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1.

OD Course Outline
A. Course Objectives
1. Diagnose, Design, Implement & Evaluate OD
2. To build a framework from unique practises
3. Familiarise participants with skills & attitude

B. Required
1. OD & Change – Cummings, Thomas G
2. Adizes, Managing Corporate Life Cycles
3. Biedenbach, Challenge of Org Change in HC Industries
4. Craft C, Diagonising Organization with Impact
5. Thompson, Organizations in Action

C. Course Curriculum

Topics

Various Articles,
1. General introduction
books

2. Setting expectation, the OD & change Course Defining OD Chapter-1

Background & basic processes of OD- T Groups, Survey


3. Chapter- 2&3
feedback, Action Research, Socio-technical systems / cases

Thompson’s & Ichak Adizes’s framework to locate Thompson’s &


4. organizational issues Ichak Adizes’s

5. Systems theory, organizational diagnosis Chapter – 1,5,6

Chapter Part-3&
6. Investigation / cases - designing interventions
Part- 4

Chapter Part-5&
7. Investigation / cases - designing interventions
Part- 6

8. Leading Change- planned change & Appreciative inquiry Chapter-10

9. Change Management Chapter-10

Blendenbach &
10. Change Models
Soderholm

11. Change Models

12. Change agents, change style inventory Chapter – 3

13. Evaluation of OD, Theory Building in OD Chapter- 11

14. OD in other setting

15. OD & change management – way forward


D. Assessment Criteria
a. Conceptual & Theoretical Basis
b. Empirical Dimensions
c. Intervention Strategies
d. Emergent Theories
e. Evolving Change Agent

E. Assesment
a. Exam – 40%
b. Review – 30%
c. Interview – 30%

F. Classroom Discussions
f. Laboratory training – ISAPS, Sumedha etc.
g. Socio-technical systems – how individuals are connected through technology (eg. TPS, self-
learning teams etc.)
h. Culture systems – Edgar Schien, CVF, Ralph Stacy
i. Appreciative inquiry – anti-thesis to action research. Talks about system and look at +ves and
work around (Selgiman’s work)
j. Different kinds of interventions – Human process interventions (eg. Coaching, TA, neuro-
linguistic program, leadership, decision making), Techno-structural interventions, Human
resources interventions, Strategic interventions
k. Thompson’s model – Assembly line, mediating technology, intensive technology (uncertainty is
high)
l. Adizes model
m. Diagnostic model – Weisboard Six Box Model (look at people, structure, process,
communication)
n. Change models – Kurt Lewin, John Kotter, Galbraith Model (for Matrix org.)
1. Action Research Model

2. Laboratory training

Laboratory training / T-group—a small, unstructured group in which participants learn from their
own interactions and evolving group processes about such issues as interpersonal relations, personal
growth, leadership, and group dynamics.
Objectives of T-Groups
1) Increased understanding about one’s own behavior
2) Increased understanding about the behavior of others
3) Better understanding of group process
4) Increased interpersonal diagnostic skills
5) Increased ability to transform learning into action
6) Improvement in the ability to analyse one’s own behaviour

3. Socio-technical systems

 A Sociotechnical system (STS) in organizational development is an approach to complex


organizational work design that recognizes the interaction between people and technology in
workplaces.
 The term also refers to the interaction between society's complex infrastructures and human
behaviour.
 Directed at the fit between the technological configuration and the social structure of work units

 (which) results in the rearrangement of relationships among roles or tasks or a sequence of
activities to produce self-maintaining, semiautonomous groups
 Empowering the worker to assume more lateral responsibility for the work. These innovations
include quality circles, total quality management, and self-managed teams
4. Culture systems – Edgar Schien
Schein’s formal definition of organizational culture: “A pattern of shared basic assumptions that a
group has learned as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, that has
worked well enough to be considered valid and therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct
way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems.”

Culture Formation

Culture
Human need for
stability,
consistency &
meaning

Stability of membership

Shared Learning

History of shared experience

Three Elements of culture

 The problem of socialization – teaching newcomers


 The problem of behaviour – cultural predisposition and situational contingencies
 Can a large organization have one culture? –
o Subcultures are a normal process of evolution (due to different experiences and
different sets of assumptions)
o Subcultures often conflict with one another (management and unionized labor groups)
o Common assumptions come into play during crises

5. Appreciative inquiry (AI).


Appreciative Inquiry (AI):- As a means of affecting change, Appreciative Inquiry shifts the focus
from a deficit model that seeks first to identify problems and then potential solutions, to a model that
recognizes the plentiful potential that already exists within our organization.

Appreciative inquiry attempts to use ways of asking questions and envisioning the future in order to
foster positive relationships and build on the present potential of a given person, organization or
situation.

4D – Framework of AI
DISCOVER: The identification of organizational processes that work well.
DREAM: The envisioning of processes that would work well in the future.
DESIGN: Planning and prioritizing processes that would work well.
DESTINY (or DEPLOY): The implementation (execution) of the proposed design.
The aim is to build – or rebuild – organizations around what works, rather than trying to fix what
doesn't. AI practitioners try to convey this approach as the opposite of problem solving.
{Class:- Appreciative Inquiry – AI
4-D Framework
a. Discover- Current reality
b. Dream – Where to go- expected goal
c. Design -
d. Deployed- How do we impact }

6. OD Intervention

6. Different kinds of interventions – Human process interventions (eg. Coaching, TA, neuro-linguistic
program, leadership, decision making), Techno-structural interventions, Human resources
interventions, Strategic interventions

1. Human process intervention

The following interventions deal with interpersonal relationships and group dynamics.
T Groups: The basic T Group brings ten to fifteen strangers together with a
professional trainer to examine the social dynamics that emerge from their interactions.
Process Consultation: This intervention focuses on interpersonal relations and
social dynamics occurring in work groups.
Third Party Interventions: This change method is a form of process consultation
aimed at dysfunctional interpersonal relations in organizations.
Team Building: This intervention helps work groups become more effective in
accomplishing tasks.

The following Interventions deal with human processes that are more system wide than
individualistic or small-group oriented.

Organization Confrontation Meeting: This change method mobilize organization


members to identify problems, set action targets, and begin working on problems.
Intergroup Relations: These interventions are designed to improve
interactions among different groups or departments in organizations.
Large-group Interventions: These interventions involve getting abroad variety of
stakeholders into a large meeting to clarify important values, to develop new ways of
working, to articulate a new vision for the organization, or to solve pressing
organizational problems.
Grid Organization Development: This normative intervention specifies a particular
way to manage an organization.
2. Techno-Structural interventions

These interventions deal with an organization’s technology (for examples its task methods and job
design) and structure (for example, division of labor and hierarchy).

These interventions are rooted in the disciplines of engineering, sociology, and psychology and in
the applied fields of socio-technical systems and organization design. Practitioners place emphasis
both on productivity and human fulfillment.
Structural Design: This change process concerns the organization’s division of labour
– how to specialize task performances. Diagnostic guidelines exist to determine which
structure is appropriate for particular organizational environments, technologies, and
conditions.
Downsizing: This intervention reduces costs and bureaucracy by decreasing the size
of the organization through personnel layoffs, organization redesign, and outsourcing.
Re-engineering: This recent intervention radically redesigns the organization’s core
work processes to create tighter linkage and coordination among the different tasks
Parallel Structures
High-involvement Organizations (HIO’s)
Total Quality Management
Work design: This refers to OD interventions aimed at creating jobs, and work groups
that generate high levels of employee fulfilment and productivity.

3. Human Resource Management Interventions


Goal Setting: This change program involves setting clear and challenging goals. It
attempts to improve organization effectiveness by establishing a better fit between
personal and organizational objectives.
Performance Appraisal: This intervention is a systematic process of jointly assessing
work-related achievements, strengths and weaknesses,
Reward Systems: This intervention involves the design of organizational rewards to
improve employee satisfaction and performance.
Career Planning and development: It generally focuses on managers and
professional staff and is seen as a way of improving the quality of their work life.
Managing workforce diversity: Important trends, such as the increasing number of
women, ethnic minorities, and physically and mentally challenged people in the
workforce, require a more flexible set of policies and practices.
Employee Wellness: These interventions include employee assistance
programs (EAPs) and stress management.

4. Strategic Interventions

These interventions link the internal functioning of the organization to the larger environment and
transform the organization to keep pace with changing conditions.
Integrated Strategic Change: It argues that business strategies and organizational
systems must be changed together in response to external and internal disruptions. A
strategic change plan helps members manage the transition between a current strategy
and organization design and the desired future strategic orientation.
Trans organization development: This intervention helps organizations to enter into
alliances, partnerships and joint ventures to perform tasks or solve problems that are
too complex for single organizations to resolve
Merger and Acquisition Integration: This intervention describes how
OD practitioners can assist two or more organizations to form a new entity.
Culture Change: This intervention helps organizations to develop
cultures (behaviours, values, beliefs and norms) appropriate to their strategies
and environments.
Self-designing organizations: This change program helps organizations gain
the capacity to alter themselves fundamentally. It is a highly participative
process, involving multiple stakeholders in setting strategic directions and designing
and implementing appropriate structures and processes.
Organization learning and knowledge management.

5. G
6. g
7. Thompson Model

Assembly line, mediating technology, intensive technology (uncertainty is high)


James Thompson Another approach to technology was proposed by James D. Thompson. His
technology categories, which he argued could be used to classify all organizations, are long-linked,
mediating and intensive.
If tasks or operations are sequentially interdependent, Thompson
called them long linked. This technology is characterized by a fixed
sequence of repetitive steps, as shown in Figure 2(A). That is,
activity A must be performed before activity B, activity B before
activity C, and so forth. Examples of longlinked technology include
mass-production assembly lines and are given in Thompson[14].
Thompson identified mediating technology as one that links clients
on both the input and output side of the organization. Banks,
telephone utilities, security brokerage firms, most large retail stores,
computer dating services, employment and welfare agencies, and
post offices are examples.
As shown in Figure 2(B), mediators perform an interchange
function, linking units that are otherwise independent. The linking
unit responds by standardizing the organization’s transactions and
establishing conformity in clients’ behaviour. Banks, for instance,
bring together those who want to save (depositors) with those who
want to borrow.

/They do not know each other, but the bank’s success depends on attracting both. Thompson’s third
category – intensive technology – represents a customized response to a diverse set of contingencies.
The exact response depends on the nature of the problem and the variety of problems, which cannot
be predicted accurately (see Figure 2(C)). This includes technologies dominant in hospitals,
universities, research labs

8. Ichak Adizes Model of corporate / Organization life cycle


Steps Involved
a. Court Ship Dream, Possibilities
b. Infant  Action Oriented and opportunity driven , e.g. Uber
c. Go-Go  Go- go Organization has a successful product or
service, Rapidly Growing sales & strong cash flow, e.g.
Amazon INC
d. Adolescent  Re-Birth of Organization – independence
from Parent
e. Prime  focuses, energised, & predictable manner , e.g.
TCS
f. Stable  stable is positioned @ the top of life cycle curve, but it is not the place to be
the symptoms of ageing wont show up on its financial reports
g. Recrimination  Focus as who caused the problem rather than what to do about the problems.
problems get personalized  interpersonal conflicts, back stabbing & discrediting each other
h. Bureaucracy  company in bureaucracy – active by artificial support, e.g. Indian public
Sector
i. Death  e.g. Kingfisher Airlines
9. Weisbord’s Six-Box Model (1976)

Weisbord (1976) proposes six broad categories in his model


of organizational life, including purposes, structures,
relationships, leadership, rewards, and helpful mechanisms.
The purposes of an organization are the organization’s
mission and goals.

• Weisbord refers to structure as the way in which the


organization is organized; this may be by

By function – where specialists work together

By product, program, or project – where multi-skilled teams work together ways in


which people and units interact is termed relationships

Box of relationships is the way in which people interact with technology in their work.

Rewards are the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards people associate with their work.

The leadership box refers to typical leadership tasks, including the balance between
the other boxes.

Finally, the helping mechanisms are the planning, controlling, budgeting, and
information systems that serve to meet organizational goals.

• The external environment is also depicted in Weisbord’s model, although it is not represented as
a “box”

• Weisbord identifies as inputs the money, people, ideas, and machinery which are used to fulfill
the organization’s mission. The outputs are products and services.

Two Premises

Two premises which are not apparent in Weisbord’s model are crucial to understanding the boxes
in the model.

A. The first premise refers to formal versus informal systems. Formal systems are those
policies and procedures the organization claims to do. In contrast, informal systems are
those behaviors which actually occur. The bigger the gap between the formal and informal
systems within the organization, the less effective the organization is.

B. The second premise concerns the fit between the organization and the environment, that
is, the discrepancy between the existing organization and the way the organization should
function to meet external demands. Weisbord defines external demands or pressures as
customers, government, and unions.
10. Change models – Kurt Lewin, John Kotter, Galbraith Model (for Matrix org.)
Lewin’s Change Model
-Lewin Conceived of change as modification of those forces keeping a system’s behavior stable.
The Unfreezing, moving , Refreezing Model is an early 3 stage approach that was proposed by Kurt
Lewin.
The Model Mentioned three stages in changing an organisation .
a. Unfreezing:- This step usually involves reducing those forces maintaining the
organization’s behavior at its present level. Unfreezing is sometimes accomplished
through a process of “psychological disconfirmation.” By introducing information that
shows discrepancies between behaviors desired by organization members and those
behaviors currently exhibited, members can be motivated to engage in change
activities.
b. Moving:- This step shifts the behavior of the organization, department, or individual
to a new level. It involves intervening in the system to develop new behaviors, values,
and attitudes through changes in organizational structures and processes.
c. Refreezing:- This step stabilizes the organization at a new state of equilibrium. It is
frequently accomplished through the use of supporting mechanisms that reinforce the
new organizational state, such as organizational culture, rewards, and structures.
Additionals

1. Kotter’s organization dynamics model


Eight Steps to transforming your organization

1. Establishing sense of urgency


2. Forming a powerful guiding coalition
3. Creating a vision
4. Communicating the vision
5. Empowering others to act on the vision
6. Planning for and creating Short term wins
7. Consolidating Improvements and producing
still more change
8. Institutionalizing new approaches

2. Galbraith Model
The organization design framework portrayed in Figure is called the “Star Model.” In the Star Model,
design policies fall into five categories.

The first is strategy, which determines direction. The second is structure, which determines the
location of decision-making power. The third is processes, which have to do with the flow of
information; they are the means of responding to information technologies. The fourth is rewards and
reward systems, which influence the motivation of people to perform and address organizational
goals. The fifth category of the model is made up of policies relating to people (human resource
policies), which influence and frequently define the employees’ mind-sets and skills.

Implications of the Star Model:

 Organization design is more than just structure


 Different strategies lead to different organizations
 For an organization to be effective, all the policies
must be aligned with one another
3. Guest lecture: Coaching & Mentoring
Coaching

A process of empowering others or a process that enables learning & development to occur and thus
performance to improve.

 Coach is working to inner surface to increase performance


 Coach help you to reduce inner interference
 Every coaching conversation is DIAMOND shaped
o Awareness , Choice, Action
 Problem  expand by conversation , Awareness  expand
 Coach Help others to expand
 Coach expand awareness in the area in which one should look but not looking @ present
 Coach Helps to create choices
 Coach  Narrow down to action
 Coach never go into Past

Mentor

Someone who has experience you are experiencing, Always gives advice
Lots of Juniors needs Mentoring

Coach

Have never experience or will never tell that he/she have experienced Lots of seniors needs coaching

 More you are empty in mind you are coach


 More you are experienced / knowledge in mind you are teacher

Differences between Mentoring and Coaching


Mentor Coach
Focus Individual Performance
Role Facilitator with no agenda Specific agenda
Relationship Self-selecting Comes with the job
Source of influence Perceived value Position
Personal returns Affirmation/learning Teamwork/performance
Arena Life Task related
Competencies of coach

1) Listening waiting till others stop


2) Communication  Beyond words, deeper level of communication
3) Empathy  coach need to have high level of empathy
4) Patience
5) Coach Always listen to you,
6) Coach is trained to listen without anything in mind
7) Coaches rarely use ‘WHY’  as answer to (why goes into past)
8) Avg. Coaching  60 hours
4. Organizational Diagnosis
Diagnosis is a collaborative process between organizational members and the OD consultant to collect

pertinent information, analyse it, and draw conclusions for action planning and intervention.

Need of Organizational diagnosis

A. Financial Needs
 When organization fails in its purpose
 Organization transition
 Business growth
 Merger & acquisition
 EnvironmentBusiness Environment
 Conflict  R&D
 Industrial Relations
 Obstacle
B. Non- financial Needs 
 Soft
 Leadership
 Design
 Turnover
Artifacts
Anthropological Tools to be used in Organizational Diagnosis
Artification
 Listening
 Observing Asumption
 Interpreting text
 Textual analysis

Systems Theory
Properties of Systems

Inputs, Transformations, and Outputs

Boundaries

Feedback

Equifinality

Alignment
Organization Level diagnosis

Organization-Level Inputs

• General Environment

– External forces that can directly or indirectly affect the


attainment of organizational objectives

– Social, technological, ecological, economic, and


political factors

• Industry Structure

– External forces (task environment) that can directly affect the organization

– Customers, suppliers, substitute products, new entrants, and rivalry among competitors

Organization Design Components

• Strategy  the way an organization uses its resources (human, economic, or technical) to gain and sustain a
competitive advantage

• Structure  how attention and resources are focused on task accomplishment

• Technology  the way an organization converts inputs into products and services

Organization Design Components

• Human Resource Systems  the mechanisms for selecting, developing, appraising, and rewarding organization
members

• Measurement Systems  methods of gathering, assessing, and disseminating information on the activities of
groups and individuals in organizations

Group-Level Diagnosis

Group-Level Design Components

• Goal Clarity  extent to which group understands its objectives

• Task Structure  the way the group’s work is designed

• Team Functioning  the quality of group dynamics among

• members

• Group Compositionthe characteristics of group members

• Group Norms  the unwritten rules that govern behavior

Group-level Outputs

• Product or Service Quality

• Productivity e.g., cost/member, number of decisions

• Team Cohesiveness e.g., commitment to group and organization

• Member Satisfaction
Individual-Level Diagnosis

Individual-Level Design Components

• Skill Variety The range of activities and abilities required for task completion

• Task Identity  The ability to see a “whole” piece of work

• Task Significance The impact of work on others

• AutonomyThe amount of freedom and discretion

• Feedback about Results  Knowledge of task performance outcomes

Individual-level Outputs

• Performance e.g., cost/unit, service/product quality

• Absenteeism

• Job Satisfaction e.g., internal motivation

• Personal Development e.g., growth in skills, knowledge, and self

5. Change
What is change -

Psychological contracts  Ice-burg Model

 Greiners curve
 Kurl Lewins change Model

The kubbler Ross Change model

William bridge

Eight Factors for Successful Organizational Change

1. Ensure the need


2. Provide a plan
3. Build internal support for change and overcome resistance
4. Ensure top management support and commitment
5. Build external support (where needed)
6. Provide resources
7. Institutionalize change, i.e., make it stick (“refreezing”)
8. Pursue comprehensive change
6. Greiner Model
The growth phases model of Larry E. Greiner suggest that the organization go through 5 stages of growth and
need appropriate strategies & structures to cope.

It is a descriptive framework that can be used to understand why certain management styles, organizational
structures & coordination mechanisms work, and why some don’t work at certain phases in the development
of an organization.

The model describes five phases of organization development & growth

1. Growth through creativity  Start-up company, entrepreneurial, informal communication, hard work
and low earnings. Ending by a leadership crisis.
2. Growth through direction  sustained growth, functional organization structure, accounting, capital
management, incentives, budgets, standardized processes. Ending by an autonomy crisis.
3. Growth through Delegation  Decentralized organizational structure, operational and market level
responsibility, profit centers, financial incentives, decision making is based on periodic reviews, top
management acts by exception, formal communication. Ending by a control crisis.
4. Growth through Co-ordination & monitoring formation of product groups, through review of
formal panning, centralization of functions, corporate staff oversees, coordination, corporate capital
expenditures, accountability for ROI at product group level, motivation through lower-level profit
sharing. Ending by a red tape crisis.
5. Growth through collaboration  new evolutionary path, team action for problem solving, cross
functional task teams, decentralized support staff, matrix organization, simplified control mechanism,
team behaviour education programs, advanced information systems, team incentives. Ending by an
internal growth crisis.