand as a function or measured generator speed. Also.2.3 Terminal voltage and power factor (PFI control scheme: For the developed controller model. derived from (1 I). the torque-speed characteristic was used to obtain a reference torque T. during low-medium wind speeds. I WJ Fig.G " . Igr = (15) Although iqr imposes the effect of torque control. Within this operating range.. & was obtained from (4). for very low wind speeds the model operates at almost constant rotational speed (A-B).1 The primary stage of the speed control scheme was developed using (14) to calculate a reference value of iq. e. Therefore. When the system reaches point E. was implemented.. it is not practicable to maintain optimum power extraction from cut-in up to the rated speed. 7.$ X ?. a strategy of terminal voltage and PF control using converter Cl was also applied. the converter CI is a controlled rotor voltage source. 5 Torque-speed cliur. 6 Speed control scheme: primury stuge required for controllin& the speed of the machine was obtained. . If the wind speed further increases to exceed the turbine torque rating. The stator voltage Uqq was obtained from (2) with the stator resistance and the stator transients neglected. until rated torque (C-D). a secondary stage of the speed controller was implemented using the current error resulting from the reference torque T. h b 3.. For optimal power extraction.The complete generator torque-speed characteristic..

3 Protection of the DFlG system Faults in the power system. with the control variables smoothly approaching the optimal values.*. I50 ~VO. machine and speed control parameters given in the Appendix Section 8.0s) in mechanical applied torque.e.1 1. 8 Terminal tioltuye und PF control scheme: prirnury stage The secondary stage of the controller was again constructed using the primary stage reference current but now compared to the direct component of measured rotor current. A voltage limit of 750 V_on the AC side of converter Cl. as shown in Fig. s 70 80 90 100 Fig.providing an error control signal to an integral controller. As with the speed control model.. If the terminal voltage is too low or too high.=O. This control scheme is shown in Fig.0 E I b e 0. between points A-B and C-D). 10 Rotor speed dwunrir conrrol. was obtained by the summation of the required control variables. May 2073 10 20 30 40 50 60 lime. I K. To represent the operation of the crowbar the model deactivates the converters upon the detection of rotor current magnitude above the current protection limit.expressed in the following form: To compensate for the no-load reactive power absorbed by the machine. To obtain this.-Gpnrr: Trmsrn. . 9.m.= 0 . 2. DMnb. Delivering more. the terminal voltage.variabk represents the no-load magnetising current and the required component for controlling reactive power flow (or terminal voltage). machine or converter devices may result in high voltages or currents that damage the IEE Proc. or decrease.. the machine rotor current was controlled by the injection of a rotor voltage. operuling in region E C 347 . The limits set depend on the MW capacity of the machine and the rating of the converters. when compared to a required + should be adjusted appropriately. The dynamic performance of the DFIG system was modelled by applying mechanical torque to the generator rotor. representative of step changes in wind velocity. The control strategy presented in Section 3.8 0.8pu at 1=60. was controlled to equal: &. 8. The actual machine direct axis rotor current was calculated from (20). The converter is protected against over-current on the rotor circuits by a ‘crowbar’. 7+fl &.. 9 TemTinal oulluge and PF control scheme: secondary sroge sub-sychronousoperation 0 3. A rotor current limit of = 1 . Results are in per unit with the base values. The required rotor voltage was obtained from a PI controller and the summation of the quadrature rotor current compensation term. The controller model of the DFlG system included rotor voltage and current limits. or less. 7*w.7 idi Fig. Suitable protection is therefore provided in wind turbine systems to minimise the effects of possible abnormal operating conditions. The operation of the system in the optimal power extraction region (EC) was modelled for a step decrease (T. was investigated by applying load torque’s 1.3. The rotor speed and controlled rotor voltages are given in Figs. the machine terminal bus was modelled as an infinite source busbar.. Vol. derived from (12). The steady-state optimal operating point for rotor speed and power extraction was obtained satisfiictorily by the model.2 was applied for the model. equipment. For observation of the doubly-fed system control. reactive power to the grid will increase. 4.. was implemented in the model. This illustrates that the large lumped turbine.1 Simulation of DFIG control A 4-pole 2 M W doubly-fed induction wind turbine and control model was simulated. the wound rotor was short-circuited.0s) and increase (T. 3 ~ ~ at f = 2. IO and 11. the value of Tdr. This models the speed control for sub-synchronous and super-synchronous operation. must equate to zero.1 = 0 p 4 Simulation results + Fig. reference value then ? The primary stage of the terminal voltage and PF control scheme was developed such that a reference value.3 1.2 1 2 U 1. and compared to the previous value of ?+. shaft and generator rotor inertia dominates the dynamic control performance of the DFIG in current mode speed control. The 7d. The operation of the system around the cut-in speed and beyond the speed limit of the generator (i. ~ By deactivating the converters. 5 ~was implemented in the model.9 0. as shown in Fig.

2 1. May ZW3 .Opu at t=60. was investigated by the application = 0. This provides a PF operation of unity as illustrated by the zero reactive power absorbed by the system.. 12 Rotor speed operutiq up lo control model ..2 Operation of protection circuits The operation of rotor side converter voltage limit. As the rotor speed approaches its upper limit. 3.0.10 1 -0.Opu).speed h i i s Fig. as shown in Fig. and so the operation of the converter protection voltage limits could be seen. the model was simulated to a steady state operating point.. s 60 70 EO 90 100 Fig. s 60 70 100 Fig.0s the PF control was activated and id was controlled to provide both the magnetisation current (no-load reactive power) and leakage current (reactive power absorbed due to generation). 13 Rotor vo/roge. s 70 EO 90 100 -04' 0 f d-axis m o r voltage q-axis rotor voltage " " " 10 20 30 40 50 EO ' " 70 80 90 100 ' time.. The rotor voltages for this simulation. 0 s and T. 16. operating in region B-C Fig.3 30 20 40 50 EO lime.Opu.. given in Fig.o I -0. 5 Fig.2 0 10 20 30 40 50 time.e. Also. Fig. 150. No.= l. due to the modelled torque/speed control characteristic. 13. illustrates the full range of the speed control. 14. given in Fig.1 pu at f = 2. 11 Conrrulled m o r wlruge. This can be observed in Fig.=l. The PF control operation of the model was observed from the rotor currents and the reactive power at the machine terminals.0s.4 of T. s EO ' 70 EO ' ' 90 J 100 01 0 ' 10 " " " ' EO ' 90 8 20 30 40 50 time. The electromagnetic torque. 2 ~ ~ .= I. Vol.soperating up to control modd speed limrts rotor speed limit (1800 revimin) 0. At / = 30. DrFrrih. at super-synchronous speeds above the speed limit. ~ G e n e r Tromrn.2pu at / = 2 . 15 Sprem a c r m power output 4.5 0 10 ' 20 ' 30 ' ' 40 50 time. T.=0.0 s). 348 total active power 1. 14 Elecrromugneric torque conrrol 1. the control system enables the rated value of power to be extracted through the stator (i. The of a very low wind speed controller was modified to allow the speed control to operate up to the imposed rotor voltage limits. the operation of the overcurrent 'crowbar' (rn IEE P r o . whilst limiting the speed of operation and hence the power generated through the rotor circuits.3.15 0. described in Section 3. IS where the total active power increases with stator active power but the active power generated through the rotor circuits.25 0 10 -0. 12 shows the rotor speed controlled to operate beyond the limits of the optimum characteristic. respectively.. is maintained constant at a maximum of 0 . are still within their operating limits. With the PF control disabled and an applied mechanical torque of T.

0 s).5MVA with a leakage reactance of 5. 14 f 1. 16 Reactiw power and rotor current & ) . the operation of the wind turbine is satisfactory. Fig.7 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 time. Figs. the stability of the DFIG wind turbine was investigated. 19.. respectively.9 0. upon the stability of fixed speed asynchronous generator wind turbines [2].0 s. such as the short circuit level (SCL) and the X/R ratio. 150.1 1. However. with PF control time. the rotor speed starts to increase resultint from the reduced terminal voltage.8 0.2 0. short circuit levels (SCL) of 40MVA and I6MVA were modelled. similar to a fixed speed machine during three-phase terminal faults [2].0s and then reducing the terminal voltage to I Vsl = 0 pu at t = 40. The crowbar protection in the model. 18 Voltage limits and crowbar operutiun on rotor vo1taye. which deactivates the rotor side converter and short-circuits the rotor windings.4 30. The developed asynchronous machine model for the FSIG and DFIG was used for a 2MW wind turbine with the parameters of the Appendix Section 8. Maintaining the power system model parameters for a weak network connection. 17 Voltage limits and crowbar uperation on rutor speed 5 Comparison of FSIG and DFIG during power system disturbances Previous investigations have shown the effect of network parameters. The connection transformer was rated at 2. With a significant voltage drop at the machine terminals. 17 and 18. connected to the point of common coupling (PCC) busbar of the power system model.3 30. As the speed control-has been disabled. May 2W3 turbances. were represented as shown in Fig.8 pu at I = 25. a two-bus double circuit power system was modelled. during the network fault. DLrIrB. The fixed speed and doubly-fed induction wind turbines. a three-phase fault was applied. The controlled rotor speed and rotor voltages. With converter C1 modelled to control speed and PF operation. Network parameters representing turbine connection to a strong distribution network were used (40MVA at B. An infinite source busbar was used to represent a very large power system. 349 . to model a three-phase fault. Mechanical rotor overspeed limits are not included in the developed model..).0 s for t = I50 ms. the busbar voltage fails to recover. can be fully observed after I = 40. A fixed speed induction wind turbine was simulated with a three-phase balanced fault ( I = 40. The simulated DFIG rotor speed and network voltage at the PCC busbar are given in Fig.8 29.r protection was investigated by applying a mechanical torque of T.d.0 g a 2 2 0. An X/R ratio of 5 was selected to represent a distribution network. No. The performance of the asynchronous generator wind turbines during large duration network voltage sags on the power system was also modelled For these investigations. 21. 20 shows that. as the rotor voltages now equal zero.. Network parameters representing wind turbines connected to strong and weak power systems were used for the power system model. Vol. For normal system conditions. s Fig.0 30.1 I I d-axis rotor voltage \ I 29.05 04 ~ 03 - crowbar protection 0. post-fault. the reactive power absorbed by the induction generator increases. All simulations were conducted with the generators operating at rated output power. post-fault. In a real wind turbine the rotor speed would be restricted by rotor overspeed limits. as shown in Fig. the generator and the network maintain stability after the terminal voltage variations.2 1.1 30. with a clearance time of 150ms.To observe the response of the FSIG and DFIG wind turbines to power system disIEE Pror-Gmer T r m .. The PF correction capacitor used for the FSIG model was rated at 30% of the wind turbine MW capacity.2 time ( 5 ) 30. = 0. show the DFIG protection in operation.9 30. at point A on the power system. 22. The results indicate the potential stability improvements with the DFIG system connected to a weak power compared to the FSIG. s Fig. The stability of the turbine generator connected to a weak power system was investigated by reducing to 16MVA.5 Fig. the rotor continues to overspeed and. At the point of connection (B.3 a 2 1. due to the rotor being accelerated by the prime mover.9%. 3.

For 350 a FSIG connected to a weak power system.0 40.5 43.5 41.0 42. s 42.020 1 . voltage sags at the terminal busbar may result in voltage instability. The steady-state modelling of the FSIG discussed in [2] shows the effect of the voltage variation on the torque-slip characteristic.0 1.0 41. Trumrvn Dntrih. The response of the DFIG model (given in Fig.6pu for S00ms at 1=40.0 42.5 43.0 5 1.0 41. the rotor speed will increase.2~). In contrast. 40.0 40.5 42.15 40. 41.0 42. provided by the PFC capacitors in FSIG wind turbines. Muy 2oU3 .5 40.. 1.5 43. If the applied generating torque is maintained.point of connection infinitebusbar point 01 connection infinite busbar Fig.5 40. as shown in Fig.0 42.5 1.5 time.5 41.0 41.5 43.90 39. 0 b 1.195 39.5 1.6 39. No.5 42.92 8 0.015 .0 Fig. 40.5 40. This is provided that IEE Proc-Getter. 24) shows that implementing the voltage controller can result in maintaining the PCC busbar voltage througbout the voltage sag.5 43.0 !1.0 0.0s.5 time.strong Fig. thereby offering possible stability improvements. throughout the reduced voltage. Preliminary investigations of the steady-state stability margins of the DFIG have shown that P F and speed control can assist in maintaining stability during power system disturbances [17]. 20 network Network fault sruhility of FSIG connected to . 23.00 39. . the DFIG reduces terminal voltage variations during power system disturbances by implementing a PF control strategy independent of the terminal voltage.010 1.5 43.5 s 42.0 40. 22 itetwork Nrtwrk fiiulr stability o DFIG connected f IO w e k I 39.5 42. This may lead to machine instability when the terminal voltage and the pull-out torque recovers if the rotor has accelerated past the peak torque.5 41.5 41.5 40.005 39.5 t-+ n .5 41.0 41.96 0. 3. 19 Connection o f FSIG and DFIG iurbinw IO douhle circuit power sptem tmdel $ 0.0 41.0 1". Vol. A reduction in terminal voltage results in a reduced peak pull-out torque.05 1. The terminal voltage support. The DFIG converter C1 was modelled to include the voltage control facility as presented in Section 3.210 ' 40. 21 Network nefin~~rk fuulr stability o FSIG connected to f weuk the infinite bus voltage was reduced to 0. is reduced with the square of the voltage.0 42. .0151 " 1. s 42.0 42.20 r 1.0 40.0 . 150.0 Fig.0 41.

0 41.. the converter's voltage and current ratings.5 41.5 41. No. together with the size of the DC capacitor.I5 s the DC capacitor is large enough to hold its voltage and converter C2 continues to operate correctly.0 40.5 t n 0. the crowbar protection overcurrent limit was set for a transient rating of 300% of the normal rated rotor current.0 40. Modelling of the DFIG converters (Cl and C2) was discussed and a dq decoupled control procedure was implemented in the model. short-circuited or injected voltage).5 0.0 time. Simulations of the DFIG wind turbine model have shown that improvements in turbine and network stability can be obtained. together with a single rotor equivalent circuit..5 40. for an optimal power extraction scheme.e. are critical to ensure good performance during power system disturbances.5 43. 26 DFIG srami cunw11 during remore fizulr ut I = 40.2 40. However.0 4.5 0.n DLwih. s ' ~ 40. for a power system disturbance on a weak power system. 24 Revpiinre o DFIG to uoltage suqs when connected to weuk f nelwork Fig.15~ 1.0 42. s Fig. The quadrature component of injected rotor voltage 351 . Maintaining the peak torque reduces the risk of instability as the rotor accelerates but does not go beyond the pull-out torque.9 40. A generalised per unit machine model was derived for the FSIG and DFIG wind turbines. s Fig.0 41.15 1 5.4 1 39.5 0 t 1 1 " " " " time. as well as cut-in and speed limits for the generator rotor.9 40.0 42.1 40.0 39.sug. May 2lN3 6 Conclusions The modelling and control strategies of fixed speed and doubly-fed asynchronous generator wind turbines have been described and their performance compared during power system disturbances.5 43. and modelled.2 40.5 40.80 39. 150. The control was implemented using a voltage source representation of converter CI to provide rotor voltage dq components.0 40. 26 shows the stator current if the machine and network voltage stability is to be improved by the DFlG crowbar set at a high value.1 40. IEE Proc-Gener Tranr. The main assumptions were neglect of stator transients and saturation effects.6 40. Controlling7.0-40. respectively.8 39. differing only by the representation of rotor voltage (i.5 42. Figs.5 42.7 40. To investigate the current ratings required. it will become necessary to maintain connection of the wind turbines throughout power system disturbances. Vol. A full speed control strategy was described.5 40.7 1.8 39.7 40.5 L1 0.4 40. 25 FSIG mmnt dwing remorefiult UI t=40.4 40.0 40. 25 and 26 show the stator currents of the FSIG and DFIG. A typical industrial control scheme applied through the converters of the DFIG model was described.040. 3.o 3'0 0.s nhen connecred I O weak network Fig.1 . Fig.3 40. to limit the rotor speed in the DFIG model also assists in post-fault stability as the rotor acceleration during the network fault is reduced compared to the FSIG.8 lime.8 a ai 0 ' Y CI 0.3 40.9 I 0.. s 39.8 time. compared to the FSIG during network three-phase faults. Both fixed speed (squirrel cage) and doubly-fed (wound rotor) machine constructions are represented by one set of equations.6 P 0.85 0.0 4. As the generating capacity of wind farms increases. 23 Revponse oJFSIG ro mlluge .5 0.6 40. The electrical machine model was reduced to second order for use in dynamic simulation tools capable of analysing very large power systems.90 t 0.

X. AKHMATOV.K.. N. pp. A. G. and POULSEN. Operation of the modelled voltage and current (crowbar) protection was shown by simulation results in response to low wind speed and three-phase terminal Faults tripping the overcurrent protection.09241 pu Rotor reactance (&): 0. with either a three-phase fault or voltage sag. Kn=32. The DFIG converter system overvoltage and overcurrent protection was discussed and modelled in the form of rotor voltage and rotor current limits.1 Model base values Vhye 690 V.56. A two-bus double circuit power system was used to investigate the effect of three-phase faults and voltage sags on the stability of the turbine generator and network bus voltages. Gener T r m m ..: 'Impact of embedded generation on distibution system voltage stability'.): . IEE Pror C. the model assumes an ideal voltage source for converter CI.: 'A dynamic stability limit of gidconnected induction eeneriltom'.: 'Dynamic and steady-state modelling of the doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM) for wind turbine applications'.n Power and energy systems. KNUDSEN. E. (4). (3). PEDERSEN..H. P.05.: 'Vector analysis and control of advanced static VAR compensators'.5. KPpt0. which provides continuous PF and speed control during terminal voltage variations. H. D... 0 0 5 4 9 ~ ~ 0 Stator reactance (Xis):0.. New York. However. Controlling the terminal voltage at wind farm installations may improve the steady-state stability limit of the network and increase the wind farm capacity that can be connected. 7 1 New York. Improved stability margins using DFIG wind turbines may prove invahabk if the continued operation of wind farms through abnormal power system conditions is required. and BOSSANYI.2 ZMW induction wind turbine model parameters Stator resistance (RJ: 0. SHARPE. In a practical DFIG system the converter voltage and current ratings together with the size of the DC link capacitor are all critical to ensure good performance during network disturbances.00488 pu Rotor resistance (R.: 'Soft-stall control for vanable-speed stall regulated wind turbine'. J Wind fig.. N. S h e= 2 MW. V." on AC-DC power transmission. NIELSEN. To replace the fixed capacitor. = 50 HZ = 8. Dirlrih. N. 1986) ' KUNDUR. ? Y M 0 6 BURTON. Simulation results of the normal operation of the complete DFIG model illustrate the control of the wind turbine in low.. (McCraw-Hill Inc. The operation of 2 MW FSlG and DFIG wind turbines was compared for power system disturbances with strong and weak network connections. Kp3=5. "be simulations illustrate that the speed and power factor control modelled within the DFIG system assists in improving stability when the turbine rating to power system short circuit ratio is low. Observing the FSlG model connected to a weak power system.. h d Aemfymmies.. L. w h e = 2~fhe. ?WO.5s References JENKINS. and MEHTA. 1994) SCHAUDER. lntemal repon for Manchester Centre of Electncal Energy (MCEE) at UMIST. E.. 191h-22nd Septemkr 2M0. the limitations of fixed capacitor power factor correction and uncontrolled acceleration of the generator rotor upon the machine and network voltage stability were identified. Presented at the IASTED Intemational Conference . pp. London 8.3 Control model parameters Cut-in speed = IOOOrev/min. and WU. H. JENKINS. 1993.K. Presented at the IEE lntemational &Terence 3 Xth-lMh Nnv~mluri ?MI _. shutdown speed = 2000 rev/min. S p i n ". PIERCE.. K.: 'Power system stability and control. . 277-291 8 Appendix 8. K ~= 0.. C. (John Wiley.. speed limit= 1800rpm. Simulation of the DFIG model voltage control technique illustrates the improvements in network busbar voltage profiles. medium and high wind speeds. = L &= 10. T..: 'Wind energy handbook'. 140. 9 5 2 7 9 ~ ~ Lumped inertia constant (H): 3. 85.09955 pu Magnetising reactance (Xm):3 . PF correction techniques used in FSlG wind turbines terminal voltage control schemes were implemented for the DFlG model using the direct component of rotor voltage.was used to control generator rotor speed. 2002 18 MUUADI. and STRBAC. and MIGLIORE. Marklla. P.0. 352 . J. Chichester 2001) HOLDSWORTH.0.

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