# 1 20. The Dirichlet problem for a rectangle and Fourier series.

Let W be a rectangle 0 £ x £ a, 0 £ y £ b, and consider the boundary-value problem Du(x, y) = 0, 0 £ x £ a, 0 £ y £ b u(x, 0) = f(x), u(x, b) = 0, 0 £ x £ a u(0, y) = u(a, y) = 0, 0 £ y £ b.

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Assuming a solution of the form u(x, y) = X(x) Y(y) and substituting into Laplaces equation, or X " Y + X Y" = 0 X ¢¢ X For l ≠ 0, X " + l
2

+

Y ¢¢ Y

= -l

2

X = 0, Y " – l

2

Y = 0, hence

X = Al coslx + Bl sin l x , Y = Cl coshly + Dl sinhl y . † For l = 0, X " = 0, Y " = 0, hence X = A 0 + B0 x, Y = C0 + D0 y. Then by superposition we obtain a solution of the form u(x, y) = (A0 + B0 x)(C0 + D0 y) + (Al coslx + Bl sinlx)(Cl coshly + Dl sinhly ). Then u(0, y) = 0 = A 0 (C0 + D0 y) + Al(Cl coshly + Dl sinhly )

which implies Al = 0 for all l . Then u(a, y) = 0 = B0 a(C0 + D0 y) + Bl sinla(C l coshly + Dl sinhly )

which implies B0 = 0, sinl a = 0, and hence l a = np, n = 1,2,3,..

Each of these subproblems will have zero boundary conditions on three of the four sides and can be solved as above. y) = Â Á 0 ˜ sin a sinh npb a n =1 Á sinh ˜ Á ˜ a Ë ¯ † † † Suppose all four sides of the rectangle have non-zero boundary conditions. . then we can break up † the problem into four sub-problems each similar to the one we have just solved. b) = 0 = † implies that †n =1 Â Bn sin Ê npb npb ˆ + Dn sinh Á Cn cosh ˜ a Ë a a ¯ npb a or † C n cosh † npb a + Dn sinh = 0 † Therefore u(x. y) = cosh Dn = – C n sinh npb a npb a Â n =1 • Ê ˆ Ê npb ˆ Á Á cosh ˜ npx npy npy ˜ a Bn sin † Á C n cosh .Cn Á ˜ ˜ sinh npb a Á a a ˜ Á sinh ˜ Ë Ë ¯ a ¯ = † † Finally. Â n =1 • BnC n sinh npb a sin npx a sinh np (b .2 By superposition the solution is of the form u(x. 0) = f(x) = Â BnCn sin a = n =1 n †• † npx Â n =1 • bn sin npx a where b are the coefficients of the Fourier sine series for f(x). † BnC n = † bn = 2 † a † f(x) sin npx a dx † and a 0 Ú ˆ † Ê2 a npx Á † Ú f (x ) sin † dx ˜ • a np (b . y) = Â n =1 • • Bn sin npx Ê npy npy ˆ + Dn sinh Á Cn cosh ˜. a Ë a a ¯ npx u(x. 0 £ x £ a. Then the solution to the boundary-value problem is the sum of the four sub-problems by superposition.y) a † u(x.y) Áa ˜ npx u(x.

3 .