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A Case Study about the Improper Waste Disposal in

Barangay Mojon Tampoy, Philippines

Goal: The general objective of our study is to teach the residents of Brgy. Mojon-Tampoy on how to
properly dispose their garbage, to find alternative ways in eliminating their garbage and to ensure
that the community will maintain the cleanliness in Brgy. Mojon Tampoy. This study mainly focuses
on how the practices of the people in the community can deeply affect, not just our nature but also
their health. With our proposed project, which is the compost pit with shredder, this will help reduce
the carbon footprint and smoke pollution present in the barangay. This is to guarantee that the
community will bring an end to incinerating their garbage.

ABSTRACT

One of the most common problem in the Barangay Mojon Tampoy is the improper waste disposal,
which could affect the current living of the residents of the barangay. The type of research approach
is a qualitative research. In this study the researchers aim to create a solution for the main problem
that the researchers found out by interviewing the residents. The Theory on Waste Management
(2004) by E. Pongrácz, P. S. Phillips, and R. L. Keiski is used as a reference through the
progression of the study. An interview was conducted with (9) willingly residents of the chosen
community, barangay Mojon Tampoy. The question asked to the respondents were their basic
information, source of income and the problems that they encountered in the community.

According to the result, improper waste disposal is the major problem of the residents in Mojon
Tampoy. These problems were defined as incinerating, throwing their garbage on the well and the
lack of garbage collection. These problems could harm not only the residents but also the
environment itself. The knowledge of the residents about their current situation is based on their own
experiences. Although they were able to give advice to people that might experience the same
situation by segregating their waste properly but since they don’t have enough funds to support
garbage truck collection they resulted to the incinerating of their garbage.

CHAPTER I

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Introduction

The situation that we chose in our topic is the problem in the proper waste disposal. Based on our
interview/survey, most of the residents in Barangay Mojon Tampoy incinerate, this way of disposal is
not eco-friendly and can affect the barangay itself and the people can inhale the emission of smoke.
This way of waste disposal can also lead to a number of diseases especially respiratory diseases,
such as asthma, bronchitis and emphysema. Burning trash can be also dangerous if not been
supervised, fire can spread and burn nearby trees, wood houses and can harm animals. This way of
disposal contributes so much in worldwide known global warming as burning waste leads to air
pollution since greenhouse gases have been released. This situation currently evident in the whole
world, these problems should be managed because these cause global warming and climate change
that can harm the people of future generation.
The related issued on the project is the worldwide problem in the pollution in air and land. In where
the problems in air pollution are burning of trashes that can results in releasing too much
greenhouse gases in the air that can easily destroy the layers of the atmosphere, second is the
problem in land pollution if we don’t have a healthy soil that can be used for planting plants or trees
due to the chemicals that already killed the fertility of the soil due to the harmful chemicals that
comes from the garbage’s the world will suffer from lacking of filtered soil. With this two related issue
that might happen in the community of Barangay Mojon-Tampoy the people in the community will
suffer in term of their primary source of their income which is farming. Because if atmosphere total
broken the grains or plants the farmers are growing will die easily because of too much
concentration of heat from the plants. While in the lacking of live soil or fertile soil the farmers in the
community will have problems to grow their plants because there are no more soils to be plant on
due to harmful chemicals that killed the soil.

The general objective of our study is simple, it is for the barangay to know how to properly dispose
their garbage, to find alternative ways in eliminating their garbage and to ensure that the community
will maintain the cleanliness in Barangay Mojon Tampoy. This study mainly focuses on how the
practices of the people in the community can deeply affect, not just our nature but also their health.
With our proposed project, which is the compost pit with shredder, this will help reduce the carbon
footprint and smoke pollution present in the barangay. This is to guarantee that the community will
bring an end to incinerating their garbage.

The specific objectives of the project are to obtain the cleanliness and orderliness of the barangay,
to promote ecological awareness to the residences in the barangay, to provide the compost pit in
order to solve the problem of uncollected waste, to enhance proper waste disposal and segregation
as a key to prevent the problem on where to put their waste, to promote cooperation among
Barangay Mojon Tampoy residents for community development and improvement, to teach the
residents to observe proper waste segregation and removal and to enrich the soil condition which
can also help on their main source of income which is farm or agricultural.

Statements of the Problem

The objective of this study is to let the residents of Barangay Mojon Tampoy know how to properly
dispose their garbage. Some factors affect the residents’ way on garbage disposal, these factors are
lack of knowledge on proper waste disposal, lack of garbage trucks that may collect their garbage
and the residents were accustomed on incinerating their own garbage.

1. What are the current community issues of the residents in the barangay?

2. What are the methods used by the residents in disposing their wastes?

3. What are the factors that causes these problems?

Significance of the Study

This study is designed to provide the following sector opportunities and a participative
implementation of Building a waste-free community through composting in Barangay Mojon Tapoy,
San Jose, Batangas. As observed by the researchers, the problem of the community is they don’t
have a place where to throw their garbage properly. To help this problem, the researchers came up
with this project proposal, the residents of the said place is expected to have a compost pit that will
help them segregate their waste properly. The compost pit that will be constructed will have a
shredder to make the waste decompose faster than the usual compost pit. With the assistance of the
barangay officials the project will be maintained and will help to convince people to support the said
project. With this proposal, the study will not only benefit the people living in Barangay Mojon
Tampoy but also the environment itself. One of a possible effect of the project is it can enrich the
fertility of the soil that can result to other positive outcomes.
Scopes and Limitations of the Study

The main concern of the study is to find a solution to the problems in Barangay Mojon Tampoy,
specifically the improper waste disposal which is the most evident. This includes the study of
different ways of waste disposal observed in the barangay, the analysis of why the residents in
Barangay Mojon Tampoy do this that causes the problem and what could be the effects of their lack
in proper waste disposal to the environment and to their health.

It also covers the suggested project that the researchers have proposed an answer to the problem.
Additionally, risk management and planning, project work plan, and detailed budget requirement of
the project is discussed.

To sum it up, this study will solely focus on the improper waste disposal and the solution to the
problem which is the compost pit with a movable shredder and mixer attached to the cover of the
compost pit. It will not discuss and/or elaborate the other problems in the barangay - aside from the
improper waste disposal - nor discuss a different way to deal with the said problem of the study.
Although these factors may affect the study, the researchers opted to exclude these factors from the
study because they chose to focus on the simplest way to deal with the most evident problem in the
barangay.

📷Theoretical Framework

Figure 1.1

This study employs E. Pongrácz, P. S. Phillips, and R. L. Keiski’s Theory on Waste Management
(2004) which discusses the conceptual analysis of waste, activity upon waste, and a holistic view of
the goals of waste management. The Theory of Waste Management is a unified body of knowledge
about waste and waste management, and it is founded on the expectation that waste management
is to prevent waste to cause harm to human health and the environment and promote resource use
optimization.

Waste management is affected by two main reasons which are waste disposal and waste
segregation. Without these two, we cannot properly manage or control the pile of waste in the
community. Waste disposal is affected by application of the self-sufficient principle and discipline.
Waste segregation is also affected by discipline and waste control. These two are affected by
discipline because without discipline the people cannot manage things successfully and properly.

📷Conceptual Framework

📷📷

Figure 1.2

The issue that is currently evident in Barangay Mojon Tampoy was their waste disposal and absence
of garbage truck. So the researchers came up with the project proposal that can help in eliminating
their waste disposal and the absence of garbage truck by building a compost pit with a shredder to
help them dispose their waste easily and properly. To make that possible, the researchers first
interviewed 10 of the residents of Barangay Mojon Tampoy to get the information that they needed
to make a simple solution to the problem. In line with this they also evaluate the cleanliness of the
barangay to think of what is needed to be done and what actions should they do. After getting the
details they needed, the researchers already have the input or the proposed plan/project. They have
the idea of a compost pit with a shredder to help it decompose easily and help the environment to
have healthy soil for a living. After creating the proposal of the project, the group needs to coordinate
with the barangay officials for them to know if the project will be approved and be supported. If the
said project proposal is approved by the barangay officials, then the group will start the
steps/methods from the time table that is included in the proposal. With the use of the seminar for
the people in the community of Mojon Tampoy they will have a deeper understand of the project
which is the compost pit with shredder and what are the benefits of this project to the environment.

In the first box which is input, it is indicated that the main problem to be solved which are lack of
garbage disposal and absence of garbage trucks. In the second box which is process, it is indicated
that the researchers observed and analyzed the problem before searching for possible solutions. In
the third box which is output, it is indicated that proposals will be done, in this case the compost pit.

According to E. Pongrácz, P. S. Phillips, and R. L. Keiski’s Theory on Waste Management (2004),


the sustainable waste management depends greatly upon how waste is defined. Definition is the
most obvious, and adequate method of characterizing a scientific concept. Definitions are offered to
state or describe the accepted meaning, or meanings, of a term already in use are called descriptive
definitions. Descriptive definitions are of the form: Definiendum has the same meaning as definiens.

Definition of Terms

asthma

- a respiratory condition marked by spasms in the bronchi of the lungs, causing difficulty in breathing.
It usually results from an allergic reaction or other forms of hypersensitivity.

bronchitis

- inflammation of the mucous membrane in the bronchial tubes. It typically causes bronchospasm
and coughing.

eco-friendly

- not harmful to the environment

emphysema

- a condition in which the air sacs of the lungs are damaged and enlarged, causing breathlessness.

greenhouse gases

- a gas that contributes to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared radiation, e.g., carbon dioxide
and chlorofluorocarbons.

incinerate

- destroy (something, especially waste material) by burning.

CHAPTER II Review of Related Literature and Studies

This chapter present an overview of some related literature and studies that are

Conceptual Literature

This research shows the related concepts, definitions and classifications about solid waste
management and composting.

Solid Waste Management

According to Iyyanki Muralikrishna and Valli Manickam from ResearchGate (December, 2017),
“Without an effective and efficient waste management program, the waste generated from various
human activities, both industrial and domestic, can result in health hazards and have a negative
impact on the environment.”. An effective and efficient waste management program is a way for an
area to have a clean and safe environment. The researchers have formulated a way to accomplish
the aim of Iyyanki Muralikrishna and Valli Manickam.

Treatments and disposal methods depends on the type of problem that any community has.
Residents or any responsible citizen of the community are able to conduct an appropriate solution
for the sake of their environment. Based on their research, it is also said that various human activity
can result a negative impact that can also cause health hazards to the residents. Proper discipline
and awareness of residents is needed. Nowadays, the main problem of everybody about solid waste
management is the lack of discipline of some people, that causes growing rate of garbage problems
that also affects air pollution, water and soil contamination, floods and excessive breeding of rodents
and vermin.

However, Taguti, Francoso, Viera (2017) claimed that, “Biodegradable materials are substituting the
conventional materials in many different applications. Among these, an important class is the
biodegradable polymers, also known as ecofriendly polymers mainly due to their ability to erode fast
by composting without any toxic effect.” Solid waste management can be done in different eco-
friendly ways. Some of these are: Creating less waste through reusing, rehoming for waste removal
and refining footprint example is using plastic bags from mall and using it again instead of throwing it
away, as well as plastic cups that can be use as pot of plants or people could try and sell the
reusable products. Another way is composting as waste removal, where in waste can be put in
compost pit, will decompose, and eventually turn into fertilizer. Also, food waste can be fed to farm
animals like cows, pigs and goats rather than throwing it.

Composting

Composting and vermicomposting are examples of eco-friendly ways of solid waste management
that can turn biodegradable wastes into fertilizer, that nourishes the soil condition (Barthod, Rumpel,
Dignac 2017). Composting is valuable as potting media and soil conditioner as they increase plant
available nutrient contents from the wastes, while decreasing leaching, and heavy metal mobility. It
can also reduce the carbon footprint from the human activities that produce greenhouse gases
emissions during waste degradation.

Organic household waste containing food remnants (citrus fruit and vegetable peels, fat, dairy
products, etc.) can determine what can be composted in home gardens (Neugebauer, Sołowiej, April
2017). Compost pit can be done into different ways, in a pit dug in the ground and in a container and
can be placed in the backyard and a vacant lot. It can also be beneficial to everyone in the area.

Benefits and Long Term Effects of Composting

Compost is one of the important organic amendments that can be use in attaining sustainability in
soil and in the environment. The analysis made by US Environmental Protection Agency of the
impact of compost production and use in greenhouse gas (GHG) makes use of modeling programs
that are currently used for understanding soil carbon balances. The study reveals that compost can
have minimal effect on some emissions related to compost manufacture and some potential
sequestration associated with end use (Brown 2017). Compost pit can control the carbon footprint
that an area can produce. It can also limit the negative ways on disposing garbage that can pollute
the environment like burning of the garbage.
Related Studies

Improper waste disposal is one of the existing problems that the Philippines is facing right now with
difficulty as humans are the root of this problem. There are several studies conducted throughout the
past years that deduced the importance of proper waste disposal in the community and the effects of
improper disposal of the waste to the community, environment, and the health of the residents. All of
these are introduced in this section.

According to Khylle Tumala (January 2015) from her study in the effects of improper waste disposal
in the Philippines, “Improper waste disposal is one of the biggest environmental issues here in the
Philippines. It caused bigger problems that affect not only the environment but also the health and
life of the people. This problem may be resolve or it will remain problem to the country in the next
few years”. A law in the Philippines approved by the Office on the President on January 26, 2001
was created in response to the rapidly growing rate of garbage problems in the country caused by
improper waste disposal. Unfortunately, even though there is a law, improper waste disposal in the
Philippines was ranked 3rd as top source of water contamination in a study on February 2015.

Waste disposal is different from waste management. Proper waste disposal is needed to properly
execute waste management. Waste Management refers to the recycling, processing, transport,
assortment, and monitoring of waste products. The waste products are mainly of three types: solid,
liquid or in gas state. Solid waste commonly is known as non-biodegradable waste (UKEssays,
2015). Their study centered on the waste hierarchy or 3R’s – reduce, reuse, recycle – and explored
waste management as a concept and effect of waste disposal. Without properly executing waste
disposal, difficulty in waste management also emerge. It is also proven that human activities and
lack of discipline are the main reason of improper waste disposal that makes the problem difficult to
resolve.

One of the significant studies that can also be applied to this research is the “Environmental Impacts
of Improper Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Rawalpindi City”
(Ejaz, Akhtar, Nisar & Ali Naeem, 2010), which discussed and highlighted the main causes of
improper solid waste management in developing countries like improper ways of waste disposal. An
inefficient municipal solid waste management system may create serious negative environmental
impacts like infectious diseases, land and water pollution, obstruction of drains and loss of
biodiversity.

Furthermore, Marianne and Fred Sandford (2015) also claimed that improper hazardous waste
disposal doesn’t just contaminate soil and the local water supply, but it can also pollute the air. An
area with a reputation for a toxic environment can also be susceptible to lower property values, so
not following proper disposal procedures can even affect the cost of houses' properties. Long term
execution of improper waste disposal of municipal wastes can affect soil and water properties and
productivity. It also produces lethal gases such as carbon monoxide and methane gas.

Disposal of refuse without proper supervision often amounts damage to the environment and
ultimately to the human body system. A public health physician, Professor Akin Osibogun, justified
that improperly disposed refuse has both direct and indirect health effects to humans which were
observed in the study of how improper waste disposal damages health (Obama, 2015). Excessive
breeding of rodents and vermin like rats, cockroaches, mosquitoes, and flies are the direct health
effects caused by improper disposal as those vermin transmit diseases like leptospirosis, lassa fever
and salmonellosis from rats; malaria from mosquitoes, shigellosis and diarrheal diseases from flies.
Indirect health effects, on the other hand, include the contamination of water and soil from leachate –
a very harmful liquid mixture of chemicals that forms as water flows from a contaminated area.

Another study, which is about effects of improper garbage disposal (Boehlke, 2017), also implied
that humans are not the only ones who are affected but also animals. As water can be
contaminated, marine life is also in danger. When wastes cluster and form algal bloom, it can
suffocate and contaminate everything near it – may it be a habitat which includes corals or an
organism like fishes, mollusks, etc.

However, a study in Ecuador which centered around the development of organic fertilizers from food
market waste and urban gardening by composting (Jara-Samaniego, Pérez-Murcia, Bustamante,
Paredes, & Pérez-Espinosa, 2017) can reduce the effects of improper waste disposal and even
prevent the pile up of wastes. Biodegradable wastes can be used for agricultural purposes because
of the high concentration that can be found on organic matters and nutrients contents of the wastes
like in food market and urban gardening wastes that can be managed and recycled through
composting obtaining end-products like compost or fertilizer.

Synthesis The study shows how significant proper waste disposal is in a community. From the
related studies and literature, the researchers reviewed, they are able to determine and clarify the
causes and possible effects of improper waste disposal in the community, to the environment, and to
the residents of the barangay the researchers are studying. With the help of these studies, the
researchers were able to revise a concept or idea about waste disposal and composting.
Composting is a simple way of segregating waste to recycle and help the soil to be more fertile for
future use which can also reduce the effects of improper waste disposal and management.

Those studies were able to help people and readers to widen their knowledge regarding to proper
waste disposal. Improper waste disposal is contributing in the worsening condition of the waste
management that affects the environment in the Philippines. This problem may remain and worsen
over time or it can be resolved, a Philippine law has been created and signed as a solution for this
problem, but it seems that it has not been effective since Philippines got a bad ranking for a water
contamination based in a study. Composting can contribute to lessen the water contamination
caused by the leachate as composting can make an area instead of contaminated into a fertile one.

CHAPTER III Research Methodology

This chapter presents and clarifies all the details of the procedures followed in conducting the study.
This chapter includes the discussions of the design of the research, description of research
instrument to be use, description of the locale of the study, steps in collecting data and methods of
analyzing and interpreting the data.

Searching for valid reliable sources of data and information for this study was a challenge for the
researchers. The researchers looked for several articles, theses and research works in order to
gather information and conducted sampling in order to acquire the data required for this study.

Research Design

This research utilized a case study, a type of qualitative research that determines the problems of
Barangay Mojon Tampoy in regards to proper waste disposal. In this study, some of the residents
was interviewed about their current lifestyle and the problems that they are encountering. A case
study is a process that focuses on people’s specific problems that they are currently experiencing.
Through these experiences, the researchers would provide an innovative and a convenient solution
to resolve or address the problem being targeted.

Sources of Data The researchers gather data by the means of survey, that served as a guide for
conducting an interview, that was given to the residents. The survey includes the basic question that
includes the information, lifestyle, source of income and family background in line with this the given
questionnaire holds the confidentiality of the respondents, it also included in the questionnaires
about their problem with their barangay. This data that have been gathered contributes on the
researchers on coming up of the possible solutions to solve the problem. Second is that some of the
gathered information from the community of Mojon-Tampoy is from some reliable online sites that
gives more information from the said community like the land area and the number of population,
and on finding ways on how to have some solution on the problems that the interviewees told to the
interviewers from the questions to the survey.

Respondents of the Study

Most of the interviewees were already living in Mojon-Tampoy San Jose ever since they were born,
but some of the interviewees in the community was born or raised in different places like Bicol,
Pampanga, Laguna, and different locations in Batangas. Most of the interviewee’s age ranges are
25 to 63 years old. Age affects the study as the older respondents are more experienced and more
exposed to the culture and lifestyle in Mojon Tampoy. All of the interviewees are all women and this
data can affect the result because women stay at their household more often and they are more
aware of the changes that occur on the community.

Research Locale

Barangay Mojon Tampoy is located in San Jose, Batangas. According to National Statistics Authority
(NSA), as of 2015, there are one thousand eight hundred sixty (1860) people living in one of the
rural areas. Its Latitude is 13°54’55.8” and its longitude is 121°6’49.68”. The common livelihood on
Mojon Tampoy are mainly poultry and agricultural. The place is observed with a clean and green
environment, a rural place.

However, there are also some problems observed in the barangay that the researchers wanted to
point out. The barangay has limited lampposts that could make the place a bit unsafe at nights.
According to the respondents, there were no proper ways in the barangay to dispose their wastes as
there were no garbage truck in the area. A large number of young people that is out school youth are
also noted.

Research Tools and Instruments

The researchers conducted an interview last September 29, 2017 to the residents in Mojon, Tampoy
to know the issues or problems present in the community. In this interview, the group was divided
into two with a 4 to 3 members each, and they were asked to document the answers of the residents
on some common questions when it comes on how they dispose their trashes. Some of the question
listed in the survey questionnaire were about their weekly budget, their expenses, family
background, knowledge about waste disposal and the appliances that they are using. The
researcher approached the people by saying some simple introduction and explaining the purpose of
the research. The respondents welcomed the researcher with a smile and answer the questions
honestly.

Data Gathering Procedure

On the 29th day of September 2017, the researchers went to Barangay Mojon Tampoy which is
located in San Jose, Batangas. Students approached the residents with respect and kindness.
Students are about to choose 10 houses and interview every resident that is living there. First, the
students started to tell them the purpose for conducting the interview. The Interview/Survey
Questions include their names, occupation, salary, educational attainment and family members,
including their age, marital status, educational attainment and occupation. It is followed by questions
about Barangay Mojon’s residents about proper waste segregation and disposal. After answering the
survey form, students asked them if it's okay to take pictures with them because it is needed in the
documentation. Students ended the interview with the words of thanksgiving for the opportunity to
conduct an interview to them. The interview per house lasted for about 5-15 minutes.
Ethical Consideration

In conducting this study, the researchers made sure that they observed some proper ways of
communicating with the respondents. The researchers made sure that the residents were properly
informed and participated willingly in the study. This study showed no harm to the environment and
to the locals, the researchers also value the security and confidentiality of the respondents. The
gathered data will be used and applied in the research, without exposing any gathered data outside
the project, and are reasonable, credible, and valid. The researchers will make sure to maintain
relationship with the respondents for the updates in the project.

CHAPTER IV

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS AND FINDINGS

This chapter presents the data gathered in the form of transcribed interviews following open,
selective, and theoretical coding under Glaserian coding. Furthermore, this chapter presents the
analyses of the significant findings that the researchers had discovered throughout the study in line
with the specific problems found in the study and are supported by related studies and literature.
Textual discussions and corresponding analyses are presented which points out the significant
findings found during the open selective and theoretical coding phases of the research.

The information gathered from the responses of the residents were recorded and primarily
transcribed. The questions that were asked during the interview mainly focused on the profile of the
respondents, type of lifestyle they are living, knowledge of respondents in segregation and
composting and its importance, observed problems in the barangay, the projects that were
implemented to try to resolve the problems, and why the projects failed.

Most of the respondents were women with age ranging from 25 to 63 years old. From the several
interviews the researchers have conducted, the respondents provided the evident and most
observed problems in their barangays and the reason as to why those problems exist and factors
that might affect those problems.

Issues in the Barangay

Respondents answered that there are four major problems observed in their barangay. A major
problem that is difficult to solve and also affects other aspects of the lifestyle of the residents is “wala
naming sapat na pondo ang barangay” which makes living in Mojon-Tampoy as money is greatly
involved and greatly affects economics. “Kakulangan sa mga livelihood programs” and “maraming
microfinance” also make the the problem more difficult to solve as the barangay’s source of income
is limited and small compared to their expenses that build up over time.

Some respondents provided information that there is “kakulangan ng pailaw sa kalsada” which
alarms the residents especially at night as the roads may become unsafe and dangerous to walk on.
It is also dangerous for the motorists to drive at night as there are the visibility lowers at night and
makes it difficult to drive in especially without lights.

Large numbers of out-of-school youth are a major problem in the barangay because “hindi sila
nakakapag-aral kaya imbis na nag-aaral sila, tumatambay na lang sila” which makes their life even
more astray as they just live their lives without purpose when they just stand by in one place or
another. It also bothers other people, especially the elderly, as they are worried about those youth’s
future. But according to the interview, this problem is difficult to solve as those youths have trouble
financially and the barangay ang government cannot support them for the barangay itself has
insufficient funds.
Most of the respondents answered that the biggest problem that their barangay is facing right now
is “may mga basurang nakakalat kung saan saan” because “walang nangongolekta ng
basura” and “wala kaming mapaglagyan ng basura dito”. Lack of land space provided for wastes and
absence of garbage trucks lead to improper waste disposal which make the surrounding full of
garbage and wastes.

Analyzing the information provided by the respondents, it was found out that there are different
problems present and evident in the barangay but are all difficult to solve due to insufficient funds -
another problem observed in the barangay because of the lack of livelihood programs. According to
Tsagolov (December 8, 2014), who quoted a line from Francois Quesnay’s book, Tableau
Economique, which explains that the flow of money controls the one’s economy for money can be
said to maintain economy’s purchasing power only if its supply is held proportional to what it buys.
As economy grows, so does the economy’s money and vice versa.

However, researchers also found out that it is most likely possible to resolve the lack of proper waste
disposal for Quigley (June 7, 2011), supported that even though there are no funds involved,
improper waste disposal can be controlled through composting. Insufficient funds cannot affect
improper waste disposal if done and maintained correctly for composting only needs scrap materials
and can save money and resources.

For this particular question, listed on the table are the statements mentioned above and the
corresponding open codes generated.

Statement Open Code

wala namang sapat na pondo ang barangay Insufficient funds

Kakulangan sa mga livelihood programs Insufficient funds

maraming microfinance Insufficient funds

kakulangan ng pailaw sa kalsada Lack of street lights; Night is dangerous

hindi sila nakakapag-aral kaya imbis na nag-aaral sila, Out-of-school Youth

tumatambay na lang sila

May mga basurang nakakalat kung saan saan Lack of proper waste disposal

walang nangongolekta ng basura Lack of proper waste disposal

Wala kaming mapaglagyan ng basura dito Lack of proper waste disposal

Table 1. Open Codes for Questions 1

Ways of Waste Disposal

Based on the interview, there are different ways of how the respondents dispose their wastes. The
residents provided various ways of waste disposal in their barangay and their knowledge about
waste disposal.

Most of the respondents shared that they dispose their trashes by “nagsusunog kami ng aming
basura” and some respondents shared that “hindi kami nagtatapon eh, sinusunog namin” and still do
so even though they admit it themselves that “eh alam kong mali eh sinusunog namin ang aming
basura” due to different factors and situations present in their barangay like “sinusunog namin ito
dahil wala namang truck na nangongolekta ng basura”. This type of waste disposal is harmful to the
environment because of the carbon footprint produced by the incineration of trashes and burning
produces particulate matter that are solid compounds and are suspended in the air (Hayes, 2016).

Some respondents also recounted that they “ïnilalagay sa balon ang magkakasamang
uri” while “pinaghihiwalay ko yung pwedeng ipagbenta sa nagbabakal-bote” which they use to earn
money by selling those trashes to a nearby junkshop. The respondents chose to dispose their
wastes through these ways due to “binabaon nalang ng iba sa lupa kasi walang tapunan” and these
respondents aspire to help the save the environment and want to avoid contributing to the gases that
cause global warming. A respondent also shared that “nagcocompost ako ng mga nabubulok na
basura dyan laang sa aming bakuran” which she proved that can be later used as fertilizer after
months passed.

Proper waste disposal is significant to achieve proper waste management which is beneficial to the
environment and people’s health. Through proper waste management, there will be a great
reduction of landfills present in the surroundings and can be beneficial to people’s health (Garbage
Disposal, Recycling, 2017) as it prevents the airborne pathogens from being transmitted when the
air is clean and no medium for pathogens. Waste management or Waste disposal can be defined as
the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal (Rinkesh,
2018). This includes amongst other things, collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste
together with monitoring and regulation. It also encompasses the legal and regulatory framework
that relates to waste management encompassing guidance on recycling which is used for recovering
energy and earning money. Waste material disposed is managed to avoid its adverse effect over
human health and environment. Likewise, proper waste management is needed for it is beneficial to
people’s health, the environment, and for the society’s economy.

According to Iyyanki Muralikrishna and Valli Manickam from ResearchGate (December, 2017),
“Without an effective and efficient waste management program, the waste generated from various
human activities, both industrial and domestic, can result in health hazards and have a negative
impact on the environment”. An effective and efficient waste management program is a way for an
area to have a clean and safe environment. The researchers have formulated a way to accomplish
the aim of Iyyanki Muralikrishna andValli Manickam.

For this particular question, listed on the table are the statements mentioned above and the
corresponding open codes generated.

Statement Open Code

Inilalagay sa balon ang magkakasamang uri Composting

Pinaghihiwalay ko yung pwedeng ipagbenta sa nagbabakal-bote Recycling

Hindi kami nagtatapon e, sinusunog namin Incineration

Sinusunog namin ito dahil wala namang truck na Incineration

nangongolekta ng basura

binabaon nalang ng iba sa lupa kasi walang tapunan Composting

Sinusunog namin ang basura Incineration

Nagsusunog kami ng aming basura Incineration

eh alam kong mali kami eh sinusunog namin ang aming basura Incineration

nagco-compost ako ng mga nabubulok na basura dyan laang Composting sa aming bakuran
Table 2. Open Codes for Questions 2

Factors that Causes Improper Waste Disposal

In the study of Mamady (March 8, 2016), improper waste disposal happens due to the community
residents who had poor knowledge and unsafe behavior in relation to waste management. The
answers of the respondents about the reasons and factors that causes improper waste disposal
mainly focused on three themes: insufficient funds, absence of garbage trucks, lack of awareness
and knowledge, and lack of discipline.

Insufficient funds caused by “wala masyadong nabibigay na pondo ang barangay sa


pangangailangan ng mga tao” and “walang sapat na budget ang barangay” is the most affecting
factor as to why the barangay is having difficulty to create and implement projects that will solve the
issues in the barangay. Poor cash flow management is the most significant factor that leads to a
project's delay followed by late payment, insufficient financial resources and financial market
instability (Hamzah, Roshana, & Wong, August, 2009).

Some of the respondents provided that “dahil wala namang truck na nangongolekta ng basura dito
sa amin” and is the reason why they cannot properly dispose and manage their wastes. According to
Brasch (2017) in a study in Cobb County, a mountain of garbage in the area is growing because
there aren’t enough garbage trucks to haul trash to landfills and there were no alternative ways
introduced to the residents of the area. Absence of garbage trucks should be immediately resolved
or given an alternative to avoid garbage dump in an area and prevent incineration as a way of waste
disposal which is harmful to the environment in other places like Mojon-Tampoy.

Additionally, lack of discipline and knowledge about waste disposal and management greatly affects
the respondents’ view of the importance of practicing waste disposal and management. From a case
study on the “Knowledge, Attitudes, Awareness Status and Behaviour Concerning Solid Waste
Management” (Desa, Kadir & Yusoof, 2010), explained that the lack of awareness and knowledge
among Malaysian community about solid waste management (SWM) issues, and being ignorant
about the effect of that improper SWM has definitely worsened the problem. People should be
aware, disciplined, and knowledgeable about the problems existing within their area to be able to
formulate a solution or alternative regarding their problem and to prevent the situation from getting
worse.

Learning the possible reasons and factors of why the problems exist is significant to formulate a
solution or alternative to their problem. Identifying genuine solutions to a problem means knowing
what the real causes of the problem are. Taking action without identifying what factors contribute to
the problem can result in misdirected efforts, and that wastes time and resources. However, by
thoroughly studying the cause of the problem, you can build ownership, that is, by experiencing the
problem you will understand it better, and be motivated to deal with it (Lopez, 2018).

For this particular question, listed on the table are the statements mentioned above and the
corresponding open codes generated.
Statement Open Code

wala masyadong nabibigay na pondo ang barangay sa Insufficient funds

pangangailangan ng mga tao

walang sapat na budget ang barangay Insufficient funds

dahil wala namang truck na nangongolekta ng basura Absence of garbage truck

dito sa amin

hindi ito masyado natututukan ng barangay Lack of Discipline

Wala kaming mapaglagyan ng basura dito e Lack of Discipline

Walang kaalaman sa epekto ng pagsusunog Lack of Awareness and Knowledge

Table 3. Open Codes for Questions 3

Possible Solutions of the Problem

According to the residents of Barangay Mojon Tampoy, one of the most evident problems that are
happening in the barangay is the improper waste disposal of the residents. They have no choice but
to incinerate their garbage and this is causing air pollution that increases the barangay’s carbon
footprint. From the interview that the group conducted, they have perceived that the barangay did
not attempt to solve the said problem.

Organic wastes, such as food waste and yard waste, make up 25 to 50% of what people throw
away. While you may not be able to compost all of the organic waste you generate, composting can
significantly cut down on your overall trash. When we throw away yard and food waste, it
decomposes in a landfill and releases methane gas, a potent greenhouse gas. While most landfills
have technology to capture much of this methane, eliminating the gas at its source is even better.
(Resource Recovery & Waste Management Division, 2017)

The project ‘composting’ is to help the residents of Barangay Mojon Tampoy to properly dispose
waste and to stop their current way of waste disposal. The project is a big help to restore or replace
worn-out or contaminated soils for gardens. Also, composting can help to reduce the amount of
waste that needs to be disposed of. Composting is better than burning the garbage, in composting
the soil will also benefit, it makes the soil fertile and rich.

Composting can affect Mojon Tampoy for a long time in terms of environmental and economic. In
environmental, composting can enrich the nutrients of the soil which can help in their agriculture. In
economic, composting can help their agriculture be more efficient which their primary source of
income is. In cultural terms, it can change their accustomed way of waste removal which is the
incinerating of the waste that can destroy the ozone layer to composting that is low-cost way of
waste segregation and can also give nutrients to the soil.

One of the possible solutions is recycling. Wastes like bottles, papers and plastic can be recycled
instead of throwing it in corners of the street. It’ll help to convert the waste materials into products
which can be reused of anyone living in the barangay example is a plastic bottle which they can use
as a pot for the plants in the barangay. Another one is having a compost pit in their own backyard.
Residents can throw all their organic waste in the compost pit which they can also use as a fertilizer
after waiting for a several time of decomposing. Just like what other residents said, they’re burning
all their waste in their backyard instead of throwing it anywhere.
Residents can also separate biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste; it is important to separate
the two. Biodegradable can use as fertilizers while the non-biodegradable can be recycled and can
be used again. In short the most effective solutions of the problem are applying the 3Rs: Reduce,
Reuse and Recyle. Proper knowledge is important in every resident for them to apply and to
contribute properly in solving their waste disposal problem. This is why the researchers planned on
putting three trash bins near the compost pit that separate plastic, glass bottles and cans. The
project’s nature is that it is an ‘Environmental Prototype’. The project is a compost pit that can enrich
the fertility of the soil and will help the resident’s source of living which is the agriculture. This type of
waste segregation is low cost and eco-friendly since it only uses land space and it doesn’t need fire
and other harmful substance that can affect the environment. Composting is also easy to main,
besides the group will provide a cover to avoid excessive water caused by rain, the group will also
provide fence to avoid accidents that can harm especially children and animals and also trash bin for
the non-biodegradable such as paper, bottles and cans. A seminar will be conducted to inform the
residents the guidelines and tips on how to effectively use the compost pit that will sustain the
effectiveness of the compost pit for longer time. The group will also provide a shredder since grind
waste is faster to decompose than the normal size of waste that will be thrown on the compost pit.
Once the project was implemented an evaluator will evaluate and provide status.

This project will require shovel, organic materials, masonry lining and fertilizer as said on the group’s
reference but in this case, the group chose not to spend too much money so they replaced masonry
lining with bamboo sticks and cover. Instead of using shovel since this is a large project the group
have decided that they should hire some workers, hopefully with equipment, to dig up. For the
shredder, we will need electric string trimmer, plywood, hardware cloth and deck screws. In addition
to this project, the group will device* a cover with a detachable mixer to reduce the diffusion of the
pit’s odor, this is also for the convenience for those who will mix the pit’s contents regularly.

There are three main processes in accomplishing our project. First, the residents must put their
biodegradable wastes in the shredder to help speed up the decomposition process for composting
while the non-biodegradable will be placed in the provided trash cans beside the compost pit. Next,
the biodegradable wastes will be dumped in the compost pit. Lastly, the compost pit should be
covered up and will be mixed up for maintenance.

CHAPTER V

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION

Summary of Findings

The research questions and codes provided by the research group proves that there are evident
problems in Brgy. Mojon-Tampoy. All nine respondents, were female with ages ranging from 25 - 63
years old, who provided qualitative information about the different ways of waste disposal that leads
to improper waste management in the barangay; and, the previous projects done by the barangay to
try to solve the problem, which failed due to lack of support from the government and insufficient
funds.

Based on the data gathered by the researchers, most of the residents in Barangay Mojon Tampoy
were unable to perform proper waste disposal which can be both unhealthy and unsafe. The
residents of the barangay also lack knowledge on proper waste disposal. The dilemma could be
solved if the residents will be given proper and sufficient knowledge on proper disposal.

Conclusion

1. There are many community issues of the residents in Mojon Tampoy an example of this is the
insufficient funds of the barangay which makes living in Mojon-Tampoy as money is greatly
involved and greatly affects economics. The lack of livelihood and the microfinance which also
make the the problem more difficult to solve as the barangay’s source of income is limited and
small compared to their expenses that build up over time. Lack of street lights which alarms the
residents especially at night as the roads may become unsafe and dangerous to walk on. The
Out-of-school youth which makes their life even more astray as they just live their lives without
purpose when they just stand by in one place or another. Most especially is the improper waste
disposal which is their biggest problem at the moment.
2. The methods used by the residents in disposing their wastes are incinerating their garbage,
segregating it by its category, throwing it to a well, or they practice simple composting. This is
happening because of there was no one who will collect all their garbages or no collection of
garbage.
3. The improper waste management of the barangay is the main factor that cause the problem. If
the people living in the area knows how to maintain their surroundings, to dispose their garbage
knowingly and properly make use of these wastes, then the problem may be lessened. If the
cause is the drainage of the barangay for multiple flooding of garbage, then its their improper
waste management that exceeds the factors. Improper waste management can lead to certain
problems in aspects of health and economy.
4. The compost pit with shredder will be done in order to address the issue of the barangay. This will
help reduce the carbon footprint and smoke pollution present in the barangay. There are other
simpler projects such as street sweeping but innovative devices or products are considered also
to make wastes useful.
Recommendation

1. Absence of proper waste management and consistent incineration of garbage is present in the
barangay. The product made by the researchers which is the shredder with compost pit can
improve the carbon footprint and cleanliness for the community.
2. The researchers recommend that the citizens in the barangay to attend the seminar that will be
held by the group to further discuss on how to manipulate the shredder and compost pit.
3. Compost is one of the important organic amendment because it will be used for the sustainability
of the soil and in the environment. The study focuses on the specific benefit and long life effects
of composting.
4. Citizens being exposed to the culture and lifestyle in Mojon, Tampoy which is mostly based on
agriculture. The compost from the project will be a natural fertilizer that would be used by the
citizens to prevent them from the need of using chemical fertilizers which can greatly harm the
soil.
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