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“THE EFFECTIVENESS OF USING FILMS AND VIDEO PRESENTATIONS AS

A FORM OF TEACHING STRATEGY IN HISTORY CLASSES”

AN ACTION RESEARCH

Prepared by:
Ms. Maria Karmela B. Dalangin
Master of Arts in Education
Major in Social Studies

In Partial Fulfilment in
SST 509 (Seminar in History Teaching)

December 2018

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Chapter One

CONTEXT OF THE PROBLEM

History is one of the most important subjects to be taught in every

institution. The study of history plays an important role in the education of

secondary school students. Through the study of history, students will develop

important historical knowledge and understandings and develop thinking,

interpreting, analysing, presenting and performance skills. Aside from that matter,

studying history enables students to understand their own past and the

connections of the past to the present. Students will then be better prepared to

play a role and plan for the future. They will have a respect for the past, and

know what they can do to protect and promote their own cultures and histories.

They will become good citizens. They will be proud to tell the world who they are,

where they come from and what they have achieved creating civic awareness

and civic competence on to them.

The problem is that History nowadays can be considered as one of the

ostracized subjects being taught in every institution. Students have different

connotations when they hear that they need to study history. Some students

think that history is a boring subject. Some students on the other hand think that

history is just a subject that deals with dates, names and places. Others think

that it is just an irrelevant subject.

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Realizing those problems each history or social studies teacher must

create different strategies to expunge and to eliminate those wrong undertones

about teaching and learning history. One good strategy is through using

documentary films or video presentations to teach the subject matter. Bransford,

Brown, & Cocking (2000) discuss video use in the classroom and the importance

of interactivity in helping students to learn by being able to re-visit and review the

material. They emphasise the potential of technology to help learning, but only if

it is used properly. De Boer (2013) places the use of video in education in the

following context: The emergence of digital networks, like the internet,

disconnected video-watching from a set time because the video can be watched

at any time. It has also led to disconnecting the lesson, in some sense, from a set

place (i.e. the classroom): the video can be watched on any computer connected

to the internet.

This action research wants to discuss and to assess how really effective

video presentations and documentary films as a teaching approach and strategy

in history classes.

Rationale:

The purpose of this study is to answer the following question:

1. At to what extent does using films and video presentation help students

understand and learn history as a subject?

2. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the strategy?

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Chapter Two

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

This chapter exhibits and introduces the related literature and studies after

the deep-seated and profoundest research as well as the investigations done by

researcher. As part of the studies, the researcher prefer to make a

comprehensive research to address one’s question regarding the topic.

The social studies curriculum is composed, for the most part, of theories

and abstract concepts which require concretization, and to achieve this, various

pedagogical strategies are employed, among them the use of visual media.

Viewing film in the classroom (not in "film" studies) gives visual representation to

abstract thoughts. It helps students gain in depth knowledge, develops critical

interpretation, and actively involved students in their studies (Morze, 2008).When

using films in the social studies classroom, instructional goals like reasoning,

critical thinking, retention and understanding, self-regulation, and refraction of the

curriculum are developed.

Film is an amazing and fascinating medium. It is considered to be an

effective communicator and has the potential to arouse emotions (Interview w/J.

McPherson in Russell, 2008) and stimulate feelings. Film is a part of popular

culture and most teenagers spend an enormous amount of time watching films

and/or television. An average student spends over seven hours a day using

media (7:12) – more than 50 hours a week (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005). On

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the average, almost four hours are devoted to videos (film) and television per

day. These findings illustrate how significant a role films can have in a student’s

day-to-day life.

Within this context, video as a medium continues to have an on-going

impact on higher education, on the role of the student, challenging the

(traditional) role of the lecturer and the format of delivering course content via a

lecture. Many lecturers lack adequate knowledge, support, guidance and training

to integrate this technology into their teaching, either at a practical, technical

level, or at a didactic, teaching level (Stover & Veres, 2013).

Although research pertaining to how teachers use film is limited, it is

necessary to examine the current and relevant literature devoted to teaching with

film. With the popularity and availability of film, it is natural that teachers are

going to attempt to engage students with such a relevant medium. In fact, in a

research study of social studies teachers, 100% reported using film at least once

a month to help teach social studies content (Russell, 2007). The frequency of

reported film use demonstrates a need to examine how secondary social studies

teachers reportedly use film in the classroom.

In the study conducted by Russell (2012), he said that providing students

with an array of learning experiences and ample opportunities to reflect and think

critically is an essential element for preparing well rounded and effective 21st

century citizens who will be able to actively contribute in modern society.

Teaching with film is a non-traditional teaching strategy when used effectively;

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however, film is still being treated as a visual textbook. Teachers are using a film,

the same way they would use a book. Read or watch it, and take a test or answer

some questions.

Engle (2003) suggests that decision making is at the heart of social

studies, with students learning the decision-making process and not focusing on

content memorization. Film can help provoke a meaningful inquiry of a social

event, thus allowing students to make insightful decisions based on what they

viewed and what the teacher does to support the curriculum.

Allen (2005) sees two benefits in using films in the social science

classroom: First, films have been found to bring students closer to the people,

events, concepts, and theories, and help them come alive academically; second,

films correct, improve, and simplify social content by enhancing long-term

memory and retention and generating abstract thinking.

Video teaching can play a part at many levels of E-learning and can be

used for distributing information, creating interaction within the learning process

and as a part of the collaborative process The aspects of E-learning presented

by Fransen (2006) can be applied to the three types of video teaching and the

traditional lecture.

In 2008, Metzger and Suh conducted a comparative case study of two

white teachers (one male and one female) to examine the teacher’s use of film in

their instruction. The study concluded that these two teachers use film literally as

an instructional text to help students with historical literacy.

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According to Woolfitt (2015), effectiveness can be seen as the extent to

which the video is deployed to most didactic effect. The video that is produced

can be considered effective if it is connected to the learning goals of the course

and is constructively aligned with the course content. This aspect relates to

specific features of the video, the type, length, content and how effective this is in

conveying the specific intended message or learning goals. How is the video

embedded into the didactic structure of the course and how effectively is it

employed? Does it leverage its full potential, or is it an expensively produced set

of segments that are not viewed by the students and adds no value to the

course? A video could be beautifully produced but if it is not deployed in the

course effectively it may not maximize its full potential to support the learning

process.

In general, the research into video teaching is positive, showing support

from students and some lecturers. However, Ryan & Tilbury (2013) state that

while Information Technology use in class can broaden the learning experience,

they warn it could also lead to a downgraded pedagogical interaction, challenging

the reasons for its implementation. Reece (2013) describes the concerns voiced

by teaching staff that introducing lecture capture would lead to reduced lecture

attendance. However, no significant decline in students attendance at live

lectures was observed by Filius & Lam (2010). Nashash & Gunn (2013) found

that technical difficulties in accessing the content of videoed lectures provided

frustration and resulted in students wasting time trying to resolve these

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difficulties. Finally, there remains limited empirical data to support the

effectiveness of this format (Hansch et al., 2015; Thomson et al., 2014).

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Chapter Three

METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURE

This chapter deals with the methods and procedures utilized by the

researchers.

Subjects of the Study

The subjects of the study were the Grade 10 students of Padre Vicente

Garcia Memorial Academy Inc. Two sections were used as the subjects of the

study; mainly consists of Grade 10 Faith with 46 students and Grade 10 Hope

with 44 students.

Data Gathering Procedure

Before integrating the strategy, the researcher conducted library research

and browsed the internet to gather information. Right after that, the researcher

conducted an experimental procedure by integrating the use of film and video

presentation in the lesson.

The first section was being used as the one who will be using the

strategy, while the other section, on the other hand will not integrate the usage of

the strategy. The results will be compared by using the CPL or the Class

Proficiency Level to assess the mastery of the students with or without using the

strategy.

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Chapter Four

RESULT AND DATA ANALYSIS

This chapter deals with the presentation, analysis and interpretation of the

data and findings of the study.

1. Using Video Presentation and Films as a Form of Teaching Strategy in

History Classes.

In the table presented below, there is a 12.76 difference in the class

proficiency level between the two sections that had been conducted with the

strategy and not. It can be concluded that using films and other video

presentation plays a huge factor in making every history lesson active and

participative. As the class continues and progresses, it can be seen that students

are more engaged to learn history if they are supplied with ideas through video

presentation. Video can be a more intimate way of communicating between the

lecturer and the student. While it is important that students enjoy the learning

process.

Teaching ‘through’ video can also be termed ‘Video Teaching’. This is

defined as teaching via video in which the lecturer plays an active role, is visible

and audible, is recorded, and where the screen presence of the teacher plays an

important element in the didactic process. This section examines the discussion

regarding the different types of video teaching and how they are placed in

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relation to each other within the educational landscape. Difficulties in adjusting

didactic approaches and the support needs of staff are examined

However, even though films and video presentation can be an effective

strategy, it also has some drawbacks. As we further go throughout the lesson,

technology is really an important matter. If a teacher cannot properly use the

technology, it can cause disruption of classes. Aside from that, the authenticity

and the reliability of films and video presentations were also an important factor.

As a teacher, we need to make sure that the video presentations and films that

we use are accurate and at the same time follow the lesson objectives of the

lesson. There are some video presentations and films that conducted biases

based on the author. By this means we should not let students to just watch the

movie. Have some reactions and at the same time explain to the students the

real course of the action.

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Table 1
Used Film and Video Presentation
SECTION 10- Faith
SCORES No. of Students who obtained the score
10 18 180
9 15 135
8 7 56
7 4 28
6 2 12
5 0 0
4 0 0
3 0 0
2 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 0
46 411
CLASS PROFICIENCY LEVEL 89.35
Did Not Used Any Film or Video Presentation
SECTION 10- Hope
No. of Students who obtained the
SCORES
score
10 4 40
9 7 63
8 14 112
7 10 70
6 8 48
5 0 0
4 1 4
3 0 0
2 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 0
44 337
CLASS PROFICIENCY LEVEL 76.59
Difference 12.79

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Chapter Five

Conclusions and Recommendations

1. Using Video Presentation and Films as a Form of Teaching Strategy in

History Classes.

From the study below it can be observed that video presentations and

films are powerful tools and strategy in understanding and in teaching history.

The rapid increase in the amount of video that is available, increases in quality,

speed and flexibility in delivering video has resulted in an incessant prevalence of

video in many aspects of society, including higher education. This has resulted in

many different types of video which have different aspects, functions and uses

within the educational context. Categorizing, describing and defining the

differences between these many different forms is a challenging process and

because of the fluid nature of the field, a process that is continually shifting and

developing.

As an educator, we must be careful in using the strategy. Every video

presentation must be relevant and at the same time it must catch the attention of

the learners. Aside from that we must see to it that the ideas presented on every

films follows the content based and value based form of instruction.

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RESOURCES

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Carey, B. (2014). How we learn: The surprising truth about when, where, and

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Carnell, E. (2007). Conceptions of effective teaching in higher education:

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De Vera, J. M., & McDonnell, J. (1985). Video: A media revolution?

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http://cscc.scu.edu/trends/v6/V6_2.pdf

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http://www.cmu.edu/teaching/resources/PublicationsArchives/StudiesWhitepaper

s/LectureWebcasting_Jan07.pdf

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