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You are on page 1of 15

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/rser

photovoltaic–wind based hybrid energy systems

Sunanda Sinha, S.S. Chandel n

Centre for Energy & Environmental Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur 177005, Himachal Pradesh, India

art ic l e i nf o a b s t r a c t

Article history: An update literature review on trends in optimization techniques used for the design and development

Received 14 January 2015 of solar photovoltaic–wind based hybrid energy systems is presented. The main objective is to identify

Received in revised form latest promising techniques for the optimization of solar photovoltaic (PV)–wind based hybrid systems.

11 April 2015

Different techniques used by researchers for the optimization of renewable based hybrid energy systems

Accepted 12 May 2015

Available online 31 May 2015

are reviewed along with PV–wind based hybrid system sizing methodology, is presented. Optimization

studies during last 2.5 decades by researchers using traditional and new generation methods are

Keywords: analyzed and sixteen optimization methods including hybrid algorithms are presented. The trend shows

Hybrid energy systems that new generation artiﬁcial intelligence algorithms are mostly used during last decade as these require

Solar–wind based hybrid systems

less computation time and have better accuracy, good convergence in comparison to traditional

Solar photovoltaics

methods. The study suggests using hybridization of two or more algorithms to overcome the limitations

Wind turbine

Optimization techniques of a single algorithm. Additionally some other techniques are identiﬁed for follow up research in the

Hybrid algorithms design of PV–wind hybrid systems. This review will be useful for researchers to face complexity and

challenges in renewable energy based hybrid system research.

& 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 756

2. PV–wind hybrid system sizing methodologies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 757

2.1. Requirements for PV–wind hybrid system optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 757

2.1.1. Meteorological data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 757

2.1.2. Load proﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 757

2.1.3. System conﬁguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 757

2.1.4. Energy system model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 757

2.1.5. Optimization results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 760

2.2. Criteria for PV–wind hybrid system optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 760

2.2.1. Reliability analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 760

2.2.2. Cost analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 760

2.3. Modeling of hybrid system components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 760

2.3.1. Modeling of photovoltaic system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 761

2.3.2. Modeling of wind generator system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 761

2.3.3. Modeling of battery system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 761

2.4. Conditions and steps for the execution of a hybrid optimization problem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 761

3. Optimization techniques used in PV–wind based hybrid research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 761

3.1. Traditional approach for optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 762

3.1.1. Graphical construction technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 762

3.1.2. Iterative techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 762

3.1.3. Probabilistic approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 762

n

Corresponding author. Tel.: þ 91 1972 254748; fax: þ91 1972 223834.

E-mail addresses: sschandel2013@gmail.com, chandel_shyam@yahoo.com (S.S. Chandel).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.05.040

1364-0321/& 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

756 S. Sinha, S.S. Chandel / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015) 755–769

3.1.5. Linear programming technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 762

3.2. New generation approach for optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 763

3.2.1. Genetic Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 763

3.2.2. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 764

3.2.3. Simulated annealing (SA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 764

3.2.4. Other new generation approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 764

3.2.5. Hybrid algorithm optimization techniques. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 765

4. Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 766

5. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 767

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 767

Tc ¼ cell temperature

V ci cut-in wind speed ηc ¼ charge efﬁciency (depends on the SOC and the char-

V co cut out wind speed ging current and has a value between 0.65 and 0.85)

Ib direct normal solar radiations Cs ¼ cost of solar PV system

P f aliure load which cannot be served within a time period ηdis ¼ discharge efﬁciency (generally taken equal to 1)

Pw power output from wind turbine generator. σ ðtÞ ¼ hourly self-discharge rate depending on the battery

ηPV PV system efﬁciency state (taken constant at about 0.02%)

Pr rated power of a wind turbine i¼ interest rate

Vr rated speed of the wind turbine C bat ¼ nominal capacity of the battery (A h).

α power law exponent Pw ¼ power generated from wind turbine

P total total load T proj ¼ project life time

CB cost of battery bank APV ¼ PV system area

C other cost of other systems and accessories Tr ¼ reference temperature for cell efﬁciency

Cw cost of wind system C ann ¼ total annualized cost

Id diffuse solar radiations P load ¼ total load to be delivered or load demand

ηw efﬁciency of wind turbine generator and correspond- P total ¼ total power generated from resources

ing converter, COE cost of energy

Edef icit energy deﬁcit within a certain time period (t) DOD depth of discharge,

P load load demand during a period LA level of autonomy

ηm module efﬁciency LCC life cycle cost

ηpc power conditioning equipment efﬁciency LLP/LOLP loss of load probability

T f ailure power failure time period LOLH loss of load hours

Ps power generated from solar PV system LOLR loss of load risk

IT solar radiation on a tilted surface LPSP loss of power supply probability

Rd tilt factor for the diffused solar radiation. NPC net present cost

Rr tilt factor for the reﬂected solar radiation. p cumulative probability of meteorological status which

H total total hours of operation corresponds to electrical energy generation

H LOL total number of hours during which loss of load q probability of failure

(LOL) occurs SOC state of charge

Aw total swept area SPL system performance level

C total total system cost UL unmet load

T total total working time V and V0 wind speeds at heights h and h0 (h0 is the reference

β¼ array efﬁciency temperature coefﬁcient height).

study we have focused only on PV–wind based hybrid systems as

The fossil fuel resources are becoming scarce due to ever solar and wind are most promising power generating sources due

increasing energy demand in commercial, industrial, agricultural to their complementary nature advantage. Wind speeds are often

and domestic sector. In this context, alternative energy resources low in periods when the solar resource is at its best. On the other

like solar, wind, biomass, bio-fuel, hydro and geothermal etc. are hand, the wind is often stronger in seasons when there are less

being utilized largely to generate power in recent years. A renew- solar resource. But these sources depend on climatic conditions

able energy based hybrid system offers a better option than a which are unpredictable thus making the design of a hybrid

single source based system in terms of cost, reliability and system complex. In order to improve the reliability of a PV wind

efﬁciency. One or more energy sources can be utilized in renew- hybrid system other sources like fuel cell, diesel generator can also

able energy based hybrid systems (REHS) which can work as stand be integrated. Such a hybrid system can meet the basic power

alone or in a grid connected mode. Different types of hybrid requirements in a non-electriﬁed remote area where grid power is

system combinations are feasible depending on the need and not available. Besides this our main research focus in the present

S. Sinha, S.S. Chandel / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015) 755–769 757

study is on PV wind based hybrid system applications in urban, hybrid systems as discussed in a comprehensive review by Sinha

rural and remote regions. However, the techniques covered are and Chandel [1]. However, these softwares have some limitations

also useful for studying other types of hybrid systems. like black box coding, different working platforms, unavailability

A solar–wind hybrid system consists of PV array, wind turbine, of some of the softwares and are also not as ﬂexible as optimiza-

battery bank, inverter, controller, and other accessories. The tion techniques which can be used as per research criteria.

schematic is shown (Fig. 1).The generated power from solar and Sizing and optimization techniques must efﬁciently search for

wind energy charge the battery after meeting load demand but if an optimum combination of parameters like system cost, system

generated power is less than demand then battery will supply the reliability, PV system size, tilt angle of PV panels, battery size, wind

load as per storage capacity. turbine size with hub height because, over sizing causes higher

The steps to be followed for the efﬁcient design and planning of system costs and under sizing causes insufﬁcient power supply. A

a PV–wind based hybrid system, are shown in Fig. 2. number of authors have carried out detailed reviews on sizing and

There are some constraints in the formulation and solution of optimization techniques [2–10]. Summary highlights of these

the designing and optimization approach like resource availability, studies are given in Table 1.

technology, efﬁciency, mathematical models and many more. But The paper is organized as follows: Section 2 provides an

advancement in computational techniques has made it easy to overview of PV–wind hybrid system sizing methodologies;

deal with optimization problems by using a number of optimiza- Section 3 gives a literature survey on optimization techniques

tion and simulation techniques. A number of simulation tools used in PV–wind based hybrid system research; Section 4 deals

HOMER (Hybrid Optimization Model of Electric Renewable), with discussion on the recent trends of optimization followed by

HYBRID2 (The Hybrid Power System Simulation Model), HOGA Conclusion in Section 5.

(Hybrid Optimization using Genetic Algorithm) etc. are used for

optimizing, designing and performance evaluation of PV–wind

2. PV–wind hybrid system sizing methodologies

mathematical modeling, conditions and execution process for a

PV–wind based hybrid system are discussed.

Fig. 1. Schematic of a solar–wind hybrid system. The input parameters required for a PV–wind hybrid system

optimization are as follows.

Analysis of meteorological characteristics of the location has to be

made for optimization process. Measured solar and wind resource

data are the main inputs for PV wind hybrid based system optimiza-

tion. The time series measured minute wise, hourly or daily weather

data are preferable. In case measured data are not available for the

location then satellite based data or estimated data can also be used

for preliminary studies if accuracy is not the major consideration.

Yearly electric load demand proﬁle is one of the necessary steps

to design-planning and optimization of a hybrid system. It is

difﬁcult to ﬁnd out and also complicated to analyze real load

demand with all minute ﬂuctuations, therefore hourly or daily

averages of load demand is generally used for design-optimization

purpose. But to have a real or nearest to real load variations for all

the seasons is really difﬁcult task, if it fails then system designed

can be oversized or undersized.

After the prefeasibility studies based on weather data (e.g. wind

speed, solar irradiation and temperature) and load demand the

selection of proper sizing of equipment can be made. But this sizing

process must be according to nature of PV and wind, e.g. if the study

location have good solar potential than wind then the hybrid system

must be conﬁgured with maximum share of PV system and minimum

share of wind system.

Energy system models are the mathematical models developed to

represent various energy-related problems reliably. These models are

used to identify and solve problems using various computing

Fig. 2. Basic steps for renewable energy based hybrid system design and planning. systems. The accuracy of the developed models for PV/wind system

758 S. Sinha, S.S. Chandel / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015) 755–769

Table 1

Summary highlights of review studies on sizing and optimization of renewable energy based hybrid systems.

year of

study

Zhou et al. Only standalone PV–wind hybrid systems Criteria for optimizations and simulation Artiﬁcial intelligence techniques are identiﬁed to

[2] modeling of photovoltaic system, wind energy be promising which requires to be further

system, battery storage system explored

Software tools for hybrid solar–wind system

reviewed are

○ HOMER

○ HYBRID2

○ HOGA

○ Graphic construction method

○ Probabilistic approach

○ Iterative technique

○ Artiﬁcial Intelligence method

○ Multi Objective optimization

Erdinc and Covers all types of renewable energy based Software tools discussed are: HOMER, HYBRID2, Promising techniques identiﬁed are:

Uzunoglu hybrid systems. The General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS), Ant colony algorithm

[3] Optimization of Renewable Intermittent Energies Artiﬁcial immune system algorithm

with Hydrogen for Autonomous Electriﬁcation Tabu Search

(ORIENTE), OptQuest, LINDO, WDILOG2, Dividing Honey Bee Mating Algorithm

Rectangles (DIRECT), Determining Optimum Bacterial Foraging Algorithm

Integration of RES (DOIRES),Simulation of Game Theory

Photovoltaic Energy Systems (SimPhoSys), Geo-

Spatial Planner for Energy Investment Strategies, Hybrid methodologies require to be improved

Grid-connected Renewable Hybrid Systems further

Optimization (GRHYSO), H2RES

Optimization techniques discussed are:

○ Genetic algorithm

○ Particle swarm optimization

○ Simulated annealing

○ Linear programming

○ Simplex algorithm

○ Neural Networks

○ Evolutionary algorithm

○ Stochastic, iterative, probabilistic,

parametric and numerical approaches

Fadaee and Study covers PV–battery, PV–wind–battery Optimization Techniques reviewed: GA and PSO as most useful and promising multi

Radzi[4] and PV–wind–diesel–battery hybrid systems ○ Genetic Algorithm objective optimization methods in hybrid

○ Honey Bee mating Optimization system design

○ Particle Swarm Optimization

○ Evolutionary Algorithm

○ Artiﬁcial Intelligence

○ Pareto-based multi-objective optimization

and parallel processing

Luna-Rubio Study includes all types of renewable energy Reviewed hybrid system performance indicators Study suggests hybrid optimization

et al. [5] based hybrid systems (Loss of power supply probability (LPSP), methodologies are superior to other methods.

Levelized cost of energy (LCE))

○ Hybrid energy system sizing

methodologies reviewed are:

○ Probabilistic methods,

○ Iterative methods,

○ Hybrid methods (Genetic Algorithm,

Artiﬁcial Intelligence)

○ Analytical methods including commercial

software tools and/or numerical

approximations of system component)

Khatib et al. Study includes standalone and grid Standalone PV systems size optimization Artiﬁcial intelligence techniques have the

[6] connected PV systems, PV–diesel generator methods reviewed are: potential to improve the process of optimization.

systems, PV–wind systems, PV–wind–diesel ○ Intuitive methods

generator systems ○ Numerical methods

○ Analytical methods

○ Other methods (Artiﬁcial Intelligence)

S. Sinha, S.S. Chandel / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015) 755–769 759

Table 1 (continued )

year of

study

optimization methods:

○ Intuitive methods

○ Numerical methods

○ Artiﬁcial intelligence methods

Upadhyay Covers all types of renewable energy based Discussed design parameters, evaluation criteria Hybrid optimization methodologies are

and hybrid systems and control and energy management of hybrid recommended for hybrid system research to

Sharma energy systems avoid the limitation of one methodology

[7] Software tools reviewed are:

○ HOMER

○ HOGA

○ RETScreen

○ HYBRIDS

○ TRNSYS

○ Graphic construction methods

○ Probabilistic methods

○ Analytical methods

○ Iterative methods

○ Artiﬁcial intelligence methods

○ Hybrid methods

Chauhan Covers all types of renewable energy based Reviewed various types of integrated Concludes artiﬁcial intelligence techniques as a

and Saini hybrid systems conﬁgurations (DC coupled, AC coupled, Hybrid better technique than other deterministic

[8] DC–AC coupled) and various options for energy methods

storage technologies with system control and Genetic algorithm (GA), harmony search (HS),

management particle swarm optimization (PSO), biogeography

Mathematical model for wind, Micro-hydro, based optimization (BBO) are the most promising

solar, biomass gasiﬁer energy systems are studied Algorithms in future research

Reviewed various sizing methodologies used in

hybrid system study

○ Artiﬁcial intelligence

○ Multi objective design

○ Iterative approach

○ Analytical method

○ Probabilistic approach

○ Graphical construction method

○ HOMER

○ HOGA

○ RET Screen

○ HYBRIDS

○ TRNSYS

Bourennani Focused on solar–wind–fuel cell based Multi-Objective Optimizations (MOO) for Hybrid Article concludes that hybrid energy system

et al. [9] hybrid systems Energy System Design requires more interaction between both energy and

MOO research

Bhandari Study covers PV–wind–diesel–battery hybrid Reviewed energy scenario and various types of Study concludes that artiﬁcial intelligence may

et al. systems optimal design criteria provide good optimization of system without

[104] Mathematical model for wind, solar, battery, extensive long term weather data

diesel generator systems are studied

Reviewed various sizing methodologies used in

hybrid system study

○ Graphical construction method

○ Probabilistic approach

○ Iterative approach

○ Artiﬁcial intelligence

760 S. Sinha, S.S. Chandel / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015) 755–769

components is important in optimizing. Therefore these models must 2.2.1. Reliability analysis

include all necessary variables which affect energy conversion. These The dependency on nature and unpredictability of solar and

mathematical models should use simple concepts but in many cases wind resources have a great impact on energy production which

the complexity of a model increases or researcher may not include leads to unreliable power supply during cloudy or non windy days.

some important factors which may lead to inaccuracy. A system is reliable if it is able to supply required power to the

electrical load within a speciﬁc time period. A power reliability

analysis is essential for system design and optimization process.

2.1.5. Optimization results There are several methods in literature to calculate the reliability

Optimization results must be accurate enough to avoid excess of a hybrid energy system which are summarized in Table 2.

or deﬁcit power and it is only possible if above four steps are

followed. Although power generation from PV–wind system is

2.2.2. Cost analysis

location dependant process, yet generalization of optimization

Cost analysis of a hybrid system is important for optimization so as

results for nearby location is also important.

to deliver energy at minimum cost. There are several methods used to

calculate cost of a hybrid energy system like net present cost, life cycle

2.2. Criteria for PV–wind hybrid system optimization cost and cost of energy which are summarized in Table 3.

A PV–wind hybrid system has to be optimally designed to deliver 2.3. Modeling of hybrid system components

power for a particular load demand reliably. The optimum hybrid

system conﬁguration must satisfy and compromise between two main The performance of a hybrid solar–wind system is dependent

objectives: power reliability and system cost. on its components. The mathematical modeling equations of a PV

Table 2

Methods to determine reliability of hybrid energy systems.

no.

1 Loss of power supply Most widely used method in which probability of insufﬁcient power supply to load demand is taken into account while [11]

probability (LPSP) designing the hybrid system. LPSP is the ratio of power supply deﬁcits to the electric load demand during a certain period

Pn

Edef icit

LPSP ¼ t P

¼ 1

n

P load

t ¼ 1

2 Loss of load probability Deﬁned as the power failure time period divided by the total working time of the hybrid system [11]

(LLP/LOLP)

3 Unmet load (UL) The load which cannot be served divided by the total load of a time period (normally one year) [11]

Pn

P f ailure

UL ¼ t P

¼ 1

n

P total

t ¼ 1

4 System performance level SPL is deﬁned as the probability of unsatisﬁed load [12]

(SPL)

5 Loss of load hours (LOLH) LOLH is the summation of loss of load expectation in hours over a speciﬁed time (usually one year) that the power system [13]

is unable to meet load requirements due to lack of power at an instant excluding the effects of component breakdown or

maintenance time

6 Loss of load risk (LOLR) LOLR is deﬁned as the probability of the generating system failure to meet the daily electrical energy demand due to [14]

deﬁcient energy of the renewable energy sources used

LOLR can be can be represent as

LOLR ¼ 1 p Or LOLR ¼ q

7 Level of autonomy (LA) LA deals with two main parameters namely the total number of hours in which loss of load (LOL) occurs and the total [5]

hours of operation. If autonomy increases system will be more reliable but same time cost will be higher

LA ¼ 1 HHtotal

LOL

Table 3

Cost analysis methods of hybrid energy system.

no. method

1 Net present cost NPC reﬂects cost of energy for a particular system and is deﬁned as the ratio of the total annualized cost of the system to the annual [2]

electricity delivered by the system. NPC is total present value of cash ﬂows including initial cost of system components, replacement

cost of any component within project lifetime, and cost of maintenance, i.e. investment costs plus the discounted present values of

all future costs during system’s lifetime

C ann

NPC ¼ CRFði;T proj Þ

2 Life cycle cost LCC deals with sum of all recurring and one-time (non-recurring) costs over the full life span or a speciﬁed period of a good, service, [2]

structure, or system

Includes purchase price, installation cost, operating costs, maintenance and upgrade costs, and remaining (residual or salvage)

value at the end of ownership or its useful life

3 Cost of energy COE reﬂects the cost of energy or electricity generation and as the ratio of total annualized cost of the system to the annual [2]

electricity delivered by the system. Total annualized cost includes all the costs over the system’s lifetime from initial investment and

capital costs, to operations and maintenance (e.g. fuel) and ﬁnancing costs

COE¼ total cost/energy produced

S. Sinha, S.S. Chandel / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015) 755–769 761

system, wind system and battery system are described in this During charging process

section.

SOCðt þ 1Þ ¼ SOCðtÞ:½1 σ ðtÞ þ½I bat ðtÞ:Δt:ηc ðtÞ=C bat ð9Þ

During discharging process

2.3.1. Modeling of photovoltaic system

The power output from PV system with area Apv (m2) is given SOCðt þ 1Þ ¼ SOCðtÞ:½1 σ ðtÞ ½I bat ðtÞ:Δt=ηdis ðtÞ=C bat ð10Þ

by:

With ð1 DODÞ rSOCðtÞ r1

P ¼ I T APV ηPV ð1Þ

where IT is expressed as 2.4. Conditions and steps for the execution of a hybrid optimization

problem

I T ¼ I b Rb þ I d Rd þ ðI b þI d ÞR ð2Þ

The PV system efﬁciency is expressed as The two main conditions to be fulﬁlled for a good designed

hybrid system are maximum power reliability and minimum cost.

ηPV ¼ ηm ηpc ½1 βðT c T r Þ ð3Þ

Total energy generated by wind and PV systems can be

expressed as

2.3.2. Modeling of wind generator system P total ¼ P w þ P s ð11Þ

Power output of wind turbines for a location depends on wind

The total energy generated may or may not satisfy the load

speed at hub height which can be calculated using power-law

demand and three different situations may arise depending upon

equation given below

the load demand and total power generated which are shown as:

α

V h

¼ ð4Þ i. P total ¼ P load

V0 h0

Total energy generated matches the load demand, so there is

Total power available from wind turbine is given by: no excess and deﬁciency in power.

P ¼ P w Aw ηw ð5Þ ii. P total o P load

Total energy generated is less than the load demand, so there

Different wind turbines have different power output and perfor-

will be a deﬁciency in power and battery will have to supply

mance curves. Therefore, the modeling equation of a wind system is

the load.

strongly inﬂuenced by the power curve of the wind turbine used.

iii. P total 4 P load

Fig. 3 shows a typical wind turbine power curve characteristics and

using this curve power output Pw (kW/m2) from wind generator can

Total energy generated is greater than the load demand, so

be calculated as follows

8 excess power is generated and battery will be charged.

>

< 0; if V o V ci and V 4V co The optimum combination of a solar–wind hybrid system can

Pw ¼ aV 3 bP r ; if V ci oV o V r ð6Þ make the best compromise with system cost. The economical

>

:P ;

r if V r oV o V co approach is composed of minimization of the costs of individual

components like PV, battery, wind system etc. This cost includes

where a and b are the co-efﬁcients are given as capital, maintenance and replacement cost of various components

Pr of the system.

a¼ ð7Þ The total cost can be expressed as

V 3r V ci

C total ¼ fC s þ C w þ C B þ C other gmin ð12Þ

V 3ci The optimization process is shown in ﬂow chart (Fig. 4).The

b¼ ð8Þ

V r V 3ci

3 ﬁrst step of the optimal sizing methodology consists of providing

meteorological data–electric load demand and system input data.

The second step consists of mathematical equations with relia-

2.3.3. Modeling of battery system bility and cost conditions. The next step is using optimization

Battery is used to store surplus generated energy, to regulate methods fulﬁlling the criteria of system conﬁguration.

system voltage and to supply load in case of insufﬁcient power

generation occurs from the hybrid system. Battery sizing depends

3. Optimization techniques used in PV–wind based hybrid

on maximum depth of discharge (DOD), temperature and battery

research

life. A battery’s state of charge (SOC) is expressed as follows:

on meteorological conditions so it is necessary to maximize the power

during sunny or windy days with properly optimally sized design.

There is a continuously increasing interest in the development of

hybrid energy systems using various optimal sizing techniques. The

classiﬁcation of optimization algorithm can be carried out in a number

of ways but in this paper the algorithms are divided into two simplest

categories namely traditional approaches and new generation

approaches. A traditional approach follows a rigorous procedure for

example linear programming, iterative techniques etc. whereas new

generation approaches are genetic algorithm, particle swarm

optimization etc.

In this section an overview of various optimization techniques

Fig. 3. Wind turbine power curve. used in PV–wind hybrid systems are described.

762 S. Sinha, S.S. Chandel / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015) 755–769

(LEC) and life cycle unit cost (LUC) of power generation with battery

bank. Borowy and Salameh [22] determined optimum size of a battery

bank and PV array for a stand-alone hybrid wind–PV system and

concluded that the optimum mix depends on the particular site, load

proﬁle, and the desired reliability of the hybrid system. Ashok [23]

proposed an iterative method where an optimal hybrid system was

obtained among different renewable energy combinations including

PV and wind technology ensuring system’s reliability and minimum

life cycle cost which is applicable to renewable power generation in

any rural village.

Iterative optimization method requires more computational

efforts and usually two main parameters PV module tilt angle

and wind turbine tower height are not optimized in most of the

reported studies.

A probabilistic model is that where there are multiple possible

outcomes, with varying degrees of certainty or uncertainty of

occurrence. Probabilistic approach considers the effect of random

variability of parameters. Probabilistic approaches enable variation

and uncertainty to be quantiﬁed, mainly by using distributions

instead of ﬁxed values. This technique is also used by some

researchers to solve hybrid system sizing problem. However, the

Fig. 4. General execution process followed in optimal sizing of hybrid systems.

probabilistic approach cannot represent the dynamic changing

performance of the hybrid system which is main disadvantage of

3.1. Traditional approach for optimization this method.

Bagul et al. [24] used probabilistic approach to determine the

A number of studies have been carried out using like graphical relation between number of photovoltaic arrays and batteries to

construction method, iterative techniques etc which are meet a given reliability if wind turbine rated capacity and load

discussed below. demand are known. Karaki et al. [25] used a probabilistic treat-

ment of an autonomous solar–wind energy conversion system

3.1.1. Graphical construction technique delivering a load. The methodology used ﬁx an upper limit on

Borowy and Salameh [15] presented a graphical construction required storage batteries and predicts the expected energy not

technique for ﬁnding optimum combination of a stand-alone PV– supplied (EENS) to the hybrid system considering charging/dis-

wind hybrid system based on long-term meteorological data. For a charging cycles of the batteries. Combination of the two separate

typical load consumption of a house in Massachusetts and a desired PV and wind models were obtained and convolution theory was

LPSP, the optimum conﬁguration of battery bank and PV array was used. Tina et al. [26] used probabilistic approach for the long-term

calculated based on the minimum cost of the system. Markvart [16] performance assessment of a solar–wind hybrid system for stand-

used graphical technique to optimally design a solar–wind hybrid alone and grid-linked applications and developed an analytical

power generation system using monthly-average solar and wind model. The authors modiﬁed the model developed by Karaki et al.

energy values. This is a basic and easily understandable method with [25] using energy index of reliability (EIR). The validity of the

no complexity, but this technique is not used currently as it is not developed probabilistic model is shown and results are compared

ﬂexible and is based on various approximations. with those obtained from time-series simulation.

An iterative method is a mathematical procedure that generates This approach is not widely used in hybrid system sizing and

approximate solutions for problems. This is a recursive process which not much literature is available on this method. Chedid et al. [27]

stops when the best conﬁguration is reached as per speciﬁcations. In used trade-off/risk method and presented a decision support

hybrid renewable energy research, iterative approach is used from technique to study the design of a hybrid solar–wind power

beginning to design and optimize. Yang et al. [17] proposed a Hybrid system for grid-connected applications based on simultaneous

Solar–Wind System Optimization (HSWSO) model, using iterative maximization of reliability and minimization of cost. Gavanidou

optimization technique. For power reliability and system cost, authors and Bakirtzis [28] applied the method in the design of a standa-

considered LPSP and Levelized Cost of Energy model with parameters lone system. The outcome of the method is not a unique “optimal”

like capacity of PV system, rated power of wind system, and capacity design, but a small set of robust designs and the ﬁnal decision is

of the battery bank. An iterative optimization method was used by left to the decision makers. The main disadvantage of this

Kellogg et al. [18,19] to optimize the wind turbine size and number of approach is that emission control, which has a major inﬂuence

PV modules. Diaf et al. [20] used a methodology to perform optimal on the ﬁnal trade-off curve, is not taken into account.

sizing of an autonomous hybrid PV–wind system among a set of

systems components, which meets the desired system reliability 3.1.5. Linear programming technique

requirements and lowest levelized cost of energy. The linear programming method was ﬁrst developed by Leonid

Prasad and Natarajan [21] used an iterative technique to determine Kantorovich in 1939 and is a widely used technique for sizing and

the optimum size of solar panels, wind turbines and capacity of optimization of renewable systems. Chedid and Rehman [29]

batteries of a hybrid system based on deﬁciency of power supply proposed an optimal design of wind–solar hybrid system using this

probability (DPSP), relative excess power generated (REPG), unutilized technique to minimize the cost of electricity while meeting the load

energy probability (UEP), life cycle cost (LEC), levelized energy cost requirements in a reliable manner along with considering

S. Sinha, S.S. Chandel / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015) 755–769 763

environmental factors. Huneke et al. [30] used linear programming global optimum of the problem, cannot assure constant optimiza-

to obtain optimal conﬁguration for a solar–wind–battery–diesel tion response times etc. A number of researches have used the

based power generator combination for two real off-grid energy application of GA for the optimal design and operation of PV–wind

systems in India and Colombia. The optimization results for both based hybrid energy systems.

studies show the feasible combination of PV–battery and diesel An optimal sizing of standalone PV–wind systems is proposed

generator. Nogueira et al. [31] used the methodology for sizing and by Koutroulis et al. [37] using GA to select the optimal number of

simulation of a PV–wind–battery hybrid energy system and linear units with minimum cost, subject to load demand fulﬁllment. In

programming with minimum cost and high reliability. Lee et al. [32] another study Koutroulis et al. [38] presented a GA based optimal

formulated a Linear programming based new optimization model sizing of desalination systems by PV–wind generators as a power-

for hybrid power systems considering various power losses and supplied unit. Yang et al. [39–40] used GA to optimize the

studied three case studies. The main focus was not on minimizing conﬁgurations of hybrid solar–wind–battery bank system where

the total cost of the system but on minimizing the outsourced the decision variables are the number of PV modules, wind

electricity supply and electricity storage capacity. Saif et al. [33] turbines and batteries, the PV slope angle and wind turbine tower

formulated a problem of a PV–wind–diesel–battery hybrid power height. This method was proposed for a hybrid system which

system as a Linear Programming model with two objectives: supplies power for a telecommunication relay station. Bilal et al.

minimizing total cost and minimizing total CO2 emissions, while [41] proposed an optimized sizing of a hybrid solar–wind–battery

capping the Expected Unserved Energy (EUE). Nagabhushana et al. system through multi-objective genetic algorithm satisfying two

[34] used LP to calculate the sizes of the components of a PV–wind principle aims of annualized cost minimization and minimization

hybrid renewable energy system for three locations in Karnataka. of the loss of power supply probability (LPSP). Nafeh [42] used GA

Among all the techniques discussed above, linear programming to yield optimum PV wind, and battery ratings with minimum cost

technique is found to be best than other approaches as it improves the and power reliability. Abdullrahman and Addoweesh [43] pro-

quality of decision. Also linear programming technique is more ﬂexible posed a methodology of optimum sizing of a PV–wind–diesel–

than other methods and a wide range of problems can be solved easily. battery hybrid system using GA including the effect of wind

Comparison of various traditional hybrid system optimization turbine parameters such as rated speed and rated power. The

techniques are summarized in Table 4. decision variables included in the optimization process are the PV

array capacity, wind turbine number, battery bank number and

diesel generator rated power. Atia and Yamada [44] adopted a two

3.2. New generation approach for optimization

layer (main and secondary) genetic algorithm coupled with a local

optimizer known as a Hybrid Genetic Algorithm (HGA) and used in

This approach is widely used now-a-days in renewable energy

designing and controlling of PV–wind–diesel systems. Authors

research to solve optimization and design problems. These are not

also found that the HGA is more powerful algorithm than the

restricted to local optimum conﬁguration but also to determine

conventional GA. Merei et al. [45] used GA to optimize PV–wind–

global optimum system conﬁguration with relative computational

diesel–battery hybrid system with three different battery technol-

simplicity as compared to traditional optimization methods.

ogies. A controlled elitist genetic algorithm has been applied by

Abbes et al. [46] to perform a multi-objective design of PV–wind–

3.2.1. Genetic Algorithm battery hybrid system in order to ﬁnd the best compromise

Genetic Algorithm (GA) is a search process that mimics the between three objectives: life cycle cost (LCC), system embodied

process of natural selection and was developed by John Holland in energy (EE) and loss of power supply probability (LPSP). Shi et al.

1960–1970 period [35,36].GA generates solutions to optimization [47] used multi-objective genetic algorithm to study techno-

problems using techniques inspired by natural evolution such as economical performance of the PV–wind hybrid energy system

inheritance, mutation, selection, and crossover. GA has several and optimized three objectives e.g. total system cost, autonomy

advantages: it can solve problems with multiple solutions, easy to level, and wasted energy rate with the PV array peak power, the

understand and can easily be transferred to existing simulations wind generator rated power and the rated capacitor of the battery

and models etc. It has some limitations like a tendency to converge as decisive variables. Mostoﬁ and Shayeghi [48] used GA to solve

towards local optima or even arbitrary points rather than the the optimization problem of a PV–wind–hydro–fuel cell hybrid

Table 4

Comparison of various traditional approaches used for PV–wind based hybrid system optimization.

Graphical Presents graphical solution of Easy to understand and use Some important factors (like tilt angle of PV, [15–16]

construction optimization problem wind turbine hub height) are completely

technique neglected in this technique

Iterative approach It is a recursive process which stops Easy to understand; Tracks defects at early Each phase of iteration is rigid with no overlaps [17–23]

when the best conﬁguration is stages

reached as per design speciﬁcations

Probabilistic Based on the effects of random Easy to understand and use It cannot represent the dynamic changing [24–26]

approach variability of upon the performance performance of the hybrid system

of an system

Trade-off method Based on a situation that involves Easy to understand Not much used in renewable energy [27–28]

losing one quality or aspect of applications

something in return for gaining

another quality or aspect

Linear programming Based on a mathematical model Best suitable for solving complex problems; Linearity in relation of variables; assumptions [29–34]

represented by linear relationships simple to use; more ﬂexible than any other of linear programming are also unrealistic:

methods; a wide range of problems can be there is a change in relation between input,

solved easily output gain, loss etc.

764 S. Sinha, S.S. Chandel / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015) 755–769

system and compared results with HOMER software and con- more favorable than the other PSO variants and PV–battery based

cluded that GA has better accuracy than HOMER. Shadmand and hybrid systems are suitable for most areas of the country due to

Balog [49] presented Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) the good solar radiation availability and low windy nature.

to determine the PV–wind hybrid system design, optimized by

considering multiple criteria including size, cost, and availability.

3.2.3. Simulated annealing (SA)

Tégani et al. [50] used GA for optimal sizing of PV–wind hybrid

Simulated annealing, which mimics material annealing proces-

system with a lifespan of 20 years. Multi-Objectives Genetic

sing, was developed by Kirkpatrick, Gelatt and Vecchi in 1983 [63].

Algorithm approach is also used by Bilal et al. [51] to design and

It is a trajectory based random search technique for global

optimize a stand-alone hybrid PV/wind/diesel/battery system

optimization. The main advantage of simulated annealing is its

minimizing the LCE and the CO2 emission for Senegal.

ability to avoid being trapped in local minima. Simulated anneal-

ing is a robust and versatile technique which can deal with highly

nonlinear models, chaotic and noisy data and many constraints.

3.2.2. Particle swarm optimization (PSO)

The main weakness of SA is that the quality of the outcome may be

Particle swarm optimization was developed by Kennedy and

poor. Till now little literature has been reported using SA in this

Eberhart [52,53] based on the research of bird and ﬁsh movement

ﬁeld. Ekren and Ekren [64] used simulated annealing (SA) algo-

behavior. The advantages of PSO are: speed of the researching is

rithm for optimizing size of a PV–wind–battery hybrid energy

very fast; calculation in PSO is simple as compared to other

system to minimize total cost. The decision variables are PV size,

methods and can be completed easily. Limitations of this optimi-

wind turbine rotor swept area and the battery capacity used by the

zation algorithm are that it cannot work out the problems of non-

authors and found that SA algorithm gives better result than the

coordinate system, easily suffers from the partial optimism etc.

Response Surface Methodology (RSM).

The use of the method in the PV–wind hybrid system is just

beginning and few literatures are reported till now.

Basir and Sadeh [54] have taken a combination of wind, 3.2.4. Other new generation approaches

photovoltaic and tidal energy with battery source and used PSO Several artiﬁcial intelligence based/metaheuristic/heuristic/

to determine the capacity of hybrid system. The Equivalent Loss nature inspired clever algorithms are formulated and used in

Factor (ELF) has been used as an index to evaluate the system recent years. Some of the techniques which are used in PV–wind

reliability level. The paper also compared hybrid wind, solar and hybrid system studies are discussed in this sub section.

battery combination with wind, solar, tidal and battery combina- Ant colony algorithms [65–66] were initially proposed by

tion and found the second combination as more economical. Lee Marco Dorigo in 1992 in his PhD thesis. The algorithm was aiming

and Chen [55] used an evolutionary PSO algorithm to solve wind– to search for an optimal path in a graph, based on the behavior of

photovoltaic capacity coordination with the aim of maximizing the ants seeking a path between their colony and a source of food.

beneﬁt–cost ratio. Kaviani et al. [56] optimized a hybrid wind– A small renewable hydroelectric, wind and solar resources

photovoltaic–fuel cell generation system over its 20 years of based on hybrid hydrogen storage in the northwestern region of

operation with PSO. The aim was to minimize the annual cost of Iran (Ardebil Province) is studied by Menshsari et al. [67]. In this

the hybrid system subject to reliable supply to meet load demand. paper ant colony algorithm is used by authors for improving the

Bansal et al. [57] used Meta Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO) technical and economic performance of the hybrid system. Xu

to solve the PV–wind–battery hybrid system optimization pro- et al. [68] proposed a speciﬁc graph-based ant system to minimize

blem. Using this improved PSO technique local minimum trap can the total capital cost, subject to the constraint of the LPSP for sizing

be avoided thus proving it as an effective technique. Sharaﬁ and of standalone hybrid wind/PV power systems.

ELMekkawy [58] studied PSO simulation based approach to tackle Bacterial Foraging Algorithm (BFO) [69] is inspired by the group

the multi-objective optimization problem for a hybrid system foraging behavior of bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Myx-

consisting of wind turbine, photovoltaic panels, diesel generator, ococcus xanthus. It is the chemo taxis behavior of bacteria that will

batteries, fuel cell, electrolyzer and hydrogen tank. Pirhaghshe- perceive chemical gradients in the environment and move toward

nasvali and Asaei [59] proposed a standalone PV–wind–diesel– or away from speciﬁc signals. Bazyar [70] used Bacterial Foraging

battery based hybrid system for Kerman, Iran and used PSO to Algorithm (BFA) for an optimal design of integrated wind–PV–

obtain the optimal sizes for wind turbine, PV system, battery diesel–battery system for supply of power demand in remote and

banks and the diesel generator. Borhanazad et al. [60] used Multi- rural areas of Ardebil, Iran. Result shows that hybrid wind–PV–

Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) in order to obtain diesel–battery is suitable from economical point of view.

the best conﬁguration of the PV–wind–diesel–battery based Artiﬁcial bee colony algorithm (ABC) is an optimization algo-

hybrid system for three stations in Iran namely Nahavand, Raf- rithm based on the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bee

sanjan, and Khash. Maleki and Askarzadeh [61] used four heuristic swarm, proposed by Karaboga and Basturk [71,72]. In ABC, the

algorithms namely, particle swarm optimization (PSO), tabu search position of a food source represents a possible solution to the

(TS), simulated annealing (SA), and harmony search (HS) for optimization problem and the nectar amount of a food source

optimum sizing of a cost-effective PV–wind–fuel cell and PV– corresponds to the quality (ﬁtness) of the associated solution.

wind–battery based hybrid systems. The results show that PSO is Nasiraghdam and Jadid [73] presented a novel multi-objective

more robust and promising than other three algorithms used by artiﬁcial bee colony algorithm to solve the distribution system

authors. A study to determine the optimum dimensions of hybrid reconﬁguration and hybrid (photovoltaic–wind turbine–fuel cell)

photovoltaic systems, wind power, and storage battery bank has energy system sizing. This article also found total power loss, the

been carried out by Maleki et al. [62] in the remote regions of the total electrical energy cost, and the total emission produced by hybrid

South, North-West and North-East of Iran. Authors studied the energy system and grid minimization and the voltage stability index

performance of ﬁve different PSO variants and three more algo- (VSI) of distribution system maximization. To optimally size a hybrid

rithms namely tabu search, simulated annealing and harmony energy system based on PV–wind–fuel cell for Rafsanjan, Iran, an

search (HS). PSO, modiﬁed PSO (MPSO), PSO based on repulsion efﬁcient artiﬁcial bee swarm optimization (ABSO) algorithm is pro-

factor (PSO-RF), PSO with constriction factor (PSO-CF), and PSO posed by Maleki and Askarzadeh [74]. Simulation results shows that

with adaptive inertia weight (PSO-W) these are the variants used PV–wind–fuel cell is the most cost-effective hybrid system and wind–

in the study. It has been concluded by the authors that PSO-CF is fuel cell and PV–fuel cell systems are in the other ranks. Tudu et al.

S. Sinha, S.S. Chandel / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015) 755–769 765

[75] studied the optimal sizing combinations of solar–wind–hydro– colonies and imperialists that all together form some empires.

fuel cell based hybrid systems for catering the load of a remote village Imperialistic competition among these empires forms the basis of

of Kerala, India using bee algorithm. Results show that the combina- ICA. During this competition, weak empires collapse and powerful

tion of hydro–wind–fuel cell is the most feasible hybrid energy system ones take possession of their colonies.

in relation to the net present cost for the study location. Maleki and Gharavi et al. [88] determines the optimal sizes of autonomous

Pourfayaz [76] evaluated the performance of different evolutionary and non-autonomous PV–wind–electrolyzer–fuel cell based hybrid

algorithms for optimum sizing of a PV–wind–battery based hybrid system with considerations for economics, reliability indices, and

system which can continuously satisfy a particular load demand with environmental emissions. Authors used fuzzy logic for multi-

minimal total annual cost. Total seven heuristic algorithms, namely, objective problem solving and ICA for optimization purposes. Ranjbar

particle swarm optimization, tabu search, simulated annealing, and Kouhi [89] used GA, PSO and ICA to minimize total cost of PV–

improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO), improved harmony wind–fuel cell based hybrid system and also studied impact of tariff

search (IHS), improved harmony search-based simulated annealing change on the optimal cost of operation for Kerman province, Iran.

(IHSBSA), and artiﬁcial bee swarm optimization (ABSO), are applied to The study deals with three different cases where thermal and

the proposed system and the results are compared in terms of total electrical loads are used. Results show that hybrid systems with

annual cost. Authors found that ABSO shows more promising results multiple source units perform better than single source unit and the

than other six algorithm used. entire algorithms have nearly same results.

Bio-geography is the science of studying the behavior of species Tabu Search [90] originally proposed by Glover, which is an

in nature against time and space and species immigration and iterative procedure that starts from a random initial solution and tries

emigration between habitats, which is a probable solution of the to ﬁnd a better solution escaping local optima. TS used in PV–wind

problem. Biogeography-based optimization (BBO) [77] optimizes a hybrid system studies which is discussed in this paper [61–62,76,91].

problem by maintaining a population of candidate solutions, and

creating new candidate solutions by combining existing ones

according to a simple formula. BBO belongs to the class of 3.2.5. Hybrid algorithm optimization techniques

metaheuristics since it includes many variations, and since it does The hybrid algorithms are developed using advantages and

not make any assumptions about the problem and can therefore disadvantages of two or more optimization methods. The research

be applied to a wide class of problems. Kumar et al. [78] used BBO in this area has dramatically grown up recently.

algorithm to solve the sizing problem of the hybrid PV–wind– Katsigiannis et al. [91] used simulated annealing (SA) and Tabu

diesel–battery system by considering economical and reliability Search (TS), for the solution of autonomous hybrid power system’s

constraints of the system to supply in the area of Jaipur, Rajasthan optimal sizing problem. In the study minimization of cost of energy is

(India). Authors also made a comparison between HOMER soft- the main aim and the design variables are: wind turbines size,

ware, BBO, GA, PSO, comprehensive learning particle swarm photovoltaic system size, diesel generator size, biodiesel generator

optimization (CLPSO) [79] and ensemble of mutation and cross- size, fuel cells size, batteries size, converter size, and dispatch strategy.

over strategies and parameters in DE (EPSDE) algorithm [80] and Authors suggested that in compared to the solutions provided by

shown that BBO algorithm is more rapid and give minimum cost individual SA or TS methods, hybrid SA-TS improved the obtained

as compared to others. Optimal design of a PV–wind–diesel– solutions, in terms of quality and convergence.

battery system is accomplished through BBO for Jaipur, India by Askarzadeh [92] presented an optimum design to determine

Gupta et al [81]. For wind speed and solar radiation forecasting the number of PV panels, wind turbines and batteries so that the

Back propagation trained Artiﬁcial Neural Network (BPANN) based total annual cost of the hybrid system subject to some constraints

time-series forecasting methods are implemented by authors and is minimized. Three algorithms are merged namely: chaotic search

concluded that use of forecast data has high inﬂuence on optimal (CS), harmony search (HS) and SA to develop a novel discrete

sizing algorithm performance. chaotic harmony search-based simulated annealing algorithm

Geem et al. [82] proposed Harmony Search (HS) algorithm, (DCHSSA). Tutkun [93] investigated a power management for

which is inspired by the improvisation process of jazz musicians. off-grid PV–wind hybrid system using GA and SVM (Support

Optimal sizing of different generation systems (PV–wind–diesel– Vector Machine). In this article binary coded genetic algorithm is

battery, wind–diesel–battery, PV–diesel–battery, and diesel alone) used to minimize the operation cost of this hybrid system and for

are studied by Maleki and Askarzadeh [83] and found that wind– power scheduling the SVM regression method. Khatib et al. [94]

diesel–battery is the most cost-effective system for the study area studied an optimization of hybrid PV–wind system based on loss

Rafsanjani, Iran. Authors used discrete version of harmony search of load probability (LLP) and system cost using hybrid iterative/

(DHS) and discrete simulated annealing (DSA) for the analysis, and genetic algorithm. Authors used the algorithm in two parts ﬁrstly a

found that DHS performs better than DSA. set of possible conﬁgurations for the proposed system is deter-

Rashedi et al. [84,85] proposed gravitational search algorithm mined by using the iterative part, while in second part the genetic

(GSA) based on Newton’s law of gravitation and the second law of algorithm is applied to ﬁnd the optimum conﬁguration. Dehghan

motion and superior than the traditional intelligent optimization et al. [95] hybridized PSO and HS algorithm to ﬁnd optimal sizing

algorithms according to optimization precision and convergence of a hybrid PV–wind plant which can supply the electric load

speed. Wu et al. [86] proposed an enhanced gravitational search demand in a reliable manner and minimum costs. Zhou and Sun

algorithm (EGSA) to optimize the unit output and cost for large- [96] proposed an improved Simulated Annealing Particle Swarm

scale wind–PV–battery storage power generation in Zhangbei, Optimization (SAPSO) algorithm to optimize a wind–solar–bat-

China. Also to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed tery–super capacitor based hybrid system. Basic objective of this

algorithm, a comparative analysis among EGSA, ANN and PSO work is to minimize one-time investment and operation costs

were applied which shows that the unit cost of power generation where the constraints are utilization rate and reliability of power

obtained using EGSA is lower than the unit cost of power supply. Authors also compared the proposed SAPSO algorithm

generation obtained using PSO and ANN. with traditional PSO algorithm and the result shows that new

Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA) is mainly inspired by algorithm is faster than the traditional one and effectiveness of the

imperialistic competition which is developed in 2007 by Atashpaz- new hybrid algorithm is shown. Abdelhak et al. [97] proposed an

Gargari and Lucas [87]. ICA starts with an initial population. optimum sizing methodology for PV–wind–battery hybrid system

Population individuals called countries are divided into two types: by using Fuzzy-Adaptive Genetic Algorithm. This Algorithm is used

766 S. Sinha, S.S. Chandel / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015) 755–769

Table 5

Comparison of new generation optimization techniques for PV–wind hybrid systems.

Genetic Mimics process of natural evolution, like Can solve problems with multiple solutions; Convergence speed is slower than other [35–51]

Algorithm inheritance, mutation, selection, and easily transferable to existing simulations and stochastic algorithms; cannot assure

crossover models constant optimization response times etc.

Solve problems with multiple solutions;

available in MATLAB toolbox

Particle swarm Mimics bird and ﬁsh movement behavior Cannot work out the problems of non-

Speed of the researching is fast; calculation in [52–62],

optimization PSO is simple in comparison to other coordinate system; easily suffers from the [76]

methods; can be completed easily partial optimism etc.

Simulated Mimics an analogy between the way in Can deal with highly nonlinear models, There is a clear tradeoff between the quality [61–

annealing which a metal cools and freezes into a chaotic and noisy data and many constraints; of the solutions and the time required to 64,76]

minimum energy crystalline structure (the robust and general technique; ﬂexible with compute; tailoring work is required to

annealing process) ability to approach global optimality; quite account for different classes of constraints

Fine-tuning of parameters of the algorithm

versatile as it does not rely on any restrictive

properties of the model can be rather delicate; signiﬁcant effect

upon the quality of the outcome

Ant algorithms Inspired by the pheromone-based strategy of Algorithm has the strength in both local and Random initialization; algorithm has several [65–68]

ants foraging in nature; foraging behavior of global searches; implemented with several parameters; parameters need to be tuned;

ants is based on ﬁnding the shortest path optimization problems probabilistic approach in the local search

between source and their nests

Bee-inspired Based on the intelligent foraging behavior of Algorithm has local search and global search Random initialization; algorithm has several [69–81],

algorithms honey bee ability; implemented with several parameters

optimization problems; easy to use; available

for hybridization combination with other

algorithms

Harmony Based on improvisation process of jazz Does not require differential gradients, thus it Complex solving process [61–62],

search musicians can consider discontinuous functions as well [76,82–

as continuous functions; can handle discrete 83]

variables as well as continuous variables;

does not require initial value setting for the

variables; free from divergence; ability to

perform global and local search

Biogeography- Biogeography is the science of studying the Fast computation time; good convergence Poor in exploiting the solutions; no provision [77–81],

based behavior of species in nature against time accuracy for selecting the best members from each

optimization and space and species immigration and generation; sometimes many infeasible

(BBO) emigration between habitats, which is a solutions are generated

probable solution of the problem

Gravitational Based on Newton’s law of gravitation and the Good calculation accuracy; fast convergence Suffering from premature convergence [84–86]

search second law of motion speed problem sometime

algorithm GSA obtains

the optimal solution when particles attract

one another and bond

together to become a large entity

Imperialist The ICA based on a socio-politically inspired High convergence accuracy, appropriate for Complex process [87–89]

competition optimization strategy optimization of nonlinear hybrid power

algorithm generation system problems with high

dimensions

Tabu search Tabu search is a metaheuristic search Enhances the performance of local search; [61–

method employing local search methods fast computation 62,76,90–

used for mathematical optimization 91]

Hybrid Developed by using two or more algorithms Better accuracy in results; takes less Increased complexity; difﬁcult to code [91–99]

optimization computational time (in some cases); much

techniques more competitive than any individual

method

to obtain the optimal number of photovoltaic panels, wind although it suffers from some shortcomings. Table 5 shows a

turbines and storages units ensuring the minimum cost and full summary of the discussed new generation optimization techniques.

availability of energy to meet load requirements. Authors con-

cludes that fuzzy-adaptive GA is better than standard GA after

comparing results of analysis using these two techniques. Mukh-

taruddin et al. [98] used a hybrid Iterative-Pareto-Fuzzy (IPF) 4. Discussion

technique to obtain the best compromised solution between PV–

wind–battery hybrid system that yields minimum cost and max- Concise sizing methodologies for PV–wind based hybrid sys-

imum reliability in a study location of Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. tems including various requirements, criteria conditions and

Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) optimization approach, a execution process with mathematical models of PV system, wind

procedure based on both Multi Objective Genetic Algorithm generator and battery bank are presented in this review. Various

(MOGA) and Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) is proposed optimization techniques have been utilized by researchers to

by Alsayed et al. [99] for optimal design of grid connected design hybrid renewable energy systems which are also included

photovoltaic–wind hybrid system. in this study. Optimization problems of sustainable energy systems

Among all the discussed new generation algorithms in this section, become more and more complex, especially when more number of

GA is found to be mostly used in PV–wind hybrid system sizing renewable sources, are integrated together.

S. Sinha, S.S. Chandel / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015) 755–769 767

Table 6

Various techniques used in PV–wind based hybrid system studies during 1996–

2015.

Iterative approach 7 1996–

2007

Probabilistic method 3 1996–

2006

Trade off approach 2 1992–1998

Linear Programming 6 1997–2014

Genetic algorithm 15 2006–

2015

Particle swarm optimization 11 2007–2015

Simulated annealing 4 2010–2015

Bee based algorithms 4 2011–2015

Fig. 5. Trend in the use of hybrid algorithms in PV–wind based hybrid system

Ant based algorithms 2 2006–

2013 research 2009–2015.

Bio geography based optimization 2 2013–2015

Gravitational search algorithm 1 2015

Tabu search 4 2014–2015 with other nature inspired techniques which are used in different

Harmony search 4 2014–2015 optimization studies, also seem promising to enrich the future

Imperialist competition algorithm 2 2015

research in renewable energy based hybrid energy system opti-

Hybrid algorithms 9 2009–

2015 mization studies [104,105].

categories e.g. traditional and new generation methods. Tradi-

tional approaches follows a rigorous procedure and also have This article presents an update literature review of sixteen

some drawbacks like rigid iterations, less ﬂexibility, slow conver- types of optimization techniques including hybrid algorithms used

gence speed, needs more computation time, cannot deal with in PV–wind based hybrid energy system research and develop-

dynamic changing etc. On the other hand new generation ment along with PV–wind based hybrid system sizing methodol-

approaches are faster, ﬂexible than traditional approaches with ogy. It is found that different optimization methods used have

good convergence speed and efﬁcient global search solutions. Both different convergence speed, accuracy level; performance efﬁ-

types of optimization methods are explained with their strengths- ciency and computation speed so selection of suitable approach

weaknesses in tabular form for better understanding. may change with user requirements, type of applications etc. None

The trend shows that new generation algorithms (evolution- of the individual methods could perform better than all the other

ary-heuristic–met heuristic) are much more widely accepted and methods on all kinds of problems. However, new generation

used in literature during last ﬁve years. The trend of number of optimization approaches like artiﬁcial intelligence based, heuristic

papers published using various techniques during period 1996– approaches are found to be more acceptable than traditional

2015 are shown in Table 6. approaches because of their ability to search local and global

Table 6 shows that old techniques like graphical construction optima, good calculation accuracy and fast convergence speed. The

method, iterative method, probabilistic method and trade off hybrid optimization techniques (using two or more optimization

approach were used almost a decade ago. Now-a-days these techniques together) are found best than single optimization

techniques are almost not used by researchers due to their draw- methods. The nature inspired optimization techniques and hybrid

backs. However, in recent years, researchers are mostly using optimization techniques will be important for further exploration

artiﬁcial intelligence (AI) based, nature inspired heuristic–met in future research to face complexity and challenges of PV–wind

heuristic algorithms like TS, GA, SA, HS, BBO, ACO, GCA, ICA etc. based hybrid systems.

for PV–wind based hybrid system optimization studies. Out of

these GA is mostly used AI technique than others.

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