You are on page 1of 37

15-QMP-001-F2 R1

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03


Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 1 of 37
System.

Design Guide for

Fire and Gas System

Classification : Discipline Standard

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 2 of 37
System.
15-QMP-001-F2-R1

0 24 Nov. 2008 Issued for Implementation DB ALB DM


WORD

REV. DATE DESCRIPTION PREP’D CHK’D APP’D

Reviewed:

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
Section Description
No

1. Purpose 3

2. Scope 3

3. List of Abbreviations 3

4. F&G System – General 4

5. Applicable Codes and Standards 5

6. Field Devices 5

7. Fire and Gas Control System 21

8. Development of F&G Layouts 23

9 Development of Fusible Plug Layouts 33

10. Development of F&G Cause and Effect 34


Diagrams

11. Development of Mimics 35

12. Development of System Graphics 36

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 3 of 37
System.

1 Purpose
The purpose of this document is to provide general guidelines for the selection of
equipment and design of a complete Fire and Gas (F & G) system including the
design criteria for development of related layouts like F & G layouts and fusible plug
layouts.

2 Scope
This document covers installations including Refineries, Oil and gas, Petrochemicals
etc.

3 List of Abbreviations

API - AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE


ANSI - AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE
ESD - EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN
ETDR - ELECTRICAL TIME DOMAIN REFLECTROMETRY
F&G - FIRE AND GAS
GAD - GENERAL ARRANGEMENT DRAWING
HSE - HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT
HVAC - HEATING, VENTILATION AND AIRCONDITIOING
IP - INGRESS PROTECTION
IR - INFRA- RED
ISA - THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF AUTOMATION
LEL - LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT
NFPA - NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION.
RP - RECOMMENDED PRACTICE
STEL - SHORT TERM EXPOSURE LIMITS
TLV - TRESHOLD LIMIT VALUES
UV - ULTRAVIOLET
VESDA - VERY EARLY SMOKE DETECTION AND ALARM

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 4 of 37
System.

4 F&G System - General


The F & G system is vital for the safety of any plant. The primary objective of the
system is to provide an early warning to personnel of potentially dangerous situations
in terms of flammable atmospheres or fires and to enable automatic initiation of
remedial actions to avoid/ minimize escalation of events e.g. initiate relevant
shutdown, release extinguishing agent etc.
The design of the fire detection / protection systems is generally based on the
assumption that only one major incident occurs at any one time. To prevent incidents
from escalating beyond the capacity of the extinguishing systems, the installations
are as far as possible segregated into fire zones.

It can be broadly divided into three heads:


- Fire and gas detection system
- Fire and gas control system
- Fire protection system

4.1 F & G Detection System:


The following means of detection are generally used:

HAZARD TYPE DETECTOR TYPE


Fire (Flame) IR Flame, UV flame, UV/IR flame
Fire (Heat) Rate of rise/ Fixed temperature,
Pneumatic Fusible plug, pneumatic
Rilsan loops
Fire (Smoke) Ionisation/ optical beam
Leak (flammable gas) IR point, catalytic,IR beam
Leak (Toxic gas) Electrochemicalcell,
Semiconductor,IR(aspirating mode)
Leak (liquid) Raychem , ETDR, OTDR

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 5 of 37
System.

Leak (hydrocarbon vapour) Oil mist

4.2 F & G Detection Control System


The F & G control system is generally designed as a “STAND –ALONE FAIL SAFE”
system .The F & G system receives signals from both fire and gas detectors, manual

call points, ESD pushbuttons etc, performs voting logic as required, generates
appropriate ESD levels, performs logic for the activation of fire extinguishing/ fire
fighting systems, provides appropriate signals for audio-visual annunciation etc.

4.3 Fire Protection System


The fire protection system ensures that an acceptable level of safety is achieved in
order to protect the personnel, the installation and the environment against fire and
explosion hazards and prevent / minimise production losses. It is usually provided by
one or a combination of the following systems / equipment:

- Fire water
- Foam
- Water mist
- Extinguishing agents like CO2 /FM-200

5.0 Applicable Code and Standards.


The safety system shall be designed in accordance with the following codes and
standards:
- API RP 14C,14F,14G
- ANSI / ISA S 84.01
- IP 15-7-2 “ Protective Systems”
- NFPA 72

6.0 Field Devices


All field devices shall be suitable for the environment in which they are installed, and
shall be protected from the effects of corrosion, dust, vibration and hosing down
operations.

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 6 of 37
System.

6.1 Fire Detectors


Three main conditions exist, to which fire detectors can respond:
- Smoke
- Flame
- Heat
Depending on the area monitored by the detectors, they can be classified as follows:

- Spot or detection at a single point


- Space or detection within an envelope
- Beam or detection along a narrow beam
Also depending on the fuel being burnt, the type of burning which occurs and the
conditions surrounding the fire, the fire will exhibit different characteristics.

Selection of fire detectors should therefore be carried out based on the following
criteria:
- Type of combustibles and their location(ex: Hydrocarbons in process areas)
- Rate of propagation of fire
- Response time and reliability of detectors
- Which type of fire characteristic can be detected most readily (ex. Smoke in
case of smoldering fires, radiation from flaming fires etc.)
- Layout of protected area, its configuration and accessibility
- Type of air handling equipment
- Protection systems employed in that area
- Manning and maintenance levels
- Commonality of detectors
- Detector sensitivity to non-fire phenomena like UV radiation from welding,
black body radiation, diesel exhaust fume etc.

6.1.1 Smoke Detectors


Smoke detectors should be of the point source or optical beam type. Point source
detectors should use an ionization or photo electric arrangement.

The selection depends on the type of fire likely to be encountered and specialist
advice should be sought, if required. While selecting the detector, it must be borne in
mind that smoke detectors are very sensitive and may produce spurious alarms if

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 7 of 37
System.

used in a normally dirty or smoky atmosphere or in open or naturally ventilated areas


where airflow is unpredictable. They may also respond to gas/ steam leaks and
hence their usage must be avoided in areas where such leaks are expected.

Photoelectric smoke detectors operate by sensing a change in the intensity of light


shining on a photoelectric cell inside the sensing chamber. A light emitting diode in

the chamber is arranged so that its light does not normally shine directly on the cell.
When smoke enters the chamber, the smoke particles “‘scatter “or reflect the light
onto the photocell. The intensity of light is sensed by the detector circuitry.

Photoelectric detectors are used to detect particles greater than 0.5 microns and
hence are suitable for use with smoldering fires for ex. These detectors are sensitive
to fires from materials like PVC and hence most effective for detecting fires in
electrical areas.

Beam type smoke detectors are usually specified to cover open roof spaces and can
be used for long corridors.
Smoke detection in ventilation ducts can be achieved either, by means of duct
probes, which direct a sample of air across the point type smoke detector, or, by use
of beam type smoke detectors.

Beam type detectors generally consist of a single transmitter/ receiver and a reflector
to return the optical beam. These devices detect changes in visibility of the order of
0.5 dB.

Ionization type detectors may be considered when scattered light types of detectors
are not suitable for the application. They are most efficient in detecting particles in
the range of 0.01 to 0.1 micron.

Ionization type smoke detectors operate by the principle of sensing a change in the
electrical properties of the air in a chamber that contains a minute quantity of
radioactive material.

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 8 of 37
System.

Emissions from this material ionize the air in the chamber rendering it conductive and
permitting a small current to flow through the air between two plates in the chamber.
Smoke products entering the chamber impede the flow of this ionization current. The
change in current is sensed by the detector’s circuitry

Ionization types of detectors are sensitive to fully developed fires, which release fine
aerosols, mists and exhaust fumes and hence must be avoided in areas where these
are likely to be present.

The strength of radioactive sources in ionization type detectors should be less than 1
micro curie. Ionization type detectors should be applied only in combination with heat
detectors for the detection of smoldering fires in building.

The use of smoke detectors should be restricted to confined areas where products of
combustion can be reliably detected, as in electrical switch gear rooms, control
rooms, offices, cabins, corridors, storage rooms and sleeping accommodation areas,
air re-circulation ducts and floor and ceiling voids.

Consideration should be given to using ‘Very Early Smoke Detection Apparatus


(VESDA) – a fast response sample pipe network with a spectral form of optical
smoke detection based on smoke particle tight scattering where early warning of a
fire incident is required e.g. electronic data processing areas, unmanned instrument
equipment rooms.

This type is particularly sensitive to incipient and smoldering fires, which develop
relatively large smoke particles.

Ultra-sensitivity smoke detectors are used for the rapid detection of incipient fires in
control buildings, system cabinets, computer rooms and similar. They are usually
configured around an aspirated system.

6.1.2 Heat Detector


Heat detectors should be of the fixed temperature, rate compensated type. These
operate by sensing the temperature of the surrounding air.

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 9 of 37
System.

Heat detectors in general should be used in those areas considered unsuitable for
smoke detectors or where they offer a better response to the type of fire anticipated.
e.g. galley, laundry and turbine/ generator enclosure. Heat detectors should be

applied for the detection of fires, which are expected to build up quickly and generate
much heat. They generally have a low spurious alarm rate, but are slow in detecting
fires. They may also be applied as a back-up for fire detectors in, for example, gas
turbine enclosures

Heat detectors recommended for use in hostile environments (e.g. fire pump rooms,
generator rooms, gas turbine hoods, etc.) are the bimetallic type commonly known
as Rate compensated heat detectors. These utilize bimetal detection elements and
are very robust in construction.

Linear heat detectors may be used as an alternative to point heat detectors where
there are installation or maintenance benefits. They are particularly useful in
situations where coverage by points detectors is impractical. Typical usage is in
cable trays running in voids and around floating roof tanks and they may also be
considered for plant area coverage. These types of sensors generally find their
application in areas where harsh environmental conditions, limited access and
surveillance preclude the use of other forms of detection.

Linear heat detection sensor cables are generally coaxial copper cables provided
with inner as well as outer insulation and Tinned copper braid for mechanical
protection in the middle of two insulation. These detection cables employ the
principle of change in resistance with the rise in temperature and provide
repeatable values at all temperatures up to the destruction level of the cable. Due
to change in resistance properties of copper metal employed in construction the
same are utilized as Analogue line heat sensor cables.

These cables can be utilized to detect fire signals in areas such as false floor or
wherever large quantities of cables are encountered.

One Fire Detection cable is recommended for every 1M breadth of cables, for
breadths more than 1 meter 2 cables should be utilized.

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 10 of 37
System.

Fire detection cables along with other signal/power cables can be laid straight or in
a zigzag fashion depending on the quantum of cables for which the fire protection
is sought.

These cables require special interfaces for integrating with the control units and
attention is to be paid in the Material Requisitions R’s for their compatibility with
control units being procured.

The design should take account of the fact that fire protection frangible bulbs and
fusible links are an alternative means of heat detection.

Fusible plug loops are based on heat detection. The sensor melting point is 85°C or
120°C when used on equipment susceptible to radiant exposure. Fusible plug loops
are generally Pressurized by instrument air pressure drop through melted fusible
plug is detected by a pressure switch.

Rilsan loops are also pneumatic loops similar in principle of working to the fusible
plug. The sensor melting point is 85°C and they are generally used in cargo tank
roofs.

6.1.3 Infrared Flame Detectors


Every black body emits radiation at frequencies related to its temperature. The
frequencies can consist of some or all of the following:

Visible light, UV, IR.


IR flame detectors detect flame by sensing 4.3 micron infrared radiation

Infrared Flame Detectors should respond to radiation equivalent to the CO 2


absorption band. They should be solar blind and their response to other sources of
radiation should be minimized. Built in test facilities should be provided for checking
the detector on line.
These shall be applied only where fast detection of a hydrocarbon fire, or of other
flammable products with a high hydrocarbon content, is of prime importance. The
design of the detectors is based on the flame-flicker principle, i.e. the detector

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 11 of 37
System.

responds to the flickering of most hydrocarbon fires. They are not suitable for the
detection of smoldering fires. Normally single wavelength IR flame detectors are
used. For multiple fuels, triple band flame detectors are used.

Note: IR type fire detectors have an upper ambient temperature limit of 70 oC.

Point type smoke and heat detectors are not suitable for open areas and fire
detection coverage should be by optical flame fire detectors with IR detectors being
the preferred choice for hydrocarbon areas. Areas covered by optical flame detectors

in certain instances may be supplemented with smoke (beam type) or heat (fusible
loop, linear).

The smoke and heat detection used in combination with optical flame detectors
should be selective in approach and is intended to provide firstly for other control
actions beyond those initiated by the early detection of fire by the flame detectors,
and secondly in certain circumstances to supplement the optical detection. For
example.

a) In well bays the optical detectors are intended for detection of fires at their initial
stages and initiate appropriate alarms and control actions (release of deluge)
without necessarily shutting down the wells. This protection will be inadequate for
sudden large fires due to catastrophic failures, which may threaten the platform
structure itself.

The addition of temperature type detectors (such as fusible loops) is provided to


initiate, say, down hole well shut-off valves.

b) In areas where the fire can result in large quantities of smoke, which can
accumulate or gravitate to predictable locations, beam type smoke detectors
should be used as a supplement to the optical flame detection.

In congested areas it may not be possible to cover a risk area fully with optical
detectors. Linear heat detectors should be used to supplement the optical flame
detection.

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 12 of 37
System.

c) An alternative means of heat detection is the frangible bulb or fusible link used
with fire protection systems.

The infrared (IR) flame detectors should be on separate circuits from the heat or
smoke detectors and independently initiate any controls actions.

6.1.4 Ultra Violet Flame Detectors


UV flame detectors respond to the UV band of the emitted light

Ultraviolet light type detectors are also extremely fast in detecting fire but they should
not be applied in dusty environments or in an environment with airborne oil droplets
or where fires are expected to produce heavy smoke as these may foul the lens,
causing loss of sensitivity. Optical integrity should consist of a UV source mounted
such that the UV radiation path includes the detector lenses .They are also
susceptible to solar reflections, welding arcs and lightning.

UV detectors are typically applied, for fire detection in gas turbines, petrochemical
plants, etc.

6.1.5 Combined Ultra Violet/ Infrared Flame Detectors


The use of these detectors responding to both UV and IR and giving confirmed fire
detection on correct response to both UV and IR radiation will depend on item
suitability to detect the hazard.

Combined detectors responding to both UV and IR should not be used where control
actions are required from confirmed fire detection. Although they claim greater
immunity to false alarms they require response in both parts of the spectrum to give
confirmed fire indication which is by no means certain with many types of fire and
atmospheric conditions.

Where expected fire types within an area are best monitored with a combination of
UV and IR detection the preferred option is to use UV and IR detection as separate
entities with independent control action voting on each type of detection.

Addressable Type Detectors

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 13 of 37
System.

Addressable type analogue fire alarm detectors and manual call points shall be
considered for use in microprocessor based fire alarm systems.

6.2 Gas Detectors

6.2.1 Flammable Gas Detectors


Flammable gas detectors shall be selected from following types:

- Catalytic combustion type


- Infrared absorption type

Catalytic combustion detectors function on the simple principle that a combustible


gas can be oxidized to produce heat, resulting in a temperature change that can be
converted via a standard Wheat stone bridge –type temperature transducer to a
sensor signal.

The measurement of gas concentrations using infrared method is based on the


absorption of IR radiation at certain wavelength as it passes through a volume of
gas.

Devices using this technology have a light source and a light detector and measure
the intensity at two specific wavelengths, one at absorption wavelength and one
outside it. If a gas intervenes between the source and detector, then the intensity of
the light falling on the detector is reduced can be continuously monitored. The gas
concentration is determined from the relative values between the two wavelengths.

When catalytic combustion type detectors are selected, these shall be poisoning
resistant. Use of non-poison resistant sensors requires the approval of the Principal,
who shall be made aware of the restricted lifetime of non-poison resistant sensors.

Infrared type gas detectors have distinct advantages with respect to:

- fast response times;


- poison resistance

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 14 of 37
System.

- maintenance load
- a high degree of fail safety and
- self diagnostic features

Infrared type gas detectors are only responsive to a limited group of hydrocarbons
and may therefore not cover all situations. Beyond that, infrared absorption is the
preferred technology.

These detectors are typically used in HVAC ventilation air intakes, laboratories, air
compressor air intakes, machinery room workshops, gas compressor areas etc.

All gas detectors mounted above 2 meters from grade should be fitted with remote
gassing facilities. Such facilities should preferably not be used in ventilation ducts, as
calibration accuracy can be impaired due to the high air velocities normally
experienced in these ducts.

All gas detectors fitted outside air-conditioned enclosures should be fitted with
wind/rain/hosing type weather protectors to a minimum standard of IP 55.

The concentration of gas indicated by detectors operating on the catalytic oxidation


principle is dependent on the presence of oxygen, the absence of poisons, and the
concentration of the gas components present.

For gas concentrations above the lower explosive limit (LEL), or at levels where
poisoning agents seriously degrade the performance of catalytic sensors, detectors
should be based on alternative principles. IR detectors are suitable but have a
different variation in sensitivity of % LEL detection to catalytic detectors. These
factors must be taken into account.

The recommended flammable gas detectors shall alarm and trip settings are: -
- Alarm – 20 % LEL
- Trip – 60% LEL.

However these are defined for each project based on client’s operational
requirements.

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 15 of 37
System.

The low level alarm setting is chosen as a compromise between optimizing response
time for initial warning of gas build-up and avoidance of nuisance false alarms due to
effects of possible detector zero drift.

The high level alarm setting is chosen to give adequate warning of the gas
concentration rising towards the flammable range whilst maintaining a factor of
safety to account for unforeseen sensitivity changes to the type of gas impinging on
the detector.

On over-range the gas detector should latch in the high-level alarm condition and
default any display/output of fas level to 100% LEL. The detector should only be
reset manually on restoration of normal conditions.

A gas detector sampling system should be considered where the environment at the
point where it is intended to fit a gas detector is unsuitable for reasons of heat dirt,
dampness, high air flow rate, etc. Sample system design should ensure that
unacceptable delays are not introduced in the gas detection response. It is critical
that the overall delay in gas detection does not exceed the time it takes for the air at
the sampling point to reach potential ignition sources within the mechanically
ventilated areas.

The fitting of gas detectors in ventilation ducts should allow the detector and its
cabling to be accessed in the duct for cleaning and calibration.

Open path gas detectors are useful in situations where the gas release has been
dispersed by wind or natural dispersion.

“Open path gas monitors” can be used to monitor a complete area or to monitor the
perimeter of a process unit. These optical-type instruments monitor a given area or
perimeter for the presence of flammable gas, especially in areas where large
numbers of valves and flanges are present (for ex. Production manifold) or to monitor
gas cloud migration from areas susceptible to gas leaks (ie. HP compression areas)

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 16 of 37
System.

For area monitoring, at least two open path instruments shall be applied. For
monitoring a jetty or the border between e.g. an existing operating process unit and a
unit under construction or shutdown, one (1) monitor is normally sufficient.

6.2.2 Toxic Gas Detectors

Release of toxic gases into the atmosphere will generally create a health hazard
rather than an explosive hazard, although ultimately the latter situation may develop,
for example, with carbon monoxide or hydrogen sulphide. Generally the
concentrations at which toxic gases need to be detected are at a far lower level than
is applicable for flammable gas detection.

Flammable gas detectors shall therefore not be used for the detection of toxic gas,
even if the latter coexists with a flammable gas of a different compound e.g. H2S in
combination with a hydrocarbon mixture.

Detectors for toxic gases may be considered in two major categories as follows:

Category 1:

Detectors for gases which create an immediate health hazard (danger to life) e.g.
hydrogen sulphide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen chloride, chlorine
gas. These gases usually have a STEL, which is slightly higher than the TLV.

The following applies for the selection of detectors in category 1:

- Detection shall be reliable and precise


- HSE aspects shall be included in the design study

Category 2:

Detectors for gases, which create a health hazard on long time exposure e.g.
carcinogenic gases, like vinyl chloride, benzene, toluene etc.

The following applies for the selection of detectors in category 2:

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 17 of 37
System.

- Detection shall be reliable and precise


- TLV (threshold limit values for an 8 hour working day) shall be monitored;
- HSE aspects shall be included in the design study
- A logic control system with capabilities such as statistical analysis and a
database to enable collection of long-term exposure data is very important
and should be considered

6.2.3 H2S Gas Detectors


H2S gas detectors shall be selected from the following types:
- The electrochemical cell type
- The semi-conductor type

For the detection of most other toxic gases of category 1, electro-chemical sensors
are most commonly used.

Gases coming into contact with the sensor diffuse through a capillary diffusion barrier
and reacts at the surface of the sensor electrode by either oxidation or reduction A
reference electrode provides an increased gas concentration range and operating
stability reactions are catalyzed by electrodes made of materials specific to the gas
of interest which creates the current flow.

For example ,t he reaction for Cl 2 is Cl 2 + 2H + + 2e - 2 HCL


Similarly, electrochemical sensors used for other toxic gases will produce reactions
based on the gas they are designed to detect.

H2S gas detection can also be done using semiconductor technology.


The metal oxide semiconductor is deposited onto a substrate between two
electrodes. With no gas present, the resistance between the electrode is very high
(Meg ohms). As H2S adsorbs onto the film, the resistance decreases to kilo ohms.
This decrease in resistance is logarithmically proportional to H2S concentration.

Note: CO is sometimes measured with infrared type instruments, but these are then
usually applied in the aspirating mode, requiring a separating compressors, a
sampling system etc.

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 18 of 37
System.

Toxic Gas Detectors should be selected to give the fastest practical response; with
minimal cross sensitivity to other gases expected to be present. Detection systems
should be capable of calibration over the short and long term exposure limits.

Toxic gas detectors should be provided in areas of the installation where personnel
may be subjected to the presence of or an accumulation of toxic gas during their
normal course of duties.

Point source detection elements are preferred. However, the type of toxic gas to be
monitored will limit the choice of suitable equipment and multipoint sample systems
may be the only practical and cost effective route.

Detection systems shall be capable of alarming at the time weighted average


exposure limit (8 hours exposure time) and the short-term exposure limit (10 minute
exposure time).

Where toxins have equal short and long term exposure limits the low level alarm
setting should be set, as a maximum, at 50% of the short term limit.

6.2.4 Oil Mist Detectors


Infrared oil mist detectors may be used in areas where oil mists are liable to occur.

6.3 Liquid leak detection


Liquid leak detection is carried out using Sensing cable, which is coated with a
conductive polymer reactive to hydrocarbons. The presence of hydrocarbons causes
the cable to swell leading to change in its electrical properties and the location of the
leak is pinpointed using locator module

An alternative method in use is also an electrical cable system but this differs in its
principle. It is based on electrical time domain reflectometry. In this the electrical
impedances sent along the line are partially reflected due to the presence of
hydrocarbons so that leak locations can be identified.

A third principle, which is in use, is optical time domain reflectometry, which uses
fibre optics for leak detection. In this, a Laser source is used to generate a short light

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 19 of 37
System.

pulse, which is transmitted down a special glass fibre doped with impurities, and
depending on local temperature variations, the light is scattered back.

6.4 Manual devices


Manual initiation and call points should be totally independent of any circuit
containing automatic fire detectors, and shall initiate a visual and audible warning in
the Central Control Room.

In accommodation areas, consideration should be given to retaining the manual call


point frangible element after breaking.

Addressable type analogue manual call points shall be considered for use in
microprocessor based fire alarm systems.

ESD pushbuttons are used in process area to supplement the detectors. These are
located in easily accessible locations and are used to initiate the relevant ESD level.

Foam monitors with local push button stations are also placed at strategic location in
the process area to manually activate foam-extinguishing systems in case of fire.

6.5 General Audible Alarms

6.5.1 Audible alarms should be provided in all areas of the installation including control
and equipment rooms. The type of alarm (i.e. bell, klaxon, horn) and its operation
should comply with the relevant regulations applicable to the installation. Audible
alarms of different tones shall be considered for fire, gas and in the case of offshore
installations, abandon platform also.

6.5.2 Audible alarms should be automatically initiated by any one fire or gas alarm but
should have means to be manually silenced either locally in discrete areas or
centrally as a total installation area dependent on operational requirements.

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 20 of 37
System.

Audible alarms may be part of the Public Address (PA) system however where areas
are protected by gaseous extinguishant systems, predischarge /discharge sounders
are also required.

The audible alarm should produce a minimum sound pressure level of 105 dB (A)
within the frequency range of 500 to 1000 Hz at a radius of one metre. The audible
alarm shall be rated for continuous use at the output specified above.

6.6 General Visual Alarms

6.6.1 Warning flashing fire alarm beacons should be provided in areas where there is a
high noise level to complement the audible alarms in those areas.

The colour of the transmitted light, power output and operation should be such that it
is clearly visible from all areas it covers and is distinguishable from other warning
alarms provided on the installation.

The visual alarm shall be rated for continuous operation.

Provision may also be required offshore to install platform status lamps to indicate
platform Normal, General Alert, ESD and Abandon Platform status conditions. These
should form part of the PA system with General Alert being initiated from the F&G
confirmed low level gas and ESD being initiated from the ESD system on confirmed
high level gas.

Area Fire alarm, confirmed high level Gas alarm and gaseous extinguishing system
pre-discharge / discharge warning lamps should be as per project philosophy.
Generally confirmed fire warning is through red lamps, confirmed gas is through
yellow and abandon platform is through blue flashing lamps. All these are
accompanied by suitable announcement made over the PA/GA system.

6.6.2 Gas hazard warning lamps should be provided in all accommodation spaces and
working areas and should illuminate whenever a gas hazard is present anywhere on
the installation.

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 21 of 37
System.

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 22 of 37
System.

7.0 Fire and Gas Control System

7.1 Fire Alarm Panels :


Fire alarm panels can either be conventional type using digital electronic circuits or
computer aided microprocessor based analogue addressable type.

The conventional system shall be used with conventional automatic fire alarm
detectors and manual call points and comprise typically of a central fire alarm panel,
zonal fire alarm panels and repeat alarm panels.

Microprocessor based systems shall be used in conjunction with analogue


addressable automatic fire alarm detectors and manual call points and shall
comprise typically of central fire alarm panel, data gathering cum fire alarm panels
and repeat alarm panels (if required).

The fire alarm panels are used for audio-visual annunciation based on the signals
received from the detectors.

7.2 F & G Control


The F & G system is generally a stand–alone unit .The system is designed such that
no single failure shall render the system inoperable .ie. , the system shall be of FAIL-
SAFE type .It is designed as a minimum to be dual redundant (.based on project
requirements, the system may also be configured to be Triple Modular
Redundant).Care must be taken while designing the system to employ appropriate
measures to achieve the desired Safety Integrity Levels(SIL) defined for the project.

The configuration of the system shall be designed so as to give a high degree of


reliability and availability. The asymptotic availability of the whole system including
the I/O modules, CPU, power supplies shall be not less than 99.9%. The system
shall also be designed with the flexibility to be connected with other systems like the
main DCS, mimics (where applicable), fire fighting equipment, PA/GA system etc.

While designing the system, attention shall be paid to the project requirements for
UPS, (back-up time requirements) additional battery back-up requirements, if any
etc.

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 23 of 37
System.

Voting philosophy depends on project specific requirements but generally the


following philosophy is considered:

1) For fire, voting operates on the following principle

i) 1ooN raises alarm

ii) 2ooN (or 1ooN for fusible plug and Rilsan loops)

- raises general fire alarm


- shuts down ventilation and/or close fire dampers where appropriate
- activate automatic extinguishing system where appropriate
- initiate the automatic emergency shutdown at the appropriate ESD level

2) For gas, 20% LEL for point gas detectors will raise alarm while 60% LEL will
initiate shutdown. For beam detectors, alarm at 1LEL.m and shutdown at 2
LEL.m

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 24 of 37
System.

8.0 Devlopement of F&G Layout

The base drawing for the development of F & G layouts are the equipment layouts
generated by piping department. For developing the F & G layouts of closed
buildings, architectural drawings developed by general civil are to be used. For
control rooms etc. the respective room layouts are to be used.

Fire zone layouts developed by safety department are also to be referred.

The number, location and spacing of fire detectors and manual call points shall be in
accordance with NFPA 72 and other relevant codes like IS-2189, TAC etc. Wherever
available, manufacturers’ technical bulletins must also be consulted. General
guidelines are provided below.

8.1 Location of Smoke Detectors


Location of smoke detectors should take into account local air currents, air inlet and
extraction points. Point type smoke detection should not be mounted directly in
ventilation ducts due to the high air velocities encountered.

Open area smoke detectors are intended for mounting on a ceiling not less than
6”from a wall or on a wall not less than 4” nor more than 6” from the ceiling. Where
high ceilings are found, smoke detectors may be installed on side walls or
suspended below ceilings. Sloped ceilings also require special consideration. The
distance between detectors shall be maximum 25 ft.

Smoke detectors should not be installed in areas with excessive exhaust fumes,
kitchen areas, near fireplaces or furnace rooms or within 3 ft of air supply ducts or air
diffusers.

8.2 Location of Heat Detectors


The following factors shall be considered while positioning heat detectors so that
requisite response times are achieved:

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 25 of 37
System.

Height of ceiling and the depth to which the detector projects below the ceiling,
ventilation patterns in the building/room, objects possibly blocking the heat flow to
the detector.

Heat detectors should be located on the ceiling in locations that provide good
thermal paths and protection from damage. For alarm applications, the maximum
spacing between Detectors are 25 ft between centres (coverage of 625 sq.ft per
detector) provided the ceiling is smooth with no obstructions. The distance between
the detector and any wall or partition must not exceed 12.5.ft. For more critical
applications like door release, the distances are reduced to 20 ft between detectors
and not more than 10 ft from the wall.

For uneven ceilings with exposed beams, the spacing should reduce to 2/3 rd of the
above where beam projections are > 4” and < 18” below the ceiling. Where beam
projections are more than 18”, they should be treated as separate bays.

8.3 Location of Flame Detectors

8.3.1 Location of IR Flame Detectors

Detectors should be positioned to provide the best-unobstructed view of the area


to be protected. The following factors should also be taken into consideration:

- Identify all high risk fire ignition sources


-
- Be sure that enough detectors are used to adequately cover the hazardous
area
-
- Locate and position the detector so that the fire hazard(s) are within both the
field of view and detection range of the device
-
- Be sure that the unit is easily accessible for cleaning and other periodic
servicing
- Particular attention should be paid to potential false alarm sources in the
area, such as the rotating blades of a fan or surface vibration of an IR

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 26 of 37
System.

source, since these could allow a flickering IR signal to reach the detector
that can cause an alarm signal

- For outdoor applications, the detector should be aimed downward at least


10 to 20 degrees to prevent it from scanning the horizon. This minimizes
response to distant IR sources outside the protected area

- Dense fog, rain or ice can absorb IR radiation and reduce the sensitivity of
the detector

- Although the IR detector is less affected by smoke than UV detectors, they


should not be placed where rising CO2 and particulates can obscure its
vision. If smoke is expected before fire, smoke or other alternative detectors
should be used in conjunction with the detectors

For indoor applications, if dense smoke is expected to accumulate at the onsetof a


fire, mounting the detector on a side wall a few feet (1 meter) down from the ceiling
will normally allow enough time for the unit to respond before it is affected by rising
smoke.

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 27 of 37
System.

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 28 of 37
System.

8.3.2 Location of UV Flame Detectors


Detectors should be positioned to provide the best unobstructed view of the area
to be protected. The following factors should also be taken into consideration:

- Identify all high risk fire ignition sources


-
- Be sure that enough detectors are used to adequately cover the hazardous
area
-
- Locate and position the detector so that the fire hazard(s) are within both the
field of view and detection range of the device

- Be sure that the unit is easily accessible for cleaning and other periodic
servicing
-
- Particular attention should be paid to potential false alarm sources in the
area

For outdoor applications, the detector should be aimed downward at least 10 to 20


degrees to prevent it from scanning the horizon. This minimizes response to
distant UV sources outside the protected area.

Dense fog, rain or ice will absorb UV radiation and reduce the sensitivity of the
detector.

If smoke is expected before flame, it is recommended that smoke or other


detectors be used in addition to the flame detector.

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 29 of 37
System.

DETECTOR ORIENTATION RELATIVE TO HORIZON

DETECTOR CONE OF VIEW

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 30 of 37
System.

8.3.3 Location of UV / IR Flame Detectors


Detectors should be positioned to provide the best unobstructed view of the area
to be protected. The following factors should also be taken into consideration:

- Locate and position the detector so that the fire hazard(s) are within both the
field of view and detection range of the device.
- Considering the 90 degree cone of vision, use enough detectors to
adequately cover the protected area with overlapping cones of vision.

- For fastest response time, position the detectors as close as possible to the
anticipated fire source.
- Aim the detector with the anticipated fire source as close as possible to the
central axis of the cone of vision.
- Position the detector in a manner that will minimize the buildup of
contaminants on the viewing window. Substances such as snow, ice, dirt,
oil, paint overspray and numerous other commonly encountered materials
are capable of attenuating UV or IR radiation and adversely affecting
detector Response.

The detector should not be placed where smoke can obscure its view of the
hazardous area. For indoor applications, if dense smoke is expected to
accumulate at the onset of a fire, mounting the detector on a side wall a few
feet (1 meter) down from the ceiling will normally allow enough time for the unit
to respond before it is affected by rising smoke.

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 31 of 37
System.

8.4 Location of Gas Detectors


The most effective number and placement of sensors vary depending on the
conditions at the job site. The individual designing of the installation must rely on
experience and common sense to determine the type and quantity

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 32 of 37
System.

While locating the gas detectors, attention must be paid to the direction and speed of
wind. For this purpose, the wind rose diagram generated by the safety department
must be referred and the gas detector location shall be decided so as to cover the
highest and second highest wind directions in terms of %.

The location of gas detectors should also take into account the type of gas or gas
mixtures being detected (heavier or lighter than air), natural and mechanical
ventilation, the possibility of gas accumulating to a level which could become
hazardous, and the most likely source of leakage.

It is essential that the device shall be properly located to enable it to provide


maximum protection. Sensor heads shall be placed such that they are not
adversely affected by strong winds or high velocity flows, For example, the
detectors should not be placed inside ducting but at the inlet or outlet openings
with protection hoods etc.

Gas detectors shall be mounted such that they are protected from sand / dust,
spray water, direct rain, salt spray etc which block the flame arrestor or strong
winds which cause excessive drift.

How rapidly will the gas diffuse into the air? Select a location for the sensor as
close as practical to the anticipated source of a gas leak.

Ventilation characteristics of the immediate area must also be considered.


Movement of air may cause gas to accumulate more heavily in one area than
another. The detector should be placed in the areas where the most concentrated
accumulation of gas is anticipated. Also take into consideration the fact that many
ventilation systems do not operate continuously.

Proper orientation is dependent upon the model used and the environmental
concerns at the installation.

The sensor should be accessible for maintenance.

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 33 of 37
System.

Excessive heat or vibration can result in premature failure of any electronic device

and should be avoided if possible.

Open path gas detectors shall be mounted such that they are not obstructed by
equipment or moving personnel.

8.5 Location of Manual Devices and other General Devices


Manual call points and ESD push buttons shall be located such that they are
unobstructed and accessible; usually they are placed near exits/ stairways. They
should stand out against the background, ie. they should be clearly visible from a
distance. In open areas manual call points should be placed so that distance
between adjacent points does not exceed 60 mts.

The audible alarms should be positioned so as to provided a minimum sound level of


5 dB (A) above that of the environment at any point within that area. Where this
difference cannot be achieved, for example in areas of high ambient noise, the
audible alarm should be accompanied by a flashing visual indicator. The number and
location of the visual alarms within an area must be such that they are clearly visible
from all parts of the relevant area and distinguishable with respect to the kind of
alarm (for ex. Fire/gas/Abandon Platform) in terms of the colour of the transmitted
light.

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 34 of 37
System.

9.0 Development of Fusible Plug Layout..

For fusible plug layouts, the base drawing is the equipment layout. Deluge GADs
generated by piping is used for developing the fusible plug layout for skids. The
number, spacing and location of fusible plugs shall be as per API 14C. Fusible plugs
shall either be suspended near the possible sources of leakage or strapped with the
deluge piping.

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 35 of 37
System.

10.0 Development of F&G Cause and Effect Diagrams

F & G cause and effect diagrams are prepared based on safety philosophy
generated by the safety department. These indicate the various detectors and other
field devices and the actions to be taken on their activation in a tabular form.

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 36 of 37
System.

11.0 Development of Mimics

Where hardwired mimic panels are to be provided the design is generally done along
the following Guide lines:

The mimic shall be divided into fire zones / areas and shall indicate the following
information as required by the project philosophy.

The mimics must incorporate all geographical areas of the plant, which are to be
monitored, showing all traffic access gateways, roads.

The layout shall be developed in accordance with the plot plan. Alternatively,
depending on project requirements, the layout can be developed on the basis of
Fire zone layouts

1) Fire alarm and confirmed fire for each zone / area


2) Gas alarm and confirmed gas for each zone/ area
3) Status of ESD levels
4) Status of manual calls points.
5) Status of fire water pumps, jockey pumps, foam pumps etc
6) Status of fusible loop pr. switches and deluge valves
7) Status of dampers
8) Status of fire extinguishing systems

The mimic shall have LEDs of different colours depending on project philosophy for
fire, Gas, Abandon platform in case of offshore installations etc.

The normal situation shall be indicated by extinguished LEDs and lamps on the
mimic. In the event of an alarm, the relevant LEDs and lamps should start flashing.

Hooter with different tones for the above conditions shall also be provided.

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.


GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd. Doc. No. : 44-DG-03
Rev. No .: 0
Design Guide for Fire and Gas
TITLE: Page No.: 37 of 37
System.

12.0 Development of System Graphics

The displays shall be broadly classified as follows:

Area displays shall show the relevant plants as a simplified plot plan. In case of
platforms, it shall show an overall view of each floor or elevation.

The area displays shall be further subdivided into sections or plant. showing
boundaries. for each of these subsections or plants, fire/ flammable gas/toxic gas
presence shall be indicated. But no individual detectors need be shown.

The sub-division or plant displays shall be further divided into detailed displays
showing the fire and gas matrix. The matrices shall incorporate approximate
locations of devices and their status.

Besides the above, bar chart displays for individual detectors can also be provided.

GS Engineering & Construction India Pvt. Ltd.