ILORIN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION

ISSN: 0189 – 6636

VOLUME 25, AUGUST 2006

Ilorin Journal of Education, Volume 25, 2006

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elcome to the Ilorin Journal of Education. The Ilorin Journal of Education (IJE) is a broadly based scholarly, referred, yearly journal published by the Faculty of Education, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria, since November 1978. The scope of the Journal includes the research, development, and practice in all areas of education (human development, school, training, formal, informal, tertiary, vocational education, industry training, and life long learning).

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University of Ilorin M. University of Ilorin A. University of Ilorin Internal Editorial Board Member S. UK Satyadhyan R. Alabi (PhD). Faculty of Education. Sonal College of Technology. Faculty of Education. University of Ilorin Sub-Editors B. University of Ilorin O. Bharathiar University. Salem India v . University of Ilorin A. Onifade (PhD). Male Maldives Ezendu Ariwa. Olajide (PhD). S. Faculty of Communication Sciences. O. Balasubramanian. Dean. College of Open Education. Faculty of Education. Faculty of Education. University of Ilorin Managing Editor Mudasiru Olalere Yusuf (PhD). Faculty of Education. Onasanya (PhD). Maldives College of Higher Education. Faculty of Education. Faculty of Education. University of Ilorin Consulting Editors Professor Ugur Demiray. Turkey Ali Fawaz Sahreef (PhD). University of Ilorin A. T. Volume 25. Aberdeen Review Board Gulsun Kurubacak (PhD). Eskisehir. Coimbatoire. Esere (PhD). Faculty of Education. B. The Robert Gordon University. London. Sofoluwe (PhD). O. Faculty of Education. 2006 EDITORIAL TEAM Editor-in-Chief Professor ‘Raheem Adebayo Lawal. London Metropolitan University. Anadolu University. Schoolhill. O. Eskisehir. Anadolu University. Turkey Professor N. Business School. Chickerur.Ilorin Journal of Education. Olawuyi (PhD). India Charles Isitoa Juwah.

. Editorial Team…….. B..…………………………………………………………………. 62 vi . Practice and Techniques of the “Bini” Traditional Bronze Casting Operations: A Traditional Artifact of Benin-City. Orji ………………………………………………………………………… Effect of Field Trip Method of Teaching on Students’ Performance in Social Studies Yusuf. Victor Oziengbe………………………………………………………….. Okunloye…………………………………………………………………………. Teacher Education in Nigeria and the Millennium Development Goals Adebayo Lawal…………………………………………………………………………… 28 33 43 Academic Staff Perception of Qualification on Administrative Effectiveness of Heads of Academic Departments in Nigerian Universities Don Omoike……………………………………………………………………………… 54 Supervisor’s Factor in the Achievement of Universal Basic Education (UBE) Objectives in Nigeria Y. Social Studies and International Relations: Challenges for Citizenship Education in the Nigerian Junior Secondary School Social Studies Curriculum i iii v vi 1 8 20 R. ICT-based Library: A Redefinition of Library Services Sanni. W.……………………………. Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………….Ilorin Journal of Education. Moronkola Munir………………………………………………………………. 2006 TABLE OF CONTENTS Welcome to IJE…………………………………….. Instruction to Contributors………………………. A. C. Edo State Uwaifo. Volume 26. Modelling Instructional Strategy and Pupils’ Learning Outcomes in Primary Science A. AbdulRaheem……………………………………………………………… Principles. Fasasi……………………………………………………………………………….…………………………….

E……………………………………………………………………………… Globalisation and The Development of Western Education in Nigeria Adeniran. Volume 25. A. 2006 Effect of Counselling on Examination Anxiety and Academic Performance among University Of Maiduguri Diploma Students Bulama Kagu & Mohammed Hassan………………………………………………. L.Ilorin Journal of Education. 69 Optimal Strategies for the Game of Squash Talabi. A…………………………………………………………………………… 75 83 vii .

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The resurgence of research interest in primary science instructions culminated in a number of measures which included such instructional strategies as modelling instructional strategy whose effects on pupils’ learning outcomes (achievement and attitude) were examined in this study. Be it at the primary. Science aims at searching for causes and providing reasons for solution to phenomena or experiences in life. By this definition.Ilorin Journal of Education. Data were analyzed using t-test statistical technique. These findings were discussed with their implications. At the primary level. secondary and tertiary levels of our education system.com AND PUPILS’ Abstract As a foundational science. Findings indicated that the post test mean achievement score of the group exposed to modelling instructional strategy were significantly higher than those of the control group. The subjects comprised 126 primary school pupils within the Gwagwalada Area Council of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). Background to the Study Science can simply be regarded as an attempt by man to gain better understanding and clearer interpretation of mankind and of the environment. 1986). Basically. Primary Science Achievement Test. 2006 MODELLING INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY LEARNING OUTCOMES IN PRIMARY SCIENCE A. Vol. science is such that builds the foundation for future science and other programmes like the Universal Basic Education (UBE). 1 . primary science plays an indispensable role in the attainment of sound technological literacy among the entire citizenry of any country. Orji (PhD) Department of Science and Environmental Education University of Abuja PMB 117 Abuja. other living things and the environment through the organisation of experience about nature into meaningful system of explanation (Ogunniyi. 25 August. Three validated and reliable instruments: Test of Primary Science Ability. and Primary Science Attitude Scales were used for the study. B. A pre-test post-test control group quasi – experimental design was adopted for the study. C. the aim of science is the same irrespective of the level where science concepts are communicated. It was also found that pupils’ attitude to primary science improved after exposure to modelling strategy. while the study advocates for the introduction and popularization of modelling Instructional Strategy in Nigerian primary schools. it is therefore implied that the art of ‘sciencing’ involves the process of understanding ourselves. Nigeria Orji4real2008@yahoo. however.

pre-test served as a measure of pupils’ background knowledge and initial nature of attitude. Balogun. pictures and photographs. C. At the end of the random assignment. In the design. Okpala and Offorma. which include hints on how to: 2 . Modeling can take various forms like. there are indications (Orji. 1995. project. B. Research Method The quasi-experimental pre-test. Simple random sampling technique was again used to assign the intact classes into experimental and control groups respectively. Despite this laudable role of primary science. 1988. To this end. Orji The curriculum for primary science consists of richly packaged activities for both the teacher and the pupil (FGN. Agholor 1993). quizzes and group work activities. post-test control group design was adopted for the study. exposing pupils to video – taped interviews. 1994.A. 2004) which if properly articulated and harnessed will produce desired outcome of scientific literacy and development at both the individual and national level. organizing career talk and programmes. Instrumentation The instruments used for the study comprised the following. The guide contains some carefully selected activities. Yoloye. science educators have continued to search for ways and consequently advanced a number of proposals. 1994. The sample comprised 126 primary VI pupils of intact classes from comparable primary schools randomly selected from Gwagwalada Area Council of the Federal Capital Territory. gender disparity and general lack of interest recorded among pupils in primary science (Onocha. arranging discussion. the poor quality teaching – learning process in Nigerian Primary Science classrooms. might have led to underachievement. which is the main focus of the present study. the experimental group had 60 pupils while the control group had 66 pupils. Efforts should therefore be geared not only to appraise the situation but also to expedite action towards addressing the afore stated academic problems. Onocha (1998) and Beller and Gafni (1996) have all argued on the inherent benefits of modeling techniques. It is against this background that the study was conceived to ascertain whether modelling strategy could be used to improve pupils’ learning outcomes (achievement and attitude) in primary science. One of the proposals being made in recent times is the use of modeling technique. Perhaps. (i) Modelling Instructional Strategy Guide (MISG) (ii) Test of Primary Science Ability (TOPSA) (iii) Primary Science Achievement Test (PSAT) (iv) Primary Science Attitude Scale (PSAS) The Modelling Instructional Strategy Guide (MISG): The instructional guide was developed by the researcher based on the content of modeling strategy as suggested by Onocha (1998). 2002) that the quality of teaching and learning of science in Nigerian Primary Schools leaves much to be desired.

2 for disagree and 1 for strongly disagree. agree. The comparable subjects were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups.Ilorin Journal of Education. Primary Science Achievement Test (PSAT): The PSAT was a 20-item multiple-choice instrument used to measure the level of pupils’ performance in primary science. Each item in the instrument contains four options ranging from A to D. which was used to measure the pre and post-treatment attitude of pupils towards primary science. 3 . the instrument was used to select pupils of comparable ability in primary science. The guideline was given to science educators including some primary science teachers. 2002). disagree and strongly disagree) alongside a set of items which were measured on a weighted value of 4 for strongly agree. The instrument had been validated and used by Orji (2002) who found reliability index to be 0. Arrange discussion with models or personalities of interest.23 to 7. The particular one(s) to embark on at particular time depended on the convenience and discretion of the teachers. The main aim of the instructional strategy was to expose learners to role models and mentors in science and technology. Intact classes were used so as not to disrupt the academic programmes of the schools. Each item has four options ranging from A to D. The instrument served as pre-test and post test respectively. Data Collection Procedure The ability levels of the students were obtained by giving the TOPSA to all the primary VI pupils in the sampled schools.point attitude scale in which respondents were required to tick one of the option (strong agree. The validity and reliability (r = 0.82) have been established and documented previously (Orji. 3 for agree. 2002) Primary Science Attitude Scale (PSAS): PSAS is a 16-item attitudinal instrument.00 and 7. In case of negative items.84 using a Cronbach alpha statistic. Volume 26. Lesson notes were also prepared on the topics validated by the same group of experts.52 respectively were used for the study. Expose pupils to video-taped interviews. It was a four. 2006 Organize career talk and programmes in which models/known personalities are invited. An equal number of positive and negative items were provided. these points were reversed. pictures and photographs of models or personalities of interest. The mean and standard deviation of the arms in each of the schools were computed and the arms that had comparable means and standard deviations ranging from 5. During every learning activity and at their leisure they were introduced to stimulating and challenging activities. Test of Primary Science Ability (TOPSA): The TOPSA was a 15 – item multiple-choice instrument with high validity and reliability index of 0. They ascertained its suitability with respect to content and language level of the pupils. Specifically.80 as established elsewhere (Orji.540 to 6.

During the period of training.42 Df t-cal. Hence.42 which is greater than the table value of 1. After the treatment both groups received the post test. Orji To avoid possible sensitization on the part of pupils their regular teachers were used as trained experts during treatment. Training lasted for 4 weeks after which pre-test were administered on the subjects. B. Teachers guided the pupils through the filling of questionnaire on a one-to-one basis because of the age and inexperience. translations and clarifications were necessary. T-test statistic was used to ascertain whether any significant difference existed at 0. which guided their lectures/discussions they had with trainee teachers.96 Analysis of the post-test mean achievement score in Table 1 shows a tvalue of 2. The experimental group was exposed to modeling instructional strategy by the trained experts while teachers for the control group were allowed to adopt their usual way of teaching through lesson notes which were made uniform to ensure that the chosen topics for both groups were the same. The post-test mean scores for achievement and attitudes were analyzed as follows. data were collected and analyzed.A. At the end.3 10. the teachers were educated on the benefits of modeling as well as the purpose and nature of the study. Treatment commenced after the pre-test. The t-values showed no significant difference indicating initial comparable ability of the groups. they were done. Data Analyses and Results Data from the study were analyzed using descriptive statistics of means and standard deviation. 4 . Where interpretations. Pre-test mean achievement and attitude scores were obtained and the tvalues were computed before the commencement of the treatment. though under close supervision of the researcher. Teachers were again taken through the MISG. the null hypothesis was rejected.2 2. The aim was to find initial difference between the subjects and to confirm comparability of the groups.96. In other words there is a significant difference in the mean post-test achievement scores of experimental and control groups. tcritical 1. C. Invited guest speakers were briefed on the purpose of study. Table 1: t-test Statistics on Post-test Achievement Scores of the Experimental and Control Groups Groups Experimental Control 60 66 N X 15.6 124 8. Practical demonstrations were also carried out.8 SD 9. Thereafter.05 level.

Ilorin Journal of Education, Volume 26, 2006
Table 2: T-test Statistics on Mean Post-test Attitude Scores of the Experimental and Control Groups Groups Experimental Control 60 66 N X 14.6 8.52 SD 9.20 124 7.00 3.65 1.96 Df t-cal. t-critical

Results of analyses in Table 2 show that t-value of 3.65 is greater than the table value of 1.96 and therefore significant. As a result, the hypothesis here is equally rejected. This finding implies that pupils in experimental group obtained significantly higher mean scores than those in the control group. Discussion The modelling as an instructional strategy seemed to have significant positive impact on the pupils’ achievement in primary science. The efficacy of modelling in enhancing pupils’ achievement is therefore established. The present finding lends support to earlier views and opinions (Beller & Gafni, 1994) which advocate the use of modelling as a performance-enhancing strategy. Tenable reasons for this finding could be sought on the fact that modelling strategy helps to sustain pupils’ curiosity which encourages participatory role of the pupils that leads to better performance. Again, findings reveal that significant difference existed between the attitude of pupils in experimental and those in the control group. In other words, modelling strategy impacts positively on the pupils’ attitude towards primary science. The finding provides strong empirical evidence to earlier assertion that modelling could be used to arouse pupils’ interest and improve on their attitude (Onocha, 1998). Perhaps, the availability of mentors and role models might have stimulated pupils’ interest and consequently improved on their attitude towards the subject. The beauty of the finding is that once the interest is rekindled, the pupils are most likely to exhibit positive attitude and improved performance. Implications and Recommendations No doubt, the present findings and their associated discussion raised a number of implications to Nigerian education system. The fact that modeling was found to have positive effect on both the performance and attitude of Nigerian primary school pupils to primary science calls for its introduction into primary science classrooms. To this end, all hands should be on deck by all stakeholders to ensure that modeling instructional strategy is popularized in our schools.

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A. B. C. Orji
Furthermore, conferences, orientation and training workshops on how to effectively blend, use and popularize modelling strategy need to be organized for both pre-service and in-service teachers in primary schools. Conclusion Primary science is a subject that builds foundation for future scientists, engineers and technologists in the country. Given this laudable role, science educators have not relented in their efforts to improve on the quality of instruction in primary science classrooms. Hence the proposal of modelling instructional strategy whose effects on pupils’ learning outcome (attitude and performance), were examined in the present study. Data were collected and analyzed. Results from the analysis indicated that modelling instructional strategy impacts positively on pupils’ achievement in, and attitude to primary science. In the light of these findings the instructional strategy was recommended for use in Nigerian primary science classrooms. References Agholor, R. N (1993).

Motivating African girls to science: Removing socio-

Paper presented at the International Conference on Science Education in Developing Countries. From Theory to Practice, Jerusalem, Israel, January 3-7 Balogun T. A. (1994). Intervention strategy In promoting women participation in science and technology. In Erinosho, S.Y (Ed.), Perspective on women in science and technology in Nigeria (pp. 28 – 38). Ibadan: Sam Bookman. Beller, M. & Grafni, N. (1994). The 1991 international assessment of educational progress in mathematics and sciences. Journal of Educational Psychology, 8(2), 365 – 367. Federal Government of Nigeria (1988). The Nigerian primary school curriculum. Abuja: Federal Ministry of Education. Federal Government of Nigeria (2004). National policy on education (4th ed.). Abuja: NERDC Onocha, C. Okpala, P, & Offorma, G. (1995). Education of women and girls study of equity in Eastern Nigeria. A study commissioned by the Regional Office of UNESCO/BREDA in Africa Dakar, Senegal. Onocha C, (1998). Girls and science education: Changing mind-sets and improving learning. In Erinosho S.Y (Ed), Science and education for all: Which way forward? Proceedings of a Seminar, NIGIS Project Secretariat. Orji A.B.C (2002). The effect of concept mapping on pupils learning outcomes in primary science. Research Paper Presented at the 4th Biennial Conference of WCCI, University of Nigeria Nsukka, 22nd – 26th October. Ogunniyi, M. B. (1986). Teaching science in Africa, Ibadan: Salem Publishing Company.

cultural barriers.

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Ilorin Journal of Education, Volume 26, 2006
Yoloye, A. (1994). Gender issues in the teaching of science technology and mathematics. In Erinosho S.Y. (Ed.), Perspectives on women in science and technology in Nigeria (pp. 39 – 50). Ibadan: Sam Bookman.

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com 2348060633040 Abstract The study investigated the effect of field trip on junior secondary school students’ performance in social studies. Probably. hands-on learning and constructivist learning strategies. Ilorin yuabra@yahoo.Ilorin Journal of Education. discovery learning. and self-motivation in social studies. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyse the data collected. The sample consisted of 77 students drawn from two sampled secondary schools in Ilorin South and Ilorin East Local Government Areas of Kwara State. It considers successful ways to facilitate learning among students. While other core subjects have moved toward student-centred. Much of social studies teaching and learning is geared to the simple transmission of information through the use of a single textbook. 1996). that is why Yusuf (2004). active engagement in learning. that teachers of social studies should expose their students to field trip. Volume 25. social studies has remained largely teacher centred (Hope. The sampled secondary schools were randomly assigned to treatment (37 students) and control (40 students) groups. the lecture method. experiential. 2006 EFFECT OF FIELD TRIP METHOD OF TEACHING ON STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN SOCIAL STUDIES Yusuf. it was recommended among others. 8 . as this will promote learning by experience. AbdulRaheem (PhD) Department of Arts and Social Sciences Education. observed growing decline and fluctuation in the students’ performance in the subject in Junior School Certificate Examination (JSCE). A quasiexperimental design was adopted for the study. as shown on Table 1. in Ilorin metropolis. Based on these findings. The findings showed that students taught using field trip performed significantly better than their counterparts taught using the conventional method. Nigeria. and teacher controlled question and answer strategies. Introduction Social studies as a problem solving subject requires both the teacher and the students to pay attention to the ideas and paths. University of Ilorin.

there was 0. The males recorded a declining performance in 1997 when only 59.6% and 90. there was a sharp improvement in 2002 and 2003 as their performances were 81. This is because the males in 1994 recorded 74.8 51.9 46 20.2% in 1996.6% but decreased to 52.6% improvement.4 18.8 91. The performance of the females in 1994 was 83. AbdulRaheem Table 1: Junior School Certificate Examination (JSCE) Performance of Male and Female Students in Kwara State in Social Studies Year No of Students No of Male Students that passed % No of Female student that passed 4933 4789 7949 8327 10949 % No of male student that failed 6009 5326 5310 1883 911 % No of Female student that failed 8705 5098 6099 6872 1094 % 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 22309 22921 25601 22723 23175 6662 7708 6243 9985 10222 52. This is because active social studies teaching requires reflective thinking and decision making.5%.6 59. social studies teaching emphasize authentic activities that call for real life application using the skills and content of the field (National Council for Social Studies.2 48. Iyewarun (1989) and Mezieobi (2000) stated that lack of and nonutilization of appropriate methods in the teaching of social studies contributes to the poor performance of students in the subject.8 51. while the performance rose to 79. However.4%. 1992). Social studies teaching and learning become more interesting.4 56.7% in 1996 and further declined to 66% in 1997. while in 1999 the female students’ performance reduced to 52. In 2001. In addition.9%. and encourage student generated questions to guide inquiry.6 43.6% and this declined to 79.4 40. respectively.Yusuf. active interaction with the environment.2 48. 61. However. However. development of new understanding through a process of active construction of knowledge.4 9. involving and captivating when it is actively taught and it is learner centred. respectively. a more studentcentred approach in social studies would incorporate multiple and varied sources of information.1 54 79.6 81.6%. the performance improved when the percentage of male students’ performance showed an increase of 2.9 47.6% and further declined to 48. that is.6% and 54.8% and his rose to 79. the female students recorded an improved performance of 56. In 2001 the male students` performance declined by 0.8% in 2002 and 91. interactive discourse which facilitates the construction of meaning required to develop important social understanding.5% in 1999 and 2000. Okunloye (2000) identified two basic methods of social studies teaching along with their operational techniques and strategies namely: content 9 .1 Source: Kwara State Ministry of Education Table 2 reveals that the performance of males in the examination fluctuated.4%.8% in 2003. in 1998.6 90. In 1998.2% of the males passed in the subject.2 8.

classifying. Scheurman (1998) observed that the application of field trip to social studies would result in the development of deeper understandings of man’s interaction and relationship with the environments. planned educational activities that involves students in learning experiences difficult to learn in a classroom situation. Hence. history. According to Jekayinfa (2005) content transmission is a teaching device where the teacher unfolds a body of information or knowledge to his students who listen and take down notes. it should be noted that efforts should be made to employ a method or methods that will ensure and enhance better academic performance of the students in the subject. Iyewarun (1989) also observed that students’ experience with their immediate environment constitutes one of the most valuable resources for learning which effective teachers can use for students’ intellectual development as well as personal growth. According to Abdullahi (1982) and Okunloye (2000).Ilorin Journal of Education. economic. archaeology. Agun and Imogie (1988) stated also that field trips will bring a break to the monotonous way of our verbal classroom instructions. political and religious environments. collecting. its relevance shall be appreciated and understood better when it is used in social studies given its objectives and its scientific affiliation. it is much used in other subjects in the humanities and natural sciences such as geography. 2006 transmission method and inquiry or problem solving method. geology. It is in the 10 . Field trip is not only peculiar to social studies. He also opined that field trip has the capacity to make learning more immediate by bridging the gap between the outside world and the classroom environments by means of the experience that educational resources can provide. and so on. On the other hand. It also fortifies students with needed knowledge on problems and procedures in social studies and defensible beliefs about important issues in the discipline which include concepts awareness and understanding of the child’s social. studying relationships. field trip is an excursion taken outside the classroom for the purpose of making relevant observations and also for obtaining some specific information. This method of teaching is teacher-centred and does not promote deep learning. information or knowledge are available for better teaching and learning of a particular subject matter. However. he stressed that it must be an approved. Volume 25. Okunloye (2000) noted that field trip is one of the inquiry based social studies teaching and learning method which allows students to interact with their environments. According to Alexandre (2002) dedicated teachers are always looking for better ideas for meeting the many challenges they face in schools. They also add that a well-planned field trip affords the students the opportunity to become actively engaged in observing. However. and man’s endeavour to solve these problems. and manipulating objects. and also problems arising from these interactions and interrelationship. physical. the major focus of inquiry method is the learning of social studies concepts through verification of a body of knowledge or an adventure into the unknown by the students. This view is also supported by Jekayinfa (2005) when she noted that field trips are usually planned to take students not only to places of interest but also to places where relevant materials.

and cognitive novelty. It should be noted that while electronic field trip addresses some educational issues it also raises up some others. for instance in Table 1. preparation and orientation prior to the trip. Talat (1996) called for the use of other teaching methods that can enliven and arouse students’ interest rather than the long addicted method of lecture approach. for example. Valerie and Nicole (2002) while commenting on these novelties observed that the higher the novelty levels the less likely it is that the students will have a meaningful learning experience. economical and structural developments within their environment. He stressed further that given the various stimulus that are competing for learners attention. which refers to the students’ familiarity with the field trip site. political. Jekayinfa (2005) stated that there are five stages in the effective handling of field excursions. Recent innovation in instructional technology (IT) on the field trip could be further used to back up the experience. Okunloye (2000) and Ogirima (2006) are of the opinion that field trip method of teaching is time consuming. the trip itself. However. the follow up or post field trip activities and the students’ observation to later learning. which refers to the extent to which students make previously considered field trip to be social rather than learning activities. such as Omosewo (2004). virtual field trip. they will be able to perform better in the subject. Ojo (1982) observed that the gender of the student does not mediate in the performance of students in Chemistry. while Osakwe and Itedjere 11 . Jekayinfa (2005). Yusuf (1995) points out that there is need to provide learners with rich experience through mediated instruction because they can provide authentic data for the study of man and his relationship with his environment. cities or countries or local businesses (Valerie & Nicole. Other researchers such as Orion and Hotsein (1994) refer to “novelty space” as a factor also to be considered as this affects the amount a students is able to learn on a given field trip. It can also be effectively used to reduce the “novelty space” of students before the actual visit. Many educators. The three components of students’ novelty space he identified were geographic novelty. psychological novelty. In other words. The virtual field trip is a field trip that students and teachers take via the internet using the computers. it becomes imperative for social studies students to be provided with valid and specific meaningful information about social. When we observe the performance of students in social studies. AbdulRaheem researcher’s opinion that if teachers employ field trip which will equip the learner with first hand information. to access up-to-the minute information right in the classroom about places such as museums.Yusuf. and that it is expensive to use. These include the need to obtain the factual background and technical skills required to understand the specific purpose of the trip. it is seen that poor performance is not restricted to any gender. gender has no significant statistical influence on student performance. 2002). reflective thinking and problem solving tools. which refers to the skills and concepts the students encounter and are expected to master on the field trip.

the study examined: (a) the effectiveness of field trip method of teaching on male and female students’ performance in social studies. Probably.Ilorin Journal of Education. medium and low ability students taught using field trip method of teaching. academic ability of the students has been found to play a major influence on the performance of students. that is why Price (1993) stated that gender is not the issue but the academic ability. Also Olarewaju (2004) found field trip more effective than lecture method in Ibadan. investigated the effect of field trip method of teaching on students’ performance in social studies in Ilorin East and Ilorin South Local Government Areas of Kwara State. It is noted that high ability students do perform better than low ability students. However. 2006 (1993) also acknowledges that gender has no significant effect on the students’ spatial conceptualisation in social studies. Volume 25. 12 . This study. Ho3: There is no significant difference in the performance of high. 2006). He stated that both male and female students of high ability do perform well. gender does not play any significant role. Purpose of the Study The main purpose of the study was to find the effect of field trip method of teaching on students’ performance in social studies. the extent of the effect of these strategies on students’ performance is yet to be fully confirmed in many parts of Nigeria. Research Hypotheses The following hypotheses were formulated and tested in this study: Ho1: There is no significant difference in the performance of students taught using the field trip method of teaching and students taught using conventional method of teaching in social studies Ho2: There is no significant difference in the performance of male and female students taught using field trip method of teaching. therefore. while low ability male and female students perform woefully in their various subjects. (b) the effectiveness of field trip method of teaching on students’ performance in social studies based on their ability. In addition. Statement of the problem The use of trip has been found suitable and effective for students in Europe and America under different conditions (Ogirima. To him. Specifically.

Subjects in the two groups were pre-tested on social studies performance test prepared by the researcher. average and low scoring abilities.Yusuf. The study used the following instruments to gather information from the samples. which might have existed among the teachers used in the study. Scoring Level Test in Social Studies (SLTSS): SLTSS was used to determine the status of students in social studies. Thus. The maximum score was (100). AbdulRaheem Methodology Design The 2 x 2 x 3 quasi-experimental. The experimental group received the treatment using field trip while the control group was taught using lecture method. 2. This was used to classify students into different scoring/ability groups. Field trip Instructional Package (FIP) and Conventional Instructional Package (CIP): The study used teaching instruments as applicable for the two groups. similar instructional strategies were employed uniformly across the treatment and control groups. Social Studies Performance Test (SSPT): The researcher made use of social studies performance test to determine the effect of cooperative and competitive instructional strategies on students’ performance in social studies. Social Studies Performance Test (SSPT) is a multiple choice objective test which consists of 50 items with four options (A-D) constructed by the researcher to cover the aspects of social studies. he was retrained to conform to the required skills needed to teach according to specification. 1.Upper 25% 13 . The classification of students was done as follows: High scoring Students . After the treatment. Teaching Instruments for the two groups. The layout of this research is shown in Table 2: Table 2: Research Layout Group Pre-test Experimental Group I O1 Control Group O1 Key: O1 represents Pre-test O2 represents Post-test Treatment X X represents treatment Post Test O2 O2 Table 2 shows the experimental group and the control group. The researcher personally taught the experimental group students. This was to reduce the variation. non-randomised and non-equivalent pre-test and post-test control group design was employed in the study. that is. topics selected for this study. 3. all the groups were tested using a parallel version of the questions used for the pre-test as post-test. Although the researcher used the normal social studies teacher in the selected school for the control group. The test consisted of 50 multiple-choice items designed and used to group the learners into high.

Procedure for Data Collection The researcher visited the schools used and sought permission for the use of the schools from the appropriate authorities. During the first week.half method. SLTSS was conducted to classify the students into groups based on scoring ability. To ensure the face and content validity of the instruments used in this study. which the researcher selected for use in this study.Middle 50% Low scoring Students . The study covered a period of three weeks. and social studies teachers in the secondary schools were sought and through split. Data Analysis Technique The data collected were analysed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) statistics from SPSS software to test the three null hypotheses. This is because exceptional permission was granted by the school for lesson to take the last two hours on specified days and usually the last three periods.67 of the instrument (SSPT) was obtained using Pearson Product Moment Correlation statistic. the reliability co-efficient of 0. 2006 Medium scoring Students .Bottom 25% Scheme of work and lesson notes prepared by the researcher: The scheme showed the area of social studies curriculum (National Economic Life). The third period of the last week was used for post-test. The selected schools had 37 students and 40 for students in field trip and conventional groups respectively. Market Branch. 4. The SSPT was administered on the subjects as pre-test at the second period. The control group teacher was given instructions to teach following the conventional method as stipulated in the teaching instrument for the control group. assistance of experts in test construction. and Baboko Market. During the week. first period. Ilorin. The pre test score of the sample was used as covariate in testing the hypotheses. Ilorin.Ilorin Journal of Education. Treatment commenced and lasted for two weeks. The two schools were selected using purposive sampling technique. the researcher personally administered the treatment on the experimental group. 14 . The subjects consisted of 46 male and 31 female students in JSS III that were regular at school during the experiment. social studies educators. Ilorin. Global Soap and Detergent Limited. Volume 25. The students in the treatment group were taken to Unity Bank plc. Sample In this study a sample of 77 JSS III students drawn from two secondary schools in Ilorin East and South Local Government Areas of Kwara State participated in the study.

796 17.642(Adjusted R squared= .633) From Table 3.882 2649.428 28. Table 4: ANCOVA for post-test score of male and female students taught using FTM Source Corrected Model Intercept PRETEST TREATMENT(Male) Error Total Corrected Total Type III squares 2689.796 17. 76) = 9.666 a.263 196804.000 .906 F 66. The analysis revealed that those students taught using the field trip method performed better then those taught using the conventional method. Ho2: There is no significant difference in the performance of male and female students taught using field trip method of teaching in social studies Result of the analysis related to this hypothesis is as shown on Table 4.908 > .109 5838.764 2649.O54) > CM (60.023 9.189 Sig. therefore hypothesis one was rejected. R squared=.000 5859. the value produced F(2.273 df 2 1 1 74 77 76 Mean Square 2982. AbdulRaheem Results Ho1: There is no significant difference in the performance of students taught using field trip and those taught using the conventional method of teaching in social studies The result from data collected related to this hypothesis is as shown in Table 3. R squared=.803 .000 9287. This implies that a significant difference existed between the two groups of students exposed to FTM (x=64. Table 3: ANCOVA for post-test score of students taught using FTM and CM Source Corrected Model PRETEST TREATMENT Error Total Corrected Total Type III Sum of squares 5964.214 F 14.908 Sig.000 . .918 2684.027 Sum of df 2 1 1 1 34 37 36 Mean Square 1344.427) The analysis in Table 4 indicated that there was no significant difference in the performance of male and female students taught using field trip in social studies.218a 5838. 923).000 .919 44. The 15 .055 312260.05 significance level.919 3323. .348 .002.459(Adjusted R squared= .Yusuf.647 93.918 2684.002 a. From Table 3 the treatment produced a significant difference.428 28.647 3169.837 444.837 444.000 .408 130. it is shown that at 0.

610(Adjusted R squared= .394 6. medium and low scoring students when taught using the field trip method of teaching in social studies .000 5859.154 F 17. Therefore.310 2181.004 a. and the use of field trip method of teaching did produce significant difference in the performance of high. . R squared=.027 Df 3 1 1 2 33 37 36 Mean Square 1192. Table 5: ANCOVA for post-test score of students taught using FTM based on ability Source Corrected Model Intercept PRETEST Ability Error Total Corrected Total Type III Sum of squares 3576. there was no significant difference in the performance of male and female students taught using field trip method of teaching in social studies. Ho3: There is no significant difference in the performance of students of different ability level taught using field trip method of teaching social studies. 37) = .575) The analysis in Table 6 indicated that there was a significant difference in the performance of students of different ability levels taught using field trip method in social studies. the null hypothesis was accepted.36)= 6.548 1.000 .812 2282.695 96.434 456.541> . Summary of Findings The major findings of this study revealed that there was a significant difference in the performance of students taught using the field trip and conventional methods of teaching in social studies.000 . This finding is in line with Iyewarun (1989).246 .189< .666. Discussion on Findings The main focus of this study was to examine the effects of field trip method of teaching on the performance of Junior Secondary School Students in Social Studies. Olarewaju (2004) and Talat (1996) who observed that students taught using 16 . Volume 25.930 2181. 2006 analysis revealed that there was no significant difference as the value F (2. Therefore. One of the effects is that the students taught using the field trip method had mean a gain score significantly different from those students taught using conventional method.Ilorin Journal of Education.004.097 196804.695 96.434 904.241 31. The analysis revealed that there was a significant difference at a value F(3.406 69. the hypothesis was rejected.541 Sig.

Another finding of this research revealed that male students taught using the field trip method did not performed better than female students that were also exposed to the field trip method. The analysis of covariance in table revealed significance in the mean gain sores of high. social and personal growth of youth and more as an instrument of developing critical thinking in students. The major cause of the poor performance is attributed to inappropriate method of teaching employed by social studies teachers. Teachers should expose students to field trip which will promote and encourage social interaction. This is because there was no significant differences between male and female students’ performance taught using the field trip method. It showed that students’ exposure to field trip which provides room for interaction. This is also an indication that field trip was particularly more superior to lecture method. medium and low scores taught. active engagement in learning self motivation. The finding of this study is an indication that performance of students in social studies would be greatly improved if students are allowed to interact actively with their environment using field trip method of teaching. It is observed that the field trip method of teaching provides opportunity for the students to constructively interact with their environment and provides a more productive learning environment which stimulates students towards higher achievement. The following recommendations are made based on the findings of this study. which could be needed after training 17 . learning by doing and learning by experience. enhance students’ performance in social studies. the use of activity-based field trip can improve the performance of the students either male or female who have been observed to perform poorly in social studies. 2. Conclusion and Recommendations It has been asserted that the students’ performance in social studies is poor despite the importance of the subject as a way of influencing the intellectual. This study revealed that there was a significant difference in the performance of students on the basis of scoring ability when they were exposed to field trip method. 1. This agreed with the finding of Nussbaum (2000). In other words. discovery learning. It is against this problem that this study is conducted to investigate the effect of field trip method in the teaching and learning of social studies. The teacher education program should be geared towards the preparation of social studies teachers that will enable them to acquire and maintain appropriate instructional strategy. This study has contributed to knowledge in the area of method of teaching to be employed in the teaching of social studies. AbdulRaheem field trip method had enhanced performance which made the students different and outscore their counterparts in the other groups.Yusuf.

149 . The teaching of social studies. (1996). Fundamental of educational technology.Ed. Ojo. University of Ilorin. Omosewo. Mezeiobi. I & Imogie I.151.org/Washington Ogirima. M. The Nigerian Teacher Today.O. A. 2003. In J. 3. Agun. References Abdullahi. Alexadre.G. Olarewaju. techniques. 2006 and which will promote effective teaching and learning. Laboratory. problem solving and performance skills in students. O.us/social studies/k126. An Unpublished B. 41 – 49). Project. Ilorin: Editor. (2004). National standard for social Retrieved July 13. It’s time to transform social studies teaching. http://www. Social studies teaching methods and teaching.htm Hope. (1995). Cooperative learning: Response to diversity. Fundamentals of instructional methods. In I. demonstration. Ilorin: Atoto Press Limited. (1989). and field trip method of instruction. Ilorin: Department of Curriculum Studies and Educational Technology. Ilorin: Olives Production Ltd. Amadi (Eds. (1992). (2005). Okunloye. E.nh. I. Notes on curriculum and instruction in social studies (pp. (1988).). Adebisi A. S. (Ed. Teachers’ perception of the concept and purpose of social studies in secondary school in Ilorin L. (1982) Science teaching in Nigeria.(2000). from http://www.) Fundamental principle & practice of instruction (pp. A. Jekayinfa. I. Y. A. Volume 25. The Social Studies.). Iyewarun.W. W. R. Ilorin: Omoniyi Ayeni Press. Effects of field trip on economic students in secondary schools in Ibadan. (2000). Book. Curriculum developers should develop instruction that will bring about development and acquisition of critical thinking. University of Ilorin. Ilorin. 2001). approaches and perspectives. Teachers’ attitude to the use of field trip method of teaching social studies in Kwara State. Retrieved December 6 2004. Abimbola & A. Olawepo (Ed.A. Unpublished M. C. Ilorin. from studies teachers.) project. (2004). A. Ibadan. Ilorin. National Council for Social Studies (NCSS. (2002). In G.Ilorin Journal of Education. ). A. Seminar proposal presented at the Department of Arts and Social Sciences Education. Sc.A. of Kwara State. Joof & H. University of Ilorin. W. University of Ilorin. D.socialstudies. 18 . Social studies in schools: Teaching methods. An overview of methods of teaching social studies. Onitsha: Outright publishers. A. The differential effectiveness of co-operative. O. (2006). competitive and individualistic classroom interaction patterns on students’ chemical problem-solving skills. K. O.ed. A. C.state. 121 – 129. 1 (2). Abolade (Eds.

Factors that influence learning during a scientific field trip in a natural environment. & Itedjere P. Unpublished Ph. 31 (10) 1097 – 1119. O.). Saudi-Arabia: Umm Al-Qura University.Yusuf. Talat. Nigeria. Price. Notes on curriculum and instruction in social studies. Michigan: Michigan State University College of Education and Ameritech. 8 (1&2). Manual for curriculum guides: An Islamic perspective of Islamic heritage. Effects of cooperative. M. A. W. competitive instructional strategies on junior secondary school social studies in Ilorin. Osakwe. Valeries. Department of Curriculum Studies and Educational technology. New Age Publishers. (1994). O. 111-123 Scheurman.O. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. G. Social Education. (1995). S. Nigerian Journal of Social Studies. Nigeria. Yusuf. 62. (1996). Instructional materials in social studies. From behaviourist to constructivist teaching. Is gender an issue in current education practice. (1) 6-9. A. & Hofstein A. Dissertation. (1993). D. & Nicole E. (2005). A. In J. competitive instructional strategies on junior secondary school social studies in Ilorin. Enugu. AbdulRaheem Orion. J. 23-36 19 . Olawepo (Ed. Ilorin: Editor. (1998). E. University of Ilorin. Ilorin. Yusuf. (2004). (1993). Yusuf. 43 (1). N. (2002). Effects of cooperative. Education Today. Social studies for tertiary students in Nigeria. Electronic field trips.

gold smiting. Edo State. Nigeria. uwavic@yahoo. children unconsciously acquire relevant vocational skills from their parents.Ilorin Journal of Education. and there were specializations in aspects such as orthopedics. the materials involved. 25 August. observation and direct telling were common features of this type of learning. its sequence of operation and finally came up with the uses of Bronze casting in Nigeria and world at large. and there still are two forms of traditional vocational education -: Informal and non-formal. developed and perfected her system of vocational education very much like that of medieval Europe. Some of the traditional trades and crafts widely practiced in Nigeria included pottery. painting and decorating. farming. that is the era before the introduction of western Education. which involved the use of herbs for treating different types of ailments. It looked into the technique and method of the Benin traditional bronze casting operations. Vol. amongst others. Traditional medicine was another vocation that was very widely practiced. as in other parts of the African continent. traditional building technology. 2006 PRINCIPLES. wood carving. Ambrose Alli University. vocational agriculture (as against subsistent type) by way of fishing. blacksmithing. However. Faculty of Education. EDO STATE Uwaifo. animal husbandry. Victor Oziengbe Department of Vocational and Technical Education.com 23408035472684 Abstract The thrust of this paper is to critically examine Vocational and Technical education of the pre-colonial Africa. In the informal traditional vocational education. processing of beads. Nigeria had. textiles. leather work. PRACTICE AND TECHNIQUES OF CASTING “BINI” BRONZE: A TRADITIONAL ARTIFACT OF BENIN-CITY. Introduction In pre-colonial Africa. calabash preparing and decorating. X-raying some basic traditional trades and craft widely practiced in pre-colonial Nigeria. It particularly looked into the “Bini Empire” and identified the crafts and trades prevalent amongst her people. basket making. 20 . questioning and answering methods seem to have been more effective in ensuring learning. Form of Operation There were. dentistry and general medicine. shells bones. Ekpoma.

(3) Profession: for example. In this apprenticeship training. pottery making. civil servants village heads. indigenous societies in Nigeria passed on their cultural heritage from one generation to the next. “Ogundele” (Ogun. has blessed me). “Esusu” collecting (local banking). the center for character training was the base for the introduction of vocational education. informally and non-formally. carving (wood and bronze). during the dedication of the child or the naming ceremony. leather working. hair plaiting. dancing and acrobatics. police and messengers. building. Victor Oziengbe In non-formal (out of school) education. relatives or master craftsman) and the learner to promote learning (Evans. wine selling. particularly boys were apprenticed to relatives. painting and decorating. parents. there is a conscious effort on the part of both the source of information (e. the god of iron has come to stay with the family) and so on (Omolewa. vocational training in the traditional society is largely run on the apprenticeship system and it was at that time.Uwaifo. dying. would encourage his children to adopt his profession. sculpturing. drumming. heralds judges. the god of divination. etc. Usually the children are not trained by their parents but by relatives and master craftsmen in particular fields and with particular friends in order to ensure discipline and concentration. gold. The traditional trades and crafts earlier listed above can further be roughly divided into three groups: (1) Agricultural education: for example. say in native medicine or drumming. So it was that children. “The skills” owned by a family were highly valued. brass working. a honored device for educating millions of Nigerian youths and adults. however. hunting. gold washing. 1981). a father. versed. native doctors. grinding). baking. glass making. chiefs and kings. Indeed. wine tapping and trading in all kinds of merchandise (manufactured goods and agricultural products). secrets were zealously guarded as they are indeed evident today. friends or master craftsmen for a given period to vocational training. Thus. Nature of Training The promotion of traditional education was done out of school. By and large. farming. silver. (2) Trades and crafts: for example weaving (baskets and cloth). 1981). fishing and veterinary science (animal care and animal rearing). An 21 . and in some areas such as native medicine. bordering. mat making. parents often invoke the spirit of the profession on the child or acknowledge the intervention of the gods of the profession in bringing luck to the child. carpentry. threshing. soldiers. This is the background to traditional names like “Fayemi” (Ifa. priests. ”Parents took the preparation of their children for future career very seriously.g. singing. shrine-keepers. catching (frying. etc). bead working. boat making. dress making. soap making. Councilors. (Fafunwa. smiting (iron. 1980). and essentially at home. witch doctors. tax-collections. food selling. iron ore working.

the state gets wood in several species and so the people are talented wood carvers and carpenters. sharing boundaries with Kogi State in the North. brass. stone. centers around certain families with the skills taught by a mother to her daughter or niece. the indigenes make works various ornamental using clay to first cast. Also. bamboo. from the thick forest. include: bronze. Therefore. wool. The major traditional vocation of the people is in metal works. calabash. Edo State is a major exporter of Rubber from her vast rubber plantations. depending on the customs of the area. Let us take Edo State. 1974). and so the people are predominantly farmers. 2006 iron blacksmith on the Jos Plateau or a Yoruba one in Ibadan will say that members of his family have been blacksmiths for generations beyond memory and even an ordinary village will usually show that pottery-making. clay. beads. aluminum and clay. This has made for the various skills and the many diverse kinds of materials. skins. Learning a craft often began with personal service to the master. The soil in Edo State is on a very fertile one. aluminum. People and History Benin City is the capital of Edo State. 22 . East and West of Nigeria. shells. who would feed and clothe them and after some years of promising usefulness they would gradually be introduced to the craft of the guardian (Fafunwa. 25 August. From these. for an example. which can be mined from the state. cultural heritages and contrasting geography. Edo State is blessed with thick rain forests and she has many rubber plantations. shines. Almost anything put on it grows richly. Prominent objects are wood. Edo State is located in the middle belt of Nigeria. Animal materials that are utilized are horn. It is also referred to by the mass media as the “the heartbeat of the nation” because of its central location with respect to road connections from Benin City to the North. and also of palm oil from palm trees that grow lavishly in the state and farm plantations made of them. cotton. for example. one major vocation of the people is hunting in her thick forests. South. which is made up of the “Bini’s”. ivory and teeth. feathers. Young boys would become house servants to a close relative. fibrous bark. People are known to come from all around Nigeria and beyond to buy furniture from Benin City. raffia. glass and dyes. It is apparent that the geography of the area was a great determinant of the traditional trades and crafts of the people of that area. and resins. or a father to this son or nephew. Ondo State in the West and Delta State in the South. brass. Minerals. while minerals used include bronze. iron. They also carve decorative ornament and jewelry from ivory got from elephant tusks. Vol. Benue and Anambra States in the North-East. Imo State in the East.Ilorin Journal of Education. Influence of Geographical Location Nigeria is a heterogeneous society with diverse tribes and tongues. iron.

Uwaifo. The guilds were to produce only by royal commission and ensure that their products were of the required standard. which dates back to the 13th century. 23 . The ancient Benin Kingdom was one of the best known of the ancient kingdoms of the Guinea Forest and it enjoyed an Empire of some 500 miles radius when it was at its peak. the Benin Empire extended into Dahomey (Republic of Benin). Etsako and Owan. the Ibo people to the East. The establishment of the Guild system gave the different craftsmen the state right to monopolize their trade and form associations to safeguard their interest. but to survive and still largely function even till today. the system according to which property owned by a father goes after his death to the eldest son. the largest of which are the Bini’s as distinct from the people of Ishan. The palace societies and guild system are part of the institutions of the Oba. To the west. they were both cutters and carpenters. “Ogiso Ere” did not only ensure that the guilds were formed and that they organized monopolies. The Guild System The word guild is defined in the long man Dictionary of Contemporary English as “An association for businessmen or skilled workers who joined together in former times to help one another and to make rules for training new members”. The nearest ethnic groups to her boundaries were the Yoruba people to the West. The guild system is very important in the Benin Traditional. social and economic life. Ijaw and Itshekiri peoples to the south in the coastal swamp. with Eko (Lagos) inclusive and to Asosa in the East. and the Urhobo. a vocation. He was of the last of the sky kings before the Eweka dynasty.. The people of the Benin kingdom are Edo speaking. thus serving as a fillip to the Benin traditional greatness and survival as an independent state until the earlier mentioned British expedition of 1897. Victor Oziengbe particularly bronze and brass castings.e. political. the hereditary divine king of Benin. For 800 years the kingdom has enjoyed continuity and this has been made possible by a successful “kingship succession practice” based on the principles of primogeniture i. the Ebira and Igala peoples to the North.e. but he also made sure that they lived in the quarters established for them. The people identification with the guild system and the propensity to obey the regulations of the Oba as the central authority made them not to fall completely after the expedition. This was to bring together the scattered craftsmen all over the kingdom and make their administration easy. The guild system in Benin came into existence during the reign of “Oba Ogiso Ere”. The following are some of the guilds that were formed: (1)“Owina” (wood workers): they fetched the wood used for preparing doors and other furniture work for the Oba’s palace to use the modern expression. This whole empire was held strongly together by the heads and rulers of the kingdom called “OBA” i. It ended at the Atlantic Ocean in the South and at the upper Benue River in the North. which rules Benin till the present day.

These are 24 . particularly during the reign of “Oba Esigie” (1504-1550) enabled the Oba to obtain increased and steady supply of metal in Bronze and Iron. An early German Africanist. (6)“Owina N’Ido” (Weavers): They weaved the native cloth (Ukhuen) and other similar material used in the royal court. The better known of the two is the Benin Bronze work. There are two types of metal works in Benin. (4)“Isohien” (Leather workers): the hides and skins. (8)“Igun Eronmwon” (Bronze casters): Made the famous traditional brass and bronze castings that are known all over the world. They also make clay pots for cooking and storing water. their refinement and modeling ranked at par with sculptures of Europe’s own classical antiquity. The technical skill of the castings. This led to increased output of metal works with improvement on forms and designs. were passed on to the leather workers to produce ceremonial drums for the Oba. and nobody else either. which the hunters removed from their game. south of the Sahara at the time the first European visited that kingdom in 1485/1486. 25 August. 1989). namely. Bronze (Brass) work and Ironwork. She declared that even as early as that time. conquering other lands and expanding their empire. these bronzes are technically of the highest quality”. (3)“Ohue” (Hunters): they provided the required meat for the royal court. These drums were used for the different palace ceremonies. as well as the leather. there are ten chiefs who are in charge of the different sub sections of the guild. the Igun Eronmwon now lives in the street bearing that name in Benin City under the leadership of chief Inneh. and it is under the royal guild called “Igun Eronmwon”. Benin trade with the Europeans. before or since Cellini. (7)“Imakhe” (Pot makers): They provided containers made from clay. The guilds of traditional metal workers. some of which were used in the Osun Shrine. “Igun Eronwom” (bronze casters guild) and “Igun Ematon” (blacksmiths guild) were a part of a complex and properly organized system. (Akansbiemu. “Felix Von Lushan” in 1919 praised Benin metal art works highly when he said in his own words “Benvenuto Cellini could not have cast them better. They also provided the fresh elephant tusks. which the Isohien (leather workers) needed. Kaplan (1993) observed that Benin was one of the most prosperous and best-organized cities in Africa. Founded by “Oba Ogunola” in the 14th century.Ilorin Journal of Education. (9)“Igun Ematon” (Black smiths): Made spears and several other traditional weapons of war that the fearless Benin warriors used to fight their wars. the guilds of bronze workers and blacksmiths were already in place. 2006 (2)“Igbesanmwan” (carvers): they produced the famous Benin ivory tusks scattered in several museums around the world. (5)“Isekpoki” (Also leather workers): They also used leather from the Ohue’s animal hides and skins to produce Ekpoki (errand boxes or containers made from leather) which were used in delivering articles from the royal court to people the Oba wished to make such gifts. which the Igbesanmwan worked on. Under the guild leader. Vol.

The Benin natives never got involved in the process of creating brass or bronze i. Obazogun. Akenuwa. Bronze and Brass seem to be interchangeably used. what you find beneath is precisely in bronze form what was originally constructed in bees wax. Olague. Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc while Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin. This is heated with the aid of bellows blowing through the fired charcoal till the bronze pieces melt. the object that the artist wishes to work on The core is prepared from red earth (laterite). Ebagua. Ihama. The artist uses a piece of stick (utere) to determine the readiness of the molten bronze and when judged ready. he will then invest the art work (now in bees wax formation) with mud and the mould is left to dry for some days. The mould is then left for about an hour for the heat level to come down. The technique of bronze casting is an intricate one and it is by the lost wax process. “Exactly where the supplies of metal came from.). Obasogie and Osasenwenoyennwen (Inneh. Victor Oziengbe Ehanire. table and some modeling tools. which is the main earth all over Benin land. It has mails or iron red pieces stuck into it as interior support and are left for some days to dry. before the Portuguese period is 25 . while the crucible containing molten bronze is lifted from the blaze of burning charcoal and poured into the red-hot mould to replace the “lost wax”. The mould is placed in the fire prepared with firewood while a crucible containing bronze pieces is placed on the red-hot charcoal fire. the technology of making copper with zinc or tin. which defines in shape and form. the detail form that the artist wished to represent is constructed in bee wax. Lifting either the mould or molten bronze from fire is done with the aid of iron tongs. The artist then proceeds to the final process of casting by placing the mould on fire which has been prepared with fire wood or charcoal and heating it to the point that molten bee’ wax runs out of the mould. Bronze Casting Technique In Benin. Over the dried core. When the investment is removed. two sets of fire are prepared simultaneously. wax extensions or spruces are added to provide spaces or channels to let out molten wax and to pour in molten bronze to replace the “lost wax” during casting. 1877). one with wood and the other with charcoal. The cavity occasioned by the evacuation of the molten wax is where molten bronze is introduced during casting. Modeling is carried out with the aid of iron knife. Obadolaye. To introduce molten bronze into the mould. Large moulds may be held together from disintegration by metal bands.Uwaifo. They used already processed brass or bronze pieces. In the mould. It involves the creation of a core. This is a very intricate process and it takes a lot of energy and caution to work out. Obasoyen. Cast copper alloy objects (bronze and brass) were the most prestigious work of art in Benin Court and this has been credited to the artistic and technical achievement of Bini’s (Bryna. the mould is lifted out of the Bonfire. although the chemistry of both is different.e. When the artist is satisfied that he has nothing more to add. cam wood spatula. 1987.

In the past. while some members of the expedition retained their own personal collections. They are born into the vocation and as they grow. The British foreign office sold some of the looted art works. The casters sonorously chorused. Eronmwon uyaruya (twice) No ye’ eken khian Igho Yaruya (twice)” This praise song means that “Igun Eronmwon” children have the capacity to turn sand into money. “long lives the Oba. silver and ivory ornaments. Rather. non-bronze casters were not allowed to be present when the mould was broken open. punches. they got served with food. The Bronze casters guild. 26 . No salaries were paid to members of the bronze casters guild for services to the Oba or the chiefs in the guild. The workers live there with their families and have their workshops there. metal. 2006 not known. It was therefore unusual for apprenticeship to come from other families who had their own trades and belonged to specific guilds. it was still more usual for guilds to train new entrants from their own families. Benin enjoys a foremost position in Africa regarding bronze works. In auction rooms in these countries. These new entrants were their own direct children or children of brothers or sisters. “Oba gha to Kpere” meaning. Vol. with families confirming themselves to their trades and the guilds to which they belonged.Ilorin Journal of Education. Igun N. Rather. file (Olima). art works of Benin including wood carvings. (also called Afian but much smaller than the cutters). scrapper (Ohiagha) and sand convenient for the caster. uncles or aunties or some other close relative who all belonged to the same guild. Their shops line up “Igun Eronmwon Street” where they display bronzes ornaments for sale to tourists and make bisque and lucrative business. cutters (Afian). They are all closely linked as children of “Igueghae”.” They sang songs of praise for their leader and the guild: “lvb. they graduate into the vocation to become natural brass and bronze casters. Till the present day. and establish their own workshops. Some private collectors also bought some pieces. The various aspects of the life of the people of Benin were represented in many of the bronze works. which the bronze workers use. build their homes. they sang and praised their leaders for every successful casting. Benin art works were well contended for. The children are born there and grow up there. Polishing tools. 1976). 25 August. to learn another vocation from another guild. During the war between Britain and the Benin kingdom of 1897 in which Britain gained the upper hand. “Igun Eronmwon” still exists today in the street bearing that name in Benin City. bronze and brass works were carted away and stored in major museums in Europe and America in substantial quantities. are the hammer (Umomo). Conclusion The Benin kingdom operated closed guild systems and trades were guarded jealously. drinks and received support from the leaders on maturity to marry wives.” (Attenborough. the first bronze casters and to whom chief Inneh their leader is a direct descendant.

Benin City: Supreme Ideal Publishers International Ltd. S. (1981). Tokyo: The Seibu Museum of Art. E. (1976). Oba of Benin (1914-1933) sent the Ine N’ Igun and head of the brass casters guild to Achimota College in the then Gold Cost (Ghana) to learn the Art of modern Bronze casting in order to improve the traditional methods. F. London: British Broadcasting Corporation. Paris: UNESCO. In 1927. “Oba Erediauwa” himself is now the principal patron of the Bronze workers and Iron Worker. University of Benin. Akansbiemu. The planning of non-formal education. Omolewa. Ibadan: Evans Brothers Nigeria Publishers Ltd. (1964). Images of power: Art of royal court in Benin. M.A. The palace societies and guild system in pre-colonial Benin. M. New York: New York University. 1 (1). (1989). the Igun “Eronmwon” and the “Igun Ematon” guilds have been preserved. the principal. J. Inneh. The tribal eye.Uwaifo. Research Project. D. History of education in Nigeria. The effect of history and culture on the standard of technical education in Nigeria: Book of readings on quality in Nigerian education. Adult education practice in Nigeria. Fafunwa. 27 . Unpublished B. (1989). Kaplan. (1981). Journal of African Studies. B. Benin art culture. Victor Oziengbe Attempts have been made to sustain and improve the quality of output by brass workers. (1974). Attenborough. Oba Eweka II. D. A. References Archibald. 27 – 38. Fadamiro. C. and coupled with the facts that the present Oba of Benin. With the establishment of formal school for Arts and crafts. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd. A. The Oba there after established the Benin arts and Crafts school making the Ine N’ Igun. protected and even propagated till the present day. (1981). Nigeria’s indigenous education: The apprenticeship system. D. Evans. (1981).

Okunloye (PhD) Department of Arts and Social Sciences Education. W. international actors are located in one wholistic international arena or system where they found themselves as neighbours or co-players. International relations has been a major area of specialization in the political science discipline. 25 August. no matter how distantly located from their neighbours or coplayers in the system. All states are inevitably involved in international relations on four related bases: First. Ilorin Abstract This paper examined the concepts of social studies and international relations. Second. the bases of. This explains the use of interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary approach to its study. Topical elements in the existing Junior Secondary School Social Studies Curriculum were identified for the proposed integration as a way of renewal of the curriculum to meet new challenges facing the learners in the emerging all-inclusive one world community of humans. are directly or indirectly affected by happenings in the system where each actor constitutes a part. international relations as an act of international interaction at bi-lateral or multilateral level between or among international actors is multi-dimensional. and changing phases of International relations and advanced rationale for integrating additional content of International relations in the junior secondary or basic school social studies curriculum. 1980) distinguished among political. the proliferation of international organizations and increasing globalization of the modern world. Ofoegbu. Third. including states or nations. economic. 2006 Social Studies and International Relations: Challenges for Citizenship Education in the Nigerian Junior Secondary School Social Studies Curriculum R. recreational. International relations is the act and study of all dimensions of international interactions between or among international actors. Fourth. Hence. private and public international relations. intergovernmental organizations. private international or supranational companies. individuals and groups in the international system. 1968. International relations experts (Morgenthau. University of Ilorin.Ilorin Journal of Education. cultural. international actors. Vol. Introduction Social studies is an integrated school subject that focuses on the study of human-environmental relationships for the purposes of citizenship education. the emergence of worldwide problems or issues of common concern that transcend the artificial boundaries of states or nations which also require concerted efforts for solutions or management warrants international relations. 28 .

war is the continuation of international relations by other means. Okunloye. Fourth. social studies and international relations share broadly similar goals and objectives of citizenship education. humans in society as the primary unit of analysis are shared by Social studies and International relations. Social studies is aimed at ensuring effective citizenship through the acquisition of abilities. Social Studies and International Relations Social studies and international relations shares broadly similar characteristics with respect to their integrated nature. Third. and goals and objectives. 1994). peaceful coexistence. 29 . 1980). humans in society as the primary unit of analysis. skills and attitudes that enables the individual to live in and contribute to the development of his/her society (Federal Republic of Nigeria [FRN]. which political science and its subsidiary-International relations constitute a part. 2001). W. for exponents of power perspective in international relations. the central organizing theme of human-environmental relationships is similar in Social studies and International relations. are referred to as the social foundation of curriculum planning in social studies (Kissock. First. thematic focus on humanenvironmental relationships. Humanenvironmental relationships theme helps Social studies and International relations experts to organize different facets of human-environmental relationships. and societal development. and competencies. Social studies and International relations are integrated in nature because they both study humans in society from different dimensions. This explains why Social sciences. cooperation. political. The gregarious nature of humans as social beings is responsible for their living in societies and these human societies at domestic or international plane are inevitably involved in multi-faceted relationships of association. 1981. Although. cultural. Okunloye since the establishment of the United Nations Organizations (UNO) in 1945 have made international relations inevitable. 2004).R. historical and geographical dimensions around this theme to explain how humans in society influence their environment and how they are also influenced by their environment (Okunloye. both mental and physical. Second. Citizenship education in the context of the global society has domestic and international dimensions. the primary focus of international relations is peaceful coexistence among neighbouring states in particular and world peace and progress in general (Ofoegbu. Rationale for Integration of International Relations in Citizenship Education Citizenship education is a model and strand of purpose of social studies curriculum aimed at developing good citizenship qualities in the learners so that they can become responsible citizens in adulthood. such as economic. and competition as individuals and groups.

The UN is leading the campaign and intervention efforts in this regard. in which each of the existing 36 states in Nigeria may become a Local Government Area. In related vein. Hence. increasing integration of some states toward supranational states or institutions. Globalization. This inadequacy stems from globalization. 25 August. Fourthly. 2002). Secondly. but extends to membership of the world community of humans. Globalization has universalized and virtually merged these countries into one global village where domestic relations within and International relations among humans of different nationalities or state are much more imperative (Chase. 2007). there has been growing concern for world peace and human welfare. 2000. politics. as a product of rapid advances in science and technology reveals a growing trend of international interconnection of different countries of the world into one and allinclusive human society has virtually remove the artificially imposed boundaries among humans in different nations or states (Okunloye. and growing concern for world peace and human welfare. increasing international dependency. in the international arena. since the inception of the UNO in 1945. nations or states in the international system have become much more interdependent on one another by virtue of universalizing forces and institutional arrangements in the international system (Okunloye. 2006 International relations capture both dimensions. there has been. Untied Nations Scientific and Cultural Organization 30 . For example. the mother discipline of International relation is part of the constituent Social sciences content in social studies. the broadly similar elements of international relations and Social studies show that they are not mutually exclusive. Therefore. Obiora. citizenship education should have a wider conception beyond Nigerian citizenship in the face of the evolving international states. The AU is currently undergoing some institutional re-structuring that may ultimately lead to the emergence of the United States Africa (USAF) with the exception of newly emergent states. However. the European Union (EU) G8 nations (Group of eight leading industrialized nations) Economic Community of West African State (ECOWAS) African Union (AU) and so on.Ilorin Journal of Education. the concept of citizenship is not just restricted to membership of a nation or state. When fully actualized the USAF may be a confederacy of African States. particularly the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and its specialized agencies such as World Health Organization (WHO). The United Nations Organizations major organs. Thirdly. International relations is already part of social studies in a unified integrated framework in two respects. the trend of integration of sovereign states or nations into supranational group of states or at worst the emergence of international institutions where member states surrendered some elements of their sovereignty to permit some level of interference in seemingly domestic affairs of the constituent autonomous states or nations. the elements of international relations in the existing junior secondary school social studies and citizenship education curricular are grossly inadequate in the light of four interrelated developments in the contemporary international system. Vol. First. in Press).

Okunloye (UNESCO). technology and society in the JSS II syllabus.R. it has become imperative to inject some additional contents of international relations into the existing social studies and citizenship education curriculum in the Nigerian basic schools. For instance. Fifthly. convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). promoting human welfare and establishment of peacekeeping missions in troubled spots in world. First. nation. Secondly. are most active in these regard. Accordingly. Hence. international actors and organizations should be introduced as sub topics under social environment – social organization in JSS 1 syllabus. United Nations Children Education Fund (UNICEF) and so on. the following areas of integration of international relation into the junior secondary school (JSS) social studies curriculum are proposed. in the light of the existing relationship between Social studies and International relations and the changes in. the evolving one world community of humans should be introduced under social change and science. International Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD). It is hoped that these innovations in Social Studies syllabus will equip students with adequate knowledge. when the societal milieu and the challenges facing the learners change. Convention Against Discrimination in Education (CDE) among others. citizenship education should be addressed at different levels in human society from the smallest local setting to the most encompassing global world community of humans. Finally. Fourthly. international cooperation should be introduced under cooperation and conflict in the JSS 1 syllabus. covenants and convention for the purpose of maintaining world peace. regional and world) should form part of the world and its peoples in JSS III syllabus. skills. Thirdly. international organizations should form part of institutions (domestic and foreign) in JSS III syllabus. 31 . Conclusion and Recommendations In accordance with the tradition in curriculum development. including Nigeria. it becomes imperative to rework some aspects of the curriculum again for the purpose of curriculum renewal or reform to make the curriculum fit the learner. 2006a) Therefore. These are clear signals that most countries of the world are moving towards achieving consensus on shared aspirations and values about human dignity and welfare as well as shared collective responsibility in addressing global human problems (Okunloye. and challenges of the relatively new international system. attitudes and values of international relations for effective living in an increasing interconnected global world community of humans. The UN had passed several resolutions. levels of social environment – the family community to world community should be introduced as sub-topics under social environment in JSS III syllabus. W. state. Many of these international conventions have been domesticated in member states of the UN. levels of citizenship (local. sub-regional.

H. Book of readings in social studies. R. National rebirth programme through social studies curriculum. W. (1994). Okunloye. National rebirth and poverty alleviation in Nigeria. Fasanmi. Ile-Ife: Social Studies Association of Nigeria . human rights and the challenges for the Nigerian junior secondary school social studies curriculum. Sokoto Educational Review. (1981). F. (2000). M. Globalization. Kissock. 185. Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN. Morgenthau. L. Ogunsanya & S. 32 . Vol. Toronto : John Wiley. New York: Knopf. globalization and culture: After Beijing.5-6. 61 (5). O. Unilorin. 4 (1). (in Press).eduT. Curriculum planning for social studies. African Journal of Educational Studies (AJES) . R. K. Obiora. Okunloye. The concept of integration in social studies. In M. (2006a) Human rights provisions in Nigerian Constitution (1999) and the United Nations Universal Declaration on Human Rights: Comparative analysis and challenges for civil liberty democracy and citizenship education in Nigeria. R.Ilorin Journal of Education. Foundation course for international relations for African universities. Okunloye. R. W4-6. W. London: George Allen & Unwin. International Journal of Global Legal Studies. A. Ofoegbu. In F. W. National policy on education (4th ed) Lagos : Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council Press. R. (2002). W. Ilorin: Institute of Education . A. Ogundare (Eds). Feminism. Chase01@tults. 355. K. (1968) Politics among nations. Globalisation and national politics.). (2001). 2004). 25 August. Okunloye. C. (1980). 2006 References Chase. Awoyemi (Ed.

languages and literature. 25 August. generates new data analysis and support new tools for research work. clothing. Introduction Since a long time ago. 2006 ICT-based Library: A Redefinition of Library Services SANNI. why. It analyses the challenges facing the librarians in their pursuit to move education forward through deployment of ICT infrastructure. However. pharmacology. television. Any information whatsoever on the above aspect of educations learning can be found in the custody of academic library anywhere or anytime today. computer. Vol. Thus. 2000). canals. rail. transport. religion. The tentacles of ICT covers all major areas of human endeavour such as philosophy. the basic needs of individuals have been determined to include food. This paper compares the requirements for the delivery of library services and ways of achieving them in the manual and ICT-based libraries. thereby combining library and information technology services. But the latest technology (ICT) has become the mother of all inventions since it touches all aspects of human life from production to consumption and waste disposing. Moronkola Munir Saki Satellite Campus.Ilorin Journal of Education. and information communication technology (John. shelter and security. roads. in meeting the information needs of both lecturers and students. the users and new research tools means that there may be new ways to address old problems 33 . The requirement to obtain human needs at relevant place and time led to the establishment of information on when. and how to buy and sell goods and services using the appropriate technology available at any time. These technologies then start evolving after industrial revolution in some part of Europe and later spread across the globe. the quality of these basic needs is pivoted on the wealth creation. radio. also policy guidelines to be employed by the academic libraries in switching to ICT-based libraries are enumerated. The fact that there is vastly increased data about the resources. arts. Technology continues to have a dynamic impact on the roles of librarians. The relevance of ICT to library can be seen as the new technology that permit new forms of services. air. Some of the technologies that had improved the world economy are steam power. pure science.com 2348033661212 Abstract The world is going through information revolution through the deployment of information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure. librarians are now promoting the use of computer networks. libraries and library services. social science. and management. The Polytechnic Ibadan Oyo State msanni1@yahoo. history and human geography. applied sciences. usage.

economic and industrial development. Learning new facts and the mastering of previous facts learnt. explore. tackling of assignment. Thus. Library as recognized infrastructure in the tertiary institution has a leading role in the information service. storage and dissemination such as those related to commercial. information storage and retrieval system. social. Information and knowledge must be available and accessible to the bulk of everybody that desires it (“massification of education”). Academic reading is a study-type reading that deals with problems-solving such as learning to analyse the contents of various documents. library makes provision for learners who want to tackle assignments or prepare ahead for experiments. For instance. understand their values. processing. The libraries together with the librarians are part of 34 . and preparation for examination or knowledge update is better done in an ICT environment. or want to be exposed to new facts and the mastering of previous lessons. So also group of professionals that want to update their knowledge skill can peruse new findings from researches already conducted that are available in the library’s various formats and platforms. Moronkola Munir (Buckland. the new technique in the ICT-based library activities and services will involves library automation. discover and make adequate use of reference materials and glean Information from all types of printed and non-printed media (Keefer. two decades ago and improved their educational sectors by the deployment of ICT (Adegbola. 2006). As the needs and expectations of library users change in the digital environment so also the libraries are trying to adjust by looking for the best ways to define their users communities. The techniques of delivery of library services have changed but the role has remained. 2007). and evolve digital collections and services to meet their demands. In fact. so also India. Academic libraries have been saddled with the following responsibilities (i) How students and staff find information? (ii) The type of resources needed by the library patrons that the Library does not provide? (iii) What are the levels of demand for these unavailable resources and why these resources? (iv) What are the bye products of such resources being sought after? All the answers to the listed questions above can be obtained from good library activities within or outside academic institution through the deployment of ICT library as the most relevant on the task of information/data gathering. The conducive change in technique apart from provision of convenience/enabling working environments for librarians also makes it possible to attract the students to love the library in order to embrace correct reading culture as well as providing up to date citing and referencing for research work.SANNI. China doubles its students in the early 1990s. 2003). office automation and resource sharing network routines (Manjunath. 2001). or workers expecting unscheduled interview or promotion examinations. which has a definitive and positive contribution to academic development.

while all external information will be generated by following the steps below: Creation of network of computers in the library. and how the data will be accessed. librarians are now promoting the use of computer networks thus combining library and information technology services. patents. newspaper recording of indigenous technological processes. pamphlets. literature reviews. Hiring of an exchange carrier 35 . journals. Setting up of ICT-based library will involve that all library data be first gathered through the computerised database in the various units. Comparison between Conventional and ICT-Based Academic Libraries Conventional Academic Library Requirements It involves acquisition of all published and unpublished indigenous and foreign informational materials that are of high interest. as well as subject headings. technical catalogue and so on. ICT – Based Academic Library Requirements In the creation of ICT-based libraries there is need to make a list of highlevel requirements which includes what information the library will contain. what audience the information is intended for. 25 August. Thus. monographs. and relevance to academic circle. This include policy and technical documents. directories. such as indexes abstracts. Connection of the tail end of library network to all other network in the academic community through a device called router. However the retrieval of information is done manually and on site. Subscription to Internet Service Provider (ISP). audiovisual. Library should be a facilitating centre for the spread of knowledge that helps in practically every activity that touches on the culture and Information activities of the nation. theses and dissertations.Ilorin Journal of Education. 2006 action centre in the academic progress of all tertiary institutions and if our education system will tow the line of global information services in the future. But one may be a bit worried about the inability of our manual academic library services to match the current developmental trend. Vol. The organization of the above listed materials are achieved by the use of cataloguing and classification schemes. then the sky could be the only barrier to academic development. there will be need for a redefinition of library services as against what obtains now. thesauri and system of cross referencing. conference papers bibliographic tools. annual reports. how that information will be generated. This inability can be overcome by linking to a network of libraries within or outside academic institution through the deployment of ICT infrastructure. books. Once the tertiary institution can invest more money and time on relevant infrastructure. research results. terminologies.

must be available 10 11 12 36 . Desktop downloading and printing Reproduction requires time consuming require little time (due to multi photocopying operation tasking benefit) Cut and paste of downloaded text is Photocopying reproduces inert text possible Individual chapter or article may be Book retrieved wholly while article via directly retrieved issue. organisation. Table 1: Comparison of Library Routine Services in ICT-Based and Conventional Academic Library ICT-Based Library 1 Conventional/Manual Library Little manpower and paperwork may A lot of paper works and skilled be needed in the ICT–based manpower is needed in the conventional requirements library requirements Acquisition. journals. Retrieval is subject to item being on the shelf/correctly located on the shelf Available during library opening hours. software packages. Personal access require visit to library 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Simultaneous user access as Single user access for same item licensed Library items can be linked to Catalogue records and resources have no catalogue records easily direct bearing. on the availability of appropriate infrastructure like cataloque. Management and academic considerations in the library organised with and without ICT are depicted in Table 2 below. Necessary equipment (including PC) No special equipment cost is required. cataloque machine and typewriter are needed. documentation documentation can be and circulation of library materials are of complemented by a micro manual operation electronic–based combination of computing and telecommunication Administrative effectiveness depends To promote organisational effectiveness. Moronkola Munir The requirements of the two types of libraries for library routine services are compared in Table 1 below. and Acquisition. Kardex. cabinet.SANNI. Resource retrieval is virtual Available when network is available Accessing can be done remotely. organization.

Vol. loss. cataloguing. Text can be subject to interference Duplication Document delivery permitted to other libraries. 25 August. The routines include: selection. acquisition. There is physical handling cost 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 No physical handling cost Location (URL) changes may be Location changes are within the beyond control of the library control of the library No expedited delivery cost Cost of air mail for expedited delivery Subscription of ICT items may Subscription for printed copies may require acceptance of print be accompanied with free soft copy Single subscription serves all Multiple subscriptions may be required Cataloguing and bibliographic Controls are more stable and control standard are less stable standardized. Frequently not licensed for document delivery to other library. Selection Services: Selection exercises are done before books purchase. Definite text It may not prevent documentation and duplication 12 13 14 ICT Techniques/Approaches to Information Management There is equally the need to compare the library routines between the conventional academic and ICT-based libraries. theft and mutilation is to the library materials common to library items Space saving allowance No shelving task is required Space consuming is noticeable Shelving and shelf reading task and user reliance on item being on shelf and correctly shelved.Ilorin Journal of Education. Cited articles have to be looked up manually. 37 . Potential for linking direct to an academic cited paper. storage and preservation and usage. Impact factors based on analysis of citation indexes. 2006 Table 2: Management and Academic consideration in the manual and ICT based Libraries ICT Library 1 2 3 Manual Library No physical mutilation or damage Damage. gift and donation but the criteria for prints are as follows: Level of demand by users. Reputation of publishers. Suitability of titles to the needs of the institutions.

the development. bundle with other journal titles. while in the ICT-based catalogue records can be hot linked using hyperlink to allow direct access.SANNI. The ICT. CD ROM. the bibliographies and so on. On the other hand. Once an issue is chosen. While cataloguing the digital version other media specifications are allowed apart from print version such as audio. Electronic Collection Online (ECO) service guarantees permanent access to contents that has been acquired as well as the future migration of these contents to new platforms and format. etc. Storage and Preservation Services: The system of information storage gives the library control over the information and its accessibility. the authors credentials. Regardless of the cost to the institutions. simultaneous users.item publishers also realized that the user must be given the opportunity to perform all those rituals. images. If at this level of analysis. accidental erasures and general care of ICT storage devices. Moronkola Munir Price. librarian in the library without ICT takes care of the shelves. But an article of interest is located the eyes glance over it. Usage/Access Services: It is more interesting for the beginners to go through an article that catches their eyes or else leaf through the issues scanning titles of summary from paragraph to paragraphs. catalogue records and resources are not directly linked. Condition of use (Contractual restrictions) based • • • • Acquisition Services: The acquisition of printed item and ICT-based ones is different in that the former are purchased outright. the article is deemed to be of interest. Most of the ICT items will remain at the supplier site for direct access by users to allow long-term preservation. motion pictures and interactive functionalities among others. magnetic tape among others. a table of content allows the user to decide to go through or select an 38 . new factors must be taken into considerations for ICTmaterials selection. the printed items will remain on shelves or in a restricted storage area. Thus. While some items can be kept in computer Hard disk.). the user begins to read it or perhaps photocopy it for future reading.g. HTML/PDF) Types and quality of delivery Price (based on factors that vary from that of prints such as potential Users. the section headers. reading the summary first. maintenance and storage of library item are fundamental to the library existence. Cataloguing Services: In the conventional academic library. thus an example of e-journal usage may start from Home Page to give access to the current issues as well as other recent issues and older volumes. which are: Format of files (e. while librarians with ICT based-libraries take cares of virus attack. whereas the ICT-based items are acquired under license and most of them are released (on the website) earlier than prints copies.

2. ejournal publishing and so on. book-keeping practices among others. Therefore. etc. Methods of communicating knowledge now include data communication network facilities like e-mail. books. ICT Capabilities and Potential Benefits Meaningful academic program that is well planned to survive the test of time must have a sound information base back up with ICT. 4. Albeit. like the form that we know it today. 4. journals. 2. Methods of and tools for recording knowledge now include computer storage media. They also have to introduce some organization and order into the welter of materials and dissemination for the use of individuals through whose use the society on the whole benefits in various forms like generation of new knowledge and new guides to action. teleconferencing. Vol. 2006 aspect or a whole article from the issue. databases among others. telecommunications. The deployment of ICT infrastructure to deliver library services will bring dynamism when thrusted on the academic community especially by exploiting the following capabilities: 39 . the techniques and approaches to information management may be different in the two cases but the core function is information storage and retrieval system. 25 August. Methods of communicating knowledge within different communities which may be in form of letters. Therefore. facsimile transmission. journals. telephone. 3. creating and editing databases. librarian believes that information management system could have and has proceeded without the aid of computers. radio and television. Method of indexing documents and information now include creation of inverted or index files and other special files to facilitate rapid retrieval by the use of terms or condition of terms in records management. networks and the like. the deployment of ICT into Library services delivery and the conventional techniques include the following (Rowley 1988): 1. The activities that constitute information management may not have been labelled as such. Methods of keeping records about activities now include storage media coupled with software for designing. Methods of keeping records about activities such as in-house filing systems. Methods of and tools for recording for posterity in material forms such as books. HTML and PDF are the two commonest format currently used for e-journal presentations. 3. Methods of indexing documents and information so that they can be retrieved at any location identified anywhere in the world. Information Communication Technology is a relative latecomer to this scene and offer new methods in all the fours areas earlier mentioned as: 1. if there is no information communication technology infrastructure. Challenges of ICT to Librarians It is the duty of librarians to acquire and preserve the accumulating store of collective knowledge and intellectual heritage.Ilorin Journal of Education.

• Data base design information storage and retrieval. how data should be archived and whether one system can manage data from different kind of assessment. ICT system can be used to assemble all data from all library units. departments. • Web page concept and design. • Opportunity for full-fledged distribution channeled for Library services.SANNI. • The internet as an information resource. Thus the potential benefits of ICT based library services delivery include the following: • Increase innovation and varieties in service delivery. Moronkola Munir Access information that is unlimited. • • • • • • • ICT Packages There are many ICT packages that handlers of ICT-based library delivery services must be accustomed with. payment of fines). Education through ICT. • Online access to library services and activities (references. The library staff can generate ad hoc reports from data extracted and update them regularly from the integrated library system. Library sites can be developed for a management information system to compile and manage statistical data by wrestling with how long data should be kept. and faculties within and outside the institution and easily generate texts and graphics and multi year trend lines which are important feature of virtual library and information services in an academic arena (Denise. circulation. expenditure and the productivity of cataloguing departments. Users can query the data and run cross-tabulation. E-leaning opportunity. • Settlement of local and foreign invoices using credit or debit cards (safety cards). Listening to live radio programs from different countries. The reports obtained may be useful for variety of purposes including analysis of collection development materials. but the ICT training should cover the following modules: • Introduction to integrated automated library system. • Information seeking at an electronic environment. 2002). Reading books and non books. Enjoining social side of learning. 40 . Taking part in video conferencing without leaving one’s local environment. • Enlargement of library users and collections without physical expansion of the building.

its usability. Lack of knowledge and technical know-how on installation. procedure and technique to use. requests and assessment. 2006 Procedures Desires for Switching From Manual to ICT Based Library Services Switching from manual to ICT-based library is normally characterised by the following problems: 1. 25 August. operating costs and reliability. Turkey.based infrastructure. Nevertheless the role of librarian has not changed despite new methods offered by the information communication technology infrastructure. Lack of ICT awareness in some academic settings and difficulties in spreading awareness on the need to switch without delay. university staff. • The review will look at the quality of the estimate and the effectiveness of the new system or organization. retrieving and communicating it as a service to those seeking or expected to need such access thereby promoting the use of computer networks thus combining library and information technology services. Digital libraries: Barriers or gateways to scholarly information. The effective goal of librarian is to have access to knowledge by recording. 5. 2. Policy Guidelines in the Changeover The process of cutting over from an existing system to a new system following the acceptance testing is called a changeover. • There is need to review the policy guidelines before its implementation by examining its contribution to academic objectives.Ilorin Journal of Education. Paper presented on Digital Libraries at IATUL Conference. Alex. Imperatives of world-class university in Nigeria. Ankara. B. Vol. Lack of functional ICT policies based on acts as in the developed countries. (2007. • There is need to select appropriate hardware and software for ICT-based library services. publishers and libraries can now be re-evaluated as well as goal and objectives of academic world may eventually be realized with ICT. 41 . 3. Inadequate funding for tertiary institution. • It involves project costs and time scales of change. Nigerian Tribune. Time delay involved in policy formulation stage to eventual execution. 10th April). (2003). security and maintenance of the infrastructure. References Adegbola. Conclusion The ICT-based library is indeed a redefinition to library services and it has shown that the longstanding relationship among researchers. keeping. E. 4.

P. (1998). 2006. Gey F. (2005). Retrieved June 22. from going. (2002). Going places in the Catalogue: Improved geographical access. and Larson R. where we are Retrieved June 22.isoc. E. Bangalore.pdf Denise. Retrieved June 22.berkeley.SANNI. 42 . from http://www. K.com. & Shoba.org Greenspan.learning and its impact on library and information services.cyberatlas. John. London: Clive Bingley. C. The basics of information technology.shtml Manjunath. (2002). Retrieved June 22. Paper presented at DRTC Conference on ICT for Digital Learning Environment. 2006. from http://www. Usage and usability assessment: Library practices and concern. from http://www. E. C. Moronkola Munir Buckland. R.internet. T. Technology and wealth creation: Where we are. 2006. 2006.edu/buckland/catplace.sins.. http://www. Rowley J. (2002). K.org/internet/history/brief. M. R. (2006).clir. B. China pulls ahead of Japan in cyber stlas.

few people seem to care about the untidy aspects of dating the third millennium. 117. Nigerian Abstract This paper examines teacher education in Nigeria in the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Ilorin. some observers noted that the Gregorian Calendar. The paper concludes by proffering the way forward through specific recommendations towards enhancing the capacity of teachers as important change-agents for national development. It then proceeds to assess the problems and prospects of teacher education within the ambit of the educational system in Nigeria as an off-shoot of the economic and political systems. to mention just a few. The Romans for instance. However. originally came up with 10 months. One explanation for a near universal willingness to ignore the arbitrary aspects of tracking time may be a simple infatuation with zero. 19. to ignore science and history (Duncan. because we have 10 fingers and 10 toes. or 2001. It begins by clearing the fallacies and misconceptions built around the millennium as a way of tracking time. Introduction: Clearing the Fallacies On the 1st of January 2000 people around the world celebrated the birth of a new millennium. but the issue has shed considerable light on the arbitrary nature of the way human beings have measured time and how we often turn fallacies and misconceptions into superstitions. which has acquired the full force of obsession turned into superstition. In the view of Duncan (2003). Roman. organised 10 legions of their warriors and created a senate with 100 members. a date many people found less symbolic and far less interesting. not with 1 and 0. actually began in AD 1 and the new millennium truly began in 2001. But the Romans wrote 10 with X. which is why Dennis the Little started our Timeline in AD 1 43 . With the same stubbornness with which old civilisations (Greek. 63. 50. if tacitly. In contrast. 100 and 1000-year markers. 25 August. For centuries Westerns (Europeans and Americans especially) have been obsessed with 10. This explanation failed to stem millennial festivities all over the world. few people care about the year 13. Chinese.Ilorin Journal of Education. 2006 TEACHER EDUCATION IN NIGERIA AND THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS Professor Adebayo Lawal Department of Arts and Social Science Education. University of Ilorin. 2003).) once clung to lunar calendars and the clergy turned a blind eye to calendric imperfections or glitches. which most of the world adopts. etc. which must have seemed a convenient calculator for calendar markers. this possibly reflects an infatuation with 10 in the Arabic numeral system. people appear to have collectively agreed. Thus. Vol. Egyptian.

Article 70) that teacher education shall continue to be given major emphasis in all educational planning 44 . we may conveniently and concisely sum them up as an attempt by both the developed and the developing nations to achieve an appreciable measure of material. ideological underpinnings. Ignoring these short-comings and granting that the millennium is epochal. not even the Bible-fabled Methuselah? Such is the insidious nature of globalised imperialism as erected on the tripodal structure of (i) free. 2004. This would also explain the vicious circle of under-development and poverty in the Third-World countries (Lawal.Adebayo Lawal and why the Calendar still jumps from 1 BC to 1 AD without any intervening zero. 2005a). The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were adopted by all the government of the countries of the world as a blue-print for building a better global order in the 21st century. deregulated trade. unfettered flow information. and (iii) liberal but regulated Westerntype democracy (Lawal. poor countries pledged to govern better and invest in their people through health care and education. Reduction in child mortality. In so doing. Combating HIV/AIDS.e. and moral/spiritual well-being for the diverse peoples of the world. Teacher Education and National Development The relationship between education and development is best considered as symbiotic. Developing a global partnership for development. Achievement of Universal Primary Education. the crucial question is: must it take a whole millennium to accomplish the socalled Development Goals when God has given no man a millennial longevity. The eights (8) MDGs are: Eradication of extreme poverty and hunger. The Federal Government of Nigeria (FRN. (ii) free. We may now examine the MDGs for whatever their face value is and not in relation to their temporal frame (i. while rich countries pledged to support poorer countries through aid. and fairer trade. Ensuring environmental sustainability. virile and efficient than those in the developing world. malaria and other diseases. It has also resolved (National Policy of Education. debt relief. 1000 years) or in terms of their economic or political. Quality education engenders national development while in turn development brings about quality education. In a tacit acceptance of their respective short-comings. Promotion of gender equality and women empowerment. intellectual. 2005a). 2004) has considered education to be “an instrument par excellence” for effecting national development. This explains why the education systems in the developed nations tend to be more functional. Improvement in maternal health.

especially the economic and political systems.Ilorin Journal of Education. both in the developing as well as the developed countries. This perception changed dramatically in the 1970s as schools began placing greater 45 . believed that teaching merely required sympathetic and empathetic disposition and skills rather that a high degree of instructional expertise that would elevate its status and bestow on it high standards required of a profession (Ryan. Heart and Hands in discovering himself/herself and the totality of the environment (Lawal. This would perhaps explain why the Webster’s new collegiate dictionary defines “doctor” as one duly licensed to practise “medicine” but quite intriguingly the same dictionary defines the word “teacher” as “one who teaches or instructs. many people. Vol. 1992. including teacher education. imparting or fixing in the minds of learners through rote learning to the level of cultivation. Put simply. indoctrination. (ii) Is teaching supposed to be a profession or a mere “occupation” or vocation? This question also has implications for teacher education. 2006 and development. are products of certain social systems. This sharp contrast raises the following questions: (i) Is teaching a process of “instructing” and imparting or a process of cultivating and facilitating desirable behavioural changes in learners? (Lawal. the school can change the society for the better through the agency of the teacher. 2003). when appropriate economic. Surprisingly. two of the four national educational goals as enshrined in the NPE (FRN. Development and education. 2000. if not all the characteristics of a profession. Teacher education can only contribute to national development. political and management structures and measures are put in place. 2004) are: (a) The inculcation of national consciousness and national unity. 2004). This question has far-reaching implications for teacher education. 347). remuneration and retention. since no education system may rise above the quality of its teachers. 2004). Be that as it may. especially one whose occupation is to instruct” (Yoloye. 25 August. Teacher Education in Nigeria When compared to other professions. people usually received little formal preparation before entering the classroom. teaching would seem to have a relatively low status even in some of the developed countries of the world where it possess most. Hence. (iii) How much education does a person need to become a teacher? Until the late 20th century. particularly at the elementary and secondary school levels. recruitment. Any meaningful and functional education would go beyond mere inculcation. stimulation and facilitation of the learners’ use of his/her Head. but the society has to first empower the teacher and enrich the climate of the school. and (b) The inculcation of the right type of values and attitudes for the survival and the Nigerian society. it should also be noted that no nation can rise above the quality of her leaders.

the pendulum of the image of the teacher had swung from the extreme of a priest (or even prophet) to that of a slave or underdog. where Islam with its Qur’anic school system was well entrenched. In Nigeria. 1980). In the North. as dictated by prevailing circumstances. according to Ali (1992). The curriculum was heavily religion-based. (b) By the time the U. was the variation in experiments in the Southern and Northern parts of the country. Initially. (i) Since then.E. the establishment of Western-type schools got a slow start and this part of the country consequently had fewer teacher-training institutions. 2000). For instance. (ii) Teaching became a dumping ground and specialists and nonspecialists move in and out of it freely with little or no control or safeguard (Ogunniyi. 46 . the pupil-teachers were trained specifically for religious propagation. some schools both in the developed and developing nations began to offer higher salaries to teachers with higher qualifications even at the primary school level. low-calibre products of the secondary school level have always been selected for the Colleges of Education and Universities without ensuring the necessary aptitudinal.P. the influx of Christian missionaries in the South resulted in uncontrollable expansion of primary schools and teacher training institutions. teacher education evolved out of the needs of the individual missionary society operating in the country in the 19th century.Adebayo Lawal premium on formal training for teachers. This situation has been exacerbated by unplanned expansion in teacher education at the College of Education and University levels from the 1980s to the present. Christianity in the South and Islam in the North. scheme was launched in the 1970’s (in the oil boom era) with a crash programme of teacher training. intensely denominational and shallow in content because the curriculum combined theology with teaching methodology (Taiwo. This search became intensified after independence in 1960 when various commissions were set up between 1960 and 1977 to seek ways of improving teacher education policies and practices in the country. The following are the major features and developments in teacher education in contemporary Nigeria: (a) The search for qualitative teacher education began in humble attempts of missionary groups for the mid-19th century and shaded into the colonialist efforts of the first part of the 20th century. 1994). Another noteworthy feature of those early attempts at teachers training in Nigeria. the training of teachers is fraught with weaknesses not associated with other respectable professions. attitudinal and intellectual screening and sieving required of a noble and nurturing profession (Lawal. (iii) Apart from the low professional status of teachers occasioned especially by the problem of the dregs and flotsam of the secondary school being input into teaching. For example.

.E.g.G. The initiative for such in-service training has always emerged from government and its agencies such as the National Teachers’ Institute.. there are several hierarchical and sometimes overlapping qualifications used for categorising teachers as trained (e. science and technology of teaching is relatively short.Ilorin Journal of Education. RAN. Instead. This further strengthens the relative over-dependence of teachers on government when compared with other professionals. the period for training a graduate teacher in the university is relatively short when compared to those of other such professionals as doctors.Ed. Okebukola.D. Ironically certain teacher educators (e.Ed.. Ph. COEASU and ASUU. (vi) There is no period of internship for newly trained teachers during which period they can benefit from the mentoring of more knowledgeable and experienced colleagues. Graduate Certificate in Teaching/Education. Grade II Teachers’ Certificate. and engineers. (vii) Consequent upon (v) and (vi) above. P. Such Trade Unions as NUT. to mention just a few. 2005) are of the opinion that the B. (ii) a high degree of autonomy which can make teachers to make decisions in the interest of their clientele and on their mode of operation. values and skills which can form the basis of licensing and registering members. lawyers. (iv) (c) Where the Rain Started To Beat Us As suggested in the introductory part of this paper.g.D.. and also influence legislations on their general professional practices and code of conduct.) concurrent programmes in Nigerian universities are education-loaded to the detriment of the teaching subject and have canvassed for a readjustment in favour of the latter. (Ed. pharmacists.C. STAN and NATAIS. N. the potentials of teacher education. National Universities Commission (NUC) and National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE).. Vol. 25 August. 2006 There is yet no significant benchmark of training to quality one as a professional teacher. and professional associations such as MAN.D. and indeed of the whole educational system to radically bring 47 . Due to the low status of teaching and the poor training teachers teaching has assumed the unwholesome image of an all-comers occupation without: (i) a benchmark of systematic body of knowledge. P.E. and (iii) in-service professional development based on new knowledge being disseminated to members under the auspices of professional body.Sc.). B.E. are not known to be actively involved in this.G. M.C. (v) The period through which pre-service teachers are practically exposed to the art. A.Ed./B..E.

among others. red-tape and other forms of corporate barrier and administrative lethargy. 48 . The poor example of the political leadership has led to the general collapse of institutional management as evident in such counter-productive behaviour as sharp practices. The hallmarks of the polity have been competitive ethnicims and cut-throat rivalry for oil-derived wealth leading. general political instability and capital flight. mono-cultural oil-based economy. which has produced an unhealthy political system. and bastardisation of cultural values. until very recently. to incessant coups. perversion of law and justice. This has been due largely to a lopsided. there has been a general erosion of the good old ethnics of service and sacrifice and this has in turn produced widespread infrastructural decay. 2003). In sum. Apart from the decimation of education (Fitzrcy.Adebayo Lawal about development relative to the MDGs has not be fully actualised in Nigeria. other manifestations of institutional inefficiency include disruption and dislocation in the health-care and power supply system.

Vol. 25 August. - health-care and power supply systems Bastardisation of cultural values - Collapse of Institutional Management Square pegs in round holes Sharp practices Red-tape and administrative lethargy Erosion of service - Political System Competitive ethnicism and cut-throat rivalry for oil-derived wealth - Political instability Capital flight - Economic Base A mono-cultural oil-based economy Figure 1: A Model of the Economic and Political Foundations of the Educational Crisis in Nigeria 49 .Ilorin Journal of Education.g. 2006 Figure 1 is a model of the educational crisis as part of the general social crisis which is contingent upon weak economic and political structures. e. Decay of Social Institutions Dissemination of education Perversion of law and justice Institutional disruption and dislocation.

(b) Contrary to the current brain-drain phenomenon in which many Nigerian professionals are subjected to denigrating conditions abroad a systematic programme should be put in place so as to be able to gainfully export surplus expertise to less endowed countries where this would be appropriately appreciated and remunerated. As a corollary. As such. A teacher who is physically energetic and intellectually sound but morally bankrupt can only be a social misfit and a professional disgrace as he or she cannot be any worthy model for learners. low and intermediate technology and the cultivation of post-school survival skills in learners. there must be a system of post-training professional examinations in different forms and grades. especially in the areas of training benchmarks. Thus. to break the monopoly of oil and diversify the economy especially in the areas of agriculture and agro-allied industries. in particular teacher education. Until this is achieved. the title “Teacher” (Tr. 2005a). the Teacher Registration Council (TRC) has arrived. among others. there is need for rethinking on the nature. 2004). but only after many of its roles and functions have been appropriated by such other government parastatals as NTI. structure and functions of the TRC vis-à-vis other related parastatals and agencies. Emphasis should be placed on cognitive development as well as the possession of basic aptitudinal traits and the acquisition of noble values so that teachers are found worthy in character and learning before we can expect their learners to attain this lofty height. In this regard the Technical Aid Corps (TAC) programme is a step in the right direction and should be expanded to cover several more professions and many other needy countries. (c) There is the concomitant need to conceptualise development in a holistic and broad-based sense and approach teacher education from the perspective of building human capacity in the domains of relevant and useful knowledge. the curriculum of teacher education at appropriate levels of the school system would have to be correspondingly enriched especially with regard to the MDGs.Adebayo Lawal The Way Forward (a) The first major step is to use education. skills and values (Lawal. professional standards and code of ethics. NCCE and NUC. At long last.) cannot be proudly prefixed to names as is the practice among many other professionals especially in Nigeria. The TRC would have to be equipped with appropriate human and material resources that would enable it to collaborate closely with teacher-training institutions and teachers’ professional associations in the urgent task of 50 . without the all-important licensing which is the essence of registration in professional terms (Lawal. To license teachers. (d) There is then the need to establish standards and management structures. the TRC is only concerned for now mainly with keeping an inventory or a register of teachers.

4. engage in action research in the classroom. village/town/city. conscientious implementation and continuous evaluation and feedback and therefore a fairly long period to be actualised. (Abimbola. and most especially within their subject association to keep abreast of trends and innovations in teaching.3. must actively belong to at least one relevant subject association. as teachers we need to realise that the task of building and sustaining teaching as a profession is a bottom-up process which primarily belongs to us. Teachers of all cadres and levels should centrally organise themselves into a national association which would serve as umbrella for the different subject teachers’ associations currently in existence. This would ensure that adequate provision is made for the mastery of both content and methodology and the requisite internship for the production of different cadres of quality teachers who can serve as the dynamo for meaningful and sustainable development.G. by establishing a forum through which better-trained and more experienced teachers can mentor for the newly trained and less-experienced ones. and 2. irrespective of the cadre and level of teaching.S. Teachers on their own at the grass-roots: 2. L. This implies that every teacher. 2001). Through this central organ. must try as much as possible to get registered as examiners with such Examination Bodies as WAEC. etc. NECO. This is another vital way of keeping close to our professional peers and refreshing our minds and reinvigorating our spirit. NBTE. teachers can work with the appropriate legislative organs of government to ensure the establishment of a National Board for Professional Teaching Standards as found in developed countries such as U. analyse them and feed our findings back into the instructional process to enhance our professional development. 2. Colleges of Education. 1. However. 2. Polytechnics and Universities.A and state. We should always avail ourselves of part-time teaching opportunities in the sandwich programmes of NTI. The current top-down approach has all along been counter-productive. (e) All these suggestions would require thorough planning. can apart from pursuing further studies. The TRC can be restructured to handle this crucial role which is fundamental to the professionalisation of teaching in Nigeria. In this regard. 25 August. 51 . must learn to network within each schools. 2. 2006 overhauling and expanding the various teacher education curricula.Ilorin Journal of Education.A.2. should avail themselves of in-service courses within colleges. We should collect from time to time data on the teaching and learning situation. polytechnics and universities. Vol.1.

A lead paper presented at the 2005 meting 2. Meaning without mean-ness. The roles of faculties of education. P. Professionalism and teacher education in Nigeria in Olu Obafemi and Bayo Lawal (Eds. University of Ilorin. since is central to modern life and professional development. R. A. Ensuring quality in teacher education for national development. Federal Republic of Nigeria (F2004).5. 2003. which is the very essence of development. 2005. I. A Guest speaker paper presented at the Moi University First Annual Internal Conference and Partners Meeting. R. Issues in contemporary African social and political thought (vol. References Abimbola. In A. (2004). Professionalism in teacher education in Nigeria universities: issue and expectations. A.). 2) (pp. R. and in conclusion. 14th – 17th of February. Globalisation. Fitzory. education and development in Africa: The bedevilling dilemmas. Eldoret. A. 411 – 422). November 12 – 13. 52 .Adebayo Lawal Finally. (2005a). Okebukola. (2000). Lawal. The HIPACT programme: Education for development. O. The art and technology of teaching. Professional growth and development of teachers. Hopefully. Lawal. (eds. Dating the millennium. Ogunniyi. 167 – 173). Oyo Chapter of COEASU 16th – 19th of August. National policy on education. Lawal.). Moi University. Fundamental principles and practice of instruction (pp. Lagos: NERDC Press. A lead paper presented at the 1st Annual Conference of Oyo State College of Education. (2005). the poor standards of teaching and the low image of teachers would change gradually but steadily for the better and this would in no small measure contribute to enhance capacity-building in all the facets of national life.). Ilorin: University of Ilorin Publications Committees. (2003). Lawal. O. A. (1992). Encarta Encyclopaedia Deluxe (CD) Microsoft. Quality assurance in teacher education in Nigeria. 31 – 34. H. D. Ilorin: CSET Department. teachers should develop a healthy reading habit so as to constantly be in tune with both specialised and general developments in human development and also serve as a model learner for their own learners (Lawal. Ali. Abimbola (Ed. Lagos. Kenya. (1994). R.). 2005b). E. The 74th Inaugural Lecture. (2005b). A. Paper presented at the Kwara State Education Summit. University of Ilorin. if foregoing recommendations are pursed with determination and sincerity of purpose by all the relevant stakeholders. In I. Idowu et al. Academia Publishers. A guide to teaching practice (pp. (2001). 11 – 20. O. Duncan. Lagos: Evdor Publishers. (2003). N. Ilorin: Faculty of Education.

(1992). 53 . O. Ikeja: Thomas Nelson. Challenges of teacher education in Nigeria. Macmillan. (2003). In Encarta Encyclopaedia Deluxe 2003 (CD) Microsoft. 2006 of Committee of Deans of Education in Nigeria Universities held at the Faculty of Education. Vol.). Education in Nigeria: Past. 2005). (1980). Yoloye. 25 August.Ilorin Journal of Education. Taiwo. History of teaching. E. Ryan. A. C. Lagos. present and future. Ipaye (Ed. The Nigerian education system: past present and future. K. In B. 306 – 366. University of Ilorin (18th – 23rd July.

holders as Heads of Departments Introduction The academic department is the core unit in the administrative structure of universities..326) was used. Faculty of Education. The HODAEQ questionnaire was administered. It is therefore crucial for effectiveness to be assured in departmental headship. there was. The mandate of the university as specified in section 8 of the National Policy on Education (FRN. however. which include appointing mainly Ph. Aghenta (2001) equally observed that not more than 30 percent of the normal period of teaching is used for actual teaching. a significant difference in the critical area of administration of staff between Heads of Departments who have PhD and those without Ph. It 54 . These organizational goals of the university seem no longer realisable due to obstacles that include alleged poor performance of Heads of Departments who are no longer performing their functions effectively. Lecturers do not submit examination questions early neither do they mark the scripts and submit results without one request after another being made by the Head of Department. In order to direct the investigation. It was to find the significant differences (if any) in administrative effectiveness of Heads of Academic Departments with respect to academic qualification of the Head of Department. especially parents and employers of labour also alleged poor performance of graduates from universities in Nigeria. The results of investigation revealed that though there was no significant difference between Heads of Departments who have Ph. Nigeria dononode@hotmail. 2006 ACADEMIC STAFF PERCEPTION OF QUALIFICATION ON ADMINISTRATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF HEADS OF ACADEMIC DEPARTMENTS IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES Don Omoike (PhD) Department of Educational Foundations and Management. and those without Ph.D.D. 2004 edition) is to teach. 25 August. Vol.D. However. Some stakeholders. The National Universities Commission (NUC) in its 2002 report on the state of university education in Nigeria alleged that universities in Nigeria perform below expectation. the state of administration in higher education has been a source of concern to the stakeholders. Based on the findings. Ekpoma 31001.com Abstract This study was on the administrative effectiveness of Heads of Academic Departments in Nigerian universities. conduct research development and provide community service.D. one hypothesis was formulated and tested. PMB 14. recommendations were made.Ilorin Journal of Education. An ex-post-facto research design (N=1. Ambrose Alli University.

A training programme organized for heads of department by Rutgers University in 1997 emphasized commitment. According to Huber (1995) many Heads of Department were pressed into service based primarily on their reputation within their discipline. The emphasis here is not the success of such training programmes but on the premise that certain academic education received for lecturing may not be adequate enough for them to perform effectively as Heads of Departments. Fogg continued by saying that the training programmes offer staff both “straightforward advice and a support network”. therefore. imperative to examine the qualification of Heads of Departments as it affects their administrative effectiveness. These types. Whereas. where to find instructional resources. According to Fogg (2001) some universities have now recognized that in other to be effective as a departmental head. Headship of department. leadership. Many of them are well recognized in their field for their research efforts and for excellence in teaching. academic staff members are prepared for headship positions through the creation of programmes. These included how to write recommendation letters for promotion. must include acquiring a mixture of human. according to Okoh (1998). 55 . Bogue (1994) believes that the skills needed for excellence in an academic discipline are not the same ones needed to provide leadership within a college. Most Heads of Department are excellent scholars.Don Omoike was.1 on the effectiveness rating represents effectiveness of the Heads of Department in departmental administration. However. most academic units are well able to clarify what distinguishes them from any other discipline and most academics develop a line of scholarship uniquely theirs. A mean rating of 3. Administrative effectiveness is the level of performance of administrative tasks or functions by Heads of Department in order to achieve the objectives of the departments and the goals of the university. a knowledge of operating procedures and how at the same time to keep up their teaching and research. Disciplinary reputations are built on specialization and competition among peers while departmental leadership demands a more collaborative approach. ability to delegate. faculty or department level. when to seek counsel with university lawyers regarding staff layoffs. and how to communicate more effectively with difficult people. communicability. Huber (1995) listed topics offered to Heads of Department. according to Lucas (1994) is a more integrative endeavour. In her report on quality leadership training programme. the heads of academic department tend to need much more than academic qualifications to be administratively effective. Such programmes are created to emphasize the crucial position of the Heads of Department to the universities overall success. therefore. technical and conceptual skills. does require that the position occupant needs certain types of training for effective performance. Thus.

520 academic departments in the 36 public universities in Nigeria as at the time of this study. and six conventional and three specialized universities. In the first stage. nine universities were selected which include six federal and three State universities. age and curriculum of university and qualification. 2006 Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study was to find out the significant difference (if any) in administrative effectiveness of Heads of Departments who have Ph. Vol. In all. They were only collected from the appropriate sources. The main instrument that was used for data collection was the questionnaire titled Heads of Department Administrative Effectiveness Questionnaire (HODAEQ) constructed by the researcher.D. age and type of university. the selected universities were brought together to give 362 academic departments. The second section contained 30 administrative duties of the Heads 56 . rank. stratified and simple random sampling methods.326 academic staff representing 25% of the population was selected from among the academic staff through a simple random sampling procedure to rate all the Heads of Departments in the 362 departments for the study. Academic staff in these departments rated all the 362 Heads of Department in these nine universities. The sample was chosen using the multistage. The first is that data used for the study already existed.D. 25 August. 2004/2005 academic session. In the second stage. The purpose of the questionnaire was to request the respondents to rate the performance of the Heads of Department in Nigerian universities in order to determine their administrative effectiveness. The questionnaire was made up of two major sections. and those who have no Ph.D. The first section sought background information (ownership. The second reason is that the variables of study were not manipulated. experience and discipline) of the Head of Department. Method This is a descriptive research based on the ex-post-facto design. Finally a total of 1. A total of 1. the universities were stratified on the basis of the variable of ownership. There were two reasons for the choice of this design. This was followed by randomly selecting 10 percent of the total number of universities under the sub group of federal (2 out of 24) and State (1 out of 12) universities. the sub group of old (1 out of 14) and new (2 out of 22) universities. The questionnaire was developed after the review of literature. Research Hypothesis Hypothesis: There is no significant difference in administrative effectiveness of Heads of Department who have PhD and those who have no Ph. sex.326 academic staff made up the sample that rated the 362 Heads of Department for the study. four old and five new universities. and the sub group of conventional (2 out of 23) and specialized (1 out of 13) universities.Ilorin Journal of Education. The population of the study comprised all the academic staff in the 1.

The administration of the questionnaire lasted for 21 weeks in 2005. Out of the 1. facilities. The data collected were analysed with the use of the study were analyzed using the z-test statistics. Two professors in educational management corrected the instrument before being used for the study. Abraka. The data obtained was statistically analyzed to obtain the reliability coefficient.450 copies of the questionnaire administered. A test-retest study was carried out to ascertain the reliability of the instrument. The items were grouped into seven functional areas that included Heads of Departments’ administration of instructional programmes. The questionnaire was administered on academic staff under the Heads of Department studied in the nine universities used for the study. staff. Delta State University. students.326 academic staff responded to the questionnaire to rate the administrative effectiveness of the Heads of Department. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (Pearson ‘r’) was then used to correlate scores that gave an r-value of 0. In other words. a total of 1. A total of 13 research assistants (mainly graduate assistants in these universities) were given orientation and used to administer the questionnaire to the respondents in the sampled universities. external relations and office. finance. This was done by administering the questionnaire twice on 26 academic staff available at the time of study in the Faculty of Education. 57 . This was to ensure that the questions raised were clear. The university was used for the reliability test because it was not part of the nine universities used for the study. This gave 91 percent recovery rate. To ensure the achievement of the face and content validity the instrument ‘Heads of Department Administrative Effectiveness Questionnaire (HODAEQ)’ was designed to reflect the problem and the hypotheses of the study. A four-week interval was allowed for the conduct of the two tests.326 were recovered and used for the study.Don Omoike of Departments on which academic staff were asked to rate the performance of their Heads of Department on a five point Likert type scale. a total of 1.80. unambiguous and understandable. The other two groups had five items each. Five of these groups had four items per group whose responses were to determine the administrative effectiveness of the Heads of Departments.

96 zvalue Remark s Not Significant P>0. therefore.Ilorin Journal of Education.D.05 The data showed that 240 Heads of Department had PhD and 122 Heads of Departments had no Ph. This falls within the acceptance region of 1. The result of the z-test analysis showed that the calculated value of 0. and those who do not have Ph.68.05 alpha level. in Universities Qualification N X SD df Z Administrative Effectiveness Ph. 25 August.3 0.96 at 0.4 1324 No Ph.D.D. 58 . 879 3. and with their respective rating by 879 and 447 respondents and mean ratings of 3. and those without Ph. The null hypothesis is.65 is greater than the table value of +1.D.63 and 3. 447 3.D.D.63 7.68 6. retained that there is no significant difference in administrative effectiveness between Heads of Department who have Ph.65 +1. The result of analysis is presented in Table 1. 2006 Hypothesis one: There is no significant difference in administrative effectiveness of Heads of Department who have PhDs and those who have no PhDs in universities in Nigeria The hypothesis was tested by applying the z-test statistics. Table 3: z-test in Administrative Effectiveness between Heads of Department with Ph.D.96. Vol.

91).67 6.D. However.96 Significant Relations PhD 447 3.D.58 and 3.05 Administration No PhD 879 3.69 6.96 Significant PhD 447 3.0 P>0.95 of Facilities +1.05 Administration No PhD 879 3. These results are shown in Table 2.Don Omoike Table 2: Administrative Effectiveness of Heads of Department with Ph.61 7.96 Significant 1324 -2.69 6.7 1324 -2. and administration of office with a calculated value of -2.05 Not Administration No PhD 879 3.06 of Finance +1.05 Analysis was carried out to determine the functional areas in which there were significant differences in administrative effectiveness of Heads of Department who have Ph. 59 . students (0.58 7.96 Significant PhD 447 3.21 P>0. This means that Heads of Department with Ph.24 Instructional +1.96 Significant PhD 447 3.D.8 +1.1 P>0.69 in administration of staff and office respectively.66 6. The Heads of Departments with Ph. no significant differences were found in administrative effectiveness of Heads of Department with and without Ph.96 Significant Programmes PhD 447 3. and those without Ph. in the areas of administration of staff with a calculated value of -2. The results in Table 2 indicated that there was a significant difference in administrative effectiveness of Heads of Department with Ph.2 Not 1324 0.D.66 6.05 Administration No PhD 879 3.1 P>0.51 and 3.D.83 of Students +1.4 Not 1324 0.24).68 7. and those who have no Ph.05 of Staff 447 3.63 7.95) finance (1.0 PhD Administration No PhD 879 3. and those without PhD in the Functional Areas Administrative Qualification N X SD df Z ZRemarks Functions value Administration of No PhD 879 3.66 as against 3.3 1324 0. in their administration of instructional programme (1.61 7.0 P>0.21.0 P>0.13 of Office +1.D.D.D.83). facilities (0.91 of External +1.13.65 7.06) and external relations (0. had higher means 3. had significantly higher administrative effectiveness rating in these two functional areas of administration.6 Not 1324 1.96 Significant PhD 447 3.61 7.9 P>0.53 6.05 Administration No PhD 879 3.8 Not 1324 1.64 6.

It also confirms the belief of Bogue (1994) that the skills needed for excellence in an academic discipline are not the same ones needed to provide leadership within a college. does not influence the administrative effectiveness of Heads of Department.D. it can be asserted that appointment of Heads of Department need not be based on acquisition of PhD. There was a significant difference in administrative effectiveness of Heads of Department who have PhD and those who have no PhD in the administration of staff and office. The finding has shown that the acquisition of a Ph. and those who have no Ph. Significant differences were found in further analysis of the functional areas as they affect the administrative effectiveness of the Head of Department. The Head of Department cannot effectively carry out some activities if he does not possess the PhD especially in the administration of staff. The lecturer before becoming Head of Department spends his time managing his career. This is why in some universities (such as University of Benin) newly appointed Heads of Department come into the position after undergoing some form of management training or leadership education. The Head of Department may not also be capable of performing effectively in a department with high caliber academic staff who are his super ordinates. academics develop a line of scholarship uniquely theirs while leadership is a more integrative and collaborative effort. the academic staff is usually prepared for leadership position by creating one form of training programme or another.D.D.Ilorin Journal of Education. 60 . 25 August. Vol. Perhaps this is only relevant in the area of academic enhancement of the academic staff and not in their appointment as Heads of Department. Such activities include appraisal of academic staff in the higher category. These are quite revealing especially when it is realized that the possession of PhD is a strong consideration in the promotion of most academics into the higher level of the academic staff ladder. which include straight forward advice and a support network. It is a normal regulation in the universities that Heads of Department who do not have PhD (except in exceptional cases) are not members of appraisal panels set up to assess certain higher levels of the academia such as senior lecturers and readers.63 for PhD holders and no PhD holders respectively. faculty or department level. This result is in consonance with the finding of Huber (1995) that many Heads of Department may have been pressed into administrative duties based primarily on their reputation within their academic discipline and not necessarily their administrative expertise. The premise is that certain academic education received for lecturing may not be adequate enough for them to perform effectively as Heads of Department.68 and 3. With means of 3. Thus. 2006 Findings The result of the study on qualification of the Head of Department has shown no significant difference in the administrative effectiveness of Heads of Departments who have Ph. This finding also confirms what Fogg (2001) observed that some universities now have recognized that in order to be effective as a Head of Department.

need to be appointed as Heads of Department. (2001. Administration of staff is a critical area in Head of Department’s administrative effectiveness. Strategies for promoting culture of reforms in the universities. Leadership by design: Strengthening integrity in higher education. The significant difference found in this area has implication for human resource management and management of teaching and learning process in universities. However. Personnel and human resources management in Nigeria. The research has shown that Heads of Departments with Ph. programme because you cannot give what you do not have. The 58th Inaugural Lecture Series.D. 24.O (1998). E. holders as Heads of Department. recommended that preference should be for the appointment of Ph. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Retrieved January 4. it was concluded that there was no significant difference in administrative effectiveness of Heads of Department that have Ph. Educational planning: A turning point in education and development in Nigeria. A paper presented at the ETF Capacity Building Workshop for University Lecturers in Nigeria held in University of Benin. M.D. References Aghenta..D. especially in the administration of the critical function of staff administration. Fogg.G (1994). Can department heads be trained to succeed? The Chronicle of Higher Education. Recommendations To ensure a continued and sustainable high administrative effectiveness of Heads of Departments in Nigerian universities.D. It may not be possible for a non Ph.D. (2006). 25-32 Okoh.D. holder to manage a department that runs a Ph. http://chronical. N.Lagos: Amfitop Books Olomu.com Huber.D. The significant difference in the critical administrative functional area of administration of staff is indicative of the fact that certain categories of staff especially those with Ph. J. it is. therefore. there was a significant difference in the critical functional area of administration of staff. and those who have no Ph. Oct 19). Contemporary administration is skill oriented and requires adequate training especially in human resources or personnel management. A.S. 61 .Don Omoike Conclusion Based on the findings of the study. are administratively effective. University of Benin. J. 2004.A (2001). Bogue. Planning for Higher Education. Benin City. (1995) Leadership in higher education: Engaging the department heads. P.

retention and transition from primary to junior secondary schools were also low. “universal basic education. p.Ilorin Journal of Education. p. 2004. 25 August. pupils are to enrol in Basic one and stay in the education system till they complete Basic Nine. The government should provide relevant and adequate facilities and ensure favourable welfare services for teachers. depending on needs and possibilities. Nigeria joined other nations at Dakar. The Government’s commitment to the programme was reaffirmed in the fourth edition of the policy (Federal Republic of Nigeria. will be provided for all citizens” (Federal Republic of Nigeria. section 1. The belief is that 62 . brought by these changes could be counter productive and prevent the achievement of UBE objectives. Vol. provision of Universal Basic Education (UBE) was proposed IN the first edition of the National Policy on Education. subsection 9 (e). the nation’s primary schools would experience 100% enrolment rate. UBE is a strategy for achieving “‘education for alls” in Nigeria. to declare “education for all by the year 2015” (Charles. and 100% transition to junior secondary schools. The UBE programme contains certain innovations which are meant to encourage 100% enrolment and retention in primary schools. It was stated in the document that. They should acquire relevant skills and constantly update their knowledge. 1999. when the Federal Government announced the commencement of UBE. In the process of implementation. The rates of enrolment. more facilities are procured and more pupils are admitted into the schools. Also. transition from primary to junior secondary schools would be 100%. Therefore. Heads of the schools should be able to cope with these challenges if they are alive to their supervisory responsibilities. With the introduction of UBE. Nigeria Abstract This paper focuses on supervisory roles of Nigerian heads of primary and secondary schools in the achievement of UBE objectives. the Government became a party to the 1990 Jomtien declaration on “education for all by the year 2000” (Federal Ministry of Education. 1977. additional teachers are employed. 2003). it is expected that in the nearest future.5). in a variety of forms. Thus. The proposal was actualized in September. University of Ilorin.9). Senegal. The Government has realized that education was characterized by low literacy level. FASASI (PhD) Department of Educational Management. 2002). Complexity in the school system. Ilorin. 2006 SUPERVISOR’S FACTOR IN THE ACHIEVEMENT OF UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION (UBE) OBJECTIVES IN NIGERIA Y. Introduction In Nigeria. A. When the goal could not be realized at the target date.

their socio-economic. The school heads are the supervisors of education at the grassroot. using education as a tool. political. As an instrument for effecting national development. ethnic and other differences not withstanding. 2002). “administration is a function of organization and structure. This is probably the reason why the Government stated that efficient administration.Y. skills and competencies in reading. UBE has the following objectives: i. When they are well addressed.55). That is. Also included in the programme.70). It stated further that. when its programmes are successfully implemented. p. To live meaningful and fulfilled lives. numeracy and other fields of human endeavour. inspection and supervision” (Federal Republic of Nigeria. To discharge civic responsibilities competently (Federal Ministry of Education. the roles which primary and junior secondary school administrators can play in the achievement of the objectives of UBE. The children are expected to acquire a nine year free and compulsory education. To contribute to the development of the society. and iv. the problem of ignorance. A. the programme is universal as all categories of people in the country are to benefit from it. 2004 P. 2003. will be performing its role as a potent solution to societal problems and an agent of national development. To derive maximum social. Their interaction with. Fasasi when Nigerian citizens are educated. and assistance to members of their school organization are vital to the success of UBE in particular and the entire education system in general. p. illiteracy and poverty will be tackled (Babalola. iii. 2004. UBE and National Development Basic education is an education programme which provides a foundation for acquisition of knowledge. Education in general and UBE in particular. especially supervisors have the responsibility of ensuring that the nation’s resources on education are not wasted. In this paper. 63 . religious. ii.13). The objectives of UBE constitute four different aspects of human resources development. In essence. proprietorship and control. and that Governments’ objectives for national development are achieved. is a necessary condition for the success of any education system. the human resources become agents for further development in various sectors of the nation’s economy. they are to spend six years at primary level and transit automatically to junior secondary schools to spend three years. It is designed for all Nigerian children of school age. economic and cultural benefits from the society. is adult and non-formal education at primary and junior secondary levels (Federal Republic of Nigeria. Educational administrators. are examined. writing. among others.

understand his rights and perform his duties as good citizen of the country.003. The nation’s natural and material resources are also developed by the skilled and competent members of the society. This was an increase of 21. the individual undergoes a process of selfdevelopment. he becomes a useful and productive member of the society. This would make him live a meaningful and fulfilled life. Also. Implementation of these policies has resulted into pupils’ population explosion. After completion. the Government intends to develop an enlightened citizen who will be aware of what goes on around and be able to derive maximum benefits from his environments. Implementation of UBE Both primary and secondary level of education experienced changes as a result of the implementation of UBE. a year before the commencement of UBE. For example. all children of school-age were encouraged to attend schools and stay till they complete primary education. they would move into junior secondary classes and they would be encouraged to stay till the end of basic nine (junior secondary three). development of the society would be achieved through the educated individuals. The skills and competencies in him become manifest and he is able to utilize them for his well being. a well developed individual automatically becomes an agent of development. Ability to adapt to new inventions and discoveries. Many public primary schools introduced preprimary sections within their premises. in Nigerian secondary schools. knowledge of what goes on in the environment and ability to influence the life of others become better in the educated member of the society. Thus. 2004). p. This was to ensure a smooth transition from home to school. 25 August. to provide solid foundation for primary education and to ensure a 100% enrolment of school-age children into Basic one (primary one) (Federal Republic of Nigeria. Specifically. Further more. Another important objective which the Government wants to achieve through UBE is to enable an individual discharge civic responsibility competently. Primary schools. would be expected 64 . an increase in number of teachers and demand for more facilities.420 in 2002 (Ibukun.5% over that of 1998.5). he will be able to assist other people to develop their skills and competencies. That is. Vol.915 student population in 1998 increased to 4. Through UBE. achievement of UBE objectives can not be accidental.Ilorin Journal of Education. Hence. The programme is expected to assist the beneficiary to be aware of governments’ policies. However. The programme has to be consciously and consistently pursued by all stakeholders in general and by the educators at the grassroots in particular.866. national development starts from the development of an individual. being the level where UBE actually took off in 1999. 2006 In the first instance. the 4. the heads of primary and junior secondary schools who are the supervisors of their schools have to ensure that right things are done at the right time. Through UBE. Teachers’ acquisition of relevant skills for this category of learners will be required for the success of this programme. 2004.

815 180.402 in 2003/2004 to 639185 in 2004/2005. Table 2: Secondary School Teachers (2003-2005) Years No of qualified No of unqualified Total teachers teachers Percentage of unqualified teachers 2003/2004 137. and consequently a higher percentage of learners’ population.122 45.185 07. Abuja: TRCN In Table 1.80 190.344 25.344 (25.1%) of the teachers were not qualified. The table also showed that in 2003/2004 session 45. 2006). Also.368 (23. Abuja: TRCN In Table 2.445 2004/2005 141.368 23. Statistical Digest 2003/2004 and 2004/2005. This implies that 101.65%) were unqualified. demand for teachers and facilities increased within the last eight years. 2006).122 teachers (8.976 new teachers were employed into secondary schools between 2003/2004 and 2004/2005 sessions. In 2004/2005 session 45.65 Source: Adapted from: Teachers registration Council of Nigeria (June.309 537. Table1: Primary School Teachers (2003-2005) Years No of qualified No of unqualified Total teachers teachers Percentage of unqualified teachers 2003/2004 492.Y.8%) teachers in secondary schools were not qualified. A.40 639. In 2004/2005 session 190. 9. Statistical Digest 2003/2004 and 2004/2005.783 new teachers were employed within the two sessions.923 48.309 (7.10 Source: Adapted from: Teachers registration Council of Nigeria (June. the number of primary school teachers increased from 537. The Table also showed that in 2003/2004 session 180. Fasasi to attract more pupils.529 42. 65 .876 45.280 2004/2005 593.4%) were not qualified to teach.402 08.

have the administrative responsibilities to supervise their teachers so that the pupils can acquire relevant and adequate knowledge.5 00 Source: Adapted from: Teachers registration Council of Nigeria (June. Abuja: TRCN In Table 3. The unqualified teachers are of two types: the untrained teachers in the arts and science of teaching and the untrained teachers in the subject they handle in schools. old. have witnessed different categories of teachers. These are qualified. Both of them are present in the school today. and they need the attention of the supervisor. Supervisory roles in the Realization of UBE Objectives Supervision is a professional service. Therefore. has posed a challenge to school administrator.Ilorin Journal of Education. They are to be assisted in learning the appropriate methods of teaching their subjects. Since the supervisors are always present in the schools with the teachers. new. They need the attention of the supervisor so as to be able to match learning and administrative theories with practices on the field. teachers and facilities as a result of UBE. 25 August. they are in good position to understand the needs of different categories of teachers in their working environment. The headmasters of primary schools and the principals of junior secondary schools. Qualified teachers are those that are trained and are having the required teaching qualifications. 2006 Table 3: Primary and Secondary Schools in Nigeria (2003-2005) Schools Primary schools Secondary schools 2003/2004 47. 66 . inexperienced. Vol. so that they do not base their expertise on experience only. male and female teachers who are working in schools located in rural and urban areas. Experienced teachers need the attention of the supervisor so that they do not take things for granted. there was an increase of 12. Each of these categories has his peculiarities which demand the attention of school supervisors. Awareness has to be created in them that things keep on changing. experienced. Statistical Digest 2003/2004 and 2004/2005.5%) in the number of primary schools in 2003/2004 session compared with that of 2003/2004 session. rendered to teachers with a view to improving teaching and learning in schools.028 10608 No of Increase 12. The increase that was witnessed in number of pupils. There was no increase in number of secondary schools between 2003/2004 and 2004/2005 sessions. unqualified. 2006).125 10. more than before.903 (12. Primary and secondary schools.903 00 Percentage Increase 21.608 2004/2005 60. supervisory roles towards the achievement of UBE objectives can not be overemphasized.

Teachers in schools that are located in rural areas need encouragement to make the best use of what they have in the schools. The inexperienced teachers could have got no background in teaching and classroom management. Recommendations 1. a new teacher needs to be inducted into specific peculiarities of the school environment. they continue to acquire new knowledge and skills. Supervisors should encourage teachers to choose relevant facilities and methods that will neutralize the negative effects of technology in urban centre. There should be sufficient teaching and learning facilities to cope with the increasing demand from UBE intakes. Moreover. Conclusions The following conclusions could be drawn from the discussion: 1. The old teacher. 3. Also. School heads. Fasasi Instead. Administration of primary and secondary schools in Nigeria is getting complex as a result of increase in number of pupils. Internal supervisors. This can be done when teachers welfare are adequately catered for. there are rural and urban characteristics which a supervisor should consider while assisting teachers to do their jobs better. heads of schools. 2. of whatever type needs supervisory assistance to be able to adapt to innovations and make up for inadequacies. A teacher may be old in age. teachers and educational facilities. 3. The school heads should be trained in the art of supervision so that they will be able to discharge their duties competently and confidentially. that is the headmasters and principals should be alive to their supervisory duties.Y. 4. The Government should encourage regular and continuous academic session. 5. that is. human relations and problem-solving. competence and favourable leadership style. 67 . Regular supervision by the school heads should be accompanied by good human relations. Skills in communication. They should identify all aspects of UBE programme and attend to them adequately. Urban centres have a lot of facilities. A. could be very effective in ensuring the achievement of UBE objectives. He may be old in the school or he may be old in the teaching profession. 2. Rural areas are lacking in many facilities. attractions and detractions. Effective supervision of UBE programme could enhance the achievement of its objectives. could be acquired over time with the assistance of the supervisor.

Abuja: UNESCO Publication. Management of primary and secondary education in Nigeria. Historical background on the development of education in Nigeria.). H. Nigerian private sector and education for all. Statistical digest 2003/2004 & 2004/2005. (2004). Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004). Ibadan: Codat Publications. Ayeni (Eds. 25 August.O.). Charles. Management of secondary education in Nigeria: Problems and challenges. Babalola. W. National policy on education (4th ed. Teachers Registration Council (2006). In H. Federal Republic of Nigeria (1977). (2002). Lagos: Federal Ministry of Information.O.J. Nigerian private sector and education for all. Abuja: Education Sector Analysis. In H. A report on the private sector round table. Abuja: UNESCO Publication. Federal Ministry of Education (2003). Iheme (Eds.Ilorin Journal of Education.J. Charles & E.J.). 2006 References Borishade. J. UNESCO/Japan Trust fund project 532/NIR1010. M. National policy on education. (2002). Ibukun. Charles & E. Introduction. Vol. Fabunmi & A. Abuja: TRCN. In E. Lagos: Nigeria Educational Research and Development Council. B.).O. Foreword. Iheme (Eds. A report on the private sector round table.B. 68 . Fagbamiye.

Studies show that anxiety is created or aroused by expectations or thinking which has been associated with cognitive interference (Maclead. Results 69 . The instrument used for the study was part of the study Habits and Examination Techniques Inventory (SHETI) developed by Carew and Hamman-Tukur (1995) with reliability index of 0. Much research has gone into anxiety. Introduction The concept of anxiety has been described as a subjective internal emotional conflict. The sampled subjects were divided and assigned to experimental and control groups.25 Ilorin Journal of Education. Furthermore. experience and research have shown that about 19% of students in a class of 40 people suffer moderate cases of examination anxiety. However.87. 1996). the cases.com Abstract The study investigated the effect of Counselling on examination anxiety and academic performance among University of Maiduguri diploma students. Based on the findings some recommendations were made. Kirkland and Hollandsworth (1980) studied a skills–acquisition treatment for test anxiety was compared with two anxiety–reduction conditions. which may not be apparent to the person himself. Mean. The target population consisted of all the diploma students in the diploma students in the university and through stratified sampling technique. Vol. 1999). 5% suffer serious forms of anxiety that require medical attention (Kagu. Two objectives and two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. several studies have proven the efficacy of counselling in reducing anxiety and subsequent improvement of students’ grade point average (GPA) scores. University of Maiduguri & Mohammed Hassan Department of Education and Counselling Psychology. IBB University Lapai ambajam@gmail. cue-controlled relaxation and mediation and relate it to test performance. The results revealed that counselling effectiveness on anxiety was significant and it improved the GPA scores of the students. a total of 240 students with some forms of examination anxiety participated in the study. standard deviation and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were employed to analyse the data collected. 2006 EFFECT OF COUNSELLING ON EXAMINATION ANXIETY AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI DIPLOMA STUDENTS Bulama Kagu (PhD) Department of Education. 25 August.

To determine whether the effect of counselling on examination anxiety and academic performance is related to gender. It is against this background that the paper investigated the effect of counseling on examination anxiety and academic performance among University of Maiduguri diploma students Objectives of the study The following are the objectives of the study: 1. Hypotheses The hypotheses of the study are: Ho1 Counselling has no significant effect on examination anxiety and academic performance of University of Maiduguri diploma students. 70 . a total of 240 students (40 each) from six diploma programmes with defective study habits participated in the study. for the treatment of anxiety including that of examination. During this stage too. The results indicated that some of them were anxious of examination. 2. Ho2 There are no significant gender. To determine the effect of counselling on examination anxiety and academic performance of University of Maiduguri diploma students. their academic results were collected. All the diploma students in the University of Maiduguri constituted the population. Through stratified sampling technique. The instrument used for the study was part of the Study Habits and Examination Technique Inventory (SHETI) developed by Carew and Hamman – Tukur (1995) with reliability index of 0. Similarly. diploma level and diploma programme. Phase I: Pre-treatment phase. cognitive modification.Bulama Kagu & Mohammed Hassan indicated that the skills-acquisition group was superior to the other three conditions in terms of performance on the analogue test as well as grade point average. rational emotive. Their responses were scored and analysed according to the inventory’s scoring key and through mean and standard deviation respectively. the studies of Vagg (1976) and Maxwell and Wilkerson (1982) recommended and made use of numerous therapies – desensitization. The sampled subjects were divided and assigned to experimental and control groups. modeling. Methodology The design of the study is an experimental research involving experimental and control groups. The procedure for the treatment was conducted in three phases. diploma level and diploma programme differences as a consequence of counselling on examination anxiety and academic performance.87. during this stage the SHETI instrument was administered to all the accessible students during regular lecture period. etc.

8154 10. Phase III: The Post–treatment stage dealt with the re-administration of the SHETI instrument to both groups upon the completion of the treatment.5361 10.777) and SD (10.052) and SD (10. During this period also their examination results were collected. diploma level and diploma programme.5361) scores. Vol. Results The results of the study were presented in the following tables: Table 1: Mean and Standard Deviation of the Effect of Counselling on Examination Anxiety and Academic Performance.7233) scores unlike the controls with X (16.777 27. Counselling effect on academic performance was significant as shown by the difference in GPA pre-counselling (X 1. Therefore. Status Control Experimental GPA (Pre-counselling) GPA (Post-counselling) x 16.7411 and SD 0. 2006 Phase II: The treatment stage was conducted in sessions. the participants were appropriately evaluated.06840 SD Table 1 above presented the mean and standard deviation of the effect of counselling on examination anxiety and academic performance of diploma students. Mean. Responses to the SHETI instrument were appropriately scored.06840) scores.07473) and GPA postcounselling (X 2.7233 0.052 1.8154 and SD 0. the hypothesis which states that counselling has no significant effect on examination anxiety and academic performance of University of Maiduguri diploma students was rejected.25 Ilorin Journal of Education. Results indicated that counselling effect on anxiety was significant for the experimental group as shown by the X (27. 71 . The experimental group was exposed to counselling on simple relaxation technique by mapping out a hierarchy of examination anxiety and the triggering conditions. standard deviation and an analysis of variance was used to determine the effect of counselling on anxiety and academic performance of the subjects along gender.07473 0. 25 August. At the end of every skills training.7411 2. The control group was given placebo.

6865 Dip.228 Error 232 127.000 0. Thus.004 0. Programme 5 18.02 0.356 3139395 13532 The summary of results of ANOVA of the above table revealed that there was no significant gender difference (P>. Programme 5 21.341 0. Level 1 Dip.63 P 0.6865 3.9944 Total 239 Pre-counselling MS 0.291 0.6580 F 0. the hypothesis which states that there are no significant gender.83 7. diploma level and diploma rogramme differences as a consequence of counselling on examination anxiety and academic performance was accepted.05. there were no significant diploma level and diploma programme differences among the experimental subjects that received treatment as P> . While the differences between diploma level and diploma programme were highly significant (P<.386 12441 12441 0.3427 5.05).000 72 .5277 Error 231 151.47 0.000 The results of the ANOVA for table 3 showed that prior to the counselling the differences between status and gender were not significant (P>.339 75023 15005 1.7055 0.10 0.52 8.Bulama Kagu & Mohammed Hassan Summary of Performance Source df Status 1 Gender 1 Dip.429 Gender 1 0.0105 0.429 74. Level 1 5.67 P 0.0105 Gender 1 0. Table 3: Summary of ANOVA for GPA: SS Source of df Difference Status 1 0.551 Total 239 F 135.05) as consequence of counselling.495 10222 10222 0. Programme 5 Error 232 Total 239 Table 2: ANOVA for the Effect of Counselling on Anxiety and along Gender.900 0.76 0.471 0.12 6. Level 1 3.3427 Dip.767 3. Table 4: Summary of ANOVA for GPA: Post-counselling Source of df SS MS Difference Status 1 74.618 Dip. Also. Diploma Level and Diploma Programme SS MS F P 6321 6321 0.138 4.02 1.11 0. 05).767 Dip.64 5.92 0.618 0.

References Carew. (1996). Vol. the diploma level and among the diploma programmes as a consequence of the counselling.D. It is therefore advocated that counselling be given premium in the school system by providing counselling materials. A closer look at the ANOVA results showed that status effect was significant (P<. 1976. examination anxiety is debilitating too many students that jeopardized their academic performance in the school system. for example. The control subjects on the other hand. (1999). academic. & Hamman–Tukur.05) except for gender (P<. 1982. P. The effect of group-study-habit counselling on academic performance of diploma students in the University of Maiduguri. The paper upholds that this situation contributes to defective study habits especially among the diploma students. Kagu. the findings revealed that there were no significant gender. Discussion of Results It is evident from the first finding of this study that experimental subjects exposed to counselling demonstrated reduction in the levels of their examination and considerable increase in their GPA score. personal) including test anxiety can be tackled. In a skill-acquisition treatment for test anxiety. fighting. Kirkland & Hollandsworth (1980) found. 2006 The ANOVA results for GPA Post-Counselling in Table 4 showed that as a result of the counselling. Similarly the works of Pindar (2000). thesis University of Ilorin. and Kirkland & Hollandsworth. F. However. Kagu (1999) and Kolo (1980) showed the efficacy of counselling in improving study habits and academic performances experiment group than controls. Wilkerson. jittering. diploma level and diploma programme differences as a consequent of counselling (P>. A. Several studies seemed to agree with these findings (vagg. C. subjects that were exposed to cue-relaxation and mediation techniques performed significantly higher than the control groups both on the analogue test and general grade point average. 25 August. the effects of status. Study habits and examination technique inventory (SHETI). diploma level and diploma programme were significant (P<. exposed to placebo treatment were unable to show any sign of improvements both in their anxiety level and GPA performance. 1980). 73 .05). Conclusion Indeed. H. numerous problems affecting students (social.25 Ilorin Journal of Education. nervousness and sweating. The control subjects exposed to counselling demonstrated reduction in levels of their examination and considerable increase in their GPA score. When this is put in place. recruiting qualified counsellors. The symptoms among others include rapid heart beat. no significant differences were found between the gender. Furthermore.05). Unpublished Ph. B. Maiduguri: Saloue Psycho-Educational Services.05). etc.

Fostering school subject choice of secondary school students in Nigeria Journal of Research in Counseling Psychology. (1989). 20. Journal of College Student Personnel. A comparative study of the effectiveness of client – centred and rational emotive group counselling models on the study habits of low achieving NCE students. 112:135 – 140. G. The Journal of Psychology. Kolo. 1 (1) (103) – 107. K. Unpublished PhD Thesis. J. 74 . Pindar. (1979). (1980). University of Maiduguri. J. & Hollandsworth. J. 431 – 436. (2000).Bulama Kagu & Mohammed Hassan Kirkland. F. J.W. study skills and academic performance. & Wilkerson.O. Maxwell. Test anxiety. Anxiety reduction through group instruction in rational therapy.

Education, 25 2006 Ilorin Journal of Education, Vol. 25 August, 2006 OPTIMAL STRATEGIES FOR THE GAME OF SQUASH

Talabi, A. E. (PhD) Department of Physical and Health Education, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

Abstract

Squash playing is an act, which has a scientific and logical procedure. This paper researched into and discussed optimal strategies essential to playing and winning in squash. Twenty-two nationally rated male players were used as research sample. Mean and simple percentage was used for statistical analysis. Result showed that squash is essentially a game of drives (55%), volleys (16.8%), drops (13.7%), boasts (10.2%) and lobs (4.2%). It also showed that 75% of the shots were played low and 25.5% shots played high on the front wall. Also, most of the shots were played close to the sidewalls (83.5%). The basic component of the game, the rules, the court and the research findings were then used to evolve strategies that can engender maximum enjoyment and success at the game of squash.
Introduction Squash is a game very similar to Tennis and Badminton. It is played with a racket smaller than Tennis racket but bigger than the Badminton racket and a smaller rubber ball about one quarter the size of a tennis ball. Essentially the game consists of a service procedure and then a rally for point between two players. In service, the ball is hit into specific areas after which subsequently returns can be hit to any where within the court, provided it touches the front wall each time. The aim of the game is to make the ball bounce off the front wall so that the opponent cannot return it from the air or after the first bounce. Play is by alternate hitting of the ball and the ball can be hit in the air (volley) or after the first bounce on the floor (drive) (International Squash Racket Federation [ISRF], 1999) Like in Tennis, the skills of drive, volley, lob, drops and a combination of these are in used in squash. However, another skill called ‘boast’ makes a distinction for squash. This is a shot played to the front wall via the sidewall. As in all racket games, the orderly arrangement and use of strokes, good shot placement and correct positional play, among other things, are essential to excellent play. Since the skills of playing a game involves not only the actions taken at any one time but also the actions taken over the whole period of activity (Knapp, 1997), strategy forms an important part of the over all squash skill. Strategy involves the over-all general pattern of the game, which includes arrangement of strokes, ball placement and the use of court space among other

75

Talabi, A. E. things. Knapp (1997) describes tactics and strategies as higher units of any game. The purpose of this study was to determine the use of strokes and ball placement, by national rated squash players. A primary concern was to determine a pattern of play that could be used as reference by other up-andcoming squash players, and others who desire to improve their game. Methodology Sample: Twenty-two national rated male players in Nigeria were used for this study. All players participated in the National Squash Open where the study was conducted. This championship is for prize money and also for national ranking of players. Data Collection Procedure: None of the players was aware of the study as it was done while play was in progress. The order of play and arrangements of playing pairs were as charted by the officials of the championship using previous national seeding. All readings were taken as play progressed between playing pairs. The following measurements were taken:a) Number of hits per rally per time. b) Type of strokes used by both players, for example, volleys, drops, boast, lobs, and so on. c) Ball placement areas on the front wall. d) Ball placement areas on the floor a. Number of hits per time: This was measured by counting the number of hits made within a given time by both players. A hit here means any racket contact with the ball. This was done within the duration of the game. b. The type of the strokes played: This was measured by breaking the shots into five major types (Drive, Volley, Drop, Boast and Lob). A volley is a ball intercepted in the air. A drop is a ball played to die in the frontcourt. A boast is a shot played against the sidewall to the front wall. These were counted for both players for the duration of a game. c. Ball placement on the front wall: The front wall was divided into two by the front court service line. Shots above the line were regarded as high and shots below were regarded as low (Figure 1). The numbers of high and low shots by both players were counted for the duration of a game. d. Ball placement on the floor: The floor space was divided as shown in Figure 1: shots in the shaded part (close to the side wall) were called Ashots while shots to the unshaded position were called B-shots. The numbers of A- or B- shots played during one game were counted each time.

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Education, 25 2006 Ilorin Journal of Education, Vol. 25 August, 2006 Some basic assumptions 1. Since the understanding of the rule and regulation of any game is essential to be strategies to be used, it is assumed that the Interference Rule No. 12 (ISRF, 1999) is one of the most important in strategy formulation. That makes it mandatory for one player to give the other player a fair view of the ball after playing and also to give an ample room for each other to move to and away from the ball. Violation of this rule leads to penalty points against the offender. In squash, penalty point could mean a loss of point, game or match depending on the seriousness. 2. Those top-level players, especially national players, are custodian of techniques and strategies for their respective sports and as such measurements were limited to them. 3. That studying the players under the natural environment of competition and uninformed will be the best way to see strokes and strategies adopted for the game by them. Results Mean and simple percentages were used for data analysis. The results are as shown in Tables 1 to 3 Table 1: Mean Hits per Time (N=22)
Games 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Mean SD No. Of Hits 71 93 101 77 57 334 44 384 242 209 242 168.55 Time in Sec 101 130 143 105 79 449 50 519 355 294 331 233.3 Hits/ Min. 42 43 42.4 44 43.3 44.3 44.0 44.4 40.9 42.3 40.0 42.8 +1.37

As shown in Table 1, the mean number of hits per minute was 42.8 shots (SD+1.37). As the game get into final rounds, there was a gradual decrease in the number of shots per minute.

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the mean numbers of drives. respectively. The highest strokes used by all players were the drive and the lob was the least played stroke. as play is by alternate hitting.6.6 Game 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Mean 91 61 121 124 81 68 211 102 54 75 112 100. Discussion As indicated in Table 1.4 shots per minute per person.6 and the mean for Bshots was 30. 25.6 The mean value for high shots was 66.7 195.7 and the value for low shots was 195.6 30. of Front Wall Shots High Low 108 148 76 189 26 89 34 116 87 245 56 225 60 106 68 233 52 150 39 166 128 481 66. With play lasting between one to two hours per best of five games.Shots 107 14 92 54 112 24 180 22 100 22 187 41 112 16 234 28 166 40 256 45 154. Table 3: Ball Placement on the Front Wall and the Floor Game 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Mean No.6.0 Boast 17 19 24 13 13 17 32 18 12 13 26 18.7. the average hit is 42.0. The mean value for A-shots on the floor was 154. and 7.Shots B. All players played more low shots than high shots and all players played more A-shots than B-shots. volleys. Table 2: Number and Types of Squash Strokes (N= 22) Drive Volleys 39 27 12 40 33 22 73 43 14 10 25 30.5 Lob 14 9 7 8 4 7 23 6 2 1 3 7.Talabi.7 Drops 37 15 17 34 30 21 36 43 10 14 18 25. 30.4.5. E.8 shots per minute meaning 21.2 As shown in Table 2. drops.4 No of Floor Shots A. 18. A. each player then 78 . and lobs were 100. boast.

The three shots together made up 85. 1993) and play balls that keep your opponent wall behind. Table 5: Mean Percentage Ball Placement Placement High) Front Low) Wall A-Shots B-Shots Mean NO.9% (Table 4). Vol. boasts and lobs.2% 4. however. 55% 16. Since the aim of the game of squash is to control the ‘T-junction’.5% 16. drops.8% were volleys.6 30. top-level players used all the major strokes of squash during play. (McKenzie. The implication of this is that squash is primarily a game of drives and secondarily of volleys.2% As shown in Table 4. 22. 1999). 66.7 25 18. He also describes volleys. It should also be given adequate consideration during training by up and coming players. Good shots improperly placed amount to bad strategy (Hunt.7 195. drive is the most important skill in squash playing.5% 33.7% 10.6 Mean % Comp. That is.5% of the front wall shots were high. The amount of low balls played in this study. 25 August. Hunt (1995) describes drive as the stroke essential to creating opportunities and for court stabilization and control. boast as ‘finishers’ or ‘winners’.5% of the shots were played low on the front wall. 25 2006 Ilorin Journal of Education. 1995). high balls should have been preferred as high balls have better chances of reaching the back wall than low balls.5% of the total strokes played by game.8% 13. and then means that shots must be hit hard enough to enable it get to the back wall. the percentage composition of each varied. Since boasts and drops are normally played low and their percentage is just 23. drops.Education.6 Mean % Comp. It is one thing to have the repertoire of strokes. as speed itself is a factor in strategy (Knapp. it s another thing to know how to use them. Table 4: Mean Percentage Composition of Strokes per Game Strokes Drives Volley Drops Boast Lob Mean No 100 30. Up and Coming players must therefore.7%. while 25. one can reasonably deduce that the bulk of the drives and volleys were played low on the front wall. Table 5 is the shot placement as found for nationally rated squash players. 2006 approximates to 1284 shots per hour.5% Floor The result showed 74. 16. with drops constituting 13. Fifty five (55) percent of the shots played were drives.4 154. The 79 .5 7. first try to cope with this pace of play before giving full play to ball placement.5% 74.

were played closes the sidewall. boast. 1993). Figure 2 shows the front wall. Players are advised to aim all drives. and boast to consolidate advantages. Balls to the danger zone put players into the possibility of: (a) Infringement of the fair view rule (b) Not removing the opponent from the vital operational area (T-junction) and lastly (c) Haphazard movement into and away from the ball. (b) Remove the partner from the T-junction.305m (1 foot) above the tin board and into the designated areas. This will guarantee that ball does not hit the tin. The rule also provides that while playing shots. This will allow the balls to reach the back wall with less hitting force. volleys and lobs to not more than 0.6m away from the side wall. (c) Finally. Balls should not at all be aimed at the danger zone (unshaded areas). with the addition of volleys. all shots were played close to the sidewall and that the closer to the wall.wall is high.61m above and below the service line. 80 .5% of all shots played landed close to the sidewall (zone A) or (A-shots). (c) Give the player command of the T-junction for further onslaught. balls played close to the walls can serve to. (d) Allow the partner enough fair view of the ball as wall balls are well away from the T-junction. which McKenzie (1993) calls the operation center. Conclusion The result of this study revealed that: (a) Squash playing is essentially a game of drives. drops. (b) That this drives were mainly played hard and low. In squash the idea is to beat the opponent to the ball by playing shots that are either difficult to return or cannot be returned (McKenzie. (a) Make the ball difficult for the opponent to handle. drops etc. 1995). the opponent must be given a fair view of the ball (ISRF.the point of best control (Hunt. E. A. The author however is of the opinion that high balls will create better advantages. Figure 3 shows the floor plan. The drops and boasts should be played about 0. Therefore. volleys. 1999). Volleys and drives should be aimed at about 0. drops. Table 5 also shows that 83. and also be difficult for opponent to pick.Talabi. It is recommended that players during training and playing should aim at putting the balls in the designated areas in Figure 1. the closer the better. Recommendations Based on the finding. the better the advantages and the likelihood of winning. a hypothesized dimension for squash training and playing is proposed. fact that hard hit low drives are usually difficult to intercept and control has probably made it the preferred shots of the Nigerian squash champions. This means that almost all the drives. as the possibility of hitting the racket against the side.

61m 0. Vol. 2006 If these guidelines are followed during training and matches. 2: Squash Court front wall 81 . HIGH CUT LINE [SERVICE LINE] LOW FRONT WALL ZO N E Z ON E ZO NE A- SQUASH COURT FLOOR Fig. 25 2006 Ilorin Journal of Education. 25 August. 1: Squash Court front wall and floor 0. Players will have fair view of the ball at all times and individuals will be able to create and design own opportunities. poor shots will soon be discovered and rejected.305m DROPS TIN BOARD Fig.61m DRIVES DRIVES B- A- SERVICE LINE 0.Education. There will also be enough time and space to plan shots and reduced crowding and injuries.

I. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul ltd.61m Fig. Australia.61m 0. 7(11).Talabi. (1995). E. March). (1993. Wales: Nordic Publication. 3: Squash Court front floor plan References Hunt. G. 82 . (1997). Knapp. Skills in sports. Official handbook of squash rules and specification. McKenzie. Playing squash. A. Gonde Nest Publication. How to get on the attack from a standard play situation. International Squash Racket Federation (1999). ER NG E DA ON Z 0. The squash player international.

1010. The paper opined that Nigerian leaders have not judiciously utilised the assistance of these external bodies. The paper rests on the assumption that education confers knowledge and skill. Vol. the provision of education services should be perceived in the context of a world whose destiny is intractably woven in a single whole. which are directed towards conformity in certain aspects of human life. one would want to state at the outset that it would be out of place to attempt to identify all sponsors of educational programmes. Knowledge itself has a universal appeal given the fact that it provides the clue to the dynamics of human existence and progress.B. according to the paper is that it would intensify inequalities between the various interest groups in Nigeria and thus accentuate social crisis and by implication political instability and undermine national unity.M. Adeniran (PhD) Department of History. Oyo. This has in a way tended to underestimate the relevance of education as a universal value and by implication limited the scope of education as a national issue. Ilorin Journal of Education. What is to be attempted is a bird’s eye-view of sponsorship from external sources. as well as the dimension of assistance. It is expected that this effort would stimulate further works on the external dimension in the funding of education in Nigeria. 2006 GLOBALISATION AND THE EDUCATION IN NIGERIA Lateef A. this is not to argue on the reliance of external sources in the funding and implementation of education schemes. Rather. 25 August. The implication for this. Introduction The thrust of this paper is on the contributions of external bodies to the advancement of educational activities in Nigeria. bearing in mind trends on the international scene. Arising from this linkage between education and development. Oyo State College of Education. However. This mindset is perhaps best exemplified in the Nigerian 83 .August. Since the scope of the paper would not permit an in-depth discussion. Operational Framework Studies and discourses on education in Nigeria have been unduly introverted. bearing in mind trends on the global scene. The import of this is that the funding of education in a particular country does not necessarily have to be exclusively a national issue. funding needs to be appreciated as a desirable added value. Abstract DEVELOPMENT OF WESTERN This theoretical paper examined the contribution of external bodies to the development of Western education in Nigeria. P.

In the section that deals with the ‘financing of education’. Adeniran national policy on education (Federal Republic of Nigeria [FRN]. technology spill-over. it is germane to draw attention to the following observation made by him: “Africa’s current social and economic landscape is profoundly marked by aid” (p. it is germane that explanation on the current trend in human affairs. In order to underscore this. one observes that certain issues which in political discourse have been identified as ‘public goods’ – to be addressed by individual countries. From this. as a process. the document noted that: “Education is an expensive social service and requires adequate financial provision from all tiers of Government for a successful implementation of the educational programme” (p. Education occupies a pre-eminent position in this regard. The question now is: In real terms. 273). financial flows. He went further. In order to address the issue of education. This is the process of exporting ideas. that is globalisation. is coterminous with the very beginnings when communities initiated activities which made them to interact with other communities. open competition. A critical analysis of this position reveals this to be untenable. which is the focus of this paper. and consequently. 84 . private enterprise. information networks. pointing out that: “Whereas few public institutions have never received aids. but have been handicapped by the low literacy rates which in turn. the International Monetary Fund (IMF) as quoted by Olowude (1998) defined it as the “Rapid integration of economies world-wide through trade. 270). 2000. 7). 12). a large proportion of African professionals have benefited from a donor-founded scholarship at some point in their careers” (p. they widen their scope of operation beyond their immediate environments. Certain national issues which attract international attention have of recent. Economics and economic activities that are free from institutional controls and which fosters and promotes free market mechanism. be given. This is because the developed nations of the world are desirous of increasing their investments in African nations. This phenomenon has come under the generic name. been given greater focus. professionalism and excellence in corporate governance” (p. the phenomenal technological breakthroughs have led to the intensification of the integration of certain values. 60).Lateef A. across cultural currents” (p. colonialism. accounts for the “perceived low quality of the labour force” (Van de Wale. have aroused interests in the scheme of the United Nations. A more acceptable definition was that posited by Bohnet (1999) that it is: “a process of increasing economic and non-economic linkages across the world” (p. Globalisation (internationalism). particularly in Nigeria. p.7). In the same vein. According to Olowude (1998) globalisation is the “Phenomenon characterised by liberalisation of world. 271). Manifestations of this in modern are found in the 15th century voyages of discovery which led to European imperialism. In other words. globalisation. In contemporary times. 2004). what is globalisation? Articulation of term largely derives from the specific interest of the respective scholar. One can discern from the above that globalisation is premised on an economic mindset.

This is the context in which world leaders in political and intellectual life-have come to hold certain issues as universal norms.August. Vol. When translated into meaningful terms. open competition and networking. This derives largely from its abundant human and material resources. do not detract from the focus of this paper. Ilorin Journal of Education. one can establish a working definition of globalisation as that phenomenon by which perceived beneficial cultural values in one part of the world is extended to other parts of the world. standardisation of practices. It needs to be borne in mind that the pace of globalisation heightened with the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Its reference as the ‘Giant of Africa’ arises essentially from its demographic configuration – accounting for about 20 per cent of the total population of Africa. economic liberalisation. This was the year declared by the UN General Assembly as the International Literacy Year. a world conference on education took place in Jomtien. 25 August. 1990 was a landmark in terms of its global networking. these resources are expected to place Nigeria as a decisive force on the international scene. Deriving from the examples given above. As far as education is concerned. It is. There are vast agricultural and mineral endowments particularly its crude oil reserves. Similarly. The import of this is that the international community. particularly when one takes into account the uni-polar nature of the contemporary world. Among this pool of human capital. In this regard. Nigeria in the Globalisation Nigeria assumes a distinctive image in world politics. universal norms. Thailand in that year (International Literacy Institute. We need your continued leadership in the struggle for peace” (p. From this. where the United States of America exercises an over-bearing influence. we can identify the basic features of globalisation as international regime. global security and the spread of education. 2006 This was the basis of the slogans which began in 1975 like ‘Health for all by the years 2000’. instructive to point out that this global trend cannot be divorced from another form of imperialisms. population control. however. and vast human and natural resources. Clinton quoted by Gana (n.d. 2002). it is pertinent to draw attention to the address of the former President of the United States of America during his official visit to Nigeria between August 26 and 28. a realised Nigeria can be the economic and political Anchor of West Africa and the leader of the continent.) declared that “With one-fifth of Africa’s people. a number of Nigerians have distinguished themselves in terms of their contributions to the advancement of knowledge as well as scientific and technological developments. 16). have a special stake in the fortunes of Nigeria. ‘Education for all by the year 2000”. through a linkage of social. In fashioning out the process of making 85 . These observations however. apart from the traditional acknowledgement of the fact of the interdependence of nations. economic and political activities. In this category are democratic governance. upholding the principles of human rights. 2000.

4). p. then emphasis must be laced on broadening access to education in Nigeria. harmonious and just world. owe it a duty to empower Nigeria accordingly. 2004) as well as the various existing educational programmes relevant to contemporary human challenges? The former Minister of Education. Deriving from this. In fact. 1999). In a study carried out be the United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF) in 1983. 28). international agencies. it was revealed that about 46 and 23 per cent. Singapore and Hong Kong. This is based on the figures of 38. It needs to be stated here that equipping Nigeria in this regard. the channel through which the single largest budgetary allocation is directed. State of Education in Nigeria Educational institutions are numerous in Nigeria. the real of education can be appreciated if one takes account of its heuristic nature. reveals that given the phenomenal advancement in technology. it becomes imperative that leaders of thought and influence must work towards ensuring that the resources of the world are broadly distributed. p. One would need to state here that mere figures are not enough to adequately address Nigeria’s educational requirements. the world has become constricted to the extent that we now live in a globe village. especially in developing nations. Tunde Adeniran gave an insight into the state of the nation’s education system during a meeting between officials of the Ministry and Educational Donor Agencies. This is hinged on the premise that “equity is not charity” (Clark. 2000). Adeniran Nigeria relevant to their needs. multinational as well as leading nations of the world. Prof. 1991. Developments in contemporary times have however. Education 86 . By implication. A meaningful analysis of this system needs to take cognisance of such questions like: what is the extent of its accessibility? How adequate are the human and material resources available for this vital industry? To what extent is the Nigerian national policy on education (FRN. gain admission to universities in Nigeria (Yusuf. he pointed out that “the country’s education system was ill-prepared to meet its development challenges” (Adeniran. made it imperative that a nation’s educational amenities be explained in such a way that it would turn out to be. Taiwan.649 (1995) Primary Schools. the fortunes or otherwise of a nation has ripple effects on others. This is due to the multiplier effects of education. There is equally the fact by standards set by the United Nations 25 per cent products of secondary schools are expected to proceed to universities. adult population in Nigeria were literate (Obasi. 2000. If this injunction must make any meaningful impact. 1986). At the occasion. Thus. and 58 colleges of education. 6. Studies in contemporary development thinking. to ensure a peaceful.074 Secondary Schools. needs not be considered as a act of benevolence by the developed nations. male and female respectively. Studies have revealed that only 10 per cent of such. 43 Polytechnics and about 42 Universities in 1995 (Esu & Junaid. analysts have identified the premium placed on education as the most important factor for the prosperity of the Asian industrial tigers – South Korea.Lateef A.

G. the establishment of the National Technical Teacher Training College (now Federal College of Education-Technical) in Lagos in 1967 owes largely to the efforts of UNESCO. while indigenous principals were appointed for the first three of such institutions. the NCE Technical Certificate: “Gradully… L. Due to massive expansion of educational programme at the immediate post-independence era. 25 August. We therefore want to identify with the argument that investment in education. A. 2006 makes for better judgement. Given the size of Nigeria’s population. scholarships. These were Mr. UNESCO’s efforts in the education enterprise can be seen as a decolonisation process. Vol. only about 14. to supply of textbooks. External Intervention Governments at various levels in Nigeria (Federal. For instance. just about 43. Trends worldwide have amply demonstrated that the contributions of external forces have widened the base of stake holders in this scheme. According to the account. E. Zaira and Owerri) they were assisted by UNESCO advisers. which is investment in human capital. Similarly. 1996). This includes international organisation. policy formulation as well as funding of researches. State and Local) have in various forms contributed to the development of education in Nigeria. equipment. Soladoye with Mr. Hilton (a Briton) as the UNESCO Adviser. Such is the relevance of education in the contemporary world that the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has identified it as one of the tripod (others being life expectancy. Wilson as Adviser. Investigations reveal that about 64 per cent of this. Institute” (UNESCO. (at Lagos. the agency in 1962 initiated the concept of higher teacher training institutions called Federal Advanced Teachers Colleges (now called Colleges of Education) (UNESCO. In the same vein. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has been a major facilitator in this process. completed primary schools. it stands to reason that. S. the existing educational facilities are grossly inadequate.4 million children were enrolled in primary schools. both in conventional teacher education and the technical teacher education field. with Mr. It is the very basis of productive activities.August. UNESCO was particularly concerned with teacher education. is the best type of investment. E. Ilorin Journal of Education. UNESCO charted a new trail in English – speaking Africa 87 .5 per cent of this proceeded into junior secondary schools (Blue Print for UBE: 1). But experience has proved that education is about the most capital–intensive social service. that of Zaria was Mr. out of about 21 million children of school-going age. Available statistics reveal that by 1996. members of the developed nations. assistance from nongovernmental sources would facilitate educational services. Dawodu for the Lagos Federal Advanced Teachers College. way. At the inception of its contributions to education in Nigeria. Deriving from this. Non-governmental organisations as well as individuals who have instituted foundations aimed at sponsoring educational programmes. the nature of assistance varies from financial grant. 1996). E. and adjusted real income) upon which the Human Development Index (HDI) is measured. In this.

with the programme supervised by the University of Birmingham (U. he training of about 400. 1996). One must however point out that the FGN counterpart funding in this regard was equally substantial accounting for N13. between 1978 and 1993. Education Secretaries and Local Inspectors of Educations. Oyo. In 1991. between 1988 and 1990. the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Federal Government of Nigeria to organise a twoyear training project leading to the award of Master of Philosophy (M. They all bear the inscription: ‘World Bank.Lateef A.000 to the FGN (Nigeria: bulletin. This is essentially due to its status as Nigeria’s colonial master.K) (UNESCO.021 million programme spanning 1995-2000 for a mass literacy programme being undertaken by the National Commission for Mass Literacy. It is manifested in the pick-up vans distributed to all Local Government Education Authorities (LGEA) in the country. The British Government occupies a unique position in the process of assisting Nigeria to develop its education services. These same agencies have. In the same vein. Among other things. the United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF). the British made its contributions by making available. For instance.Assisted Primary Education Project’. In order to complement other organisations’ inputs into Nigeria’s educational development. In considering the period of the rising tide of globalisation. 1998). 1994. and by extension the major source through which Nigeria derived its western values. The UNDP and UNESCO have jointly . is quite apparent. Thus. the UNDP made a financial assistance of E9. between December 1 and 2. Adeniran (UNESCO. Adult and Non-formal Education (NMEC) (Yoloye.375. the agency collaborated with another UN agency. UNESCO equally made its impact felt in the development of Special Education in Nigeria. UNICEF sponsored studies into basic education. 1998). One of such was the one undertaken by some lecturers at St. .Phil) degree in Special Education. In 1995.000 education personnel for the nation’s primary schools (Yoloye. on the training and retraining of Head Teachers.sponsored a $8. has collaborated with Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) in various aspects.460 million while that of UNDP was $893. Oyo. 1971:26). sponsored a workshop at the St. funds “for English 88 . 1998). As a way of facilitating the objectives of the nation’s Second National Development Plan (1970-1974) as it relates to education. The Committee worked on the topic: Improvisation of Instructional Materials for Effective Teaching in Primary Schools. Andrew’s College of Education. the World Bank made available the sun of $120 million credit facility for. this same agency donated a Toyota Hillux Jeep and a motor – cycle to this same institution to facilitate the institution’s project on primary education. among other things.278. one observed that the British contribution in this regard comes under the technical cooperation sector. It is significant to point out that the Wold bank intervention efforts in the promotion of primary education in the country. UNICEF in collaboration with the FGN. 1996). Andrew’s College of Education. jointly funded a project on the computerisation of educational data in Nigeria (Yoloye.

It is instructive to point out that apart from other values of education. one observes that in spite of the expenditure on education by the three tiers of government. reveals that the education industry has a universal appeal. it is distinct in terms of its significance as an instrument to effecting redistribution of national resources in any organised community. Vol. Closure of educational institutions sometimes lasted between three and six months at a stretch. expenditure on social services usually suffers. 25 August. which had been instituted since 1948. an overriding factor. which became a feature of the country. 1990). 1990). which had run into about $460. By its very nature. which is a mere highlight of external input in Nigeria’s efforts to widen access to formal education. among others. Consequent upon this. survival and selfpreservation in power. There is however. The company instituted an annual award of 30 university and 30 secondary school scholarships. to what extent has the goal of Education for All been met? Observations indicate that government commitment in this regard is yet to reach an appreciable level. As a manifestation of this.August. and thus leading to wave of social disturbances. It effects social mobility and by implication secures for the recipient equal access to resources of the nation with 89 . During the 1989/90 academic session. has been promoting the nation’s academic industry through the award of scholarships. In fact. One needs to take into account the insatiable nature of educational demands. the education sector experienced setback due to strike actions by teachers at all levels of the education system. there will always be further basis for improvement. which has as its mother company. The means to effect this are then translated into guaranteeing national security. 2006 Language teachings. Nigeria has been ruled by military men.000 by 1990 (Raison. The trainings programme also involved assistance to the Police Staff College at Jos. 1992). An aspect of this support involves a Book Presentation Programme. Implications The foregoing. public administration. the Federal Government worked out additional form of funding through Education Trust Fund (ETF). Unilever in Britain. It mighty be of interest to add that it funded the construction of the Trenchard Hall at the nation’s premier university (Babawale. defence allocation was usually given prime attention. Ilorin Journal of Education. dictatorial regimes tend to be preoccupied with issues of security. The United African Company (UAC). 1990). about 650 Nigerian were in Britain benefiting from the educational assistance being sponsored by British government (Raison. For the most part. then one would be compelled into asking. which has vitiated the realisation of improved educational services. Whatever financial or material input committed into any education scheme. and the development of practical technical skills” (Raison. This irregular academic calendar and the prevailing malaise tended to depict those who controlled the affairs of the nation as obscurantist. If so much has been committed into it. In particular. This has to do with political will. agriculture.

(p. 4): Babawale. However. expansions of educational facilities have not been commensurate with demands as well ass expenditure. M. Nigerian Forum. teachers employed are grossly inadequate. London: Earthscan Publications. T. The implication for this is that it would intensify inequalities between the various interest groups in Nigeria. Bohnet. 12. through their backgrounds have had a head start in life. This state of education has led to the general disenchantment with government-established schools. charts and teaching kits among others” (p. the benefits of these principles have been constricted due to the inadequate funding of educational services. in a news report Dixon (1996) revealed that as a result of this practice. Democratising democracy: The role of voluntary organisations. The said amount was meant to “Address qualitative improvement in the nation’s primary schools through provision of books. Thoughts on the future of development policy: From theory to practice.Lateef A. (1991). Adeniran those who. It therefore stands to reason that the recent proliferation of private schools in the country is as much the product of people’s indictment of government failure. J. The above situation has been compounded due to the rampant financial mismanagement among government functionaries. In particular it can seriously hinder Nigeria’s chances of being accepted as African’s permanent representative on the UN Security Council. T. supplementary reader. Contemporary trend of universalism has facilitated contributions from both governmental and non-governmental bodies in ensuring the expansion of the opportunity of education. Conclusion From the above discussion. it could further undermine Nigeria’s opportunity of exercising desirable political leverage in the competitive world of globalisation. The Guardian. 90 . July 4). Arising from this misuse of funds. 1970-75. 29 – 30. January – April). Substantial part of funds meant for these services were diverted to private accounts. (2000. From the external dimension. 40). January/February). A great number of existing facilities have deteriorated. This would accentuate social crisis and by implication political instability and undermine national unity. as it is a feature of the contemporary liberalisation policy brought about by the process of globalisation. one can appreciate the values of education. Clarke. A preliminary survey of the UAC’s activities in post – colonial Nigeria. One however observes that Nigerian leaders have not judiciously utilised this assistance. Most importantly. (1992. (1999. Development and Cooperation. 1. It is such that developing countries like Nigeria have not been left fend for themselves. In other words the ideals of republicanisms are realised through the means of education. References Adeniran. For instance. the World Bank suspended its disbursement of a $120 millions loan to Nigeria.

M. Obasi. March 4). 2. World Bank suspends $120 million primary education loan. (1996. p. (2000). 1 . The Guardian (2000). p. Philadelphia: UNESCO Nigerian Institute of International Affairs (1971). (1998. ‘Adeniran explains reason for UBE. Sunday Punch. O. p. August 27). Africa Technology Policy Studies-Atps Network Series of Monograph.). A. National policy on education (4th ed.). Yusuf. B. H. p. pp. Raison. p. National Concord. a future assured (Vol. J. T. International Literacy Institute (2002). (1998).. Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004). October. 136 . President Bill Clinton’s visit to Nigeria. Educational development: Traditional and contemporary. P.10. E. (2000. 1 No. Lagos: UNESCO. Ajaegbu.). PAP. Africa’s literacy record. September 3).W & Rothchild. Colorado: West view Press. A. 40.August. 19. The world needs Nigeria. The state of education in Nigeria (pp. St. 2 (1). O. D. Vol. September 8). 20. UNESCO (1996).) Africa in world politics (pp.). In UNESCO (Ed. 2) (pp. Technology globalisation and competitiveness: challenges for Sub-Saharan Africa. Van de Walle. Calabar: Publishing Company. The Guardian. R. 247 -251). Vol. J. J. 16. 11. N. Building Partnerships: UNESCO and Education in Nigeria. Nigeria: Bulletin on foreign affairs. (1990). E.d. & Uya. Mathew-Daniel. 140 – 149). Olowude. Nigeria: A people united. The Punch. 26. Federal Ministry of Education (n. J. (2000). & Juaid. April 20. October 22). Oyeleran-Oyeyinka. N.141 91 . 20. Proposed implementation blue print for the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Scheme. J. 25 August. A. Europe and Africa. 40. Lagos: NERDC Gana. (1997). 6 – 29. (Eds. Ilorin Journal of Education. Sunday Punch (2000. Africa and the world economy: Continued marginalisation or re-engagement? In Harbeson. p. Literacy assessment practices (LAP) in selected developing countries. 15. Yoloye. 270 – 273). S. (1986. Lagos: Nigerian Institute of International Affairs. Britain. Esu. p. (Eds. Ilorin Journal of Education. The contribution of international agencies to education in Nigeria. 2006 Dixon. Economic focus. (1999) A conceptual framework for the establishment of an Open University in Nigeria.

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