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AASHTO (1993) Design Method

for Flexible Pavements

Bryan C. Gee, P.E.


Tensar Roadway Design Workshop
AASHTO (‘93) Approach

 Empirically based design method


 Testing undertaken in Ottawa, IL
 Circa 1960
AASHTO (‘93) Approach

Asphalt Layer
AASHTO (‘93) Approach

Aggregate Base Layer


AASHTO (‘93) Approach

Structural Number
a = 0.40 SN = 4 x 0.40 = 1.60

4” ACC1

a = 0.14, m = 1.0 SN = 10 x 0.14 x 1.0 = 1.40

ABC
10”

Overall SN = 1.60 + 1.40 = 3.00


AASHTO (‘93) Approach

 DPSI 
log10
4.2 1.5 

log10 (W18 )  Z R So  9.36log10 (SN  1)  0.20   2.32log10 M R  8.07
1094
0.40 
(SN  1) 5.19

W18 = Allowable ESALs


ZR = Standard normal deviate = -1.645 (for 95% reliability)
So = Standard deviation = 0.49
SN = Structural number = 3.00
DPSI = Change in serviceability = 4.2 – 2.0 = 2.2
MR = Subgrade resilient modulus = 5,000 psi
W18 = 117,000 ESALs (Unreinforced)
AASHTO (‘93) Approach
Inclusion of Geogrids
AASHTO Standard of Practice R50-09

Deformation

control reinforced
1 inch

Number
200,000 1,000,000 of passes

Traffic Benefit Ratio (TBR)


No. passes for given deformation in reinforced section

No. passes for given deformation in control section

TBR = 1,000,000/200,000 = 5
Inclusion of Geogrids
AASHTO Standard of Practice R50-09

 Unreinforced Case:
 SN = say 3.24
 Allowable ESALs = 200,000
 Geogrid-reinforced Case:
 SN = ?
 Allowable ESALs = 1,000,000

 DPSI 
log10
4.2 1.5 

log10 (W18 )  Z R So  9.36log10 (SN  1)  0.20   2.32log10 M R  8.07
 Revised SN including geogrid1094 = 4.12
0.40 
(SN  1) 5.19
Inclusion of Geogrids
AASHTO Standard of Practice R50-09

TBR

CBR = X

CBR = 2X

CBR = 3X

Pavement
Thickness
Benefit of Tensar Geogrid

 TriAx® LCRs are Dynamic factors that vary depending


on:
1. AC thickness
2. Subgrade Resilient Modulus
Tensar Paved Design Method
SP4 Pro Modified Layer Coefficients

Asphalt MSL Subgrade Resilient Modulus, MR (psi)


Concrete Aggregate
thickness thickness 5,000 7,500 10,000 12,500 15,000
(in.) (in.)
6 0.25 0.25 0.24 0.23 0.22
8 0.24 0.23 0.22 0.21 0.21
10 0.23 0.22 0.21 0.20 0.20
3 ≤ t asphalt < 5 12 0.21 0.21 0.20 0.19 0.19
14 0.20 0.20 0.19 0.19 0.18
16 0.20 0.19 0.19 0.18 0.18
18 0.19 0.19 0.18 0.18 0.17
6 0.27 0.26 0.25 0.25 0.24
8 0.26 0.25 0.24 0.23 0.23
10 0.24 0.24 0.23 0.22 0.22
5 ≤ t asphalt ≤ 10 12 0.23 0.22 0.22 0.21 0.20
14 0.21 0.21 0.20 0.19 0.19
16 0.20 0.19 0.19 0.18 0.18
18 0.19 0.19 0.18 0.18 0.17

Based on Unbound Aggregate ai = 0.14


MSL Structural Contribution

Asphalt MSL Subgrade Resilient Modulus, MR (psi)


Concrete Aggregate
thickness thickness 5,000 7,500 10,000 12,500 15,000
(in.) (in.)
6 31% ~ 22% 29% ~ 21% 27% ~ 19% 25% ~ 18% 23% ~ 17%
8 32% ~ 24% 30% ~ 22% 27% ~ 20% 24% ~ 18% 22% ~ 16%
10 33% ~ 25% 30% ~ 23% 27% ~ 20% 24% ~ 18% 21% ~ 16%
3 ≤ t asphalt < 5 12 30% ~ 23% 27% ~ 21% 24% ~ 19% 21% ~ 17% 19% ~ 14%
14 27% ~ 22% 25% ~ 20% 22% ~ 18% 20% ~ 15% 17% ~ 13%
16 25% ~ 20% 23% ~ 18% 20% ~ 16% 18% ~ 15% 16% ~ 13%
18 23% ~ 19% 21% ~ 17% 19% ~ 15% 17% ~ 14% 15% ~ 12%
6 25% ~ 14% 23% ~ 14% 22% ~ 13% 21% ~ 12% 19% ~ 11%
8 28% ~ 17% 26% ~ 16% 24% ~ 15% 23% ~ 14% 21% ~ 13%
10 29% ~ 18% 27% ~ 17% 25% ~ 15% 23% ~ 14% 21% ~ 13%
5 ≤ t asphalt ≤ 10 12 28% ~ 18% 26% ~ 17% 24% ~ 15% 22% ~ 14% 19% ~ 12%
14 24% ~ 16% 22% ~ 15% 20% ~ 13% 18% ~ 12% 16% ~ 11%
16 20% ~ 13% 18% ~ 12% 16% ~ 11% 15% ~ 10% 13% ~ 8%
18 19% ~ 13% 17% ~ 12% 15% ~ 11% 14% ~ 9% 12% ~ 8%
SN BaseMSL  SN Base Unreinf orced
SN Base  AC Unreinf orced
AASHTO (‘93) Approach

Structural Number
a = 0.40 SN = 4 x 0.40 = 1.60

4” ACC1

a = 0.23, m = 1.0 SN = 10 x 0.23 x 1.0 = 2.30

ABC
Overall SN = 1.60 + 2.30 = 3.90
10”

TX5
General AASHTO (‘93) Approach

 DPSI 
log10
4.2 1.5 

log10 (W18 )  Z R So  9.36log10 (SN  1)  0.20   2.32log10 M R  8.07
1094
0.40 
(SN  1) 5.19

W18 = Allowable ESAL’s


ZR = Standard normal deviate = -1.645 (for 95% reliability)
So = Standard deviation = 0.49
SN = Structural number = 3.90
DPSI = Change in serviceability = 4.2 – 2.0 = 2.2
MR = Subgrade resilient modulus = 5,000 psi
W18 = 686,000 ESAL’s (Tensar TX5 Geogrid reinforced)
AASHTO (‘93) Approach

Reinforced Reinforced
Unreinforced
Option 1 Option 2

3” ACC1
4” ACC1 4” ACC1

7.5” ABC

ABC ABC
10” 10” TX5

120,000 ESAL’s
TX5

117,000 ESAL’s 686,000 ESAL’s


Questions/Comments?

Tensar Roadway Design Workshop