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FACULTAD DE FILOSOFÍA LETRAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA EDUCACIÓN

CARRERA PSICOLOGÍA CLINICA


MATERIA:
DESARROLLO DEL ADOLESCENTE

PROFESORA:
PSIC. GUILLERMO GARCIA WONG.

AUTORES:
Alvarado Gustavo
Caiza Maria Fernanda
Castillo Patricia
Pulupa Joyce
Rubio Joel

FECHA:
30/06/2017
LÓGICA APLICADA A LA CLÍNICA 2017. Semestre A

Profesor: Guillermo García Wong

Leer los textos arriba señalados y realizar las siguientes actividades:

1. COHEN: SENTIDO DE LO “FORMAL


2. RUDOLF CARNAP SENTIDO DE LO ”TAUTOLOGICO”
3. HANS REICHENBACH: ¿QUE SIGNIFICA EL DECIR QUE LA LOGICA ES
VACIA?
4. EVANDRO AGAZZI: VALORIZACION DE LA LOGICA SIMBOLICA
5. HANS REICHENBACH: IMPORTANCIA DE LA LOGICA POR SU
APLICACION A OTRAS DISCIPLINAS
6. Guillermo García Wong. EPISTEMOLOGIA Y LOGICA EN LAS
INVESTIGACIONES EN PSICOLOGÍA
1. Braunstein, Néstor. TEORÍA DEL SUJETO.

Carácter
común y a la
vez, presente
diferencias
para una
EL PROBLEMA SE MEDICALIZA separación

Se crea un lenguaje, Crea unas categorías y


Enfermedad o trastorno
pensamiento un sistema subcategorias

Cuerpo Individuo

Especie en el marco de la
Lógico
clasificación psiquiátrica

Observa
Descubre Sin confiabilidad Psicología
Designa
Clasifica
Distingue y estudia las funciones
elementales.
No encerrarnos en la ciencia
Psiquiátrica
natural.
Espacio

No conocimiento de La descripción, no
las causas la especificación

Descripciones
Características
Herencia
PSIQUIATRICA Ideología del estado
ACTUAL

Crea categorías
separatistas

Burocrática
Institucionalizada
2. Pavard, Bernard. COMPLEXITY PARADIGM.

I. Key words. Before read the text of Pavard, search definitions of following key words.
Sources: internet and books, special Science dictionaries.

Conceptual framework. - is an analytical tool with several variations and contexts. It is


used to make conceptual distinctions and organize ideas. Strong conceptual frameworks
capture something real and do this in a way that is easy to remember and apply.

Methodological framework. - approach for making explicit and structuring how a given
task is performed.

Analytic (or structural) approach. - is the use of an appropriate process to break a


problem down into the smaller pieces necessary to solve it. Each piece becomes a smaller
and easier problem to solve.

Multi-agent paradigm. - is a computerized system composed of multiple interacting


intelligent agents within an environment.

Neural networks. – is a computer system modeled on the human brain and nervous
system.

Ergonomy. – is a science that deals with designing and arranging things so that people
can use them easily and safely.

Classic mechanics. - the mathematical study of the motion of everyday objects and the
forces that affect them.

Quantum mechanics. - is a theory of matter that is based on the concept of the possession
of wave properties by elementary particles, that affords a mathematical interpretation of
the structure and interactions of matter on the basis of these properties, and that
incorporates within it quantum theory and the uncertainty principle.

Nodes. - is a point at which lines or pathways intersect or branch; a central or connecting


point.
Algorithm. - an algorithm is a procedure or formula for solving a problem, based on
conducting a sequence of specific actions.

Iteration. - is the act of repeating a process, either to generate an unbounded sequence of


outcomes, or with the aim of approaching a desired goal, target or result.

System. - is a collection of elements or components that are organized for a common


purpose.

II. Write short answers to following questions:

1. What are three axes of complexity theory?

Theory of non linear systems.


Three axes of The neutral network approach
complexity theory Theory of distributed or self organized
systems

2. Describe Poincaré demonstration.

Poincaré Showed that it was mathematically


demonstration impossible to find an exact solution to
these equations even for a system as
simple as that containing three planets
interacting in a non-linear fashion

3. What did epistemological implications Poincaré job have into science


investigation method?
Reassessed the epistemological consequence
Poincaré job of his work on non-linear systems

Approximate solutions to problems that do


not have exact solutions and thus explore the
new field of complex systems.
4. What properties of neural networks could be used as metaphor for cognitive
process?

These systems have very interesting Properties of


properties of classification and neural networks
extrapolation which has been used as a
metaphor for cognitive processes.

5. Why non linear properties are very important to understand neural networks?

Non linear properties

Are used in order to mimic the behaviour


of real neurones and to explore their
classification capabilities.

6. What is a system with properties of self organization?

Self organization

Is based on the fact that a population of independent and


autonomous agents interacting only locally may produce
“intelligent” global behaviour.

7. Why the distributed and self organized systems are drastically different from the
classical analytical approaches?

Because they don´t use the concept


Self organization of representation

8. What does non linear mean?


Non linear

It´s mean that if you double the


input (Xn), you will not double the
output.
9. What happen when the growing factor (k) is 2.5 into the equation for cats-mice
population interaction?

Growing factor (k) is 2.5

Oscillate between Four years for the The mice population


two values population to come jumps incessantly
back to the same among an infinite
value. number of values in a
way which is
deterministic but cannot
10. What does chaotic behavior men? be predicted over a long
period
Chaotic behavior men Means unpredictability over
of time.
a certain period of time.

11. What does iteration mean?


Iteration mean

Feeback from one year to the other.

12. What can complexity arise only?


Complexity arise only

Iteration Iteration

13. What is the relation between deterministic and chaotic behavior?

Deterministic and chaotic


behavior

To the non linear characteristics of the interactions between


the components of the system, about the state of the system.
14. Deterministic behavior can be seen as a special case of chaotic behavior.

Deterministic and chaotic


behavior

In the same way as classic mechanics can be seen as


a special case of quantum mechanics

15. What happen when the growth rate increases to 2?

Population always stabilises at


certain constant value.
Growth rate increases to 2

16. How does the bifurcation work?


Bifurcation

Point where the mice


population alternates between
different values,
N2 and N3 (period 2
oscillations), from one year to
17. For
onek>2.7 it is no longer possible to predict how the mice population will
another.
change from one year to one another. We are then in the “chaos” area.
“chaos” area

When the growth rate is around 2.5 the mice


population fluctuates unpredictably within
two broad regions and finally only one which
is the chaos area.

18. What is the intermittency area?

A period of calm inside a


The intermittency
chaotic behaviour.
area
19. What is the real relation between the theory of complex systems and the
analytical or structural approach?

Relation between the System theory starts from the analysis


theory of complex of local interactions, formalise the
systems and the relationship between individual
analytical or agents and their environment or other
structural approach agents in its vicinity.

20. What is the relation between linear approach and a non linear approach?

Approach and a non The linear and non linear approach (the
linear approach linear being seen as a special case of the
non linear). If the system is simplified
(linearised) the pendulum behaves in an
analytic way: its trajectory can be
modelled as an analytic solution.

21. When does the pendulum have analytic way and when has a chaotic way?

Pendulum

In case of a strong interaction with its


environment, the same pendulum starts
to show chaotic behaviour

22. Why a perfectly causal system may show unpredictable behaviors?

Unpredictable behaviors

Its trajectory follows an unpredictable


path (shown via the dotted pattern) which
is called strange attractor because at any
time the pendulum position is situated on
the attractor (a set of trajectories) but it
is
impossible to predict exactly on which
point in the trajectories the pendulum
will be.
23. How do the non linear characteristics of the interactions between the
components of the system undermines the traditional model of scientific
experiment?

Non linear characteristics

Brought new insights to our vision of the world. The first conceptual
breakthrough was related to the notion of causality in deterministic
systems: even a perfectly causal system (a system where we know all of
the functional rules) may show unpredictable behaviour of trajectories)
but it is impossible to predict exactly on which point in the trajectories
the pendulum will be.

24. How does a system behave twice in the same way?

Gently: the mice population


System behave increases in consequence. Takes
four years for the population to
come back to the same value.

25. What is a neural network?

.
Neural network are basically made of a set of
components (neurones) in
interconnections

26. What is a neural network composed?

.
Neural network composed is composed of a set of nodes.
Each node is connected to the
others via a set of links.

27. How are nodes connecting together?

Nodes

Each node is connected to the others via a set of links.


Information is transmitted from the input to the output
cells depending of the strength of the links
28. What does information transmitting among cells depend of?

Cells depending of the strength of the links

29. Describe the first phase of neural network operation?

Neural network research not only brought


new empirical results concerning
how a neural system may encode and learn
information but it also started to undermine
the
traditional representational paradigm
30. Why in a connectionist network we can not speak of representation, context or
temporality?
Connectionist network. In this type of system, the
information arriving in the system is distributed
between a set of nodes (or neurones) as a function of
the strength of each link. The strengths of the links are
gradually adjusted using a training (or learning)
mechanism which compares the actual behaviour of
the network with the desired behaviour. In this type of
system, it is impossible to speak about representation,
context, or temporality, since all of these factors are
incorporated into one factor: the strength of the
connections.

31. Mention some functions of a neural network?

research not only brought new empirical results


concerning how a neural system may encode and learn
information but it also started to undermine the
traditional representational paradigm.

32. What does the concept of addressable memory represent?

The ability to recover all of a data set if only a portion


of it is evoked. Neural networks are excellent for
discrimination, pattern recognition, classification and
storing complex data sets.
3. Quine, W. V O. LÓGICA Y CONOCIMIENTO

Lógica Sistema Sin experiencia no


Esfuerzo por conveniente de se cumplen su
dirimir los relacionar modificación al
Cada falsedad experiencias con sistema.
corresponde una Búsqueda de la enunciados Lógica Conocimiento
verdad verdaderos de experiencias
negación que es
verdadera los otros, que
son los falsos
Enunciados de La conexión entre Si entran en
virtud de la un enunciado y la conflicto
naturaleza del experiencia, lo cualquiera puede
mundo verifica prevalecer.
4. Carroll, Lewis. Los dos relojes