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Clayson Panton, human resource specialist at Caribbean Cement Company, chats with students from Rockfort, Kingston, after presenting them with cheques during the company’s
back-to-school programme.The presentations were made at the company’s head office in Kingston recently.


yl:english language

The CSEC English A syllabus

NATASHA THOMAS-FRANCIS  Develop a critical awareness of the comprehension aspect of the examination, if SECTION THREE
Contributor language devices used to persuade. you do poorly on the tasks that require you to Three questions, at least one of which must
ELLO, ALL! I hope that by now you be a short story, and one description.

use language creatively and persuasively, it is
have had a look at the revised English  Develop knowledge of the various unlikely that you will receive a good grade. Candidates must attempt only one question.
A syllabus and you are now armed with sources of information and a desire to use This section tests your ability to give aesthetic
the necessary tools to undertake the English A these for students’ own enlightenment, while satisfaction to others in personal, creative and
course. Just in case you have not yet gone recognising the importance of acknowledging
THE EXAMINATION imaginative language.
through the syllabus, I am going to highlight the contribution of such sources to their own
a few things which I think would be beneficial ideas. Finally, let’s take a look at the make-up of
to you. the English A examination. SECTION FOUR
 Develop the capacity to assess the Consists of two argumentative essay
reliability of sources including those available You are expected to complete two questions. Candidates must attempt only one
on the Internet. examination papers: Paper 01 (1 hour 30 question. This section tests your ability to
Before you pursue studies in any subject,
minutes) and Paper 02 (2 hours 30 minutes). communicate personal opinion clearly and
you should be familiar with the aims and
objectives of the syllabus which will guide THE SKILLS AND ABILITIES TO BE cogently in language which effectively
you through the subject area. ASSESSED Paper 1 consists of 60 compulsory persuades or dissuades.
The aims above can only be attained if your multiple-choice items arranged in two
language skills are developed. For English, sections. The first section contains
the skills are categorised under two broad approximately 20 discrete items related to
 Develop the ability to use the spoken word choice, grammar, syntax, sentence ORAL COMPONENT
headings: Understanding and Expression. For
and written language, Caribbean standard structure, punctuation and paragraphing; and You must note that this time around there
those of you who have done the exam in the
English, with precision, clarity and section two contains approximately 40
past and have received your results, you is an additional component to the syllabus
grammatical correctness.
would have noticed that you were given letter reading comprehension items based on five and the examination. This is the internal
grades for these two profile dimensions stimuli as follows: one poem, one narrative assessment of the oral skills. As time
 Develop the ability to use, understand
and respond to spoken and written Caribbean beside the numeric grade. extract, one expository extract, one persuasive progresses your teacher will, no doubt, be
Standard English. extract (for example, an advertisement, going in-depth with you on what is required.
What do these categories mean? Well, speech or a letter to the editor), one visual We will discuss this new area as the series
 Develop the ability to use language Understanding means the decoding and extract (for example, tables, diagrams, maps, continues.
effectively for communicating in a variety of interpretation of messages through the conventional sign and symbols, cartoons,
contexts: social, academic and professional. analysis of the language structures and advertisement). So now that you have a better understanding
devices used in any given context. In other of what is required of you to be successful in
 Develop the ability to give effective words, your ability to understand what you Paper 2 is divided into four sections, as the subject of English, I expect that you will
articulation to experience (real or imagined). read. Expression means the conveying of follows: equip yourself with the necessary textbooks
meaning through the selection of language SECTION ONE and supplemental materials which will help
 Promote in students a willingness and structures and devices appropriate to each One compulsory question which tests your you achieve this end. Remember, also, that
ability to inform themselves about and to
specific context. ability to communicate factual information your Youthlink lessons are extremely
contribute reasoned opinions on social issues.
clearly, concisely and adequately in writing important and you should try not to miss any
 Promote a lasting appreciation of the For candidates doing the exam (General reports and summaries. of them.
diversity of purposes for which language Proficiency), greater emphasis is placed on
varieties are used. Expression than on Understanding. The I want to wish you all the best this
weighting of the examination under the SECTION TWO
academic year. May God guide you in your
Two compulsory short-answer reading
 Promote an understanding and profiles is 40% for Understanding (profile preparations.
appreciation of the place and value of the dimension 1) and 60% for Expression (profile comprehension questions which test your
varieties of English and of the dialects and dimension 2). It is very important that you ability to understand meaning conveyed in
Natasha Thomas-Francis teaches at Glenmuir High
creoles of the Caribbean and other regions in understand the implication of this weighting reading, through word choice, grammar, School. Send questions and comments to
different social and cultural contexts. as, even though you may do very well on the punctuation and paragraphing.



The skills of the historian

DEBBION HYMAN have taken place”. This means that the writer USE OF SOURCES the men were badly injured in the shooting
Contributor is accessing the original materials and then and were still holed up in the rugged terrain
The student of history should be able to
providing an interpretation of the event. Such identify a source type and how it fits into the overlooking the sea.
examples include books, magazines, larger historical discussion. Below is an
AT THE end of the lesson you should be The hunt for the men has continued non-
memoirs, etc. excerpt of an article of a shooting incident at
able to: stop since the shooting occurred shortly
the army’s Green Bay firing range. The article
1. Define the term ‘history’. before noon on Thursday.
was one of the first on the incident – an
2. Define the term ‘primary source’ and INTERPRETING HISTORICAL DATA
incident that would become known as the
provide two such examples. Have you ever done research and used Up to late yesterday, none of the guns
Green Bay Massacre. Attempt the following
3. Define the term ‘secondary source’ and Wikipedia as a reference? Many students, questions that are based on the article below. carried by the gunmen had been recovered by
provide two such examples. when undertaking research, usually use this the security forces.
4. Deduce the fact that an understanding of source and cite it as ‘authority’. The notion is
INSTRUCTION In the meantime, all five men slain by the
the nature of history is critical in assessing that if it is written information, it is accurate.
the past ‘as it was’. This is sometimes not the case. There should Read the article and answer the questions soldiers have been identified. They all hail
be the ability to substantiate the information. that follow. from the central Kingston area.
Additionally, when using material, one has to The Gleaner, January 7, 1978, pg. 1
The ability to effectively gather and
GREEN BAY RANGE - Search for escaped They are Norman ‘Gutto’ Thompson, 27,
interpret historical sources should be skills do several things. He/She has to consider
9 continues who played football for Santos Football Club
that are developed by students of Caribbean who is the author - what person, or group of
The security forces yesterday continued and Jamaica and lived at High Holborn
history. As such, the focus of this lesson is persons, created the source? How close to
their search for nine men who escaped when Street; Trevor Clarke, 24, and Winston
an introduction to the nature of history and the date of the event was the topic soldiers ambushed and shot up a group of Hamilton, both of High Holborn Street;
the skills of the historian. What is history? investigated? How far is the author of the men who were conducting target practice on Glenroy Richards, alias ‘Richie’, 29, of Ladd
What are the sources used by the historian? source really in a good position to provide the army’s Green Bay firing range in south St Lane and Martin Howard ‘Howie’ of Fleet
Why are some sources more credible than first-hand information on the particular Catherine. Street …
others? How do I depict bias in sources? Why event? One cannot simply cite a text as an
is the study of history important? All these ‘absolute truth’ but rather a writer’s Two hundred soldiers and a number of
issues will be addressed in this and interpretation of a historical event. It is policemen yesterday continued to scour the
hills, but up to late evening none of the 1. What type of source is this article?
upcoming lessons. important to read several sources on the said
fugitives had been found. 2. a) Identify two primary sources and one
historical event and find common threads in
secondary source that a history student
the discourse. This gives the best
WHAT IS HISTORY? The search would continue throughout the could use to investigate the 1978 shooting
interpretation of the event. Undoubtedly, it is at the Green Bay range.
History is described by Beverley Southgate night, a spokesman for the security forces
important for all of you students to analyse (b) For any source (whether primary or
as “an objective account of the ‘past as it said, as it was strongly believed that some of
sources when using them. secondary) identified above, explain one
Michaelus reason why it would be a credible source
Martin (third of gathering information and one limitation
WHAT IS A PRIMARY SOURCE? left) celebrates of the source.
A primary source is described by Arthur scoring a goal
Marwick as “sources which come into while team- SOURCES
existence during the actual period of the past mates and
which the historian is studying”. Such 1. Beverley Southgate - What is History
coaching staff
examples include diaries, journals, baptismal members react
2. E. H. Carr - What is history?
records, Hansards, government dispatches, during the Red
3. Arthur Marwick - The Nature of history
etc. Stripe Premier
4. Conal Furay & Michael Salevouris - The
League football
methods and skills of history: a practical
match against
Harbour View
Conal Furay and Michael Salevouris at Harbour
describe secondary sources as “an account of Debbion Hyman is an independent contributor. Send
View Stadium questions and comments to
the period in question written after the events recently.


yl:english literature
BERYL CLARKE required to answer three questions, one from

The exam
Contributor each section thus doing a total of three
OU ARE back at school and settling in

questions on this paper. Paper 02 questions
nicely, I hope. This week, we will each value 35 marks so the entire paper is
continue by learning about the worth 105 marks.
examination, the external CXC that is.


So the term has started and you and your
examination. Let me remind you that you are study of two texts). One question will be asked ARE EXPECTED TO BE ABLE TO DO
friends are together again. You have had time
expected to give short answers to all on two named poems and the other will allow 1 ) Make judgements in response to
to share all the stories about your holidays,
questions asked on this, the unseen paper. you make a comparative answer on any two drama, poetry and prose.
and by this time you have stopped the
Now, you may be wondering why it is referred poems that are appropriate for answering the 2) Describe, analyse and synthesise
moaning and groaning about the reopening of
to as unseen. Simply, it is because the drama, question. Sometimes, candidates with information from different areas of texts
school. Well, I shouldn’t have to remind you
prose or poetry extract or whole poem on inadequate knowledge create difficulties for and use different texts to answer questions.
that you have to put in the groundwork if you
which the questions will be based is from themselves by choosing poems that do not 3) Use the vocabulary of literature (literary
want to be successful. By the way, how are works that you would not have studied. You suit the question asked. terms) in writing properly organised
those songs and poems, dub too, concerning will use your knowledge of the three literary You must only answer one question from essays.
our athletes, cricketers and footballers coming genres that you gained in preparing for the this section. 4) Produce balanced, critical analyses.
along? I am sure that your creative juices have other paper. 5) Be aware of the writer’s craft, that is the
been flowing and you have been writing. Have methods he uses to present characters,
fun! Paper 02 will be 2 hours and 30 minutes in relationships and ideas.
length. The paper will be divided into THREE 6) Grasp ideas and values and understand
(Either West Indian novel and other novels
Sections. how they are brought out in literature as
THE EXAMINATION in English OR West Indian short story and
This will consist of two papers. Paper 01 other short stories in English) This section well as their effects.
will be 1 hour and 30 minutes in length and I ) SECTION ONE – DRAMA consists of four Type B (comparative)
will be worth 30% of the total marks to be Consists of four Type A (single book) We will take a break here this week but will
questions. Candidates must answer one from
awarded. Paper 01 will consist of three questions two on each book. You must answer continue to share a few more of the things you
one question from this section. this section. You have the freedom to choose
questions: One question from Drama, one should and will be able to do before external
to write about one of the novels, or to write on
from Poetry and the other from Prose. In each exams. Have a great week and God bless!
two named short stories, or make a choice of
question, you will be required to give three to II ) SECTION TWO – POETRY
two on your own, on which to write.
five short answers. All questions are (A SELECTION OF 20 POEMS) Beryl Clarke is an independent contributor. Send
compulsory! There are no multiple-choice Cconsists of two Type B questions questions and comments to
questions on the Literatures in English (comparative – requiring knowledge and Please note that overall, you will be

Primary data, also known as field CONSUMER PANELS relevant information, it must use a

Sources of research, is research that collects

yl: principles of business

A panel consisting of a small representative sample, meaning that

original or new data using various number of consumers is set up. consumers forming the sample must
techniques. These techniques include: Members receive the product and represent the market as a whole.
comment on it.

The questionnaire is the most
common survey method. It may be
These may be formal or casual.
The researcher must also decide
how the respondent will be chosen
and how large the sample will be.
written or orally administered. It is They may be conducted on an
YVONNE HARVEY designed specifically for the task and individual basis or a group basis.
is normally completed face to face, by MAY BE:
ELLO, MY friends. It is a pleasure to once again be

telephone or through the post or e- OBSERVATION (a) Random – where everyone in
presenting the POB lesson to you all. The specific mail. People’s reactions are quietly the population has an equal chance of
objective of this lesson is that you students should be watched or noticed while they shop. selection since no special criteria for
able to identify sources of information for conducting TEST MARKETING This provides information from the
selection is used.
research into the establishment of businesses. Also, you A potential new product is marketed market place.
(b) Stratified – where a subgroup of
should be able to explain the relationship between planning on a small scale regionally, to gauge the population is selected, for
and the operation of the business. people’s reaction to it, before SAMPLING IN PRIMARY OR example using age, sex, occupation,
committing the firm to production and FIELD RESEARCH etc. Only those in the subgroup will
The research plan can call for the gathering of primary national launch. If primary research is to provide be in the sample.
data, secondary data or both.



Observation, recording, reporting

ELLO, STUDENTS. How are you this

H week? I hope that by now things have

settled down and you are working on
that mindset that is required to ace the
3. The first column always has the
independent variable and the subsequent
columns will have the dependent variable.

exams. If you are doing so, then you will be What are these, you may ask? The Ϭ͘Ϭ ϲϬ ϲϬ ϲϰ ϲϮ͘Ϭ нϮ͘Ϭ нϯ͘ϯ
taking the new class and the new lessons in independent or manipulated variable is the Ϭ͘Ϯ ϲϬ ϱϴ ϱϵ ϱϴ͘ϱ Ͳϭ͘ϱ ͲϮ͘ϱ
stride. Remember that success cannot come ‘thing’ that is changed to determine what Ϭ͘ϰ ϲϬ ϱϱ ϱϱ ϱϱ͘Ϭ Ͳϱ͘Ϭ Ͳϴ͘ϯ
Ϭ͘ϲ ϲϬ ϱϰ ϱϰ ϱϰ͘Ϭ Ͳϲ͘Ϭ ͲϭϬ͘Ϭ
without hard work and commitment! effect changing it has on the experiment. The Ϭ͘ϴ ϲϬ ϱϯ ϱϰ ϱϯ͘ϱ Ͳϲ͘ϱ ͲϭϬ͘ϴ
dependent variable is what is measured to ϭ͘Ϭ ϲϬ ϱϮ ϱϯ ϱϮ͘ϱ Ͳϳ͘ϱ ͲϭϮ͘ϱ
Last week, we began looking at the skills determine the effects of changing the
that are assessed to satisfy the requirements independent or manipulated variable. Sounds Have you noticed that all the requirements 4. All the data have the same number of
of your SBAs. The first skill that we looked at complicated? Read it again. What are you have been met? What are they? decimal places.
was ORR, and the lesson concluded with the getting from it? Are you getting that in an 1. There is a title, written in capitals and
promise that we would be looking at the experiment you have control over the If you were constructing this table it would
placed at the top of the table.
construction of tables and the drawing of independent variable, meaning you can have been done in pencil. Oops, I thought we
2. The independent variable, concentration would have had enough time to do graphs
graphs. Do you remember why you need to manipulate – increase or decrease – it? Are
do this? Of course, you do; tables are used of sugar solution, is placed in the first but we don’t. See you next week!
you getting also that the dependent variable
for the recording of scientific data and graphs is affected by the changes in the column; the second column contains the
Monacia Williams is an independent contributor.
are used to process data recorded in the independent? Meaning that if the dependent variable.
Send questions and comments to
tables. Remember, also, that you may be independent is changed then the dependent 3. All units are placed in the headings.
called upon to use these skills in doing that will change. If you are, then you are well on
all-important first question on Paper 02! your way to understanding! Let us say that we
are investigating the rate of reaction against
CREATING THE TABLE changes in temperature. What can we
Tables are used to organise data collected manipulate or control? The temperature! We
from doing experiments. Creating a table can decide the range of temperature that we
requires some degree of pre-planning before are going to use, but in order to find out the
you actually begin construction of the table. effects we will have to measure the rates of
A table consists of columns, horizontal and reaction at the different temperatures.
vertical ones. There are certain rules which Temperature must, therefore, be our
must be obeyed in order to satisfy the independent variable and the measured rate
requirements of your course. What are these? of reaction – the dependent.

1. Decide on a title for your table. The title 4. All units of measurement must be
is written in capital letters, at the top of the placed in the headings for the columns –
table, and must begin with the words ‘Table never in the body of the table.
showing … ‘For example, in an investigation
of the effects of sugar solution on potato 5. Tables must always be drawn using a
tissue, the title could be ‘Table showing the pencil and a ruler.
effect of changing the concentration of sugar
solution on the length of potato tissue.’ 6. All numerical data must be recorded to
the same number of decimal places.
2. Decide on the number of columns that
your table will have, for example, a Remember, also, that the table can be used The United States’ Justin Gatlin (right) runs alongside Jamaicans Rasheed Dwyer (centre)
comparison table will normally have two to record data that is descriptive. The and Nesta Carter on his way to win the men’s 100 metres at the IAAF Grand Prix in Rieti, Italy,
columns, while a table showing the results of following is an example of a properly recently.
an osmosis investigation, such as the one for constructed table.



Continental drift and plate tectonics

MESHECH GREEN The land mass of continents are the visible continent would look similar to the diagram of heat moves the water molecules around. In
Contributor part of the plates, while the other parts of the Pangaea. Let’s look at the evidence to support the mantle heated magma rises up, spreads
N THIS our second lesson, I say thanks for

plates are under the ocean. I mentioned last this theory. out then sinks as heat is lost, then heats up
having joining me. Last week, I introduced lesson that the crust is floating on top of the again and the cycle continues. There are two
to you some basic concepts on the mantle and this is a simple description. Let’s What evidence is there for the occurrence other ways heat can be transferred:
structure of the earth, including the different look at it even closer by looking at the theory of continental drift? conduction and radiation. Convectional
layers, their characteristics and the heating
of continental drift. 1. Fossils: Fossils of plants and animals heating, however, drives the movement of
process taking place below the crust. I also
looked at plates (continental and oceanic) have been found on several of the continents. these plates.
floating on top of the molten layer of the Have you ever looked at the map of the
2. Climate: The fossilised remains of
mantle. In this lesson, it is crucial that you earth and thought to yourself that if you were Plates float on top of the asthenosphere
tropical plants have been found in the arctic
have that knowledge as it is going to be very to cut out the continents along their borders which is composed of hot magma. Heat from
necessary to fully grasp these concepts. With they may fit together slightly? If you have, regions.
the earth’s metallic core makes the magma in
that said, let’s continue. then, you’re probably looking towards solving 3. Geology: Rocks found in Brazil matched the asthenosphere heat up. The magma
what seems like a jigsaw puzzle. the rock found in West Africa. moves along big, slow, convectional currents.
OBJECTIVES OF THIS LESSON ARE 4. Landforms: Mountain ranges in South
TO: Now, interestingly enough, there are some America line up with mountain ranges in It is this movement of slow magma that
A. Define crustal plates. fossils that are found on more than one South Africa. causes the plates to move away from each
B. Name the two types of crustal plates. continent. How did this happen, assuming other, towards each other, and even slide
5. European coal fields match up with
C. Explain the theory of continental drift. that these animal could not have flown or against each other, some faster than others.
D. Give two evidence for the theory of similar coal fields in North America. The theory of plate tectonics is the best one
swum across the vast ocean to another
continental drift. continent? known to our scientists.
E. Explain the theory of plate tectonics. Despite such evidence, the weakness of the
F. List three processes of heat transfer. theory is that there was no explanation for the In the next lesson, I will differentiate
Alfred Wegener proposed a theory called
G. Explain how convectional current in the between the different types of plate
continental drift. The theory of continental movement of the continents and plates. This
mantle move crustal plates.
drift suggests that continents drift or move. is where plate tectonics come in. The theory movement/boundaries. I hope this lesson was
What this suggests is that all seven continents of plate tectonics suggests that the of value to you. I look forward to sharing
THE CRUST: LAND FORMATION more with you in the coming lessons. Until
(North America, South America, Africa – the lithosphere is broken into sections called
The crust is not one solid surface. Instead, then, have a geographic week!
motherland, Europe, Asia, Australia and plates. These plates move as a result of
it is broken into pieces called plates. Plates
are large or relatively small sections of the Antarctica) used to exist as one super convectional heating in the mantle.
Meshech Green teaches at Glenmuir High School.
lithosphere floating on the asthenosphere of continent called Pangaea during the Triassic Convectional heating is transferred in heated Send questions and comments to
the mantle. period (200-250 million years ago). The fluid. Imagine water boiling in a pot as the
yl:principles of business

CONTINUED FROM PAGE 14  trade association studies stage is the first stage and the operation The short-term and medium-term plans
(c) Where a quota is set. Data is  university journals stage is the last stage. In-between these are the stepping stones to the long-term
collected until the target quota is met.  websites two important steps, there are a number of plans. If the entrepreneur tries to achieve
 textbooks other steps which include research and the long-term plans without short-term and
acquisition of funds for the business. The medium-term ones, he is likely to fail in the
The larger the sample size, the more
The major advantage of this type of plans are short-term, medium-term and achievement of such plans. Without proper
expensive and time-consuming it is to research is that the information is readily planning, the operation of any business is
long-term. The long-term plans are the
collect the data. available and can be stored for the future. not likely to succeed.
overall plans of the business.
Among the disadvantages is the fact that it
DESK OR SECONDARY RESEARCH is sometimes out of date and the research However, in order to achieve these plans, Next week, we will outline some of the
This type of research uses existing is more time-consuming than the primary regulatory practices required by the
interim or short-term plans and medium-
information such as information in the type of research. Government in establishing a business and
term plans must be established in line with
firm’s own records. This may include: also look at sources of capital for the
the long-term or overall plans. In other
setting up of a business. See you then.
 sales records PLANNING AND OPERATION OF A words, once the interim or short-term plans
 official publications BUSINESS and the medium-term plans have been Yvonne Harvey is an indeoendent contributor. Send
 statistical and newspaper reports The link between the planning and achieved, the long-term or overall plans questions and comments to
 government publications operation of a business is that the planning will have been achieved.


yl:office administration

Your school-based
institution or an organisation seeking to interview or observe
person(s) on the job. This must be signed by the candidate.
Office Equipment – The focus here will be on the
development of your competence and also the efficiency with
THE FORMAT of your examination will be as follows: which they completed particular tasks. This information must
1. Paper 01 – Multiple choice (60 items) be recorded in a table format under the headings date,
2. GATHERING DATA (15 marks)
2. Paper 02 – An essay paper divided into two sections: equipment used, purpose and suitability for task.
Method – Give a description of how, when and from whom
Section 1 – three compulsory questions, covering sections
you gathered information and indicate the methods used to
1 - V11
gather the information e.g. questionnaires, interviews, PRESENTATION OF RESEARCH PAPER
Section 11 – four questions from which students must 1. Reports should be submitted in a simple folder of
attempt three. The questions will be drawn from Sections observation, etc.
Quarto or A4 size.
V111 - X11) 2. A cover page should be provided with the following
3. Paper 03 – School-Based Assessment (SBA) - research Questions – List the exact wording of questions asked and
project to whom they were directed; again, they must be relevant.
 Candidate’s name
4. Paper 03/02 – This paper is done by private candidates
 Registration number
Schedule – The schedule should be in a table format with
 Title of the study
All you students in a full-time programme must do the SBA three columns under the headings dates, activities and
 Name of school
as this forms a part of your final examination grades. Your comments. The dates should state on what date or over what  Name of teacher
research must be between 1,000 to 1,200 words, inclusive of time period the activity took place. Activities should state  Territory
all supporting material. The final draft must be typed in exactly what took place. Comments should indicate  Year project is submitted
double-line spacing. information such as the problem encountered, the need for
repeating an activity, meeting with people or engaging in any 3. A table of contents should be included at the beginning
CHOOSING YOUR TOPIC FOR SCHOOL-BASED kind of follow-up activity. of the report.
The SBA topic to be tested for the year 2015 is ‘Office Regulations – As a ‘stranger’, ‘outsider’, ‘observer’ you 4. All illustrations should be alongside the appropriate
Orientation and Procurement and Inventory Management’. would have to be aware of some of the regulations, staff rules, point of text.
Your teacher will assist you in choosing the appropriate topic. health and safety practices that applied in the work
environment in which you carried out your project. List one 5. Appendices should appear at the end of the report.
GUIDELINES FOR THE SBA and indicate how it was relevant to your project.
6. Attention should be paid to the use of correct grammar,
1. PREPARATION (13 marks) spelling, punctuation and sentence structure.
Title – Select a suitable topic for the project. The statement 3. PRESENTATION (22 marks)
must be relevant to the syllabus. 7. A bibliography acknowledging all sources of
Report – Students should identify one major information.
Aim – State the aims and objectives of the project. These accomplishment or finding and problem-solving strategy.
should be relevant to your topic. This is an opportunity for you to reflect on all the activities See you next week.
that were needed to complete the project and identify ONE
Correspondence – There should be a copy of a letter that task that you could have done differently. Give reasons for Hyacinth Tugman is an independent contributor. Send questions and
you send requesting permission to visit a business place, an your choice. The report should be between 500-750 words. comments to



Separation of mixtures
FRANCINE TAYLOR-CAMPBELL Paper chromatography is used to separate mixtures of dyes vapour and enters the condenser to be condensed and is
Contributor or pigments based on their solubility in different solvents. collected first. This is called the distillate. This technique can
IXTURES ARE substances consisting of two or more This affects how quickly they move up a paper column which be used in the separation of ethanol and water and also for

M elements or compounds physically combined. This

means that they can be separated by physical means.
helps to separate the different pigments based on their
different rates.
crude oil.
Immiscible liquids (do not mix) are separated using a
separating funnel. For example, oil and water. The mixture is
Mixtures can be separated based on their solubility in placed in the funnel and the heavier liquid (at the bottom) is
different solvents, boiling points and melting points. siphoned off into a container leaving the less dense liquid in
the separating funnel.
Physical changes are reversible. For example, dissolving
sugar in water to form a solution. The water and sugar can be Sublimation is used to separate substances based on
separated by evaporation and crystallization. No new differences in their melting points. Substances such as
substance is formed from a physical change so the reaction ammonium chloride and iodine, which readily change from
can be reversed to give the original substances (sugar and solid directly to gas, can be separated from other substances
water). using this method. The mixture is heated and the substance
with the lower melting point will form a vapour first and is
Chemical changes cannot be reversed. In chemical changes then cooled where it changes back to the solid state.
new substances are formed. For example, heating iron and
sulphur to produce iron sulphide (FeS). The new product Francine Taylor-Campbell is an independent contributor. Send questions
(FeS) cannot be changed back to iron and sulphur. and comments to
Distillation is used to
Filtration is used to separate an insoluble solid from a separate a soluble solid from a
liquid. The mixture is poured through a filter paper in a filter liquid or liquids with different
funnel. The soluble portion, called the filtrate, passes through boiling points, for example, in
the paper while the insoluble solid remains in the filter paper. the separation of copper II
This is called the residue. sulphate from a solution. The
mixture is heated and the liquid
with the lower boiling point
forms a vapour first then
condenses in the condenser
and is collected, leaving the
second liquid or solid in the
distilling flask. Distillation is
used to separate miscible
liquids (mix together

In fractional distillation, the

boiling points of the liquids are
similar and so separation is
carried out using a fractionating
column usually made of glass
beads or porcelain. This
Crystallization is used to separate a soluble solid from a enables condensing of the
liquid. The solution is heated, evaporating most of the solvent. vapours of the higher boiling
The solution is then cooled down until crystals of the soluble point liquid while the lower
solid start to form in the remaining solution. boiling point liquid forms a


yl:principles of accounts

Introduction to accounting
ROXANNE WRIGHT WHAT IS ACCOUNTING? information must be recorded in a systematic and methodical
Contributor As I attempt to identify the technical definition of way which is done using the double-entry system.
AM sure you have heard at least one reference to accounting, let me answer these questions below:

I principles of accounts and, at some point, wondered what

this subject is really about. Well, this week I am asking
some questions then giving brief answers to each. I, therefore,
A business is an entity set up by an entrepreneur to
When the entrepreneur sets up his business, he has some
clear expectations. It is, therefore, clear that he expects a level
implore you to do additional reading from your textbooks. of profit that will satisfy his needs and contribute to the
maximise profit. This could be done by:
i. buying and selling. growth of his business. There is also the expectation of
WHAT IS ACCOUNTING ALL ABOUT? ii. making and selling goods. increasing profit trend year after year. The calculation of profit
Accounting is a word everyone has heard over and over regularly helps to assess the state of the business. It is
iii. offering paid servic.
again without knowing what it really means. There are some equally important to keep accurate records of everything to
common misconceptions about accounting including: make sure analysis is available for good decision making.
1. Accounting is all about counting, meaning adding, WHY DO WE DO BUSINESS ANYWAY?
subtracting, multiplying and dividing. This is partly true. There could be many reasons given but the main reason is
to maximise profit. It is worthy to note that non-profit-making
A person may not want to start his/her own small business
2. Accounting is about recording receipts and payments. organisations are not identified as businesses.
but, instead, may want to invest in shares in other companies.
This is partly true since accounting does record money, but The first thing to do is look for a profitable company. This is
not only receipts and payments. done by comparing accounts of different companies to see the
Simply put, profit is the surplus of revenue over company earnings in terms of dividends that are more likely
3. Accounting and bookkeeping are the same. It is true that expenditure. This is made possible because the entrepreneur to be high.
bookkeeping is a part of accounting. Note well, there is a part
sells the goods at a higher price than the original buying price
of accounting that records financial business transactions in It is clear that accounting is about three main things:
in order to be able to cover expenses and make a profit.
books or on computers. i. Recording financial information.
ii. Organising information in a systematic and methodical
4. Accounting is a modern invention required by recent HOW IS PROFIT CALCULATED? way.
development in business environment. This is false since the Total Revenue - Total Expenses = Profit
iii. Analysing information for decision making.
foundation of modern accounting can be traced back to 1494, As you start working out problems in accounting things
when Luca Pacioli explained the double-entry system as may look complicated, but it is as simple as stated above.
When all three are put together, it is easy to say that
practised in Venice. accounting is the recording of financial information in the
WHERE DO WE GET THE INFORMATION TO organised way to make it easy for information to be extracted,
It is, therefore, fair to say that accounting has been existing analysed and used for decision making.
since cavemen drew pictures of animals in the cave.
Having diligently and accurately recorded the transactions
Accounting has existed since before slates were made of clay This is an appropriate point at which to end this week’s
and were used to record information. There has always been presentation. Always remember that “You have to learn the
1. Revenue: sales, interest received, discount received.
the basic purpose of recording information in ancient days as rules of the game and, when you have, to play better than any
2. Sales: cost of goods, salaries and wages, electricity and
there is today when businesses record information in books one else.”
water consumed, telephone bill, insurance payable, and
or on computers.
others that you will learn as you go along.
Look out next week for a presentation on the accounting
There is no doubt that accounting has become a dynamic process. See you then.
subject simply because the ways of recording have changed HOW DO WE RECORD?
to suit the needs of businesses in this era. Hence, Information is needed separately so it has to be recorded in Roxanne Wright teaches at Immaculate Academy. Send questions and
accountants are lifelong learners. a way that it can be accessed quickly. Therefore, the comments to


yl:information technology

NATALEE A. JOHNSON characters (printed or handwritten) and


OOD DAY, students. This is lesson two
of our series of IT lessons. In this
week’s lesson you will be learning
about input devices. At the end of this lesson,
Input devices convert them into electric signals to be sent to
the computer for processing, where they are
converted into a text file. The billing system of
an electric utility company is one such place
where this application can be utilised.
you should be able to differentiate between the Automated teller machines (ATM) The graphic tablet or digitising pad
different types of input devices. ATMs accept user input in the form of The graphic tablet/digitising pad is a board
transaction requests. The request could be for which detects the location of the pen-like Optical mark reader
You would have already been introduced to withdrawal, deposit or bill payment. The stylus on its surface. The tablet converts This is a special machine that uses infrared
the term input devices in the previous lesson request is sent to a main computer for drawings, photos, etc, to digital signals. This light to scan pencil marks on preprinted forms
and you were provided with a few examples of processing and the result is communicated to is made possible by the pad or tablets, not the such as multiple-choice examination answer
input devices. Let us now look at the main the user. ATMs are also now being used to add pointing device. They are used in conjunction sheets, questionnaires and so on.
types of input devices about which you are credit to cell phones. with a pen or stylus, which is held in the hand
required to know. and moved across the surface of the tablet or Musical instrument digital interface (MIDI)
pad. This is a standard connectivity (port) that
POINTING DEVICES musicians use to put together musical
Input devices are the devices that get data,
instructions or commands into the computer Touch screen instruments (such as keyboards and
The mouse is the most commonly used
for processing. Input devices could be This is a screen through which data can be synthesizers) and computer equipment. Using
pointing device. Most types of mouse that are inputted to the computer by touching the item
categorised as follows: MIDI, a musician can easily create and edit
produced today comprise two buttons, which
 Keyboard entry devices and touch or picture being displayed on the screen with digital music tracks. The MIDI system records
the user depresses to select items from a a finger. Items are selected just as they would
terminals the notes played, the length of the notes, the
menu or click on graphical objects on the
 Pointing devices be with a mouse pointer or a light pen. The dynamics (volume alterations), the tempo, the
computer screen (icons), thus sending
 Source data entry devices touch screen is considered a user-friendly instrument being played, and hundreds of
commands to the computer. The position of
 Multimedia input devices method of inputting data, especially for non- other parameters called control changes.
the mouse is shown on the screen by the specialist users. Users can select items from a
mouse pointer. The three main types of mouse menu by simply touching images of object
are the mechanical mouse, optical mouse and displayed on the screen. Touch screens are
ENTRY DEVICES the wireless mouse. A scanner, which is similar to a
used in the following areas: photocoping machine, scans documents
Keyboard  Public information systems(PIS)
The keyboard is considered to be one of the Trackball containing text or graphics as a full page and
 Health-care centres
most commonly used input devices available This device resembles a mechanical mouse transmits the image to the computer as a code
 Restaurant/Point-of-sale terminals
to the user. Whenever data is entered via the except that the ball is situated on top of the which enables the file to be saved as a digital
 Customer self-service
keyboard, the keyboard converts the letter(s) file. There are different types of scanners,
mouse – and is bigger in size – of which  Computer-base training
into a binary code (the machine language). namely, the flatbed scanner, the handheld
movement is provided by the user’s hand or  Automated teller Machine
For example the letter ‘A’ when pressed is palm to control the cursor on the screen. scanner and the laser scanner, which is built
converted to binary code 01000001. This code Source data-entry devices into the POS terminal used to read the
is then sent to the CPU for processing. There Joystick Source data-entry devices use special barcode on an item.
are other types of keyboards with which you The joystick is a vertical stick used to equipment to collect data at the source and
may not be familiar and they are the QWERTY control cursor motion/movement on the send them directly to the computer, thus Barcode reader
keyboard, Dvorak, Enhanced, wireless and the screen for the playing of computer games. eliminating the possibility of human error in Barcodes are coded light and dark lines
Braille keyboard, which was designed with data entry. Let us now look at such devices: found on products of all kinds. The barcode is
raised dots to provide assistance to the blind. There are also motion-sensing game used as an identifier of the product on which it
controllers which use motion sensing to Magnetic ink character reader/recognition is found. A barcode reader is a scanning
Point of Sale Terminals (POS) detect position and track movement, allowing (MICR) device with a sensitive tip which contains a
POS terminals are used to read barcodes a game player to imitate a player’s actual This is used primarily for the processing of light source and light detector used to read the
which are usually printed on commercial movement. The Xbox 360 has a new controller cheques. The MICR uses ink containing barcodes on an item. Barcode readers are
products. They are also used for reading component called Kinect, which responds to magnetic particles in order to print magnetic used at supermarkets and some libraries.
printed information by passing a wand across the movement of the player. characters on cheques. This special type of
a special tag attached to an item or entering ink is used to record cheque particulars such We have come to the end of our second
relevant data via a keyboard. When an item is The light pen as the cheque amount, account number, lesson. See you next week, and remember that
scanned, the terminal displays the scanned The light pen is a device that is used to branch number, and so on. The information on if you fail to prepare, you should be prepared
data and then prints an itemised sales receipt input digital signals to the computer by the cheque is then scanned into a computer to fail.
that shows the total amount of the purchase writing directly on the screen. This is made and stored permanently for bank purposes.
including taxes. Places where you will likely possible by the computer with special Natalee A. Johnson teaches at Ardenne High School.
see such transactions occuring are the software to detect the presence and absence of Optical character reader/recognition (OCR) Send questions and comments to
supermarkets, stores and so on. light. OCR uses a photoelectric device to scan



The multiple-choice strategy

CLEMENT RADCLIFFE We will apply these strategies in the following is an even number? of given information.
Contributor following examples: (a) 3n - 2 (b) 3n + 2
DO hope you are aware that mathematics is

(c) 3n + 4 (d) 3n - 1 The above underscores the fact that in order
offered at both the Caribbean Certificate of Example: If 45 - 2x = 2x - 3, then x = to prepare effectively for examinations in
Secondary Level Competence (CCSLC) Solution mathematics a student has to place emphasis
(a) 7 (b) 24 (c) 12 (d) 0
and the Caribbean Secondary Education Using strategy 2, if 3n is odd, then 3n - 2 on studying information, using appropriate
Certificate (CSEC) levels. The CSEC level was is odd, but 3n - 1 is even. Answer is (d) methods and practising problems. Marks are
designed for those students who will pursue earned both for correct answer and
You can substitute the various values of x
further education, especially in mathematics 5. Find the sum of the prime numbers appropriate method applied correctly.
until the equation is satisfied.
or a related field. It is also required to gain between 2 and 13.
If x = 0, then 45 = - 3. The equation is not
entry to some courses in tertiary institutions. (a) 26 (b) 35 (c) 41 (d) 50
satisfied, therefore, (d) is incorrect. HOMEWORK
It is, however, that effective preparation should
If x = 7, then 45 - 14. = 14 - 3. The Please attempt some additional multiple-
be done over an adequate time frame in order Solution
equation is not satisfied, therefore, (a) is choice items.
to improve your chance of success in Using strategy 1, the prime numbers
also incorrect. 1. An article bought for $125 was sold for
whichever examination you select. between 2 and 13 are 3, 5, 7, and 11. The
Trying x = 12, then 45 - 24. = 24 - 3 = 21.
sum is 26. $175. The percentage profit was:
Answer is (c).
Last week, I presented a list of materials The answer is (a). (a) 28.6% (b) 40% (c) 50% (d) 71.4%
which you should procure to ensure your
Please note that you could have solved the
success in the CXC examinations. The 6. Find the H.C.F. of 8, 12, and 20. 2. 26 - 33 =
materials include: equation to determine the answer. Remember,
(a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 3 (d) 5 (a) 3 (b) 8 (c) 37 (d) 27
(a) Syllabus – including amendments also, that a very good performance in the less-
(b) Hard-cover notebook complex multiple-choice items can make a
Solution 3. The least number of sweets which can be
(c) Suitable textbook(s) and past papers difference between a pass and a failure.
Using strategy 2 : 3 and 5 are not factors shared equally among 5, 10 or 15 children is
of the three numbers. While 2 and 4 are (a) 15 (b) 30 (c) 45 (d) 60
It is critical that each student has these Using the above, let us review the solutions
factors, 4 is the HCF. The answer is (b)
available and, indeed, uses them appropriately to the multiple-choice questions given last
week. 4. 2/25 expressed as a decimal is
as we approach this series of lessons. Let us now review Paper 02.
1. Write 3/5 as a decimal. (a) 0.8 (b) 0.08 (c) 0.008 (d) 0.0008
This paper contains essay-type questions
You are asked to note the following with (a) 0.6 (b) 0.06
and requires that students display competence
respect to multiple-choice items: (c) 0.006 (d) 0.0006 5. 79. 98 x 0.75 is approximately equal to:
at three cognitive levels. These are recall,
(a) It is in the best interest of students to (a) 79.0 (b) 6.0 (c) 60 (d) 1.0
method and reasoning.
try to gain as many marks as possible on this Solution
paper. Using strategy 1, 3/5 = 0.6 The answer is (a) . 6. Find the number that must be added to
(b) Among the four responses given for RECALL: This requires the presentation of 7 and 9 to make the L.C.M. 60.
each question are three distracters (wrong 2. 25 + 30 = basic facts and formulae and the working out (a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 1 (d) 4
answers) and a key (correct answer). The three (a) 31 (b) 34 (c) 32 (d) 33 of simple calculation.
distracters given are usually based on a Solution I recommend that you now refer to your
METHOD: Students are credited for correct
popular error made on the topic being tested. Using strategy 1, 25 + 30 = 32 + 1 = 33. textbook for additional examples to be
use of appropriate methods in solving a given
Random guessing is, therefore, not a The answer is (d). attempted on your own. Please concentrate on
problem, for example, the student who
recommended strategy. basic questions similar to the ones presented
correctly applies the correct method of solving
(c) The correct answer may be determined 3. 19.96 x 0.5 is approximately above. You may wish to email any difficulty
simultaneous equation will earn ‘method’
by any of the following strategies: (a) 0.1 (b) 1 (c) 10 (d) 100
marks. you experience to The Gleaner Company to
(1) Working the problem to determine the Solution
have them clarified.
answer. 19.96 is approximately 20 and 0.5 is *
(2) Eliminating the distracters by testing 20 x 1/2 = 10. The answer is (c). REASONING: This involves the correct
Clement Radcliffe is an independent contributor. Send
each answer until the correct one is found. selection of an appropriate method for questions and comments to
(3) A combination of (1) and (2). 4. If 3n is an odd number, which of the complex problems or the correct interpretation


yl:social studies

MAUREEN CAMPBELL should be used to ensure that the fathers are

Take a look
Contributor helping, at least financially, to take care of
OW THAT you have acquired your

their children. On the other hand,
syllabus, and you have been reading arrangements should be made to assist
it, you would have noticed that the children with food and clothing. In Jamaica
social studies syllabus consists of three main children may also be registered, if they are in
areas: need, in programmes such as PATH
 Individual, Family and Society, which 'Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, (Programme of Advancement Through Health
includes topics such as groups, committed citizens can change the world; and Education). There are also other non-
contemporary social problems and elements indeed, it's the only thing that ever has.' governmental agencies and church groups,
of various institutions in society.
- Margaret Mead when approached, which will give/help, such
as Food for the Poor and the Salvation Army.
 Sustainable Development and Use of
Resources, which includes topics such as weaknesses on questions which require social and economic issues prevalent in our
detailed explanations or evaluation. It is also society. Today's father is no longer always e. Explain why you believe each of these
human and physical resources and
said that in many cases when and where it is suggestions may be useful in assisting
Caribbean integration. the traditional, married breadwinner and
mothers and their children. 6 marks
required, students fail to provide relevant disciplinarian in the family. Men are no
When mothers and children attend these
 Options, which includes examples. Students should also strive to longer seen as the main breadwinners as, in
sessions, talk to individuals in the same
communication, tourism and consumer answer in complete sentences and put some some household, women share equal
position, who have overcome the problem, it
affairs. order when they are answering a question. financial responsibilities for the home. There
will allow them to freely express their
are many cases in which the woman is the
feelings about the fathers. What they are
The social studies examination comprises HERE IS AN EXAMPLE FOR YOU. main breadwinner because of increased going through, whether emotionally or
the following papers: a. Differentiate between matrifocal and educational opportunities and high income- financially, will be discussed and this should
PAPER 01 – MULTIPLE CHOICE matrilineal. 2 marks earning jobs for women. With the various call enable them to design coping strategies. It is
This paper consists of 60 items which are The terms matrifocal and matrilineal are for the liberation of women, with regards to always believed that counselling can assist in
distributed as follows: 30 on Individual, different but they both focus on some their rights and roles, there have been shifts any healing process. Regular visits to the
Family and Society and 30 on Sustainable elements of the mother in society. Matrifocal in the labelling of gender roles. Many men home will ensure that family life at home is
Development and Use of Resources. These is the term used to refer to the family pattern are unable to or refrain from carrying out good, both groups are able to meet their
items test various levels of difficulty in the in which the mother carries the responsibility their roles in society. Some say that it is needs and are living in a respectable
knowledge and comprehension profile and of the family. On the other hand, matrilineal because males are been disregarded. environment. This will also provide further
provide adequate syllabus coverage. refers to the inheritance system in which coping advice from a social worker.
status is acquired through the mother or the d. As a school guidance counsellor, The family court is so designed that it will
line of descent is through the mother. suggest to a social worker three ways in help mothers to get necessary funds
PAPER 02 – STRUCTURED 'forcibly', where possible, to take care of their
which mothers and children, whose fathers
QUESTIONS AND EXTENDED ESSAYS children. People do not have to know that
b. Identify two traditional roles of adult have deserted them, may be assisted.
This paper consists of three sections, they are on PATH unless they are told, and
males in your family. 2 marks 6 marks
labelled A, B and C, comprising 10 this helps to ensure that children get their
Adult males have and still carry out Mothers and children may be assisted in
questions. Candidates are required to answer deserved education and health treatment
a total of FIVE questions. Each question is necessary roles for the prolongation of the various ways if they become deserted by the
when necessary. There are also other non-
worth 20 marks. The profiles tested are: family. Two such traditional roles of adult father of the children. Both will need
governmental agencies that are quick and
Profile 1 male members are as breadwinners or the counselling, so counselling sessions should
ready to assist in order to maintain body and
Knowledge and Comprehension economic providers of the family. They were be put in place for mothers and children to
and are still seen as the disciplinarian in the enable them to deal with the physical, social Total 20 marks
Profile 2 family as they enforce strictly defined rules of and economic problems associated with the
Application, Evaluation and Problem behaviour. abandonment/desertion. Children should be So, think about what you write; don't be
Solving Skills asked to voice what they feel or what they are mean with your information. Pretend that the
c. State two reasons why the traditional going through. Other parents and children, person marking this paper knows nothing
roles of adult male members of the family is who are striving though in similar situations, about the subject and you are educating him
believed to be changing. 4 marks may be used as peer mentors or to or her, OK?
The administrative authority at CXC, in the As can be noticed, the traditional roles of occasionally discuss what they are going
adult male members of the family is believed through. Social workers should pay regular Maureen Campbell is an independent contributor.
review of answers to questions, states that Send questions and comments to
many candidates continue to display to be changing; this is based on changing visits to these homes and the court system