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Chapter I

INTRODUCTION

Problem and Its Setting

UEP’s College of Criminology as an academic institution

facilitates internship programs, with its aim to provide

students with the opportunity to spend time in a professional

field setting where they are permitted to observe field

practitioners and, under certain circumstances, participate

directly in select pre-professional level of activities thus

providing its graduates better training before they leave the

portals of the school and be more qualified in terms of their

job opportunities.

Internships help students learn first-hand whether a

career of interest is a good fit. It is important to

participate in an internship experience to gain understanding

of what careers interest you. In other words, internships can

help you decide if a particular career is something you are

interested in or not. They also provide exploratory students

the opportunity to clarify career objectives and verify

career choices. It usually lasts one semester or longer and

sometimes take place during the summer. It may be paid or


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unpaid, but when paid, may pay anything from a token amount

or stipend, to a substantial salary. Work schedules may

involve working on a part-time or full-time basis. While many

full-time, professional positions often require a person have

experience when starting out, internship and co-op positions

help you gain that critical experience and often, but not

always, can lead to a full-time job offer at the end of the

experience or after graduation

The Internship (OJT and Community Immersion) requirement

for Bachelor of Science in Criminology students is a component

of the new curriculum for the Criminology program as contained

under CMO #21, series of 2005. This is a course designed to

provide practical experiences to BS Criminology students in

police work especially in the conduct of investigation,

office duties and the whole operation of the police

organization, operation of the jail and penal institutions,

operation of the fire departments, security and investigation

agencies, the different agencies comprising the five (5)

pillars of the Philippine Criminal Justice System. It also

strengthens the knowledge acquired in the four corners of the


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room, the application of the different sciences in crime

detection and investigation and criminalistics.1

Cooperating agencies that host interns stand to benefit

in many. Internships, of course, can be an effective

recruitment tool, but the benefits don’t end there. Interns

have the potential to introduce new ideas and/or apply their

unique skills and abilities in ways that improve the agency’s

efficiency and/or effectiveness. Interns offer agencies the

ability to do a variety of things ranging from research and

report writing to simply introducing new ideas and

perspectives on traditional practices. Students can give

insight on current trends and recent developments in the field

(e.g., recent Supreme Court decisions) and can help

practitioners use (or maximize the usefulness) of new

technologies. In addition, internships provide agencies with

a fundamentally practical opportunity to evaluate students’

preparedness and suitability for future employment.

Despite the popularity and extensive history of

internship programs in Criminology course little is known

about the effectiveness of internship from partner agencies’

point of view. The proponents have decided to conduct this

1
CHED Memorandum Order No. 21 series of 2005
4

study for the further information and expansion of knowledge

about which among the factors affects the effectiveness of BS

Criminology internship program as perceived by the heads of

partner agencies in Northern Samar.

Statement of the Problem

Generally, this study attempts to find out the

effectiveness of Criminology internship as perceived by the

heads of partner agencies in Northern Samar

Specifically, this study aims to answer the following

problems:

1. What is the socio-economic profile of the respondents in

terms of:

1.1. Age

1.2. Sex

1.3. Civil status

1.4. Educational attainment

1.5. Monthly income

2. What is the level of effectiveness of Criminology

internship as perceived by the respondents?


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3. Is there any significant relationship between the level of

effectiveness of Criminology internship and socio-

demographic profile of the respondents?

4. What problems are encountered by the respondents in the

implementation of the criminology Internship Program?

Objectives of the Study

This study deals with the effectiveness of Criminology

internship as perceived by the heads of partner agencies in

Northern Samar.

Specifically, this attempts to satisfy the following:

problems:

1. Know the socio-economic profile of the respondents in

terms of:

a. Age

b. Sex

c. Civil status

d. Educational attainment

e. Monthly income

2. Determine the level of effectiveness of Criminology

internship as perceived by the respondents.


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3. Determine whether there is significant relationship

between the level of effectiveness of Criminology

internship and socio-demographic profile of the

respondents.

4. Know problems are encountered by the respondents in the

implementation of the criminology Internship Program.

Significance of the Study

The findings of this study would be beneficial to the

following persons and institutions:

Cooperating Agencies. This study will provide the

cooperating agencies firsthand information as regard to

internship effectiveness from their point of view. This will

help them formulate rules and policies of internship that

will affect the program in a positive ways.

BS Criminology Students. The conduct of this study will

enlighten the students on the effectiveness of internship

from cooperating agencies’ point of view.

College of Criminology. This study will contribute to

its research archive and will later serve as reference for


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topics related to the effectiveness of internship as

perceived by the heads of partner agencies in Northern Samar

Researchers. Moreover, the conduct of this study will

serve as a practical activity for the researchers so that

they can apply they have learned so far in years at the

academe as BS Crim students and as investigators in the

future.

Scope and Limitations of the Study

This study will focus on determining with the

effectiveness of Criminology internship as perceived by the

heads of partner agencies in Northern Samar

The descriptive-correlation approach will be utilized in

this study. The descriptive part is limited only at

determining the respondent’s socio-economic profile in terms

of their age; sex; civil status; educational attainment;

monthly income; also, this aims to determine the level of

effectiveness of Criminology internship as perceived by the

heads of partner agencies in Northern Samar; and finally know

the problems encountered by the respondents in the

implementation of the criminology internship Program


8

A correlation test will be utilized in order to determine

whether there is a significant relationship between

independent and dependent variables.

The respondents will be chosen randomly as

representative element of the cooperating agency.

Moreover, this study will be conducted on the second

semester of academic year 2018-2019.

Theoretical Framework

This study is anchored on Gestalt theory of learning. It

purports that an individual is a whole person and the

instructional strategies used to teach them will help to

discover if there is anything that is mentally blocking them

from learning certain new information. Strategies are used to

present problems as a whole and to attempt to remove any

mental block from the learner so that new information can be

stored. One aspect of Gestalt is phenomenology, which is the

study of how people organize learning by looking at their

lived experiences and consciousness. Learning happens best

when the instruction is related to their real life

experiences. The human brain has the ability to make a map of

the stimuli caused by these life experiences. This process of

mapping is called “isomorphism.” Whenever the brain sees only


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part of a picture, the brain automatically attempts to create

a complete picture. This is the first organizational law,

called the “factor of closure,” and it does not only apply to

images, but it also applies to thoughts, feelings and sounds.

The human brain maps elements of learning that are presented

close to each other as a whole, instead of separate parts.

This organizational law is called the “factor of proximity,”

and is usually seen in learning areas such as reading and

music, where letters and words or musical notes make no sense

when standing alone, but become a whole story or song when

mapped together by the human brain. The next organizational

law of the Gestalt theory is the “factor of similarity,” which

states that learning is facilitated when groups that are alike

are linked together and contrasted with groups that present

differing ideas. This form of Gestalt learning enables

learners to develop and improve critical thinking skills.

When observing things around us, it is normal for the eye to

ignore space or holes and to see, instead, whole objects.

This organizational law is called the “figure-ground effect.”

As new thoughts and ideas are learned the brain tends to make

connections, or “traces,” that are representative of the

links that occur between conceptions and ideas, as well as

images. This organizational law is called the “trace theory.”


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which focused on the experience of contact that occurs herein

and now. It considers with interest the life space of teachers

and students, as well as takes interest in the complexity of

experience without neglecting anything, but accepting and

amplifying all that emerge. Furthermore, it stimulates

learning as experience and experience as learning. Another

theory on formal discipline states that the faculties of the

mind such as memory, reason, will, and imagination could be

strengthened through practice.2

Conceptual Framework

This study conceptualizes that the effectiveness of

Criminology internship as perceived by the heads of partner

agencies in Northern Samar is related to respondent’s

demographic profile such as age; sex; civil status;

educational attainment and monthly income.

2
Taylor, M.S (1998), Effects of College Internships on Individual Participants, Journal of
Applied Psychology, Vol 73, pp 393-401.
11

Paradigm

Independent Variables Dependent Variable

Respondent’s
Demographic Profile

Age
Effectiveness of
Sex Criminology
internship as
Civil Status perceived by the
heads of partner
Educational agencies in
Attainment Monthly Northern Samar

Income

Figure 1. Schematic diagram showing the relationship between


dependent and independent variables
12

Hypothesis

This study hypothesizes that there is no significant

relationship between dependent and independent variables.

Specifically, this study hypothesizes the following:

1. There is no significant relationship between the

respondents’ demographic profile in terms of age; sex;

civil status; educational attainment and monthly

income to the effectiveness of Criminology internship

as perceived by the heads of partner agencies in

Northern Samar.

Definition of Terms

To facilitate better understanding on this study, the

following terms are defined operationally and conceptually:

Age. Conceptually, age is the amount of time during which

a living thing has lived.3 Operationally, it is the amount of

years that the respondent has lived.

3
Funk and Wagnall’s International Dictionary A-M p 10
13

Civil Status. Conceptually and operationally, this

refers to the classification of a person whether single,

married, annulled or widowed.

Effectiveness. Conceptually and operationally, this

refers to the degree to which something is successful in

producing a desired result.4

Internship. Conceptually, this refers to job oriented

process which aim to develop special skills related to the

job.5 Operationally, this refers to the academic program in

which the Criminology student are deployed to cooperating

agencies to develop an understanding and exposure to the

psychology and sociology of crimes, crime detection and

investigation and criminalistics pursuant to CHED Memo No. 21

series of 2005.

Monthly Income. This refers to the monthly income of the

respondents after deduction of taxes and other fees.

Sex. Conceptually and operationally, it refers to the

range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating

between masculinity and feminity.6

4
Ibid
5
Ibid
6
Ibid
14

Chapter II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The history of student internships (or cooperative

education) originated in the U.S. in the early 1900s

(Driscoll, 2006). The history of internships is intimately

intertwined with that of experiential learning and

experiential education, school-to-work programs and

initiatives, career academies and career-exploration programs

and service-learning programs (Michigan Center for Career &

Technical Education, 1995). Voluntary apprenticeships for

youth originated in Europe in the early nineteenth century

and remain a central component of many European training

systems (Olson, 1993; Snell, 1996). In the U.S.,

apprenticeships have declined over the past 30 years and few

high school students are involved in apprenticeship programs.

There are questions whether the apprenticeship model can be

reinvented to meet the needs of the contemporary workplace

(Unwin, 1996).7

7
Cavanaugh, S. (2004). Survey: Teachers support real-world learning. Education Week, 23(33), 17.
Retrieved July 16, 2007 from EBSCO Online Database Education Research Complete.
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ehh &AN=13073586&site=ehost-live
15

Some high schools are combining internships with career

themed academies. Marczely (1982) described an internship

program in a Connecticut high school in which students

selected four different career interest areas and spent four

weeks at each job site working under the supervision of a

resource person. Seven high schools in Minneapolis, Minnesota

have work-site curricular components that include internships

and job shadowing (Minneapolis 8th graders, 2002). These

latter high schools set up more personal learning

environments that include small learning communities oriented

around career themes. Internships have also been key elements

of the educational programs set up in the small public high

schools pioneered by the “Big Picture” founders Dennis Littky

and Elliott Washor (Hendrie, 2004). The growth of internship

programs in U.S. high schools can best be explained by the

positive effects they have on the quality of instruction and

education in general.8

Intern projects incude a range of practical, sound and

authentic educational experiences that emphasize real work

and independent activities (Hendrie, 2004; Littke, 2004).

Internships often develop ties between schools’ internship

8
Committee for Economic Development. (1997). Connecting inner-city youth to the world of
work. New York, NY: Author.
16

coordinators and onsite professionals—those who develop,

implement and administer student internships.9

Internships can be used as a pedagogical tool. Student

interns are employed and receive on-the-job, one-on-one,

practical training in hands-on learning experiences. They

work with and learn from skilled professionals in a work

setting, which gives them opportunities to associate with the

people and the resources that can make work real (Littke,

2004). The job-site professionals give interns assignments

and responsibilities to serve as assistants.10

Students are exposed to workplace environments, norms of

the workplace, work expectations and obligations (Wynn,

2003).

Students participate in meetings and get a feel for what

work days are like in their field of interest. Typical

activities designed by career coordinators for high-school

student interns include conducting site interviews, keeping

an observation diary and writing personal evaluations.

Students may have a requirement to work or observe a minimum

number of hours (e.g., eight, nine or more) per week at the

9
Darling-Hammond, L., & Ancess, J. (1994). Graduation by portfolio at Central Park East
Secondary School: A series on authentic assessment and accountability. New York, NY: NCREST, Teachers
College, Columbia University.
10
Ibid
17

job site in any combination of flexibly scheduled individual

arrangements.11

Internships are part of a model that has a unique vision

of educational success in which standardized tests, subject-

based courses and textbook learning are eschewed and replaced

with authentic, competency- and performance-based elements

and measures of their education . During the internship,

students are paired with a mentoring adult or onsite

supervisor in the organization or business where they are

interning. The mentor or supervisor collaborates with student

interns on their internships, carefully monitors their work,

coaches, counsels, guides and evaluates them on an ongoing

basis. Mentors and supervisors are part of a support system

in place to assist and nurture student interns. Students

should be successful in their internship experiences and

their mentors or supervisors work diligently to ensure their

success.12

Student-internship administrators, faculty promoters,

sponsoring teachers, career-education coordinators, student

counselors and/ or advisors have the responsibility to

conduct site visitations at the internship site where a

11
Ibid
12
ibid
18

student is placed. Students must also report back to school

one day of the week to discuss jobsite projects and provide

ongoing progress reports of their work. Students maintain a

log in which they record internship activities. A mid-

internship evaluation is often made to assess students’

progress.13

At the end of the internship, when the defined objectives

are completed, an exit interview is conducted. The student

returns to school and prepares a final project report to

summarize the internship experience. The sponsoring teacher,

in concert with the site supervisor or mentor, prepares a

final evaluation of the student intern.14

A post-internship authentic assessment and evaluation of

the high-school student’s performance sometimes has a

requirement for a portfolio of work that may also include a

postgraduate plan, and a public performance exhibition.

Portfolios and exhibitions, which directly demonstrate

knowledge and skills, provide two common examples of what is

sometimes referred to as performance assessment. The

evaluation of a portfolio of work is also widely termed

portfolio assessment. Both performance assessment and

13
Ibid
14
Ibid
19

portfolio assessment are widely used to evaluate and assess

internships.15

Students can generally take internships for credit or

not for credit. Some schools have campus-wide internship

requirements and students must participate in an internship

to earn a diploma. Thus, an internship is an element of some

degree or certificate programs. If high-school students are

taking the internship for credit, and after they complete

assigned course projects and requirements and fulfill the

internship, they receive a grade and a certain number of

academic credits are granted or awarded.16

According to Beck and Halim (2008), internships are

considered as a valuable learning experience for students,

academics and prospective employers. Students are able to

gain experience in real working environment and apply what

they have learnt in classroom. Most previous research

concentrated on perception of students towards internship

programme. However, this study aims to examine the employer’s

perception towards accounting internship programme. In this

section therefore, we will briefly review the literature

which discusses various ways on how the accounting internship

15
Ibid
16
Ibid
20

is valuable to the employer and the accounting students from

their perspective. This includes what employers’ value about

offering internships, what employers feel about hiring

candidates with experiences, what employer’s think the value

is for the accounting students and the ability for accounting

students to develop their hard and soft skills.17

Taylor (1988) defined internships as “structured and

career relevant work experiences obtained by students prior

to graduation from an academic program”. The internship

experience and learning gained throughout internship period

before graduation can also be critical in the eyes of

employers. Internship program is able to prepare the students

to be more marketable after graduate by helping them develop

soft skills such as communication skill and critical thinking

skills that many employers seek for employment.18

According to Gault, Redington and Schalger (2000), other

than education area, little research has been discovered on

the benefit can accrue for educator and their institution.

Higher – education researches have continued to focus

primarily in improving teaching skills and other pedagogical

17
Beck, J.E., Halim, H. (2008), Undergraduate Internships in Accounting: What and How Do
Singapore Interns Learn from Experience?, Journal of Accounting Education, 17(2), 151-172

18
Taylor, M.S (1998), Effects of College Internships on Individual Participants, Journal of Applied
Psychology, Vol 73, pp 393-401.
21

processes operating within classroom setting. Such learning

is more difficult to deliver in classroom, thus internship

programme offered to the students assumed to improve the

classroom curriculum in preparing the students for a job in

future. In addition, the university should build and maintain

good relationship with the employer especially audit firms in

the list of Big 4, so that they may be able to market

themselves not only to the potential students but also to

their parent when attracting new students to enrol with them.

This shown that all motivated and qualified students can have

internship opportunities at their chosen field with those

companies. It is interesting if the university can promise

the incoming students any possible full time jobs before

graduation. In the students’ perspective, they will have the

sense of loyalty to the university in helping them in job

search and therefore promote the university to other

prospective students.19

Extra labor capacity and the opportunity to try out a

potential future staff are the most common reason given by

employer for using interns (HR Focus, 2005). Hiring interns

as full time employee after they graduated can reduce

19
Gault, J., Leach, E., & Duey, M. (2010). Effects of business internships on job marketability: the
employers' perspective. Education+ Training, 52(1), 76-88.
22

recruitment and selection cost. Other than that it provides

lower risk for employers as they already know the performance

of the students during internship period. Once hired, the

former interns also do not need same degree of training and

need less time to adapt with working environment as required

by most of new employees. Assuming the interns did well during

internship, the interns may be knowledgeable enough to

contribute to the company after they are being hired. Interns

may also be more loyal to the company and stay longer than

the average non-intern hire. Kelley and Gaedeke (1990)

investigate employers’ perception of the relevance importance

among hiring criteria:

1. Oral communication skill

2. Written communication skill

3. Problem solving

4. Analytical skills

5. Computer applications, and

6. Leadership/ teamwork skills

Thinking and reasoning skills such as analytical

ability, computer application, creative thinking, information

search and problem solving have been found to be important


23

across a range of field area with the degree of importance

varying by industry.20 This is consistent with research done

by Andrews and Higson (2008), that employers felt

communication skills were important in hiring the interns.

Moreover, leadership and teamwork have been found to be the

prime importance to recruiters.21

According to Gault et al. (2010), they found that the interns

must have ten career preparation skills as follows:22

1. Reliability

2. Consistency of performance

3. Eagerness to learn new skills

4. Timeliness

5. Effectively prioritising tasks

6. Demonstrating initiative/ self-motivation

7. Exhibiting ethical behaviour

8. Accepting criticism constructively

20
Floyd, C.J and Gordon M.E (1998), What skills are most important? A comparison of Employer,
Student and Staff Perceptions, Journal of Marketing Education, Vol. 20, August, pp. 103-9

21
Gault, J., Redington, J., Schlager, T. (2000), Undergraduate Business Internships and Career
Success: are they related?, Journal of Marketing Education, Vol. 22 No. 1., pp. 45-53.

22
Ibid
24

In the Philippines , the Bachelor of Science in

Criminology program is designed to provide students with

knowledge and skills in the study of historical and

contemporary patterns of crime, responses to crime of the

society, the causes of criminality in the society and study

of delinquency. It focuses on the processes involved and the

functions of the criminal justice in the country. Regardless

of the sophistication of and predictive validity of selection

program, it is almost always necessary to expose newly hired

employees to some kind of training before they can be

maximally effective on a new job, even if the employees are

already experienced with the machinery or equipment they will

be operating. The purpose of which is to increase the

employee’s productive efficiency and to enhance

organizational goal. Training requirements are made more

complicated when the workers had a little actual job

experience or being hired for a type of work they have never

performed. The organization’s selection procedures ideally

ensure that new employees have sufficient intelligence,

aptitude, and attitude to learn a job.23

23
Ibid
25

Taking On-the-Job training is difficult to handle. The

students must do their respective task which was asked by

their superiors. Different units were assigned to the trainee

for them to enhance their skills in performing the job.

Superior-student communication is one of the basic

requirements to improve and develop the productivity of every

student. The superior must demonstrate and instruct the

specific skills or particular tasks. They are also the persons

in the organization that teaches the knowledge and key skill

that the students need to learn. Problem between the students

and superiors must be avoided for them to have a good

relationship and to complete all the necessary assignments to

be performed. The intern should be always active in learning

new skills whenever the superior is teaching for them to

realize the importance of the job when they are employed.

On-the-job is one of the best training methods because

it is planned, organized, and conducted at the employees work

site. It is generally be the primarily method used for

broadening skills. It is particularly appropriate for

developing proficiency skills unique to an employee’s job,

especially job that are relatively easy to learn require

locally-owned equipment and facilities. It is sometimes

called “direct instruction”. It is a one-on-one training


26

located at the job site, where someone who knows how to do a

task shows another how to perform it. These on-the-job

training is the kind of work that people did was mainly

unskilled or semiskilled work that did not require

specialized knowledge. In fact, it is probably the most

popular method of training because it requires only a person

who knows how to do the task, and the tools which the person

uses to do the task. It includes verbal and written

instruction, demonstration and observation, hand-on practice

and imitation. There are some advantages of using on-the-job

training. Training can be delivered at the optimum time, the

trainee will have immediate feedback, and lastly, training is

delivered by colleagues and can go some way to integrate the

trainee into the team. If there are advantages there are also

disadvantages. There is a tendency to fit on the job training

when it is convenient for office routine rather than at the

optimum time for learning, too much training can be delivered

in one session leading to trainee fatigue, the trainer may

not have sufficient knowledge of the process or expertise in

instructional techniques

Students who undergo on-the-job training are very lucky

because they are the ones who usually take pride in learning

new skills. They gained to improve their future employment


27

value and for them to have new capability in their future

career, in addition, by making learning possible, they earn

their respect and build enduring relationships between

students and superiors.

Criminology students are exposed to on-the-job training

program with specialization on the different facets of law

enforcement at the Philippine National Police, Batangas City

and nearby town stations. It consists of 540 hours Monday to

Friday duty nearby town station. Every student must report

all the things they did and learned by means of writing in

their log book.

As mandated by CHED (CMO no.37 series of 2010) BS in

Criminology students are required to take Practicum for 1

semester on the fourth year of the program. The Practicum is

divided in two components, 270 hours of on-the-job training

and another 270 hours of Community Immersion, to complete the

540 hrs of internship. The Practicum is designed to provide

practical experiences for BS Crim. students working in the 5

pillars of the Criminal Justice System: Law Enforcement,

Prosecution, Judiciary, Corrections and the Community. During

this period, the criminology interns are allowed to observe

and assist, but not to perform actual operations that may


28

compromise their safety. Interns are expected to keep the

informations learned during the practicum confidential.

Specializations:

Police Administration - focuses on on basic management

functions applied to the police organization. This includes

organizational structure and administration of the Philippine

National Police, both at the national and the local levels.

Criminal Justice Administration – focuses on the Law

enforcement management of activities such as detection,

apprehension, detention, pretrial release, post-trial

release, prosecution, adjudication, correctional

supervision, or rehabilitation of accused persons or criminal

offenders or the collection, storage, and dissemination of

criminal history record information.

Forensic – concentrates on the application of a broad

spectrum of sciences and technologies to investigate and

establish facts of interest in relation to criminal or civil

law.

Jail Management and Penology – is a branch of Criminal

Justice study that focuses on the management of prisons and


29

jails for the rehabilitation of convicts and criminals in an

attempt to maintain and ensure public safety24

The opening of many criminology schools all over the

country, from the established schools and those that are just

starting to operate few programs, just meeting the minimum

standard requirements set by the Quality Assurance Team of

the Commission on Higher Education, provides limited

opportunities to its clientele – the students. Particularly

in the field of criminalistics whereby many school resorts to

coming up with Memorandum of Agreements (MOA) with some law

enforcement agencies and private entities just to comply with

the basic requirements. The same is true with library holdings

wherein the number of books barely complies with the standard

requirements, so much so with locally books and manuals. With

this sentiment of most criminology instructors teaching

different subjects that there are no sufficient references

and textbooks available for instructors and students as

commonly raised in national conventions and seminars, one has

to use initiative in coming up with some manuals to make

teaching easier. In coming up with one, it should be guided

with the latest CMO to keep abreast with updates especially

24
Retrieved 7:12 November 23 from https://www.scribd.com/document/378867279/Internship-
BS-in-Criminology-in-the-Philippines
30

in the implementation of the Community Immersion Phase of the

Criminology Internship Program.25

By far, most research on internships focuses on student

learning as the major outcome. Internships may also help

students acquire job relevant skills (Garavan & Murphy, 2001)

such as writing skills (Freedman & Adam, 1996; Winsor, 1990),

and help students put abstract concepts into context (Bowers

& Nelson, 1991). A study of service learning, another

situation which puts students into real-world settings, found

that problem solving, critical thinking, and rhetorical

skills are improved in non-academic settings (Matthews &

Zimmerman, 1999). Finally, internship experiences can

overcome presumed shortcomings such as the lack of specific

preparation, sometimes called “deficit reduction theory”

(Herr & Cramer, 1988). Beyond skills training, internships

also help socialize and acculturate (Tovey, 2001). They

improve career decision making and perceptions of self-

efficacy (Brooks, Cornelius, Greenfield, & Joseph, 1995;

Taylor, 1988). Students who have completed an internship

display greater ambition (Pedro, 1984). In the same vein,

25
Pajarillo-Guadamo Dr. Maita L (2016) ,” A PROPOSED INTERNSHIP MANUAL FOR CRIMINOLOGY
STUDENTS OF OLIVAREZ COLLEGE, PARANAQUE CITY”
31

other research indicated that internships reduce reality

shock for students (Paulson & Baker, 1999; Taylor, 1988)

The above review reveals at least one more interesting

gap in internship research: No internship study

simultaneously addresses the roles of the student,

university, and company. Studies that considered more than

one actor have provided valuable insights. For example,

Knemeyer and Murphy (2002) found significant differences

between student and employer perceptions of the effectiveness

of internships, suggesting the importance of managing the

varying needs and expectations of each party. Including all

three relevant actors within one theoretical model is an

important element

One aspect of internships analogous to personnel

transfer is that it comprises three sets of actors— sender,

receiver, and carrier; the university, industry, and student,

respectively. In the transfer literature, each actor has

distinct objectives, and hence is pursuing different

outcomes. The sender and receiver also often have different

organizational cultures. Indeed, when the transfer is from a

university to a private firm (this is true of most of the

literature cited in Narayanan, Yang, & Zahra, 2009), the

situation is close to the internship case studied here, and


32

the (organizational) cultural differences may pose additional

challenges and occasions for learning for the carrier. Thus,

each stakeholder is likely to enter the internship with

different goals and the extent to which those goals are

aligned leads to positive outcomes for each party.26

In addition to multiple actors, from a knowledge

transfer point of view, the role of individuals is significant

(Corey, 1997). As Rogers, Carayannis, Kurihara, and

Allbritton (1998) illustrated, in knowledge transfers,

individuals act as the carriers of culture and reflect the

organizational procedures of the respective organizations to

which they belong, and they are the principal agents of

learning. Similarly, Cutler (1989), in comparing transfer

practices of Japan and the United States, emphasized personal

communication and tacit knowledge transfer as important

factors in the Japanese success. Finally, research into

expatriate transfers— considered a type of knowledge transfer

(e.g., Downes & Thomas, 2000; Hocking, Brown, & Harzing, 2004;

Riusala & Suutari, 2004)—suggests that success is affected by

an individual’s preparation for the new role.27

26
Ibid
27
ibid
33

A second idea relevant to internships from the personnel

and knowledge transfer literature is that it comprises three

sets of factors—antecedents or inputs, processes, and

outcomes (Narayanan, Yang & Zahra, 2009)—and that there is

the need to trea transfers as a process rather than an event.

Rogers et al. (1998), in their study of how federal

laboratories transfer research findings to companies, argued

that transfers occur over a period of time. The case for a

process perspective is made most emphatically by Autio and

Laamanen (1995), who argued that for understanding and

enhancing knowledge transfers a focus on the input and output

indicators but also process indicators of the transfer is

necessary.28

28
Ibid
34

Chapter III

METHODOLOGY

Locale of the Study

This study will be conducted in The University of

Eastern Philippines (UEP), which is located in the

municipality of Catarman, the capital town of the province of

Northern Samar, is the first state university in the entire

Visayas having been converted from then Samar Institute of

Technology (SIT) in 1964 by the virtue of Republic Act 4126.

Said act mandates UEP “to primarily give technical and

professional training, advanced instruction of scientific and

technological researches”. In addition to this legal mandate,

UEP, as with other state universities and colleges, is

empowered to venture into production projects under the

corporatization thrust to the national government through the

Commission on Higher Education (CHED).

Prior to its conversion to university stature, UEP as an

educational institution has been in existence since 1918. It

was first opened as the Catarman Farm School, then it became

the Catarman Agricultural School, later named as the Catarman

Agricultural High School before it became SIT in 1957 and UEP


35

in 1964. In 1999, the University acquired two satellite

campuses per the integration policy of CHED, placing some

formerly CHED-supervised educational institutions under the

administrative and supervisory control of selected state

universities and colleges with UEP as one of the host SUCs.

The UEP system now has three separate campuses, viz: UEP Main

at Catarman; UEP Laoang at Laoang and UEP Pedro Rebadulla

Memorial campus at Catubig, all these host municipalities are

in the province of Northern Samar.

Over a span of 95 years, the University has metamorphosed

from an agricultural school to a comprehensive higher

education institution. It has a range of academic offerings

both in the undergraduate and in the graduate levels. These

academic programs are distributed among the College of

Agriculture, Fisheries and Natural Resources Arts and

Communication; Business Administration and Accountancy;

Education; Engineering; Law; Nursing; Science; Veterinary

Medicine; and Graduate School.

Research Design

This study will utilize the descriptive-correlational

survey method in determining of effectiveness of


36

Criminology internship as perceived by the heads of partner

agencies in Northern Samar.

Descriptive-correlational research combines both

descriptive and correlational designs. Descriptive research

involves collecting data in order to test hypotheses or answer

questions concerning the current work status of the

participants in the study. A descriptive research determines

and reports the way things are. The method, on the other hand,

attempts to determine whether and to what degree, a

relationship exists between two or more quantitative

variables. The purpose of correlational research is to

establish relationship (or lack of it) or to use relationships

in making prediction. Relationships investigations typically

study a number of variables believed to be related to a major

and complex variable.29

Research Variables

The variables that were used in this study were

quantified in the following manner:

29
Gay, L.R. and Diehl, P.L., Research Methods for Business and Management. New York: Maxwell
Macmillan International, (1992
37

Independent Variables

Age. This refers to the number of years that the retired

educators has lived from birth up to the present. It will be

categorized according to Erik Erikson’s theory of

psychosocial development. It will be measured using frequency

and percentages distribution.

Civil Status. This is categorized as single, married,

widowed and separated.

Gender. It refers to the characteristics which determine

whether the respondents are male or female. It will be

measured by frequency counts and percentage distribution.

Educational Attainment. It refers to the highest level

of education attained by retired educators. This is

categorized as college graduate, master’s degree, and

doctorate degree. It will be measured by frequency counts and

percentage distribution.

Monthly Income. This is categorized as, less than Php

7,890; between Php 7,890 – Php 15,780; between Php 15,780 –

Php 31,560; between Php 31,560 – Php 78,900; Php 78,900 and

above.
38

Dependent Variable

The dependent variable in this study is the

effectiveness of Criminology internship as perceived by the

heads of partner agencies in Northern Samar.

Population and Sampling Technique

The total number of respondents will be determined using

Slovin’s formula to determine the sample size. The

researchers will randomly choose the respondents.

The formula is

n = N / (1 + Ne2)

where:

n = Number of samples,

N = Total population

e = Error

The Respondents

The respondents of this study are the personnel of

coordinating agencies including. Seven randomly selected

personnel from each agency will be chosen as respondent.


39

Research Instrument

A three-part survey questionnaire is going to be used as

the primary instrument to gather important data in the

completion of the study. The first part will gather the

respondents’ socio-demographic profile. The second part of

will gather their perceived level of effectiveness of

internship of Criminology student. The third part tackles

problems are encountered by the respondents in the

implementation of the criminology Internship Program.

Validation of the Research Instrument

The instrument will be pre-tested to determine its

weaknesses and strength. After, it will be revised by the

research professor if there are more factors to consider

Scoring and Interpretation of Data

The variables of this study will be scored and

interpreted as follows:
40

Age

21 years old and below – Young

22 years old to 30 years old – Young adult

31 and above – Adults

A 5-point Likert scale will be used to categorize the

level of effectiveness of Criminology internship as perceived

by the heads of partner agencies in Northern Samar.

Likert Scale Verbal Description

4.50 - 5.00 - 5 - Highly Agree (HA)

3.50 - 4.49 - 4 - Agree (A)

2.50 - 3.49 - 3 - Moderately Agree (MA)

1.50 - 2.49 - 2 - Disagree (D)

1.00 - 1.49 - 1 - Highly Disagree (HD)

Effectiveness will be scored as follows:

4.50 - 5.00 – Very High

3.50 - 4.49 - High

2.50 - 3.49 - Moderate


41

1.50 - 2.49 - Low

1.00 - 1.49 – Very Low

Data Gathering Procedure

To acquire the necessary information needed in this

study, the researchers will first secure an approval letter

signed by the Criminology Department OIC. Then, communication

to the respondents will be established for data gathering.

After, all the information gathered will be analyzed,

interpreted and will be tabulated, after which, summary,

conclusions and thus the recommendations will be drawn.

Statistical Treatment of Data

Data gathered on demographic variables can be organized

through frequency counts and percentage population.

Data will be analyzed by comparing the status of smoking

among law students according to independent variables using

the Pearson chi-squared test. Chi-squared test for trend will

conducted where appropriate. Multivariate binary logistic

regression analysis will be conducted to determine factors


42

associated with smoking. A P-value < 0.05 was considered

statistically significant.

Descriptive statistics (frequencies, percentages, and

means) in this study were calculated for variables in

research questions 1, 2, 3, and 5. Summary statistics for

the distribution of the socio-demographic characteristics of

the sample will also calculated.

The formula on percentage is as follows:

F
P = X 100
N

Where:

P – Percentage

F- Frequency

N – Number of cases
43

Chi-square is a non-parametric test of statistical

significance for bivariate tabular analysis. It measures the

strength of association between variables and provides a

probability value of the likelihood that the association

occurred by chance. The statistic tests the null hypothesis

that there is no association between variables30

30
Kleinbaum, Kupper&Morgenster, 1982; Motulsky, 1995.
44

LITERATURE CITED

Beck, J.E., Halim, H. (2008), Undergraduate Internships in


Accounting: What and How Do Singapore Interns Learn
from Experience?, Journal of Accounting Education,
17(2), 151-172

Cavanaugh, S. (2004). Survey: Teachers support real-world


learning. Education Week, 23(33), 17. Retrieved July
16, 2007 from EBSCO Online Database Education Research
Complete.
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=
ehh &AN=13073586&site=ehost-live
CHED Memorandum Order No. 21 series of 2005

Committee for Economic Development. (1997). Connecting


inner-city youth to the world of work. New York, NY:
Author.

Darling-Hammond, L., & Ancess, J. (1994). Graduation by


portfolio at Central Park East Secondary School: A
series on authentic assessment and accountability. New
York, NY: NCREST, Teachers College, Columbia
University.

Floyd, C.J and Gordon M.E (1998), What skills are most
important? A comparison of Employer, Student and Staff
Perceptions, Journal of Marketing Education, Vol. 20,
August, pp. 103-9

Funk and Wagnall’s International Dictionary A-M p 10

Gault, J., Leach, E., & Duey, M. (2010). Effects of


business internships on job marketability: the
employers' perspective. Education+ Training, 52(1),
76-88.

Gault, J., Redington, J., Schlager, T. (2000),


Undergraduate Business Internships and Career Success:
are they related?, Journal of Marketing Education,
Vol. 22 No. 1., pp. 45-53.
45

Gay, L.R. and Diehl, P.L., Research Methods for Business


and Management. New York: Maxwell Macmillan
International, (1992

Kleinbaum, Kupper&Morgenster, 1982; Motulsky, 1995.

Retrieved 7:12 November 23 from


https://www.scribd.com/document/378867279/Internship-
BS-in-Criminology-in-the-Philippines

Pajarillo-Guadamo Dr. Maita L (2016) ,” A PROPOSED


INTERNSHIP MANUAL FOR CRIMINOLOGY STUDENTS OF OLIVAREZ
COLLEGE, PARANAQUE CITY”

Taylor, M.S (1998), Effects of College Internships on


Individual Participants, Journal of Applied
Psychology, Vol 73, pp 393-401.
46

Appendix “A”
Letter to the Officer in Charge

Republic of the Philippines


University of Eastern Philippines
University Town, Northern Samar
COLLEGE OF ARTS AND COMMUNICATION
Department of Criminology

Date: _______________

________________________
________________________
________________________

Sir/Madame:
The undersigned are presently conducting a study titled
EFFECTIVENESS OF CRIMINOLOGY INTERNSHIP AS PERCEIVED BY THE
HEADS OF PARTNER AGENCIES IN NORTHERN SAMAR. This is a major
requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Science in
Criminology in the College of Arts and Communication,
University of Eastern Philippines.
In connection, we respectfully ask your permission that we be
allowed to conduct a survey to the law students in the College
of Law. Rest assured that the data will be treated with utmost
confidentiality and shall be used only for research purposes.

Noted: Truly Yours,

JERALD C. ERIVERA, MPA KERVIN S. MEJOS


Research Adviser
JESSIE L. TOSING
Researchers

JOY E. PRESADO, DPA


Research Professor
Department of Criminology

Recommending Approval:
47

MARIA ALFE G.BANAWIS, DALL


Dean, College of Arts and Communication

Appendix “B”
Letter to the Respondents

Republic of the Philippines


UNIVERSITY OF EASTERN PHILIPPINES
University Town, Northern Samar
COLLEGE OF ARTS AND COMMUNICATION
Department of Criminology

Date: _______________
Dear Respondent,

Greetings!

We are senior BS Criminology students of the above


indicated university and we are presently conducting a study
titled “EFFECTIVENESS OF CRIMINOLOGY INTERNSHIP AS PERCEIVED
BY THE HEADS OF PARTNER AGENCIES IN NORTHERN SAMAR”. In this
regard, we have chosen you as one of the respondents of this
study. Please answer honestly and objectively the
questionnaire attached hereto.

We assure you that all the information will be treated


with utmost confidentiality and shall be used only for
research purposes.

Thank you and Godspeed

Noted: Truly Yours,

JERALD C. ERIVERA, MPA KERVIN S. MEJOS


Research Adviser
JESSIE L. TOSING
JOY E. PRESADO, DPA Researchers
Research Professor
Criminology Department
48

Recommending Approval

MARIA ALFE G. BANAWIS, DALL


Dean, College of Arts and Communication
Appendix “C”

SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE
Instructions
Please answer each of the question by putting a check (/)
mark on the space provided or writing the answer. Thank you

Part I. Profile of the Respondent


Name: (Optional) _______________________ Sex: ( ) Male ( )
Female
Age: ( ) 20 years old and below
( ) 21 years old – 25 years old
( ) 26 years old – 30 years old
( ) 31 years old - 35 years old
( ) 36 years old and above
Educational Attainment:
( ) College Graduate
( ) Master’s Degree
( ) Doctorate Degree
Civil Status
( ) Single
( ) Married
( ) Widowed
( ) Separated
Monthly Income
( )less than Php 7,890
( ) between Php 7,890 – Php 15,780
( )between Php 15,780 – Php 31,560
( ) between Php 31,560 – Php 78,900
49

( ) Php 78,900 and above

Part II. Using the scale provided, respond honestly to the

following statement about the student’s internship

performance.

Highly Agree (HA)


Agree (A)
Moderately Agree (MA)
Disagree (D)
Highly Disagree (HD)

STATEMENT HA D A MA HA
Achieved internship learning
objectives
Demonstrated necessary writing and
speaking skills
Was able to apply classroom
knowledge to the internship setting
effectively
Demonstrated critical thinking and
problem‐solving skills
Demonstrated initiative and the
ability to learn
Responded well to supervision and `
constructive criticism
Showed the capacity to be a self‐
sufficient, independent worker
Worked effectively with others on
team projects
Exhibited a sense of responsibility
and dependability
Exhibited a positive attitude toward
work and co‐workers
Showed creativity and originality

Exhibited a professional attitude

Behaved ethically
50

Sensitive to diversity in the


workplace

Adapted well to changing


circumstances

Presented an appropriate
professional appearance

Made progress throughout the


internship

Completed a sufficient quantity of


work

Produced quality work

Demonstrated awareness of
strengths/weaknesses

What is your overall perception on the effectiveness of


Criminology internship program
( )Very High ( )High ( )Moderate ( )Low ( )Very Low

Part III Problems Encountered

What problems are encountered by the instructors in the


implementation of the criminology Internship Program?
__________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
_______________________________________ .
51

EFFECTIVENESS OF CRIMINOLOGY INTERNSHIP AS PERCEIVED BY THE


HEADS OF PARTNER AGENCIES IN NORTHERN SAMAR

KERVIN S. MEJOS
JESSIE L. TOSING

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN CRIMINOLOGY


College of Arts and Communication
University of Eastern Philippines
University Town, Northern Samar
52

2018

Republic of the Philippines


UNIVERSITY OF EASTERN PHILIPPINES
University Town, Northern Samar
Email:ueples09@gmail.com Telefax 055-2519611

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND COMMUNICATION

APPROVAL SHEET

This thesis titled EFFECTIVENESS OF CRIMINOLOGY INTERNSHIP AS


PERCEIVED BY THE HEADS OF PARTNER AGENCIES IN NORTHERN SAMAR
prepared and submitted by KERVIN S. MEJOS and JESSIE L. TOSING
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree
BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN CRIMINOLOGY is hereby recommended for
acceptance and approval

JOY E. PRESADO, DPA JERALD C. ERIVERA, MPA


Research Professor Research Adviser
Date: ____________ Date: ___________

Recommended for acceptance and approval

PANEL OF EXAMINERS

_____________________
Chair
Date: __________

___________________ ___________________
Member Member
Date: ____________ Date: ____________

Accepted and approved in partial fulfillment of the


requirements for the degree BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN
CRIMINOLOGY

JOY E. PRESADO, DPA


OIC Chairman, Dep’t of Criminology
Date: _____________
53

MARIA ALFE G.BANAWIS, DALL


Dean, College of Arts and Communication
Date: ________________
Table of Contents
Page

Title Page I

Approval Sheet II

Table of Contents III

List of Figure V

Chapter

I INTRODUCTION 1

Problem and Its Setting 1

Statement of the Problem 4

Objectives of the Study 5

Significance of the Study 6

Scope and Limitations of the Study 7

Theoretical Framework 8

Conceptual Framework 9

Paradigm 11

Hypothesis 12

Definition of Terms 12

II REVIEW OF LITERATURE 14

III METHODOLOGY 34

Locale of the Study 34

Research Design 35
54

Research Variables 36

Population and Sampling Technique 38 IV

The Respondents 38

Research Instrument 39

Validation of the Research Instrument 39

Scoring and Interpretation of Data 39

Data Gathering Procedure 41

Statistical Treatment of Data 41

LITERATURE CITED 44

APPENDICES

A – Letter to the Officer in Charge 45

B – Letter to the Respondent 46

C – Survey Questionnaire 47
55

List of Figure

Figure 1. Schematic diagram showing the relationship 11


betweendependent and independent variables