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NO. 1

Autumn 2016

The Journal of Energy and Development
volume 42, number 1, autumn 2016 (copyright 2017)

Jack Fuller and Yang Guo, “The Present Status of Solar Power Generation in the United States,”
The Journal of Energy and Development, volume 42, number 1 (autumn 2016, copyright 2017), pp.

The popularity and importance of solar power generation in the United States continues to increase.
This research effort will investigate the present status of U.S. solar power generation with respect to the
current solar photovoltaic (PV) installation of several cities in the United States that have significant solar
installations. The solar installation incentives provided by federal and state governments, including the 30
percent federal income tax credit (ITC), the Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS), and net metering
approaches will be investigated. It was determined through this research effort that certain states are
leading in solar energy installations due to, among other things, better policy support.

Keywords: renewable energy, solar energy, solar in the United States, top U.S. solar cities, environmental
concerns, federal and state governmental energy policies, renewable portfolio standards (RPS), net

Boutheina Bannour, Marc Bradford, Amine Lahiani, and Ali Lamouchi, “Measuring Super
Efficiency in Data Envelopment Analysis Models: New Insights from GCC Oil Corporations,” The
Journal of Energy and Development, volume 42, number 1 (autumn 2016, copyright 2017), pp. 21-

We employ a super efficiency evaluation method within the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)
framework. We deem it more reflective of the underlying production process. We estimate the global,
technical, as well as the scale efficiency of the five biggest oil companies in the Gulf Cooperation Council
(GCC)—representing Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates—during the
period from 2008 to 2012. The methodology allows analyzing the regional disparities and shedding light
on the mechanisms underpinning the passage from an efficiency method to one of super efficiency
through the use of a DEA efficiency measurement method, which is shown to provide a reasonably better
super efficiency measurement for output orientation.

Keywords: super efficiency, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model, GCC oil corporations, Saudi
Aramco, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates

Leonidas Paroussos, Diana Mangalagiu, Frank Meissner, and Carlo Jaeger, “The Economic Cost of
a Transition to a Low-Carbon Economy: The Case of Bulgaria and Romania,” The Journal of
Energy and Development, volume 42, number 1 (autumn 2016, copyright 2017), pp. 33–66.

The European Council has approved an EU-wide 40-percent greenhouse gas (GHG) emission
reduction target in 2030 as compared to 1990. An EU least-cost implementation of this target would have
a different impact on each member state given their different structural features regarding energy
consumption and production. This paper focuses on the economic implications that this target may have
on two highly energy-intensive European member states, namely, Bulgaria and Romania. The analysis is
based on the results of a global computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that represents Bulgaria and
Romania separately. It has been found that the cumulative adjustment cost over the period 2015-2030, in
terms of gross domestic product (GDP), for the EU28 is 0.1 percent, while it stands at 0.3 percent and 0.6
percent for Romania and Bulgaria, respectively. For both countries it is found that the most prominent
abatement option in the short term is the adoption of energy efficiency measures, since in the short term
(largely imported) renewable energy technologies are available at high cost and deteriorate their current

Keywords: greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation, computable general equilibrium (CGE), Bulgaria,
Romania, economic impact, energy system, burden sharing, EU climate policies, power generation,
carbon price, 40% GHG target

Issa Ali and Charles Harvie, “Exogenous Oil Shocks and the Fiscal Policy Response in Oil-
Exporting Countries: Evidence from Libya,” The Journal of Energy and Development, volume 42,
number 1 (autumn 2016, copyright 2017), pp. 67–87.

The recent (since 2014) downtrend in oil prices and production represents a challenge for small-open
developing and oil-exporting economies. Using Libya as a study case, this paper employs a general
dynamic macroeconomic model developed by Ali and Harvie (2013) to analyze the dynamic adjustment
process of key macroeconomic variables, in particular, fiscal variables arising from the recent downtrend
in oil price and production. It emphasizes the transmission channels through which the negative oil-
related shocks affect the domestic economy. The simulation results suggest that the shock would bring
about a decrease in government revenues, government spending, and this, in turn, would have led to
considerable budget deficits. The shock also has negatively affected the other economic variables such as
foreign assets, gross domestic income, nonoil GDP, oil exports, and the current account. Contraction
fiscal policy, in particular reducing government administrative expenditures, and improving nonoil
revenue generated from nonoil economic activities are crucial counter-measures in order to alleviate the
budget deficit.

Keywords: oil prices and production decrease, budget deficit, dynamic macroeconomic model, simulation
scenarios, policy analysis, Libya

Paul Adjei Kwakwa and George Adu, “Electricity Conservation Behavior in Ghana: Evidence from
Rural and Urban Households in the Ashanti Region,” The Journal of Energy and Development,
volume 42, number 1 (autumn 2016, copyright 2017), pp. 89–122.

Electricity conservation at the household level has become necessary to ensure adequate power supply
and also help curb carbon emissions. This study probes into the electricity conservation behavior for rural
and urban households in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Based on cross sectional data, it was observed that
although both urban and rural households engage in electricity conservation practices, rural households
have the stronger behavior. Through an analysis of conservation behavior towards the usage of four
electrical appliances (light, iron, radio-TV, and refrigerator), it was noted that the effects of demographic
features, dwelling characteristics, information, environmental concern, subjective norms, and perceived
benefits is somehow dependent on the location of households and the appliance in question. The outcome
of the study calls for, among other things, the need to have different conservation measures tailored
toward the usage of different appliance in the study area.

Keywords: electricity conservation, theory of planned behavior, households, urban, rural, Ghana

Fakhri Issaoui, Hassen Toumi, Wassim Touili, and Bilel Ammouri, “The Dynamic Effects of Time,
Health, and Well-Being on Pollution: A Post-Johannesburg Earth Summit Assessment,” The
Journal of Energy and Development, volume 42, number 1 (autumn 2016, copyright 2017), pp. 123-

In this paper we investigate the impact of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions on a set of socioeconomic
variables—gross domestic product (GDP), health expectancy, life expectancy, trade openness,
urbanization, time, and a composite variable—showing the effects following the 2002 Johannesburg Earth
Summit in eight countries reflecting all world economic groups (Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, France, Norway,
Brazil, United States, China, and Australia). The empirical results show that GDP continues to be the
principal variable is linked to CO2 emissions. Moreover, we have demonstrated that through voluntary
acts at the world-scale, policies can promote the substitution of higher polluting energy sources with those
that are cleaner and more environmentally friendly.

Keywords: environmental Kuznets curve, carbon-dioxide (CO2) emissions, energy consumption, growth,
Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, France, Norway, Brazil, United States, China, Australia