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10th century A.D.

Filipinos from the tutu and were trading with Champa Vietnam and those from Ma-I Mindoro with
China as noted in Chinese records containing several references to the Philippines. These archaeological
findings indicated that regular trade relations between the Philippines, China and Vietnam had been
well-established from the 10th century to the 15th century A.D.

Before the Spaniards


Filipinos were already engaged in activities and practices related to science forming primitive or first
wave technology. They were curative values of some plant on how to extract medicine from herbs. They
had an alphabet, a system of writing, a method of counting and weights and measures. They had no
calendar but counted the years by the period of the moon and from one harvest to another.

Spanish Regime
Development of hospitals San Juan Lazaro hospital the oldest in the far east was founded in 1578.

17th and 18th century


Successive shipwrecks of and attacks of pirates on the galleons led to declining profits from the trade
that lead to economic depression in Manila during the later part of the 17th century

The Real Sociedad Economica de los Amigos del Pais de Filipinas founded by Governador Jose Basco y
Vargas in 1780 encouraged research in agriculture and industry. The society promoted cultivation of
indigo cotton cinnamon and silk industry.

In 1789 Manila was opened to Asian shipping, inaugurating an era of increase in export of rice, hemp,
tobacco, sugar and indigo and imports of manufacturing goods.

The 19th century


In 1863 the colonial authorities issued a royal degree to reform the existing educational system. In 1871
the school of medicine and pharmacy were open to UST, after 15 years it had granted the degree of
Licensiado en Medicina to 62 graduates.

The licentiate degree equivalent to a Master degree was granted Bachelor’s degree in pharmacy at its
first six graduates who included Leon Ma. Guerrero considered was the father of Philippine pharmacy
due to his works on medicinal plants of the Philippines. There were no school for engineering, but they
offered nautical four-year course for pilot of merchant marine that includes the subject:
Arithmetic algebra geometry trigonometry physics hydrography meteorology navigation pilotage

Higher education was generally viewed with suspicion as encouraging rebellion among native Filipinos
and thus only if you daring students were able to undertake higher studies. The expanded world trade
and commerce in the later part of the 19th century lead to the rapid development of manila as
cosmopolitan center.

Modern amenities such as steam trainways waterworks newspaper electric lights banking systems were
introduced in the 19th century