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Advanced Heat Transfer / II - Convection and Mass Transfer

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Ministry of Higher Education & Scientific Research
University of Baghdad – College of Engineering
Mechanical Engineering Department

ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II


Convection & Mass Transfer

Handout Lectures for M.Sc. Course

Prepared by Course Tutor :

Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain

Coordinator of Post-Graduate Studies


Mechanical Engineering Department
College of Engineering - University of Baghdad

September 2016 Thu Al-Hujja 1437


ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

Preface
The present book is a handout lectures for the M.Sc. Course
ME532 : Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection & Mass Transfer. The course is
designed for M.Sc. Students in the Mechanical Engineering / Thermo-Fluids specialty.
The time schedule needed to cover the course material is 15 weeks , 3 hrs. per week. The
course had been taught by the author ( course tutor ) for more than 20 years. A short c.v.
for the course tutor is given below ;

 Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Baghdad - 1964


 B.Sc., M.Sc. ( 1989 ), & Ph.D. ( 1997 ) in Mechanical Engineering
from the Mech. Engr. Dept. – University of Baghdad
 Professor of Mechanical Engineering – Thermo Fluids
 Lines of Research Covers the Following Fields ;
 Aerodynamics
 Convection Heat Transfer ( Forced, Free, and Mixed )
 Porous Media ( Flow and Heat Transfer )
 Electronic Equipments Cooling
 Heat Transfer in Manufacturing Processes ( Welding, Rolling, … etc. )
 Inverse Conduction
 Turbomachinery ( Pumps, Turbines, and Compressors )
 Heat Exchangers
 Jet Engines
 Phase-Change Heat Transfer
 Boundary Layers ( Hydrodynamic and Thermal )
 ASHRAE Member ( 8161964 )
 Supervised ( 41 ) M.Sc. Thesis and ( 20 ) Ph.D. Dissertations
 Publication of more than (60) Papers in the Various Fields Mentioned above
 Member in the Evaluation and Examining Committees of more than ( 300 ) M.Sc. and Ph.D.
Students in their Theses and Dissertations
 Evaluation of more than ( 700 ) Papers for Various Journals and Conferences
 Contact Information :
 E-mail: drihsan@uobaghdad.edu.iq : dr.ihsanyahya1@gmail.com
dr.ihsanyahya1@yahoo.com
 Skype Name : drihsan11
 Mobile No. : +964-7901781035 : +964-7705236582

Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept. - College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 2
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

Course No. : ME532 , 3 hrs.


Course Title : Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection & Mass Transfer
Type of Course : Graduate ( M.Sc. ) Course in Mechanical Engineering
Bulletin Description : Advanced Study of Heat and Mass Transfer ; Forced, Natural
and Phase Change Modes.
Course Tutor : Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept. – College of Engr. -
University of Baghdad
Course Outlines and Contents: Page No.
Ch. 1 : Introductory Concepts 7
1.1 Modes of Heat Transfer 8
1.2 Convection Heat Transfer 8
1.3 Methods of Investigation of Convection Heat Transfer 12
1.3.1 Analytical Methods 12
1.3.2 Experimental Methods 12
1.3.3 Dimensional Analysis 12
1.3.3.1 The Methods of Finding Dimensionless Groups 13
1.3.3.2 Significance of some Dimensionless Numbers 14
1.3.4 Methods of Analogy between Momentum and Heat Transfer 14
1.3.5 Computational Methods 16
1.4 Characteristic Temperature Difference 17
1.5 Thermal Boundary Conditions 18
1.5.1Constant Heat Flux 19
1.5.2 Constant Wall Temperature 20
1.6 Criterion for Fully - Developed Temperature Profile 20
1.7 Governing Equations 23
1.7.1Viscous Newton – Fourier Fluids 24
1.7.2 Time Dependent 3-D Variable Properties Flow 24
1.7.3 Incompressible Constant Properties Flows 25
1.7.4 Buoyancy-Driven Flows 26
Problems 27

Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept. - College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 3
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

Ch. 2 : Laminar Forced Convection Heat Transfer in Closed Conduits 29


2.1 Fully Developed Flow (both Hydrodynamically and Thermally) 29
2.1.1 Circular Tubes 29
2.1.2 Parallel Plates 32
2.1.3 Concentric Circular Tubes Annulus 34
2.1.4 Rectangular Ducts 36
2.2 Developing Flow 41
2.2.1 Introduction 41
2.2.2 Leveque Solution 43
2.2.3 Graetz Solution 45
2.2.4 Combined Hydrodynamic and Thermal Entry Length 50
Problems 51
Ch.3 : Laminar Forced Convection Heat Transfer in External Flow 55
3.1 Equation of the Boundary layer 55
3.2 The Thermal Boundary Layer 55
3.2.1 Integral Method 55
3.2.2 Similarity Method 60
Problems 66
Ch.4 : Turbulent Forced Convection Heat Transfer 69
4.1Introduction 69
4.2 Empirical Correlations for Turbulent Flow Heat Transfer in Closed
Conduits 69
4.3 Methods of Analogy between Momentum and Heat Transfer 73
4.3.1 Reynolds Analogy 75
4.3.2 Prandtle – Taylor Analogy 76
4.3.3 Von Karman- Martinelli – Boelter Analogy 78
4.3.4 Colburn Analogy 83
4.4 Turbulent Flow Parallel to Flat Plate 84
4.4.1 Integral Analysis 84
4.4.2 Prandtle Analogy Applied to Flat Plate 85

Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept. - College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 4
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

4.4.3 Colburn Analogy Applied to Flat Plate 86


4.4.4 Combined Laminar and Turbulent Flow 87
4.5 Developing Turbulent Flow 88
Problems 90
Ch.5 : Free (Natural) Convection Heat Transfer 93
5.1 Introduction 93
5.2 Laminar Free Convection Heat Transfer 95
5.2.1 Integral Analysis 95
5.2.2 Exact Analysis 97
5.3 Turbulent Free Convection Heat Transfer 99
5.4 Combined Free and Forced Convection Heat Transfer 102
Problems 103
Ch.6 : Condensation and Boiling Heat Transfer 105
6.1 Condensation Heat Transfer 105
6.1.1 Film Condensation on a Planar Surface: Nusselt Theory 107
6.1.2 Improvement to the Original Nusselt Theory 111
6.1.3 Condensation on Horizontal and Inclined Tubes 111
6.1.4 Condensation on Bundle of Horizontal Tubes 113
6.2 Boiling Heat Transfer 114
6.2.1 Pool Boiling 114
6.2.2 Convective Boiling 122
Problems 123
Ch.7: Mass Transfer 125
7.1 Introduction 125
7.2 Analogy between Heat and Mass Transfer 126
7.3 Mass Diffusion 127
7.3.1 Definitions 127
7.3.2 Fick’s Law of Diffusion 128
7.3.3 Steady State Diffusion through a Wall 133
7.3.4 Water Vapor Migration in Buildings 135

Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept. - College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 5
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

7.3.5 Diffusion of Water Vapor in Air 136


7.3.6 Transient Diffusion 139
7.4 Mass Convection 141
7.4.1 Introduction 141
7.4.2 Analogy between Friction, Heat, and Mass Transfer
Coefficients 145
7.4.3 Mass Convection Relations 145
7.5 Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer 148
Problems 152
Appendix - A - : Summary of some Equations, Relations and Tables 155
References:
1. “Convective Heat and Mass Transfer ” ,W.M.Kays,McGraw Hill Holman
2. “Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer”; James, G. Knudsen and Donald L. Katz,
Mc Graw Hill.
3. “Convective Heat Transfer”,Vedat S. Arpaci and Paul S.Larser,Prentia – Hall.
4. “Transport Phenomena”, R.Byron Bird, Warren E. Stewart and Edwin
N.Lightfoot, John Wiley and Sons.
5. “Boundary Layer Theory ” , Herman Schlichting, Mc Graw Hill.
6. “Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow”, Suhas V.Patanker, Hemisphe
Publication Corporation.
7. “Heat Transfer”, J.P.Holman, Mc Graw Hill.
8. “Convective Boiling and Condensation”, John G.Collier,Mc-Graw Hill.
9. “Heat Transmission”, William H.Mc Adams, Mc Graw Hill.
10. “ Analysis of Heat and Mass Transfer ”, Eckert and Drake .
11. “Convective Heat Transfer “ , Louis C. Burmeister, John Wiley
12. “Heat Transfer : A Basic Approach”,M.N.Ozisik, Mc Graw Hill.
13. “Heat Transfer: A Practical Approach”, Yunus A. Gengel, Mc Graw Hill.

Preliminary Reading: Chapters (1-4) and Chapter (8) of Ref.(1)


Course Requirements: Mid-Term Tests (Nos.2, 8 each).... (16-20)%
Term Paper (Seminar) …............….. (8)%
Homework & Assignments ..........… (6) %
Final Test……....…..........……....…. (70) %
Total ………......…….…..……....…(100) %

Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept. - College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 6
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

Chapter (1)
Introduction Concept

1.1 Modes of Heat Transfer


A thermal science like heat transfer, as well as gas dynamics, always starts with
mechanics and thermodynamics but also requires information about the behavior
(constitution) of the working fluid. Gas dynamics, for example, considers the equation of
state for a gas in addition to the general principles of mechanics and thermodynamics.
Heat transfer, on the other hand, requires two constitutive relations by which its two
basic modes, diffusion (conduction) and radiation are distinguished.
Phenomenologically speaking, diffusion is the experimental recognition of heat
transfer from a point of higher temperature to an adjacent point of lower temperature in a
medium. At the microscopic level, the mechanism of diffusion is visualized as and
hypothesized by a model for the exchange of energy between adjacent particles.
Consequently, diffusion is local and, being directional is irreversible, and it can happen
only through matter. On the other hand, radiation is the experimental recognitions of
electromagnetic waves, and the energy carried (heat transferred) by these waves. At the
microscope level, the mechanism of radiation is visualized as the transport of energy by
radiation particles (radiation quanta, photons). Consequently, acting at a distance, the
radiation is reversible when it happens through vacuum.
From a conceptual view point, convection is not a basic mode of heat transfer but,
rather, is the diffusion and/or radiation in moving media. Therefore, fluid mechanics
plays an important role in convection. For customary reasons only, we shall refer to the
diffusion of heat in moving (or stationary) rigid media as conduction, and to the
diffusion and/or radiation of heat in moving deformable media as connection,
see Fig. (1.1).

Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept. - College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 7
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

Heat Transfer

Conduction Radiation

Stable
In moving deformable media
Unstable

Laminar
Convection
Turbulent

Fig. (1.1): Two Modes of Heat Transfer and Convection

Conduction: Conduction in a homogeneous opaque solid is the transfer of heat from


one part to another, under the influence of temperature gradient, without appreciable
displacement of the particles. Conduction involves the transfer of kinetic energy from
one model to an adjacent molecule; it is the only mechanism of heat flow in an opaque
solid. With certain transparent solids such as glass and quartz, some energy is
transmitted by radiation as well as by conduction. With gases and liquids, conduction
may be supplemented by convection and radiation.

Convection: Convection involves the transfer of heat by mixing one parcel of fluid with
another. The motion of the fluid may result from density difference due to temperature
difference (natural convection) or may be produced by mechanical means (forced
convection).

Radiation: A hot body emits radiant energy in all directions. When this energy strikes
another body, part may be transmitted through the body, in which case the body is said
to be diathermanous. The reminder is absorbed and quantitatively transformed to heat.

1.2. Convection Heat Transfer


Convection heat transfer, as a diffusion process in moving medium, can best be
classified according to the celebrated Reynolds experiment sketched in Fig. (1.2).

Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept. - College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 8
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

Convection

Stable Unstable

Laminar Turbulent

Infinitesimal Finite Amplitude

Transition
Instability

Undisturbed Disturbed Developing Developed

Fig. (1.2): The Reynolds Experiment: Structure of Convection

Accordingly, the natural appearance of convection is either stable (laminar) or unstable


(turbulent). An inspection of the different forms of motion assumed for the classical
branches of thermal science locates the place of convection among these branches, as
shown in Fig. (1.3). Thus, convection is usually known to deal with incompressible
viscous flows, while gas dynamics is usually known to deal with in inviscid
compressible flow.

Motion

Deformable Rigid

Conduction

Viscous Compressible Gas dynamics Compressible


Flow; Compressible b.l.; Convection;
flow Potential
Thermal Stresses Incompressible b.l

Fig. (1.3): Customary Branches of Thermal Science

Convection heat transfer is usually encountered along a solid-fluid interface, see


Fig. (1.4). Thus, conduction in a solid and convection in a fluid simultaneously occur in
nature, rather than occurring separately. However, because, of our inability to solve this
coupled actual problem, we cut the problem along the interface and artificially separate

Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept. - College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 9
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

it into a conduction problem and convection problem. Then we try to solve each problem
separately after replacing the real interface boundary conditions with simpler but
somewhat artificial boundary conditions.

Convection
T∞

Nu=
Fluid q
w

Tw

Solid

Bi
Conduction

Fig. (1.4): Separation of an Actual Thermal Problem into Conduction Problem and a
Convection Problem

Defining convection as heat transfer through a solid-fluid interface, this heat


transfer per unit area and time is expressed in terms of a heat transfer coefficient (h),
according to Newton’s law of cooling;

=h(Tw-T ) ..................................... (1.1)

where (Tw-T ) denotes the difference between interface and ambient temperatures. The
heat flux( may also be expressed in terms of the thermal conductivity(K) of the fluid,
according to the Fourier law of conduction, as;

..................................... (1.2)

Combining equations (1.1) and (1.2) gives;

..................................... (1.3)

Or, in terms of the characteristic length (l) for the fluid domain, as;

Nu = ..................................... (1.4)

Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept. - College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 10
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

Where (Nu) is the Nusselt number and ( the dimensionless distance normal to the
interface. Thus, the convection heat transfer through an interface is related to the
evaluation of the dimensionless wall gradient of the fluid temperature.
Clearly ( may also be expressed by conduction in the solid, which leads to the
definition of the Biot number;

= ..................................... (1.5)

Where the subscript (s) refers to the solid domain. In conduction problem, (h) and ( )
are given and equ. (1.1) is employed as a boundary condition. Whereas for convection
problem, equ. (1.3) is used to evaluate (h). Some sample valves of (h) are given in Table
(1.1).

Table (1.1) Order of Magnitude of the Heat Transfer Coefficient (h)


Situation h(W/m20C)
Free Convection: Gases 3.5-23
Liquids 116-700
Boiling Water 1160-23000
Forced Convection: Gases 11.6-116
Viscous Fluids 58-580
Water 580-11600
Boiling Water 5000-100000
Condensing Vapors 1160-116000

1.3 Methods of Investigation of Convection Heat Transfer


Five methods are usually used in convection problems;

Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept. - College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 11
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

1. Analytical Methods.
2. Experimental Methods.
3. Dimensional Analysis.
4. Methods of Analog between Momentum and Heat Transfer.
5. Computational Methods.
1.3.1 Analytical Methods
In these methods, a number of assumptions are made to simplify the governing
equations and get a solution for them. By their very nature, analytic convection solutions
often tend to be lengthy and difficult.

1.3.2 Experimental Methods


Prior to World War II, convective heat and mass transfer were largely empirical
sciences, and engineering design was accomplished almost exclusively by the use of
experimental data, generalized to some degree by dimensional analysis. After that, great
studies have been made in developing analytical methods of convection analysis into the
point where the experiments are now used for the validity of the theoretical models. The
area of complete dependence on direct experimental data has been greatly diminished.
The main drawbacks of the experimental methods are;
1- Cost and efforts.
2- They are time consuming.
3- Error of measurement (could be 30-40%).
4- Some experiments cannot be performed (such as the nuclear reactors).

1.3.3 Dimensional Analysis


A rational way of investigating a problem experimentally is to describe the problem first
in terms of appropriate dimensionless numbers". The development leading to a
dimensionless description of problem is called Dimensional Analysis".
Interpretation of experimental results in terms of some dimensionless numbers id called
"Correlation of Experimental Data".

Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept. - College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 12
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

The advantage of using the dimensionless parameters is the reduction of the independent
variables controlling a problem. For example, in forced convection heat transfer in a
circular tube;

h = h (k, ……………………….…… (1.6)

Thus we need ( experiment to investigate the effect of the six independent


variables (5 experiments for each) on the heat transfer coefficient (h). Whereas, using
dimensional analysis;

Nu=

………………………………… (1.7)

So, we need only ( =25) experiments to investigate these effects.

1.3.3.1 The Methods of Finding the Dimensionless Groups


There exist three distinct methods for dimensional analysis is;
1- Formulation (nondimensionalizing): Term-by-term nondimensionalization of the
governing equations leads directly to the related dimensionless numbers.
2- Algebraic Methods (Rayleigh & -Theorm): If all physical and geometric
quantities describing the problem are known, we many write;
f (Q1,Q2,…..Qn),=0 ……………………………(1.8)
Expressing these quantities in terms of appropriate fundamental units, and making
equ. (1.8) independent of the fundamental units by an appropriate combination of Q‘s
yields the dimensionless numbers.
3- Physical (Geometric, Kinematic & Dynamic) Similitude: Ratios established from
the individual terms of appropriate general principle give the dimensionless numbers.

1.3.3.2 Significance of some Dimensionless Numbers in Heat Transfer

Nusselt No Nu = =- =

Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept. - College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 13
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

Prandtle No = =

Peclet No Pe = = RePr =

Stanton No St = =

Grashof No Gr =

Graetz No = Same as Pe except effects of considered (entrance region)

Eckert No

Richardson No.: Ri =

Reynolds No Re = =

Biot No Bi =

Rayleigh No Ra =

Mach No M=

Fourier No.: (Dimensionless Time in Conduction H.T.)

Note:
In general: Nu = Nu ( , , , )
Forced Convection: Nu = Nu ( , Low speed
Free Convection: Nu = Nu (
For High Speed; add (

1.3.4 Methods of Analogy between Momentum and Heat Transfer


The analogy between momentum and heat transfer is best defined by a statement of
Reynolds theory. According to this theory, the movement of heat between a surface and
a fluid follows the same law as the movement of momentum between the surface and a
fluid, whether by conduction or convection (radiation is neglected). The similarity of the
equations describing the three transfer processes is obvious in Table (1.2).

Table (1.2) Comparison of Turbulent Transfer Processes in Circular Tube

Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept. - College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 14
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

Momentum Heat Transfer Mass Transfer


Transfer
Quantity Momentum ( Heat(qw/Aw) Mass(Nw/Aw)
Transferred
Unit for Viscosity( ) Thermal conductivity Diffusivity,(D)
Molecular (K)
Transfer
Coefficients Fanning friction Heat Transfer Mass Transfer
factor(f) coefficient(h) coefficient(Km)
Driving Force Velocity Temperature Concentration
difference (U) Difference( Difference(
Rate of Transfer =
as a Function of
Gradients at the
Wall
Rate of Transfer =f
in terms of
Coefficients

If Reynolds theory is correct, and if, in fact, heat and momentum transfer follow
the same laws, it will be possible to predict rates of heat transfer from rates of
momentum transfer and to predict temperature profile from velocity profile. Reynolds
theory states that the analogy between heat and momentum transfer applies both for
laminar and turbulent flow, see Figs. (1.5) and (1.6).

1
T1 U1
1

b U

rw=2.44cm
y
Re=17300
Tb=24.8°C
Tw 0 Fluid air
0 b y 0
0 y/rw 1

Fig.(1.5): Analogy Between Momentum and Heat Fig.(1.6):Velocity and Temperature


Transfer for Laminar Flow Profiles in Turbulent Flow in
Circular Tube

To calculate the heat transfer of the flow over a cylinder, mass transfer analogy
may be used. The cylinder is coated with Naphthalene (with sub lines) and put the
cylinder in a wind tunnel with air velocity (U about (1hr) and then the weight of the
cylinder is measured. The difference in weight, which represents the mass transfer is

Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept. - College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 15
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

thus obtained and the mass flux and average mass transfer coefficient is obtained and
also the concentration coefficient. From the analogy between heat and mass transfer, we
can calculate the temperature distribution and the heat transfer coefficient. We are able
to do that since the equation of energy and mass transfer are identical.

u = D=Diffusion coefficient

A dial gage may be used to measure the depth Dialgage

of impression from which the local mass U∞ Naphthalen

+
transfer coefficient may be found.

1.3.5 Computational Methods


Basically, numerical methods are discretization of analytical methods. By this
discretization the local (differential) formulation leads to finite difference formulations
while the global (integral, variational, or any other method of weighted residual)
formulation leads to finite element formulation. Both numerical methods lead, after
linearization if required, to the solution of systems of linear algebraic equations.
Finite element methods, originally developed for structural analysis, are being used
increasingly in fluid mechanics and convection. Although more accurate for a given
discretization, but also more elaborate than finite difference methods, the finite element
are most suited to irregular geometry problems which are not frequently encountered in
convection. Finite difference methods require relatively little algebra to set up for a
problem having regular boundaries, and methods are widely used in convection.

1.4 Characteristic Temperature Difference (∆T) in (q= hA∆T)


The heat transfer rate (q) may be calculated as (q= hA∆T). Now we ask what is
the characteristic temperature difference (∆T) to be used in this equation?

Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept. - College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 16
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

1. External Flow: T∞
T∞
Tw
∆T= Tw - T∞
Tw =Highest Temperature Tw

T∞= Lowest Temperature Easily Measured

2. Internal Flow: x

Tw = Highest temperature Tw
To
Uc
Tc = Lowest temperature Tc

∆T = Tw – To
Or ∆T = Tw - Tc

Or ∆T = Tw - T
Or ∆T = Tw - Tb
Where;

T = Average (Mean) Temperature = = ……………. ….. (1.9)

Tb = Bulk Temperature =

= ……………. …. (1.10)

For constant ( );

Tb= = …..(1.10a)

Where Q= Volume Flow Rate (m3/s)


(Tb) gives a true picture of the energy content of the fluid because it characterizes the
average thermal energy state of the fluid, and it is easily measured in the Lab., and
therefore in internal flow we always use (∆T= Tw - Tb).
3. Flow in Conduits:
Consider a fluid flowing in a circular tube of diameter (D), see Fig. (1.7). There
are conventional definitions of (h);

Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept. - College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 17
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

q= h1 (π DL) (Tw1 – Tb1) ……………. (1.11) 1

dx
2

Tb1 x Tb2
q= ha (π DL) …… (1.12) D

Tb1 L Tb2
Tw1 Tw2

q= hln(π DL) . …. (1.13)


Fig. (1.7): Heal Transfer in a
Circular Tube

Where;
(h1) based on the initial temperature difference
(ha) based on the arithmetic mean of the terminal temperature difference
(hln) based on the logarithmic temperature different = LMTD

(hln) is preferable for most calculations because it is less dependent on (L/D) than the
other two.
If the wall temperature distribution is initially unknown, or if the fluid properties
change along the pipe, then the local heat transfer coefficient (h 1oc) is defined as;
dq= h1oc (πDdx) ……………. …. (1.14)
Where:
dq = Heat added to the fluid in the distance (dx)
Tw – Tb= Local temperature difference
Equation (1.14) is widely used in engineering design.

1.5 Thermal Boundary Conditions


Two thermal boundary conditions are usually used in convection heat transfer
problems. These are:
B.C.1: Constant Heat Flux on the Wall. (CHF).
B.C.1: Constant Wall Temperature (CWT).

1.5.1 Constant Heat Flux


Technically, constant heat rate problems arise in a number of situations: electric
resistance heating, radiant heating, unclear heating, and in counter – flow heat exchange

Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept. - College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 18
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

when the fluid capacity rates are the same. This is, then a rather important boundary
condition.
This B.C could be produced by winding the tube with a heating wire at a uniform
pitch (after we insulate the tube with fiber glass) or using (Mgo).
The constant heat rate (qw) is obtained steal
Ni -Cr
n

qw
due to the uniform pitch of the wire. Mgo
Flow

Another method to produce


Wine

constant heat rate is to use the tube material


itself as an electrical resistance. The tube
material could be (S.S.) or (Monel). Don’t
use (Cu) because its resistance is small and curing
Flow
short circuit many occur.
To produce variable heat flux, either
Higher current (2000A)low voltage (5v)
by using a heating wire with a variable transformer

pitch, or using variable wall thickness.

Flow

qW

1.5.2 Constant Wall Temperature

Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept. - College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 19
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

This is another very common convection problem and occur in such heat
exchangers as evaporators, condensers, and, in fact, in any heat exchange where the fluid
has a very much higher capacity rate than the other.
Te
To produce constant (Tw), we surround the tube with Annulus

a jacket and circulate some other


. fluid in the annulus,
Flow
. Tw
since [q= m (cp (Te – Ti)], then with large (m) or large
Tb

.
(Cp), i.e large (mcp), (Te – Ti) will be very small and we Ti

can obtain reasonable constant wall temperature.

To obtain constant (Tw) we must have a phase change We want this variation
Ti

(boiling or condensation), i.e. high (h). The constant (Tw) can


be varied by varying the pressure of the hot steam (Tw = Tsat. Te

Fluid
at that pressure).
hot steam
To have a variable (Tw) along the tube, we can do that by
U tube

injecting steams with different conditions in different Tb Tw

Condensate
film

sections. Condensate

1.6 Criterion for Fully – Developed Temperature Profile


The term fully – developed temperature profile implies that there exists, under
certain conditions, a generalized temperature profile that is invariant with tube length,
see Fig. (1.8).

Tw
1
Tw
2
f(r) alone ≠ f(x)

r0 r
Tw -T
1

Tw -T
1
Tw -T
1
x
r0 r

Fig. (1.8): Fully - Developed Temperature Profile

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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

The profile of the temperature is the same, only shifting by some constant value
occurs; i.e. if (Tw) is changed by (20 ₒC) for example, then the temperature of all points
are changed by the same amounts. Thus;

= constant = - ….….….….….…. (1.15)

Then; = constant

Hence;

Nu = = constant invariant with (x) for fully developed temperature profile.

Thus; Nu

Fully -developed
=0 ….….….….….…. (1.16) flow

x/d

Carrying on the differentiation, it is obtained;

= .….….….….…. (1.17)

Equation (1.17) is a general equation applicable for all situations of fully –


developed temperature profile The general three types of boundary conditions usually
used in conduits flow are;

1- Constant Wall Temperature:


In this case (Tw = const);

Thus =0 Tw=
Cons t.

….….….….….…. (1.18)

This type of boundary conditions is very suitable for circular tubes, but for non –
circular ducts it is improper, due to the lack of symmetry in these ducts. This asymmetry
allows a peripheral temperature gradient to exist, which in turn cause a heat flow within

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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

the wall. This heat flow will affects the temperature distribution of the wall, and
therefore, the thermal properties of the wall become a factor in the solution of the
problem.
2- Constant Heat Flux (qw) in the Axial Direction, but Constant Wall
Temperature (Tw) at Each Axial Location
This boundary condition is approached with a wall of large thermal conductivity.
Now;
qw = h (Tw- Tb) Tw=
Cons t.

Since h= const. for fully developed flow, then;


Tw- Tb = = const.

And; T Tw
T
Tb

=
And equation (1.17) will be; x

= = ….….….….…. (1.19)

3- Constant Heat Flux (qw) in both the Flow and Peripheral Directions
This boundary condition is approached with a wall of low thermal conductivity,
where the heat must enter the fluid at wall locations where it is generated. To find the

bulk temperature gradient , an energy balance is made to the fluid element shown in
Fig. (1.9).
qw

P=Perimeter
r ρ UACp(Tb+dTb)
u U
qw A
ρ UA cpTb Tb Tb+dTb
X
-

qw
X

dx

Fig. (1.9): Energy Balance for Fluid Element


Energy in = Energy out.

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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

Hence; =

; = ……………………. (1.20)

Where; Hydraulic Diameter

1.7 Governing Equations


The continuum approach to convection, as well as to other branches of
engineering science, is based on the “definition of concepts” and the “statement of
natural laws” in terms of these concepts.
The natural laws of the universe can neither be prove nor disproved but are arrived
at inductively on the basis of “phenomenological evidence” collected from a variety of
“observations”. As the progress of man continues, the present statement of natural laws
will continue to be refined and generalized. Nature provides these laws with two distinct
features; those “independent of the continuum “they apply to be called the “general
principles”, and those “dependent on the continuum” they apply to be called the
“constitutive relations”. In dealing with thermal problems, we are forced to seek an
additional equation called the “thermodynamic relation”. It expresses the constraining
assumption of “local equilibrium”.
General Principles Constitutive Relations Thermodynamic Relation
Gibbs Relation
1 Conservation of Mass 1 1

Balance of Liner
2 2 = 2 du=Tds-Pdv
Momentum
Maxwell Relation
Balance of Moment of
3 3 3
Total Momentum
Conservation of Total
4 4 P=
Energy
5 Increase of Entropy
Conservation of
6
Electric Charge
7 Lorentz Force
8 Ampere Circuit Law
9 Faraday Induction Law

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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

1.7.1. Viscous Newton-Fourier Fluids


General Principles:

……………………………... (1.21)

……………………………… .(1.22)

…………..…………….. (1.23)

…………………………….... (1.24)

Constitutive Relations:
……………………….…………… (1.25)

…………………………………………………………..… (1.26)

= or = ……………………………. (1.27)
Where:

(Substantial derivative)

f= body force per unit mass

1.7.2 Time – Dependent Three – Dimensional Variable Properties Flow


Conservation of Mass:

………………………….……. (1.28)

N.S.

+ + …….. (1.29)

+ + ……………….. (1.30)

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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

43 23 + ……………….. (1.31)

Balance of Thermal Energy ;

…… (1.32 a, b)

Dissipation Function:

…….. (1.33)

Equation of State:
= or = ………. (1.34)

(v= ) and = heat generation per unit volume.

1.7.3 Incompressible Constant Property Flows


Constant,

C.E.: …………………………….…. (1.35)

N.S.:

….. (1.36)

….. (1.37)

….. (1.38)

Balance of Thermal Energy:

……. (1.39)

Dissipation Function:

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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

+ …..(1.40)

1.7.4. Buoyancy –Drive Flows


The most frequently encountered buoyancy is associated with gravity. It is seen in
the heating of rooms from convectors or space heaters, in providing the draft in
chimneys, in cooling products in refrigerators or cooling houses, in the cooling of
transistors and transformers, as well as human beings and animals standing in a
quiescent atmosphere. On large scale, buoyancy contributes to driving the atmospheric
circulation of the earth. Other sources of natural convection are centrifugal forces, which
provide the internal cooling of turbine blades, and inertial forces, which affect cryogenic
liquids in accelerating rockets. The governing equations are;

…………………………………………. (1.41)

= ……………………. (1.42)

……………..……………. (1.43)

For buoyancy-driven flows, (p- is negligibly small. However, for combined (forced
and buoyancy-driven) flows the pressure term becomes appreciable.
Notes:
1. To = Uniform reference temperature.
2. P0 = Hydrostatic pressure corresponding to (T0 and

3. Coefficient of thermal expansion =

4.

Problems

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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

1. What are the basic modes of heat transfer? Is convection heat transfer is one of them?
and why?
2. What is the difference between Biot number and Nusselt number?
3. What are the most important dimensionless numbers used in convection heat transfer?
and what are their physical significance? Which one of them is a property of the fluid?
4. What are the most familiar characteristic temperature different ( ) used in
convection heat transfer?
5. What are the basic types of thermal boundary conditions that are usually used in
convection heat transfer problems? And how we can achieve them experimentally?
6. What the criterion is for fully - developed temperature profile in internal flows?
Derive a general expression for this criterion, and then simplify this expression for the
two cases of constant heat flux and constant wall temperature thermal boundary
conditions. What is the most important parameter that controls the establishment of
this fully - developed temperature profile?
7. A liquid metal flows through a circular tube of radius (R). The velocity and
temperature profiles at each axial location may be approximated as uniform and
parabolic profiles respectably, i.e.;

u(r) = C1 and T=TW +C2

Where (C1) and (C1) are constants. Assuming incompressible flow with constant fluid
properties ( ), evaluate the Nusselt number of the flow. Dose this value
is constant or it may change with the axial direction?
8. Derive the energy equation in Cartesian coordinates by making an energy balance
according to the first law of thermodynamics for a differential element in the flow
filed. Neglect the radiation effects.
9. Consider the steady flow of a fluid between two parallel plates. Simplify the energy
equation in rectangular coordinates for this flow, assuming fully developed flow and
the heat conduction in the x-direction is negligible compared to that in y- direction.
Discuss the physical significance of each term in the simplified equation.
10.The steady state energy equation for flow inside a circular tube is given by:

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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

Discuss the assumptions made to simplify the energy equation to this form. Explain
the physical significance of each term in this equation.

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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

Chapter ( 2 )
Forced Convection Heat Transfer for Laminar Flow in Closed Conditions
The major technical applications of these types of flow are in the analysis and
design of heat exchanges. The main assumptions of the analysis are:
1. Negligible body forces.
2. Steady flow.
3. Constant fluid properties.
4. Fluid is forced through the tube by some external means unrelated to the
temperature filed in the fluid

2.1 Fully - Developed Flow (both Hydrodynamically and Thermally)


This analysis is applicable in the region far removed from the entrance to the
conduit.
2.1.1. Circular Tubes
Assumptions:

1. Fully developed flow (

2. No inlet Swirl ( =0;

3. Circular symmetry (

4. Negligible dissipation function (


5. No heat generation (
6. No buoyancy effects (β=0)

7. Negligible axial diffusion ( L>>R,

M.E. → .....(2.1) r
R
D=2R
X

E.E. ....(2.2)

Equ. (2.2) is applied for the two B.Cs. (constant heat rate and constant wall temperature).

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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

A- Constant Heat Rate

From equ. (1.19) → ...(1.19) T


Tw
T
Thus, equ. (2.2) will be (using equ. (2.1);
Tb
....(2.3)
x
B.Cs. : at r = 0

at r = R T = Tw
Equ. (2.3) can be integrated twice to obtain;

T = Tw - ...................... (2.4)

Now:

Using equs. (2.1) and (2.4) ,it is obtained;

………………………... (2.5)

Now;

Using an energy balance (equ. (1.20), noting, that (Dh=D=2R);


Nu

or;

x/D

Thus; Nu= ...... (2.6)

i.e.;
Nu= constant in fully developed flow
Note: Nu= StPrRe=4.364

St Pr =
H.T. (h) M.Flow (f)

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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

B- Constant Surface Temperature

From equ. (1.18) → ………………………... (1.18)

Thus, equ. (2.2) will be:

......................................... (2.7)

B.Cs. at r = 0

at r = R T = Tw
There are two methods for solving equ. (2.7);
1- Successive Approximation Method:
a. Assume a profile for T=T(r) (use for example equ. (2.4) as a first trial), in the R.H.S.
of equ. (2.7) only (i.e for (Tw-T) term).
b. Solve equ. (2.7) for a new temperature profile T1(r).
c. Using T1(r), calculate Nu1.
d. Use T1(r) into equ. (2.7) and get T2(r). and Nu2.
e. Compare Nu1 and Nu2 until Nu becomes constant. The limit is;
Nu= 3.658 ……………………………………………………………... (2.8)
This value is 16% less than Nu= 4.364 for constant heat flux. This is due to temperature
profile. H=const. heat flux
T=const. wall temp.

H T

2- Asymptotic Method
In this method, we solve the problem of developing flow and find where (Nu)
becomes constant.
Note:
Developing flow solution
Constant Tw case is nothing but variable qw
Fully-developed
case, and constant qw case is nothing but
variable Tw case.

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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

2.1.2 Parallel Plates


Assumptions:-

1. Fully-developed flow ( , (no end effect).

2. Negligible dissipation function.


3. No heat generation.
4. No buoyancy effects.
5. Negligible axial diffusion.
6. Two-dimensional flow (w=0).

7. No edge effects ( =0).


y
M.E → ………….... (2.9) qw

E.E. .....................(2.10) 2b x

B.Cs. at y=0
qw

at y=b T=Tw

* Ex. use equ. (2.9) and the constant hart rate B.C. and integrate equ. (2.10) to obtain;

Nu = ............................... (2.11)

Note: Nu = 7.542 for const. wall temperature B.C.

Asymmetric Heating
q1
It may be that one plate is heated and
1
y
the other is cooled. This problem can be
x
b
solved by superposition technique (since the 2

D.E. and B.Cs. are liner) q1

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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

q1
q1
1
Nu11 insulated
1
1
y
y
2b x T1 2b
+ x
2b

2
2 2
insulated q2
q2

Case (0) Case (1) Case (2)

Nu1 or Nu2 , T0,Tb Nu11 T1,Tb1 Nu22 T2,Tb2

Note: T0 = T1 + T2 Tb = Tb1 + Tb2. The position of the axes must be the same in all
cases.
Nu11 = Nu at plate 1 when plate 1 alone is heated = 5.385
Nu22 = Nu at plate 2 when plate 2 alone is heated = 5.385
Nu1 = Nu at plate 1
Nu1 ≠ Nu2
Nu2 = Nu at plate 2
The following steps may be followed to find Nu1& Nu2;
1. T1& T2 are the temperature distributions for the cases 1&2 respectively. They
contain q1& q2.
2. The temperature profile (T0) for the original case is obtains as (T0 = T1 + T2).
3. Find (Tb) from (T0) (by definition) or (Tb = Tb1 + Tb2).
4. q1 = h1(Tw1 - Tb)
q2 = h2 (Tw2 - Tb)

5. Nu1 = ………………………..(2.13)

6. Nu2 = ………………………....(2.14)

0.346 = influence coefficient


Nu11 = Nu22 = 5.385 const. heart flux ................... (2.15)
= 4.869 const. Tw

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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

Note: if → Nu1→ & h1→ , but this is not true because q is still finite. This

means only that (Tw1 - Tb) → 0, i.e Tw is increased.

Example: Value in a pipe


h Increase of h
B

value flow A

x/d

Curve A without pulsation


Curve B without pulsation
The closing of the value cause pressure waves deceases the b.l. thickness and thickness
and thus increases (h) and increases the wall temperature

2000K
500K

1500K

2.1.3 Concentric Circular Tube Annulus


This type of flow is of considerable technical importance because either or both of
the surfaces can be heated independently. There is an important applications to this type
of flow, such as;
1- Double pipe heat exchanger
2- Nuclear reactor, the inner tube represents the radio acting material (like uranium) and
the fluid is liquid metal flows outside the tube.
The assumptions used here are the same as those used in circular tubes analysis.

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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

M.E. →
qo ri
qi
B= ..(2.16) ro

m=1+r*2-B x

r*=
r
E.E. …………..(2.17)

B.Cs. at r = ri

at r = r0

Equ. (2.16) with (2.17) may be integrated to obtain the temperature profile and thus the
Nu can be calculated.
qi = hi (Twi - Tb)
q0 = h0 (Two - Tb)

Nui = …………………………... (2.18)

Nuoo = ……………………….... (2.19)

Nuii = Nu at the inner tube when it is heated alone.


Nuo = Nu at the inner tube when it is heated alone.
De=2(r0-ri) =D0-Di=2*annular gap

Influence coefficients, depends on (r*), see Table (2.1).

Table (2-1): Circular Tube Annulus Solutions for Constant Heat Rate and Fully-
Developed Velocity, and Temperature Profile
r* Nuii Nuoo
0 4.364 0
0.05 17.81 4.792 2.18 0.0294
0.1 11.91 4.834 1.383 0.0562
0.2 8.499 4.883 0.905 0.1041
0.4 6.583 4.979 0.603 0.1823
0.6 5.912 5.099 0.473 0.2455
0.8 5.58 5.24 0.401 0.299
1 5.385 5.385 0.346 0.346

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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

If we make ri and ro but (ro-ri) still have a finite value, we get two parallel
plates. For this reason, in parallel plates we get (Dh=2*2b=4b), and by letting
(ri, ro) where r*=1 and

When r*=0 (ri 0), we still have u=0 at (ri), i.e, we can't make
u=umax at ri as in the circular tube. Thus we cannot obtain the
circular tube solution from the annuls solution.

2.1.4 Rectangular Ducts

E.E. ……………………..(2.20)
y b
The solution of equ. (2.20) to give T=T(x, y, z) requires
acknowledge of the fully developed laminar velocity x a

profile in the rectangular duct. This profile (equ.4-87 in


Katz) is complicated and prevents an analytical solution
of equ. (2.20). Instead, a numerical solution exists in
literatures, see Table (2.2) and the Figure

10 Table (2.2): Limiting Nusselt Number for


Laminar Flow Heat Transfer in Rectangular
9
Ducts
8
N (F.D. 2-D case)
Nu∞ 7 Uniform heat
Uniform heat flux Const.wall.Temp
6 flow
a/b
5 Exact Exact
num. num.
4
. .
1(square
3 2.89 2.976 3.63 3.608
Cons tant wall te mp.
)
2
1
0.713 ---------- 3.78
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0.5 3.39 3.391 4.11 4.123
a/b
0.333 ------------ 4.77
-------------
0.25 4.439 5.35 5.331
-
---------
0.125 ------------- 5.597 6.49
-
0(paralle
7.6 7.542 8.24 8.235
l plates)

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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

Empirical Relations:
1- Uniform wall temp.

500 …… (2.21)
Pr=0.7

2- Uniform heat flux

500 …… (2.22)

Pr=0.7

Equations (2.21) & (2.22) were obtained on a square duct (0.18×0.18 in) with
( and a rectangular duct (0.151×0.395 in) with ( . All teats were
made on air. The value of may be obtained from table (2.2) or the figure.

de=

Example (2.1): Laminar fully –developed flow between parallel plates: Couette flow:

Sol.:

V=0,

u =U, T=Tb U
C.E
y b
M.E 0=
X
Thus; u =0, T=To

u= ……………(1)

B.Cs.
at y = 0 u = 0

at y = b u = U

Thus; u = ……………... (2) Coutte flow

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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

Eq. (2) comprise a linear velocity distribution between two plates due to simple
shear flow, superimposed on which is the quadratic distribution caused by the pressure

parameter P =

Reverse flow occurs when P<-1.The flow is


basically the same as that existing in the
U
narrow clearance between a lubricated u> C

Journal and its bearing where inertial 0


0 1 u/U

effects are negligible

If u= ……..…….…..……(3)

If both plates are stationary,

u= ……………………………. (4) Poiseuille flow

Energy Equ.

E.E 0=k

……………………………………... (5)

For the case of zero pressure gradient, equ. (3) may be used;

Thus; T = ………………………….... (6)

B.Cs. at y = 0 T = T0 T0

at y = b T = Tb

Thus, T-T0 = ………………….… (7)

Define η = equ. (7) will be;

………….………………….. (8)

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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

Equ. (8) consists of two relationships, the first is linear temperature profile for (Pr Ec=0)
(that is or U=0), and the second is parabolic distribution due to viscous heating
( (U and
Now, to find q at the upper plate;

1 ……………........ (9)

Thus, for Tb<T0 , the upper plate will be;


Cooled if Pr Ec < 2 [q is -ve]
Heated if Pr Ec<2 [q is +ve]
When the upper plate is adiabatic;

i.e 1

Or; Pr Ec=2

Pr ……………………. (10)

1
When Tad,b is the adiabatic wall temperature, that
is, the temperature assumed by the top plate
T>Tb
when heat flux through it is zero. Thus;
For cooling the top plate Tb< Tad,b
0

0 1

For heating the top plate Tb<Tad,b


To find the (Nu) number at the lower plate;

q= =h (To-TB) where TB is the bulk temperature

Thus; h =

Now; =

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And; = ; hence;

Nu =

Nulower = ……………………………. (11)

Example (2.2): Same as example (2.1) but lower plate is adiabatic.

Equ. (6); T = + ………………………………… (6)

B.Cs. at y = 0

at y = b T=

Thus; T = …………………… (1)

= = h (TB-Tb)

Hence; Nuupper =

Example (2.3): For example (1), show that;

Nuupper =

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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

Example (2.4): Both plates are stationary;

where Tw

y
Uc x b
[B.Cs. y = 0 ;
Tw

E.E.: B.Cs. ,

Where; 1-

2.2 Developing Flow

2.2.1 Introduction
In the previous types of flow, we have fully–developed velocity and temperature
profiles, and (h) is constant with length. If the tube is short (as in heat exchanger) the
flow will be developing. The development of hydrodynamic ( and thermal
( boundary –layers depends on (Pr) value;

Pr=

Diffusivity is defined as the rate at which a particular effect is diffused through the
medium.
If (Pr=1), then heat and momentum are diffused through the fluid at the same
rates, if the velocity and temperature are both uniform at the entrance to a tube, the
velocity and temperature profiles will develop together.
Tw
Tw

U
Laminar
flow
u
T

Pr =1
LH=LT H.B.L=T.B.L.

LH = Hydrodynamic entrance length


LT = Thermal entrance length

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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

If (Pr < 1), the velocity profile develops more rapidly than the temperature profile.
Actually, if (Pr < 5), the velocity profile leads the temperature profile sufficiently so that
a solution based on an already fully-developed velocity profile will applied quite
accurately even though there is no hydrodynamic starting length (before the section at
which heat transfer begins).We can assume that ( starts to develop right from point
(A) where the velocity profile is fully-developed. Most heat exchangers use fluids with
very high Prandtle number like oil, glycerin, engine oil).

Tw Tw

T∞
Pr < 1 H.B.L.
u

T.B.L.

LH

Pr< LT

If (Pr , the temperature profile develops more rapidly than velocity profile,
and we can use the "Slug" flow model, where we assume that the velocity is uniform
(u= u).

Tw Tw

Pr > 1 u

u=u
u= u
T
Pr LT

LH

The (Pr) spectrum is shown below;

10 -2 10 -1 10 0 10 1 10 2 10 3

Gases Water Light


Liquid Metals
organic Oils
liquids

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2.2.2Leveque Solution: Velocity Profile Fully – Developed


It is one of the simplest solutions for laminar flow heat transfer coefficient in a
circular tube. The analysis is applied directly to laminar flow heat transfer on a flat plate
but the results may be easily applied to circular tubes.
Consider a fluid flowing over a surface under the following condition:
1. The fluid properties are constant.
2. The surface temperature is uniform at TW. y
Velocity u=cy

3. The undisturbed fluid temperature is T .


Main stream
U,∞ Tw=const.
4. Heat transfer is due to conduction alone.
x

5. The velocity of the fluid is u=cy, v=w=0, Tw

where c=constant

The fluid temperature T=T(x, y). For small values of y, . Also may be

considered negligible. Thus the energy eqation will be;

cy …………………………………..(2.21)
B.Cs.

at x = 0 y< T=T

at x < 0 y T = Tw

at x < 0 y T=T

Equ. (2.21) may be transformed to an ordinary D.E. by introducing a new variable X,


where;
X=y ………………………………….…. (2.22)

Thus; equ. (2.21) will be;

…………………………..…… (2.23)

B.Cs.
X=0 T = Tw
X= T=T
Equ. (2.23) has the following solution;

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………………………….. (2.24)

The integral of equ. (2.24) is given in Table (2.3).

Table (2.3): Values of the Integral I=

X I X I X I X I

0 0 0.45 0.44 1.05 0.8246 1.55 0.8901

0.05 0.05 0.5 0.4849 1.1 0.839 1.6 0.8911

0.1 0.1 0.55 0.5282 1.15 0.851 1.65 0.8918

0.15 0.15 0.6 0.5695 1.2 0.8609 1.7 0.8922

0.2 0.1996 0.65 0.6078 1.25 0.8689 1.75 0.8925

0.25 0.249 0.7 0.6454 1.3 0.8752 1.8 0.8927

0.3 0.298 0.75 0.6796 1.35 0.8801 1.85 0.8928

0.35 0.3468 0.8 0.711 1.4 0.8838 1.9 0.8929

0.4 0.3934 0.85 0.7395 1.45 0.8866 1.95 0.8929

0.9 0.7651 1.5 0.8886 2 0.893

0.95 0.7877

1 0.8075

Now; h =

Thus;

h= ……………..…………..….…….. (2.25)

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Or; Nux = = …………………………..……. (2.26)

Equation (2.25) may be modified to give the Nusselt number in the entrance region of a
circular tube. If it is assumed that velocity distribution in the laminar boundary layer in
the entrance of a circular tube is parabolic, i.e.;
u = 2U …………………………………….…. (2.27)

And ( ……………………………………… (2.28)

Since r= -y ; Then

So; …………………………. (2.29)


This is the value of (c) which may be used in equ. (2.25). Thus;

h= ……………………………..…. (2.30)

And;

Nu= ………………………… (2.31)

Which simplifies to;

Nu = 1.077 100 …………… (2.32)

Where = = Re Pr

2.2.3 Graetz Solution: Velocity Profile Fully-Developed


It is one of the earliest analyses of laminar- Flow heat transfer in tubes (1885). The
conditions are as follows;

1- The fluid properties are constant


2- Fully-developed parabolic velocity
profile at entrance. Heat Transfer begin at x=0 Tw=cost. For x>0

avg.net U
R
3- At x=0, the wall temperature changes
T=T∞ for x<0

from ( to (Tw) and is uniform at this Tw=T∞ =const.for x<0

value for x<0.

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E.E.

= ……………………………………… (2.33)

M.E. 2 ………………………...……….. (2.34)


Define;

……………………….. (2.35)

Where Te = Entrance Temperature.

Equ. (2.33) and (2.34) will be;

= ………………………… (2.36)

………………………… (2.37)

For (Re Pr)< , the last term may be neglected. Thus; the final form of the E.E. is;

= ………………………… (2.38)

The solution sought is then;

………….…………………….. (2.39)

B.Cs.

1- at x = 0 T = Te (0,

2- at r = R T = Tw ( =0

3-

Let us assume the solution of equ. (2.38) as;

……………………. (2.40)

Substitute in equ. (2.38) using ( λ ) as the separation constant, it is obtained;

λ .... ………………… (2.41)

λ ……... (2.42) (Strum –Liouville equ.)

The final solution;

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λ .............. (2.43)
Where Rn = Eigen Function, λn = Eigen value Cn = constants
Now;

λ ... (2.44)
λ

Now;

= hx( x ….................……… (2.45)


Nux
Hence; hx =

and;

Nux = 00
x

Using (2.43) and (2.44) it can be shown that;


λ
…………….…… (2.46)
λ λ

Thus;

= ……………….. (2.47)
λ
λ

See Table (2.4);


Table (2.4): Constants of Graetz Solution
n λ

0 7.312 0.749

1 44.62 0.544 For n> 2

2 113.8 0.463 λn = 4n+

3 215.2 0.414 = 1.01276 λ


4 348.5 0.382

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For infinitely long tube ( < . (i.e. fully - developed flow), only
the first term of the series is needed. Thus for (n=0);
λ λ
…………... (2.48)
λ λ

Which is the Nu value for fully developed flow. The thermal entry length must be
approximately ( ;

……………… (2.49)
Nux
or;

= 0.05 Re Pr .......... (2.49) 3.658

x+

0.1

Ex. Air Pr =0.7, Re=500

Ex. Oil Pr =100, Re=500

In oil heat exchanger it is very rare indeed that anything approaching a fully
developed temperature profile is attained. In general, for high (Pr) applications, fully
developed solution is of little utility.
The complete results of the constant surface temperature solution are presented in
Table (2.5).
Table (2.5): Constant Temperature Solution

Nu
0 1
0.001 12.8 19.29 0.962
0.004 8.03 12.09 0.908
0.01 6 8.92 0.837
0.04 4.17 5.81 0.627
0.08 3.77 4.86 0.459
0.1 3.71 4.64 0.396
0.2 3.66 4.16 0.19
3.66 3.66 0

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Ex. Air heat exchanger Re=500 Pr =0.7 = 100

<

Take Nu and design the heat exchanger

Ex. Oil heat exchanger Re =500 Pr =100 = 100

Nu = 12.09

Note the very large error that would have obtained if fully developed solution has
been used (Nu = 3.66). If we use (Nu = 3.66) to rate the heat exchange, we get high exit
temperature than it is designed to because U will be very small (q= UA∆T). For given
(∆T), we get very large area if we use (Nu = 3.66) instead of (12.09)
For constant heat flux case, the solution is (Kays P.P.127);

Nux = …………………….. (2.49)

With =4.364

Table (2.6): Constant for Constant Heat Flux Solutions


m Am×10-3 Nux
1 25.68 7.63 0
2 83.86 2.058 0.002 12
3 174.2 0.901 0.004 9.93
4 296.5 0.487 0.01 7.49
5 450.9 0.297 0.02 6.14
0.04 5.19
0.1 4.51
4.36
For large (m):

Am =0.358

Note; Fluid properties are evaluated at the average bulk temperature;

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2.2.4 Combined Hydrodynamic and Thermal Entry Length

C.E.

.....................(2.50)
HBL
u T.B.L.

M.E.

......(2.51)

E.E.

………………...... (2.52)

Define

Thus;

M.E.

E.E.

The (Pr) number becomes a parameter in the solution of the combined


hydrodynamic and thermal - entry - length problem because while the velocity
development is independent of (Pr), the temperature profile is (Pr) number dependent, i.e.

From the figure, the effect of uniform velocity at Nu

CombinedH.B.LandT.B.L.
the entrance in the case of combined HBL & TBL is to
yield a (Nu) that is always higher than if the velocity were TBL fully developed
3.66 velocity

parabolic at the entrance.


x+

Kays (p.p. 142) solved the combined entry - length problem for Pr = 0.7,
employing Langhaar's velocity profile (u=u (x, r)) (pp.62 in Kays) he linearized the M.E
and solve it). In this solution v is omitted since it is important only near the pip inlet.
Then Kay solved the E.E. by numerical integration.
Heatonet. al ( Kays p.p. 144 ) solve the E.E by linearizing it and thus obtain a
generalized temperature distribution at the entry region which could be used in the
energy integral equation.
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

Problems
1. Derive the general energy equation in cylindrical polar coordinates; include the effects
of viscous energy dissipation. Show that viscous dissipation is important when the
Eckert number is large.
2. Obtain the value of fully - developed Nusselt number for flow between parallel plates
both of which are at the same;
(i) Constant temperature
(ii) Constant heat flux
3. Show that for a circular tube annulus with radius ratio equal to (0.2) and (0.6), the
fully - developed Nusselt numbers for constant heat flux on the inner tube with the
outer tube insulated are (8.499) and (5.912) respectively.
4. For a parallel plates flow with constant fluxes ( ) and ( ) on plates (1) and (2)
respectively, show that;
with

5. Consider a (0.25 in) inside diameter, (4 ft) long circular tube, wound by an electric
resistance heating element. Let the function of the tube be to heat an organic fuel from
(50 °F) to (150 °F). Let the mass flow rate of the fuel be (10 lbm / hr). The following
average properties may be treated as constant: (Pr = 10, =47 lbm/ft3 ,
C=0.5 Btu/ (lbm °F), K=0.079 5 Btu/ (hr Ft2 °F/ft), =1.6 lbm / (hr Ft) ). Calculate and
plot both tube surface temperature and fluid bulk temperature as a function of tube
length. What is the highest temperature experienced by any of the fluids?
6. Consider fully - developed constant - property laminar flow between parallel planes
with constant heat rate per unit of length and a fully - developed temperature profile.
Suppose heat is transferred "to" the fluid on one side and "out" of the fluid on the
other at the "same" rate. What is the Nusselt number on each side of the passage?
Sketch the temperature profile. Suppose the fluid is an oil for which the viscosity
varies greatly with temperature, but all other properties are relatively unaffected by
temperature. Is the velocity profile affected? is the temperature profile affected? Is the
Nusselt numbers affected? Explain.

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7. Consider laminar flow for fluid inside a circular tube with walls at constant surface
temperature. Plot the variation of Nusselt number with the parameter [Pe / (x/d)] using
(i) Leveque solution and (ii) Graetz solution.
8. Plot the radial temperature distribution of a cross - section (5 in) from the entrance of
a (1 in) diameter tube in which water at the rate of (200 lb/hr) is flowing. Tube wall
temperature is (200 °F) and the water inlet temperature is (100 °F).
9. Crude oil is to be heated from (65 °F) to (95 °F) in a shell and tube heat exchanger.
The oil flow rate through the tubes is (100,000 lb /hr). The tubes are (0.5 in) inside
diameter and the tube wall is at (200 °F). If the exchanger is to be no longer than (10
ft ), estimate the number of tube passes if there are (i) 20 tubes per pass (ii) 10 tubes
per pass. Use the following properties of oil; specific, gravity = 1.1, specific heat =
0.5, ºF , ºF , k=0.08 Btu / hrft2 °F. Estimate also the power
required to pump the oil through the tubes. State clearly the assumptions you may
need and use in the problem formulation and solution.
10. The viscosity of an oil as a function of temperature is given below:
Temp. (°F) 50 75 100 125 150 200 175
155 75 52 35 24 10 15
Specific gravity = 1.1, k= 0.08 Btu/hr ft 2 °F, specific heat = 0.5. This oil at (50 °F)
flows in (1 in) inside diameter tube at the rate of (6000 lb/hr). After a suitable calming
length the tube wall is maintained at (200°F). Estimate the length of heating required
for the flow to become turbulent.
11. An engine oil flows at (30 m/s) through a (25 mm) tube. The oil is at (160 °C) and the
tube surface is at (150 °C). If the tube is (2m) long, what is the average film
coefficient at the pipe surface? If the tube is (6.5m) long, what is the film coefficient?
(Use values from Table (8.4) of Kays and also empirical relations and compare the
results).
12. Compare the heat transfer results obtained from the Leveque solution and the Graetz
solution. Hence obtain the range of applicability of Leveque solution.

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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

13.Engine oil enters a (1.25 cm) diameter tube (3m) long at a temperature of (30 °C). The
tube wall is maintained at (65 °C) and the flow velocity is (30 cm/s). Estimate the total
heat transfer to the oil and the exit temperature of the oil.
14.(0.5 kg/min) of water is heated from (20 °C) to (40 °C) when passed through a tube of
(2.5 cm) diameter steel pipe. The pipe surface temperature is maintained at (110°C) by
condensing steam at its surface. Find out the length of the pipe required. The
properties of water at the mean temperature (110 + /2=70°C) are; = 978

kg/m3, k=0 0.575 kcal/mhr °C), cp = 1 kcal / kg °C, =0.415*10-6 m2/s. State clearly
any assumption you may need and use, and deriver all the relation used in the
solution.
15. A water heater consists of tube (4mm) in diameter which is provided with nichrome
heating wire over the tube which gives constant heat flux on tube surface. Water at the
rate of (3.6 kg/hr) passes through the tube and its temperature is increased from (25
°C) to (75 °C). The power input to the heating element is (200 W) per meter length of
the tube. Take the following properties of water at (50 °C): =984 kg/m3, = 4.76*10-
7
m2/s, C=4187 J/kg °C, k=0.65 W/m °C. Estimate the tube length and the wall
temperature at the tube exit.
16. Consider the steady laminar Poiseuille flow of a constant property fluid between two
large fixed parallel and horizontal plates that are spaced a distance (b) and kept at
uniform temperature ( ). Assume constant pressure gradient in the flow direction
and neglect the edge effect and end effects (except for pressure), and including the
viscous dissipation effects, derive an expression for the temperature distribution and
Nusselt number of the flow.
17. Derive an expression for the fully developed temperature profile when a fluid
generating heat at a constant rate of (q"') per unit volume, flows with laminar flow

( ) through an insulated pipe.

18. Consider the steady laminar two - dimensional flow between the two parallel plates
shown in the figure. The velocity profile is made of three straight lines as shown. For

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( ), Derive an expression for the temperature profile across the channel

cross section.
T1

δ
uc

b
δ

T1

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Chapter (3)

Forced Contraction Heat Transfer in External Laminar Flow

3.1 Equations of the Boundary – Layer


The heat transfer between a body and a flowing fluid with steady laminar motion
over that body will be considered here. It will be assumed that the thermal and velocity
boundary – layers which develop along the surface of the body are not influenced by the
development of the boundary – layers on adjacent surfaces; this is the distinguishing
feature of the problems of external flow compared to the internal flows. This type of
problems covers a wide range of applications, such as flow aver airfoils, turbine blades,
flow inside nozzles and flow at the stagnation point of cylinder and sphere.
It will be assumed that all body forces are negligible so that the fluid is forced
over body by some external means unrelated to the temperature field in the fluid. The
fluid properties are assumed constant. Two – dimensional boundary layers only will be
considered.

C. E: + = 0 ……………………………………... (3.1)

M. E: +v =- + …………………… (3.2)

E. E: +v = + ………………… (3.3)

3.2 The Thermal Boundary – Layer


The thermal boundary – layer may be defined as that region where temperature
gradients are present in the flow. The temperature gradients would result from a heat –
exchange process between the fluid and the wall.

3.2.1 Integral Analysis


To derive the integral energy equation of the boundary – layer for constant free –
stream temperature (T∞), consider the control volume shown in Fig. (3.1).

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A A
U∞ Tb TBL y
H u x

1 Tw 2

Fig. (3.1): Control Volume for Integral Energy Analysis of Laminar Boundary – Layer

Energy Balance
Energy Convected in + Viscous Work within the Element + Heat Transfer at the Wall =
Energy Convected Out …………………… (3.4)

Energy Convected in through Plane1 =

Energy Convected out through Plane 2 = +

A-A =

Energy A-A = cp

Viscous work =

Heat transfer at the wall =

Combining these energy quantities according to equ. (3.4) and collecting terms give:

+ = .......................... (3.5)

This is the integral energy equation of the boundary – layer for constant properties and
constant free stream temperature to (
Ex. Derive equ. (3.5) by integrating equ. (3.3) using equ. (3.1).
If F(x) =

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For small flow velocities, the viscous dissipation terms are usually neglected.
To solve the energy equation (3.5), we need to know the temperature and velocity
profiles. Assume;
T = a + by + cy2 + dy3
u= + y + y2 + y3
B.Cs.

at y=0 T= Tw u= 0
at y= = T= T u=
at y= = =0 ( =0)
at y=0 =0 =0

Thus; we obtain;

……………………… (3.6)

……………………… (3.7)

The plate under consideration need not be heated over its entire length, as shown
in Fig. (3.2).

y
x
U∞
T∞

Fig. (3.2): Hydrodynamic and Thermal Boundary Layers

Inserting equs. (3.6) and (3.7) into equ. (3.5), neglecting viscous dissipation term:

= =

u =

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Let as assume that , thus the integration will be from y = 0 to y =


Performing the necessary algebraic manipulation, carrying out the integration and

making the substitution yields;


≈0
u = …………………………..… (3.8)

From Blasius solution: ………..….. (3.9)

So, we have;

…………………………………….. (3.10)

Equ. (3.10) is an ordinary linear D. E. of the first order in ( ) and the solution is;

B. C.; at x = =0→c=-

= = …………………..….. (3.11)

If the two boundary – layers starts simultaneously (xo = 0):

= = ………………. (3.12)

Now;

Using equs. (3.9) and (3.11) we get;

………………..……. (3.13)

And;

= ………………. (3.14)

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If = 0;
= 0.332 ……………………………………….…. (3.15)
Note:
hx whereas i.e, it dose not mean that when increase h will
increase, whereas for tube (h, )

Nux Nu,h

hx
x
x

External Flow Internal Flow


Now:

h=

Using equ. (3.13), we can show that;

h = 2h ......................................... (3.16)

And thus;

......................................... (3.17)
Notes:
1. The properties are evaluated at the film temperature ( ); where

2. The above analysis was made on the assumption that < ,( = sine we

neglect ( ) term. This assumption is satisfactory for fluids having < .

3. Equ. (3.9) is applied for high Re (Re> 104) (i.e l).

4. When < , then;

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3.2.2 Similarity Methods


We wish to obtain a solution to the laminar boundary layer momentum and energy
equations, assuming constant fluid properties and zero pressure gradient. The governing
equations are equs. (3.1) to (3.3). Let;

=y .....(3.18)

ψ ..............................................(3.19)
ψ ψ
u= and v= - ....................................... (3.20)

Substitute (3.18) - (3.20) into (3.2), we obtain;


f +2 =0 ...................................... (3.21)
B.Cs. f (0) = f'(0) = 0
f'( )=1
The solution of equ. (3.21) is the Blasins solution, who employed series
expansions. To solve the energy equation (3.3), using equs. (3.18) - (3.20) we obtain;

.................................... (3.22)

The general solution of equ. (3.22) can be presented in the form;

T( )- =c ( )+ ( ) ......................... (3.23) where

Where (C) is an arbitrary constant and ( ) are the homogeneous and particular
solution respectively. It is convenient to choose boundary condition such that ( is the
solution of cooling problem where frictional heating is ignored, and ( ) is the solution

for the case of an adiabatic plate ( where the frictional heating is

considered . Hence;
=0 ................................................... (3.24)

B.Cs. (0) =1 & ( ) =0 ( )

And;
= ............................ (3.25)

B.CS. (0) = ( ) =0 (

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From equ. (3.23), at y=0 ( =0), (0) =1, thus;

C= ( )- ( ) ....................... (3.26)

The function (f) is known from the Blasius solution.


The solution of equ. (3.24) is given by Pohlhausen as;

( ) = 1- .....(3.27)

The numerical solutions of equ. (3.27) are shown plotted in fig (3.3) for a range of (

For the case of =1, equ. (3.27) can be integrated to give;

( )=1-

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
=y
0
0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2 2.4 2.6 3.2 4

Fig. (3.3): Temperature Distribution for Laminar Flow over a Flat Plate
Neglecting Frictional Heating

Or;

..... (3.28)

This shows that if we neglect the frictional heating, the velocity and temperature
distribution are similar if . For (0.6 < Pr ) it was found that the
dimensionless temperature gradient at the surface could be represented by;

= 0.332 .......................... (3.29)

And;

................................ (3.30)

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The solution of equ. (3.25) is obtained by the method of (variation of parameters) to


obtain:

=2 ...................... (3.31)

For ( equ. (3.31) may be integrated as:

Thus;

.................................. (3.32)

Referring to equ. (3.23), we may write the adiabatic plate solution as;

..... (3.33)

And the adiabatic wall temp. Taw at ( =0) as;

............................ (3.34)

Where is evaluated numerically T∞


U∞ heat
y
from equ. (3.31). Thus equ. (3.34) T
U
becomes: work
x
..........(3.35) Taw

Where (r) is the recovery factor and is for laminar flow depends on ( , when
( Approximately;

Air, water (moderate ) r

Oil Large ( r

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The recovery factor (r) is the ratio of the frictional or viscid temperature rise to the
frictionless or in inviscid temperature rise:

r= ............................... (3.36)

Where = stagration (total) temperature

If > , the fluid will cool the plate

If < , the fluid will heat the plate

Now the general solution of equ. (3.3) from equ. (3.23) can be expressed as:

.............
(3.37)

Or:

................................ (3.38)

Where; = is the number.

Now;

qw= -k = (

Noting that = 0, using equ. (3.37) we get;

qw= -k

(0)

= (0) .................. (3.39)

The values of (0) are tabulated below;

0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.1 7 10 15


- (0) 0.276 0.293 0.307 0.332 0.344 0.645 0.73 0.835
(0) 0.77 0.835 0.895 1 1.05 2.515 2.965 3.535

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If we ignore the frictional heating;

qw = -k

= -k

qw=-k ( )

Thus;

= (0) ................. (3.40)

Note:

Equ. (3.39) was based on

Equ. (3.40) was based on

The temperature Distribution for laminar flow over a flat plate include frictional
heating is shown in fig. (3.4).

1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0 2 4
0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6

Fig. (3.4) Temperature Distribution for Laminar Flow over a Flat Plate
Including Frictional Heating

For low < , and we can assume u= and that , Divide equ.
(3.24) by and differentiate;

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Which gives (as )

= .................... (3.41)

Which is accurate for ( )

For large ( ), we assume linear velocity distribution (f" (0) =


const. within the TBL). From momentum analysis (f= (0.3321/2) 2 ), thus from
equ. (3.24);
2
=0

Which gives as ( );

= ........................ (3.42)

Which is accurate for Pr < 10.

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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

Problems

1. Consider laminar flow over a heated flat plate with constant wall temperature.
Obtain expressions for ( ) using the integral method assuming the velocity and
temperature profile to follow;
(i) A liner equation (ii) Second degree equation
(iii) Third degree equation (iv) Fourth degree equation
Plot (u/u ) and ( )/( ) as a function of (y/ ). Compare the results
with the exact solution.
2. Air at (5 °C) and (70 kPa) flows over a flat plate at (6 m/s). A heater strip (2.5 cm)
long is placed over the plate at a distance of (15 cm) from the leading edge.
Calculate the heat lost from the strip per unit depth of the plate for a heater surface
temperature of (65 °C). Plot the velocity and temperature profiles at the end of the
heater.
3. Water at (90 °C) flows at a velocity of (1.5 m/s) past a flat plate maintained at a
temperature of (25 °C). Plot temperature and velocity profiles at stations (25 mm),
(50 mm) and (75 mm) from the leading edge of the plate. Also plot the variation of
local film coefficient on the first (75 mm) of the plate and determine the average
film coefficient for that distance.
4. Consider laminar flow past an adiabatic plate. The plate will reach an equilibrium
temperature (Tr) called the "recovery temperature". Obtain the necessary differential

equation (ordinary) for this problem and show that is a function

of (Pr) only. Plot the variation of ( ) as a function of velocity ( ) for air.


5. Air flows over a flat plate at a velocity of (3 m/s) and ambient conditions are (700
mmHg) and (15°C). The plate is maintained at (85°C). If the length of the plate is
(100 cm) along the flow of the air, find the heat lost by (50 cm) of the plate which is
measured from the trailing edge. The plate width is (50 cm). Properties of air at
mean temperature of (50 °C) are ;
=1.093 kg/m3, cp=0.24 kcal/ kg °C, k=2.43 *10-2 kcal / mhr °C, =17.95
*10-6 m2/s, Pr=0.698.

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6. Determine the heat loss per hour from a wall of a building when the wind is blowing
parallel to its surface with a speed of (2 km/hr). The wall is (5m) long and (3m)
height. Temperature of the wall is (25 °C) and air temperature is (5 °C). Properties
of air at mean temperature of (15 °C) are; ( =1.226 kg/m3 , cp=0.24 kcal/ KgºC ,
k=2.2*10-2 kcal / mhr °C, =14.62*10-6 m2/s , Pr=0.704).
7. A plate of (100 cm 50 cm) and (2 cm) thick is placed in a horizontal plane. The top
surface is maintained at (100 °C). If the air is flowing over the plate at (3 m/s), find
the heat lost by the plate per hour. What should be the bottom temperature of the
plate for the steady state condition? The air temperature is (20 °C) and the thermal
conductivity of the plate material is (20 kcal/mhr °C). The (100 cm) side of the plate
is parallel to the air flow. The properties of air at the mean temperature of (60°C)
are; ( =1.06 kg/m3, cp=0.24 kcal/kg °C, k=2.49*10-2 kcal / mhr °C, =18.97*10-
6
m2/s, Pr=0.696). State clearly any assumption you may need and use in the problem
formulation and solution.
8. Air at standard conditions of (760 mmHg) and (20ºC) flows over flat plate at (3
m/s). The plate is (50 cm* 25 cm). Find the heat lost per hour if air flow is parallel to
the 50cm-side of the plate. If the 25cm-side is kept parallel to airflow, what will be
the effect on heat transfer? The temperature of the plate is (100ºC), and the air
properties at (60ºC) are; ( =1.06 kg/m3, cp=0.24 kcal/KgºC, K=2.49*10-2
kcal/mhrºC, 18.97*10-6 m2/s, Pr=0.696.
9. Consider the steady laminar uniform flow of constant property fluid over isothermal
plate. The plate is porous and subjected to a uniform suction (V(x, 0) =-V0), see figure.
Neglect the end and edge effects; derive an expression for the temperature
distribution of the fluid across the boundary layer.

x
V0 Tw

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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

10. Air at (20ºC) flows with (3m/s) velocity over a flat plate (0.5m) long and (1m)
wide. If the plate surface is maintained at (100ºC), find the total heat transfer rate,
and the hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layers thicknesses at the trailing edge
of the plate (X=0.5m).

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Chapter ( 4 )
Turbulent Forced Convection Heat Transfer
4.1Introduction
The transfer of heat to or from fluids flowing turbulently is one of the most
important modes of industrial heat transfer. The complicated nature of turbulent flow
prevents an analytical approach to the problem like that which can be made for laminar
flow. The energy equation is applicable both for turbulent and laminar flows. In turbulent
flow, however, heat is transferred by convection as well as by conduction, and knowledge
of the turbulent velocity fluctuations is required to obtain a solution of the energy
equation. Nevertheless, various studies on the basic mechanism of turbulent heat transfer
have continued throughout the years, so that in addition to empirical correlations (which
say nothing about mechanism) there are theoretical and semi empirical relationships
based on fundamental knowledge of the processes occurring.

4.2 Empirical Correlations for Turbulent Flow Heat Transfer in Closed Conduits

The more important empirical correlations of turbulent heat transfer data in closed
conduits are presented here. The relationships given apply for fluids with a (Pr=0.7)
Early experimental work on turbulent heat transfer in tubes was mainly on air and
water, covering a (Pr) range of (0.7-10). Later studies were made on various high-
viscosity oils having Pr expending up to (1000).
The two common forms of equations relating dimensionless groups for turbulent
flow heat transfer are as follows;

Nu =C1 …………………………… (4.1)

St =C2 …………………………… (4.2)

Where C1 and C2 are constants and n1-n6 are exponents.


Both equations are equivalent, but equ. (4.2) has certain advantages for correlating
experimental data. The mean heat transfer coefficient for a circular tube of length L may
be calculated from;

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h* π …………………(4.3)
From equ. (4.3), (Nu and St) become;

Nu = …………………………. (4.4)

St= = …………………………. (4.5)

The (St) number may be determined without knowing or taking into account the
physical properties of the fluid. In calculating (Nu), one must include the mass flow rate,
the heat capacity and the thermal conductivity. An error in any of these is therefore
included in the Nusselt number. Another advantage of correlating data by equ. (4.2) is the
fact that, at constant Pr, the St varies as ,while Nu varies as .Equation (4.1)
requires a greater range of ordinates.
If the fluid properties were constant, the use of equs. (4.1) and (4.2) to correlate
data would be quite simple. However, the temperature of the fluid not only varies across
the section of the conduit but also along the length of the conduit. Since physical
properties change with temperature, there is always the problem of which temperature to
use for evaluating the properties. In early works, where temperature differences were low
and only air and water were studied, the bulk temperature of the fluid was suitable for
evaluation of all fluid properties. With heat transfer with oils, in which viscosity varies
greatly with temperature, it was necessary to use an additional dimensionless group
( to obtain satisfactory correlation of data. It has become common practice to
evaluate all fluid properties at so-called film temperature rather than using a viscosity –
ratio correction. The usual film temperature for evaluating properties is;

) …………………. (4.6)
Among the various other film temperatures which have been used are;
) ………………………. (4.7)

) ………………………. (4.8)
For fully –developed turbulent flow heat transfer in circular tubes at moderate
temperature difference, most of the data were correlated by three equations;

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1- Ditus-Boelter Equation

Nub = ……………….. (4.9)

Conditions
1- Fluid properties evaluated at arithmetic mean bulk temperature
2- Re< 10 000
3- 0.7
4- n=0.4 for heating, 0.3 for cooling
5- <

2- Colburn Equation

4.10)

Conditions
1- Fluid properties, except (Cp) in St group, evaluated at film temperature (T0.5)
2- Re< 10 000
3- 0.7
4- <

3- Sieder and Tate Equation (Very High Pr)

4.11)

Conditions
1- Fluid properties evaluated at bulk temperature expect (
2- Re< 10 000
3- 0.7

4- <
An additional correlation for turbulent heat transfer data are available;

4- Air at High Temperatures and High


Humble, Lowdermilk and Desmon obtained the following correlation;

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..(4.12)

Conditions
1- Fluid properties are evaluated at film temperature
2- 10000 Re 500000
3- 30

4- 600 ºR

5-

5- Water at High Pressure and Temperature


Kaufman and Hendreson studied heat transfer to water at high pressures (200&2000
psig) and high temperatures (up to 560 ºF) and found that equ.(4.9) satisfactorily
represented the data up to (Re =106). Kaufman and Isley studied heat transfer to water at
gage pressures up to (200 in Hg) in a tube ( For horizontal flow and flow up or

down in a vertical tube the authors obtained;

…….(4.13 )

Conditions
1- Fluid properties are evaluated at bulk temperature
2- 10000 Re 50 000
3-

6-Molten Sodium Hydroxide


Heat transfer coefficients for heating molten sodium hydroxide flowing in a tube with
were found by Grele and Gedeon to be about 20% above those predicted by
equ.(4.9) (Ditus-Boelter)

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4.3 Methods of Analogy between Momentum and Heat Transfer


When heat is transferred between a solid and a turbulent fluid, it has been observed
that the heat transfer rate may be increased by supplying more energy to the pump
handling the fluid. For turbulent flow in smooth circulation tubes;
(Approximately)
And (Approximately)
Therefore, and h increase with increased velocity.
The presence of turbulence promoters (baffler or spirals) in tube increases the
turbulence of the turbulent core and thereby reduces the effective thermal resistance of
the laminar layer. The turbulence promoters, however, increase the friction loss for flow
through the tube, so the increase in heat transfer has been brought about only by
supplying more energy to the pump.
The experimental results indicate that an increase in turbulence will bring about an
increase in heat transfer, but an increase in energy loss also occurs, with the result that
less heat transfer per unit of power consumed. If power is not serious economic factor in
a heat transfer process, then greater heat transfer may be accomplished by the use of
turbulence promoters or rough surfaces. However if power is an economic factor any
increase in turbulence should be more effective in increasing the rate of heat transfer than
it is in increasing the energy loss.
The analogy between heat and momentum transfer may be shown by considering the
mathematical equations describing the two processes. It is well known that;

…........……………….. (4.14)

….......……………….. (4.15)
Where is the mean turbulent shear stress. Prandtle expresses this turbulent shear
stress in terms of the mixing length (

= = ………………….....…… (4.16)

Where =eddy viscosity (+ve) value, therefore we use to give correct sign).Now;

……………….……… (4.17)

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……………………… (4.18)

And;

……………………………………. (4.19)

Where diffusivity of momentum=

In a similar analysis, the heat transfer across a turbulent stream may be dealt with. Fig.
(4.1) shows two sections of a fluid in turbulent motion, the distance between these two
sections being ( the Prandtle mixing length. The rate of turbulent heat transfer per unit
area is the product of the mass flow in the y –direction and temperature difference
between the two sections.

…………………….. (4.20)

…………………….. (4.21)

Thus; + …….………. (4.22)

Where ………………. (4.23)

is the eddy diffusivity of heat.


y

u+
T+

u=Ø(y)
u T
x

Fig. (4.1): Two Sections in a flowing fluid at a Different Velocity and Temperature
Equations (4.19) and (4.23) indicate that ( and are equal. These results from
the various assumptions Prandtle made in the analysis. He assumed that mixing length for
heat transfer is the same as the mixing length for momentum transfer. Under these
conditions, a true analogy exists between momentum and heat transfer for turbulent flow.
The use of the analogy between momentum and heat transfer for predicting heat
transfer from momentum transfer depends on the relationship between and ( .

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4.3.1 Reynolds Analogy


Reynolds assumed that the developed flow in a pipe or a channel is composed of a
wall layer of thickness ( ) and a turbulent core, see Fig. (4.2).
Reynolds assumed;
u Tb
(1)The eddy quantities are much greater φ
Turbulent
than molecular quantities; core

Wall layer
………………(4.24)

Experimental results support this Fig.(4.2): Turbulent Pipe Flow


assumption, that is; Reynolds Analogy

(2) The mechanisms responsible for heat and momentum transfer are identical, i.e,

…………......……(4.25)

Thus;

………………….. (4.26)

= ……………..…….. (4.27)

Hence;

But
Linear shear stress and heat flux distribution in the pipe
And

Thus;

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Integrate between the wall (w) and the center line (c), we get;

But = and

Thus, we get;

, or;

St= ……………………….. (4.28)

Equation (4.28) is an important result, providing information about heat transfer


from friction measurements only. That is, when analogy prevails, any analytical
computational or experimental information on fluid mechanics of a problem can be
related, through this analogy, to the heat transfer of the problem.
Although in reasonable agreement with experimental data for fluids with (Pr
equ. (4.28) fails for fluids with (Pr) significantly different from unity. Other analogies
have been developed for the purpose of including the effect of (Pr) to the Reynolds
Analogy.
Equ. (4.28) may be used for a flat plate by using (U instead of (U).

4.3.2 Prandtle –Taylor Analogy


This analogy begins, in a manner identical to that of Reynolds, by assuming that
the turbulent flows comprise a viscous wall region (Laminar Sublayer) and turbulent
core. However, rather than neglecting the sublayer later, the analogy is integrated over
each layer separately and the results are then coupled at their interface, see Fig. (4.3).
u Tb φ
Turbulent Fluctuations
Predominant. Turbulent
core

Molecular
( Phen.
Viscous sublayer

Fig(4.3): Turbulent Pipe Flow: Prandtle –Taylor Analogy

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Sublayer;

Thus; =-

Integrate between (w) and ( , we obtain;


............................. (4.29)

Turbulent Core:
( , thus, Reynolds analogy applied here, i.e. ;
................. (4.30) [ Reynolds analogy]

Eliminating ( ) between equ. (4.29) and (4.30) leads to:

= [1+ ]

But;
And;

Thus:

Or;

Hence;

.................................. (4.31)

In equ. (4.31), and may be obtained from velocity data. Also a unity turbulent

and he number is assumed. From momentum analysis, in the sublayer;


0<

Where; and

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Thus;

Hence, equ. (4.31) will be;

............................... (4.32)

Note:
When ( ) is very large, this high ( ) controls the heat transfer by conduction near the
wall due to low conductivity, ( ). So, whatever happens in the turbulent core, this
does not affect the conduction heat transfer in the laminar sublayer, so we have to take
into account the changes in the sublayer.

4.3.3 Von Karman - Martinelli - Bolter Analogy


This analogy uses the three - layer velocity distribution to avoid discontinuity at
( ) from laminar to turbulent.
Laminar sublayer zone: 0<
Buffer layer zone: 5<
Turbulent zone: <
m/ν

Turbulent
Zone
= linear 5<
laminar Buffer
= sudden change at
Sublayer Zone Re = 10000
= curve <
Zone
So, the integration has to be carried out in
the three regions.
5 30 200 y+

Consider the turbulent flow in a circular tube with constant heat flux.
E.E. y R
r

y=R-r

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Or; since dy = -dr;

................................ (4.33)

B.C.1 at y = 0 T = Tw

B.C.2 at y = R

Integrate equ. (4.33) once, we get:

So, we need u(y), we can use the power law, but here we will use (u to get an
approximate imagination for the problem. Hence integrate the above equation we result
get;

Apply B.C.2., we get C1= -

Thus;

Hence;

Integrate again;

T=

B.C.1 at y=0 T = Tw → C2 = Tw
Also, from energy balance, we have (

Thus;

T-

Or, change to (

T- = ............................. (4.34)

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Now,

At y = 0
At y = R
And;

Hence;

But;

Thus;

-1 ................... (4.35)

This distribution is not accurate at the center (y = R, but this uncertainty

dose not affect the calculation of ( , because at the center ( ).

Now, the procedure will be as follows;


1. Use equation (4.35) to find ( ) as a function of ( ), using relations.

2. Relate ( ) with through a suitable analogy.


3. Integrate equ. (4.34) to get the temperature distribution across the tube.
4. Find h and Nu.
I- Laminar Sub Layer

0< →

Assume 1- 1 (thickness of the sublayer 10-20 micron)

And from equ. (4.34);

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Or;
............. (4.36) (Liner Temperature distribution)

At the edge of the sublayer ( ), ;

............................ (4.37)

II - Buffer Layer

5<

Assume 1- 1

Assume

And

Thus:

..................... (4.38)

At the edge of the buffer layer (B), ( =30);

................................... (4.39)

III- Turbulent Zone

>30 = 5.5 + 2.5

(We cannot neglect (1- ))

In the turbulent zone, except at center line ( ). We can neglect 1

compared to , i.e;

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( ) is the eddy conductivity ( and ( is the molecular conductivity.

 If is small , is comparable to and cannot be neglected.

 If , we can neglect ( ) because it is small compared with (with about 5%

error).
 If Pr < , can be neglected ( ). Most of the resistance holds in the sublayer.

Thus; neglect ( ), equ. (4.34) gives;

Or;

.............................. (4.40)

At the center y = R →

Then;

........................ (4.41)

We now have a complete temperature profile. To calculate the mean velocity (u)
and the bulk temperature ( ), we will use the power law .i.e;

.............................. (4.42)

............................. (4.43)

Thus;
............................ (4.44)

And; ..................... (4.45)

Now, using equs. (4.37), (4.39) and (4.41), we obtain;

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By definition;

Thus;

With
Using equ. (4.45), we obtain;

........................... (4.46)

Equ. (4.46) is in good agreement with experimental data over the range 0.5 <
hand over a wide range of Re.
Constant as in laminar 1

T – Tw
flow. At high ( ), the resistance is Tc - Tw
0.8

primarily in the sublayer, whereas at low 0.6

0.4
( ) it is distributed over the entire fluid.
0.2

0
At low ( ), the term ( and the 1
y/R

profile approaches that for laminar flow Effect of Pr on Turbulent


(molecular conductor).
Flow Temperature Profile

The above analysis is not applicable for low since was neglected. Martinelli

included this term for low and perform the integration numerically.
4.3.4 Colburn Analogy

...................... (4.47)

Where is the J factor for heat transfer.


Colburn investigated a large number of convection heat transfer and pressure drop data
and found that a correlation in the form of equ. (4.47) is obtainable.

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4.4 Turbulent Flow Parallel to Flat Plate


4.4.1 Integral Analysis
The integral energy equation (neglecting the dissipation effect) is;

............................... (4.48)

But;

Thus;

Or;

............................... (4.49)

( and ( ) are independent of x. Equ.(4.49) gives the local (St).To solve equ.(4.49),
the temperature and velocity profiles are assumed to have the same from (Reynolds
analogy).The power law will be used; i.e.:

...................................... (4.50)

................................. (4.51)

The power law does not hold well near the wall since ( so,

so it can't be used to predict ( ). It is used to calculate ( without large error,


because the thickness of the sublayer and buffer layer is small.

For fluids with ( , we have .Thus substitute

equs. (4.50) and (4.51) into equ. (4.49), nothing that ;

Which gives;

................................... (4.52)

But from momentum integral analysis;

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= 0.376 ……………………………..…. (4.53)

So;

= =

Which becomes;

………………… (4.54)

And, since Pr=1;


………………… (4.55)
Conditions of equ. (4.55):
1- Boundary layer turbulent over the whole plate
2- r=
3- Heat transfer takes place over the whole plate
4- Fluid properties are evaluated at;

To find (Nu);

and Nu = ………………… (4.56)

The conditions of equ. (4.56) is the same as equ. (4.55). We get the same relation as in
tubes ( ), so the geometry is not important in turbulent flow.

4.4.2. Prandtle Analogy Applied to Flat Plato:

For fluid which have ( < ) equs. (4.55)


Tw T
and (4.56) are not applicable. The resistance of
the laminar sublayer must be considered. The
temperature distribution is linear as inside the
sublayer. The Prandtle analogy which was
derived for circular tubes is applied here if Tb
is replaced by and u by thus:

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= ………......………. (4.57)

But; ……………… (4.58) (Momentum Analysis)

Using (qw=h (Tw - T )), and equ. (4.58) for , we obtain;

……..………………………. (4.59)

Eckert repots that;

= 1.3 ………………………………... (4.60)

Thus equ. (4.59) may give

……………………………………… (4.61)

Conditions:
1- Turbulent b.l. starts at leading edge.
2- Heat transfer starts at leading edge.
3- Properties evaluated at .

4- <
Equ. (4.61) may be used to calculate local (Nu) for turbulent flow parallel to flat plate.

4.4.3 Colburn Analogy Applied to Flat Plate:


The analogy is purely bared on experimental work.

……………………………………… (4.62)

Where = Colburn j – factor for heat ( = Colburn j – factor for mass)


For turbulent flow over a flat plate, equ. (4.58) may be used for cf, thus;
………………………… (4.63)
Form which;

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Conditions:
1- <
2- Heat transfer and turbulent b.l. start at the leading edge.

3- Fluid properties at .

…………………….. (4.65)

4.4.4. Combined Laminar and Turbulent Flow Parallel to Flat Plate


The above relations are valid if the turbulent
b.l. begins at the leading edge of a flat plate. If
hx

both laminar and turbulent b.ls. exist on a flat laminer


Tr Turbulent
hl
plate, a correction must be applied to the above
Turbulent
relations. Eckert reported the following laminer

relationships for the average (Nu) in cases


x
where laminar b.l. must be considered;

1- For transition ( =105)


NuL=0.0366 ………….. (4.66)
2- For transition (Retr =5*105):
NuL=0.0366 …………..(4.67)

L = Length for which h is to be calculated (including both laminar and turbulent parts)

In the above calculations, to calculate (h) we must integrate over the three regions.
But the transition region is undefined region and we don’t know much about it. Therefore
we assume the transition to be sudden at Xtr.

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h= f
Tunl

Lam.
Trus.

x
h
ht
hl

x
xtr

4.5 Developing Turbulent Flow


There has been a considerable amount of investigation of mean and local turbulent
heat–transfer coefficients in entrance regions of tubes; however, few general correlations
showing the effect of entrance conditions on the heat transfer coefficient exist. Stanton

showed that the mean heat transfer coefficient in tubes were the same between ( from
(30) to (60).Nusselt studied the effect entrance length and recommended introducing the
factor ( , so that the resultant equation for the heat transfer coefficient becomes;

10 400 …....………………….(4.68)

Equ. (4.68) has been used extensively for predicting heat transfer coefficients in entrance
sections.
Boelter, Young and Iverson studied the effect of Entrance configuration on heat
transfer coefficients in circular tubes. They investigated the heat transfer to air in the
entrance of a tube in which (Tw=constant). They recommend the following relation;

< ………….(4.69)

Where experimental values of F1 are given for various types of entrance sections, see
Table (4.1).

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Table (4.1): Values of F1 to Use in Eq. (4.69)


Entrance Description F1

Bell - mouth 0.7

Bell - mouth with screen 1.2

Entrance
Short calming section with sharp
3 ( approx )
edge entrance

Entrance Large calming section with sharp


1.4 ( approx )
edge entrance

45° - angle bend entrance 5 ( approx )

90° - angle bend entrance 7( approx )

1-in square - edged orifice


16 ( approx )
entrance

1-5 in square - edged orifice


7 ( approx )
entrance

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Problems
1. If a dimensionless temperature for turbulent flow past a flat plate is defined by;

Deduce a universal temperature distribution based on the universal Von Karman


velocity distribution). Show the variation of for Pr=1, 10 and 100.
2. Water flows in a (50mm) diameter tube. For a range of Red from (104) to (105), find
the value of (Nod) using the following analogies:
(i) Reynolds Analogy (ii) Prandtle –Taylor Analogy
(iii) Von Karman Analogy (iv) Ditus –Boelter Equation
Take the properties of water to be constant at (50ºC).
3. Water flows through a (2.5 cm) inside diameter tube (1.5m) long at a rate of (1 kg/s).
The pressure drop is (7 kPa) through the (1.5m) length. The pipe wall temperature is
(50ºC) and the inlet water temperature is (20ºC). Estimate the exit water temperature.
4. Water at the rate of (5 kg/s) is heated from (5 ºC) to (15 ºC) by passing it through a (5
cm) inside diameter copper tube. The tube wall temperature is (90ºC). What is the
length of the tube? Use;
(i) Ditus –Boelter equation (ii) Sider-Tate equation (iii) Colburn equation
5. Water at (60ºF) is flowing in a (2 in) inside diameter tube at a velocity of (10 ft/s).
Calculate the ratio of the total conductivity of heat to the molecular conductivity of
heat at a point in the turbulent core (0.5) in from the tube wall. Assume fully –
developed flow and use Von Karman velocity distribution.
6. In Martinelli equation [equ. (4.46)] for predicting ( , the three terms in the
denominator correspond respectively to the resistance of laminar layer, buffer layer
and turbulent core. Express these resistances in terms of percentage of the total for the
following cases of flow in a (1 in) inside diameter tube. The Red is (10 5) in each case.
Evaluate the properties at the bulk temperature.
Fluid Bulk Temperature(ºF) Tube Wall Temperature(ºF)
(1) Water 150 250
(2) Air 60(1 atm) 150
(3) Liquid odium 1300 700

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7. Atmospheric air at (100ºF) flows at a velocity of (150 ft/sec) past a flat plate (2 ft)
long with its surface at (500ºF).
(a) Find for (1ft) width the heat transferred to the air from the entire plate, from the
laminar part and the turbulent part of the boundary- layer.
(b) What error is involved if the boundary – Layer is assumed to be entirely turbulent
from the leading edge?
(c) Repeat the above if the flow velocity is doubled and all other data remain the
same.
Assume incompressible flow in both cases.
8. Engine oil enters a (1.25 cm) diameter tube (3m) long at a temperature of (38ºC). The
tube wall temperature is (68ºC) and the flow velocity is (1 cm/s). Estimate the total
heat transfer rate and the exit bulk temperature of the oil. Use the following oil
properties; ( 877.367 kg/m3, cp=1.9556 kJ/kg k, =306*10-6 m2/s; Pr=3623 and
k=0.1441 W/mºC). State clearly any assumption you may need and use.
9. The wing of an aeroplane is considered as rectangular flat plate and its curvature is
neglected. The plane moves with a speed of (300 km/hr). Assuming the surrounding
air is stationary and at (2ºC) and pressure is (68 cmHg), find the following;
(a) The heat loss per meter length of the wing if the width of the wing (parallel to
flow direction) is (120 cm) and is at (18ºC).
(b) Assuming that the flow is completely turbulent over the width of the wing, find
the frictional force per meter length of the wing.
(c) Draw the curve of local heat transfer coefficient along the width of the wing.
The properties of air at ((10ºC) are;
( 1.18 kg/m3, =13.8*10-6 m2/s, cp=0.24 kcal/mhrºC), k=0.0214 kcal/mhrºC)
10.A thin square plate introduced in a flow of air at (2 m/s) parallel to the plate
experiences a drag force of (1.2*10-3 kgk). Calculate the heat transfer coefficient at the
plate surface.
Take ( =1.6*10-5 m2/s , 1.28 kg/m3,cp=0.24 kcal/kgºC, Pr =0.72)
Use Reynolds Analogy.

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11. Using Reynolds analogy, determine the temperature rise of a fluid flowing through a
pipe (15 cm) diameter and 2m) long from which heat is being transferred to the fluid if
the temperature of the pipe wall is constant. Take (f=0.005) and the temperature
difference between the wall and fluid at the entry is (30º).
12.Air at (20º) enters a circular pipe (16 cm) in diameter and (160 cm) long whose wall is
maintained at (160ºC). How much heat is transferred? Assume the flow is turbulent
and same heat transfer coefficient through. Average velocity is (15 m/s). Use
Reynolds analogy and take ( =22*10-6 m2/s, k=0.027kcal/mhrºC) for air at (90ºC).
State clearly the assumptions you need in the problem formulation, and derive the
relations you use in the solution.
13.(50 Kg) of water per minute is heated from (30ºC) to (50ºC) by passing through a pipe
of (2 cm) diameter. The pipe is heated by condensing steam on its surface at (100ºC).
Find the length of the pipe required. Take the following properties of water at (70ºC);
( =965 kg/m3, k=0.585kcal/mhrºC, cp = 1kcal/kgºC, =0.33*10-6 m2/s). Use
Reynolds analogy.
14.Water flows through a tube of (2.2 cm) in diameter with a velocity of (2m/s). The
water is heated from (15ºC) to (60ºC) by condensing the steam at (150ºC) on the outer
surface of the tube. Using Reynolds analogy, find the heat transfer coefficient and the
length of the tube required for transferring the above amount of heat. Neglect the tube
resistance as well as the outer surface film resistance. Take the following properties of
water at (37.5 ºC);( =990 kg/m3, cp=4160 J/kgk, 700*10-6 kg/ms, k=0.63 W/mK)
15.Using the principle of analogy between heat and momentum transfer, show that the
total heat transfer rate per unit area (q) in turbulent flow is given by the following

relation ;(

16.Describe the analogy between momentum and heat transfer in viscous fluids. State the
conditions upon which the analogy depends and then derive an expression relating
Stanton number and friction factor.

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Chapter ( 5 )
Free (Natural) Convection Heat Transfer
5.1 Introduction
In forced convection problems, the buoyancy forces due to the density gradients in
the fluid are ignored as they are usually small order terms. When there is no external flow
field, or the buoyancy forces are much greater than the inertia forces, that is;
or
In this case, we assume isothermally Umax

heated plate at temperature (Tw) in u

quiescent fluid ( with


g

constant temperature ( Dissipation


will be neglected
Notes:
x
1-
y

V V

<

V V Fbuoyancy ( - )gV

Fbuoyancy is small and hence the velocity produced is small and cannot be measured with
usual devices (Pitot tubes)
2- Schmidt and Beckman are the first people who measure the velocity in free
convection. They used the (Quartz Anemometer) Quartz=like fiber glass.

Heateded
tube plate

Quartz
fiber

Flow
direction

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The fiber is subjected to a uniform velocity, and it acts as a cantilever beam.The load
corresponds to the drag force on the fiber cylinder can be calculated exactly (low Re
flow). The deflection of the fiber can be measured by a (travelling microscope).
From the deflection, the drug force can be
calculated, and thus, the velocity. They fix
the fiber at a different distance from the plate
Microscope
and thus get velocity profile Temperature is fiber
easy to measure by good thermocouple
scale
3- Interferometer is a method which uses the
difference in density due to change of wave Fiber microscope
scale
length of light to predict the velocity in free
convection

4- Free convection=Body Force +Density Gradient


Motion is due to buoyancy effects which is due to the combined presence of a density
gradient within the fluid and body force that is proportional to the fluid density
Body force: a- Gravitational
b- Centrifugal (rotating fluid) machinery
c- Coriolis force (atmospheric and ocean rotational motions)
Density Gradient is due to temperature or mass concentration

5-Horizontal large plate


ρ1 ρ1 T1
T1 ρ(x)
x ρ(x)

g stable
Unstable
T(x) Fluid T(x)
circulation

ρ2 T2 T2 ρ2
(a) < (b) <
Free Convection Conduction (no Free Convection)

5.2 Laminar Free Convection Heat Transfer


Neglecting the dissipation function, the governing equations are (see article 1.7.4):

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C.E. =0 ……………………………….. (5.1)

M.E. u = g β (T- ∞ +v .......……………….. (5.2)

E.E. u + …………….…………. (5.3)

Where β Volumetric thermal expansion coefficient

In the above equations, ( is considered constant every where except in the buoyancy

term, this is known as (Bossenisque approximation). When ( < we must consider


varible properties.
It is clear that M.E &E.E are getting coupled, i.e, we have to solve them
simultaneously.

5.2.1 Integral Analysis


We shall restrict the analysis to fluids with (Pr so that ( . The
governing momentum and energy integral equations (for =const.) may be wrtten as;

=gβ ∞ dy- ( …………………… (5.4)

∞ ( ………………… (5.5)

A polynomial distribution for (u) and (T) to satisfy the B.Cs


u (0) = u( = 0, T(0) = Tw, T( = ∞, were assumed;
u= …………………….. (5.6)
…………………….. (5.7)

Where; and

B.Cs. u(0) = u(1) = (1) = 0 &


……............... (5.8)
(0) =1, (1) = (1) = 0, = -2
To find umax;

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Thus 1-4 +3 and1

For =1 u = 0
For umax = ……………………. (5.9)

Also;

= ; = =

Hence equs. (5.4) and (5.5) can be expressed as;

g - ∞ ………………….. (5.10)

( = 2 ……………….. (5.11)

As we are looking for similar solutions, we assume answers of the form;


……………… (5.12)
= ……………… (5.13)
Where & are constants Substitute in equs. (5.10) & (5.11);
(2 + ) = g - ∞ … (5.14)

=2 ……………….. (5.15)

Similarity solution exists only if both sides of the equations are independent of x.
Thus the exponents & must be related by;
2m1+m2-1 = m2 = m1-m2
And + -1 = -
Which gives; and ……………….. (5.16)

Simultaneous solution of equs. (5.14) & (5.15) for the coefficients and provides the
results;

=5.17 ………………….. (5.17)

=3.93 …………… (5.18)

………… (5.19)

If we define the local (Nu) as;

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Where =-k (by using equ. 5.7)

Thus;

Using equ. (5.19);


0.508 …………………. (5.20)
Now, to find Nu;

h= dx

And hence;

Nu= =0.677 ............…………. (5.21)

Note:
Nu=

Where as in forced convection Nu=2

5.2.2 Exact Analysis


The governing equations are equs. (5.1) to (5.3) in terms of ( ), they may be

written as;

...................................... (5.22)

...................................... (5.23)

...................................... (5.24)

B.Cs.
u (0, y) = 0 u(x,0) = 0
v (x,0) = 0 v(x, ) = 0 ......................................(5.25)
(0, y) = 0 (x, ) = 0
(x, ) = 1
Using the similarity variables;

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=c , c= ............................................ (5.26)

Let;

U=4 .................................................. (5.27)

From C.E., we obtain:

........................................... (5.28)

Substitute (5.27) and (5.28) into equs. (5.23) & (5.24) using (5.26) we obtain;

M.E. ...................................... (5.29)

E.E. ..................................... (5.30)

B.Cs.

.............. (5.31)

Equations (5.29) and (5.30) may be converted to a set of coupled first - order D.E.,
which can be solved numerically to obtain the velocity and temperature distribution as a
function of ( ), see fig. (5.2).

0.8

0.6
θ=
0.4

0.2

0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6 4

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0.28

Pr=0.73
0.24
1

0.2

0.16
= 10
0.12

0.08
100
0.04

0 1000

0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6 4

Fig. (5.2): Temperature and Velocity Boundary - Layers of Natural


Convection Near a Vertical Hot Plate

Now;

Thus; ............................. (5.32)

Nux = ........................ (5.33)

......................... (5.34)

= .............. (5.35)

Where; .............. (5.36)

5.3. Turbulent Free Concretion Heat Transfer over Vertical Flat Plate
Here we assume;
u = u1 ................................. (5.37)

................................ (5.38)
Where; =

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We consider Pr 1, and hence ( ). Substitute equs. (5.37) and (5.38) into


equs. (5.4) and (5.5) we get:

0.0523 = 0.125 g ............ (5.39)

0.0366 = 0.0225 .............. (5.40)

By analogy with laminar free convection case, we assume;


and ................(5.12 &5.13)
Substitute these equations into equs. (5.39) & (5.40), and using the same procedure
mentioned in laminar free convection, we obtain;
........................ (5.41)
....................... (5.42)

.............. (5.43)

Thus, we can write;

....................... (5.44)

.......................... (5.45)

Now, using a modified Reynolds analogy;

=
i.e;

= ............................... (5.46)
Now, using (5.44);
..................... (5.47)

An empirical relation for ( ):

...................... (5.48)

Hence;

...................... (5.49)

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Substitute (5.47), (5.49) into (5.46), using (5.44) of (5.45) we obtain;


Nux = 0.0295 .................... (5.50)

Nu= .............. (5.51)

Thus: ( Nu) =

For air =0.71;


................................ (5.52)
Notes:
1. Empirical Correlations are usually in the from

.................................. (5.53)

Where; Ra=Gr Rayleigh number

Properties are evaluated


(See App. A)
2.

S.l.
S.l

g g

(a) (b) Upper Heated (c) Lower Heated Upper


Lower Cooled Cooled
H.T. (b) < H.T. (c). For forced convection the two cases are the same.
3.
D

Cylinder D
L

(a) (b)
4. Transition to turbulence occurs at Ra = Gr Pr =

5.4 Combined Free and Forced Convection Heat Transfer

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A number of practical situation involve convection heat transfer which is neither


“forced" nor “free" in nature. The circumstances arise when a fluid is forced over a
heated surface at a rather low velocity. Coupled with the forced - flow velocity is a
convective velocity which is generated by the buoyancy forces resulting from a
reduction in fluid density near the heated surface.

<

Aiding flow Opposing flow


Free and Forced convection Currents are in Opposite
Currents are in the same direction Direction

Brown and Gauvin developed the following correlation:

............ (5.54)

Where ( ) and evaluated at the bulk temperature.


The importance of natural convection relative to forced convection may be
determined in terms of Richardson number Ri, where;

Combined convection problem influenced primarily by inertia, with small


contribution from buoyancy, may then be represented as:
…………. (5.55)
And that influenced primarily by buoyancy, with a small contribution from inertia, may
be represented as;
…………. (5.56)
Problems

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1. The outside wall of a building (6m) height receives an average radiant heat flux of
(1100 W/m2). Assuming that (95 W/m2) is conducted through the wall, estimate the
outside wall temperature. Air temperature is (20ºC).
2. A horizontal pipe (30 cm) in diameter and (4m) long is at a temperature of (250ºC). It
is exposed to air in a room at a temperature of (15ºC). Calculate the total heat loss by
the pipe. If the pipe was vertical, find the percentage change in heat loss.
3. Steam (400 psia, 600ºF) flows at the rate of 1000 ft/min through a (6 in) schedule 40
pipe which is covered with (1.5 in) of 85% magnesia insulation. The pipe is
horizontal and placed in a room where the ambient temperature is (70ºF). Find the
temperature of the outer surface of the insulation and the amount of heat loss per foot
of pipe length.
4. A vertical plate of (20 cm) height at (100ºC) is exposed to the atmospheric air. Find
the heat flow per hour from the plate by natural convection from both sides. Width of
the plate is (10 cm) and the air temperature is (20ºC). The properties of air at (60ºC)
are:( = 1.06 kg/m3, cp=0.24 kcal/kgºC, k=0.0249 kcal/mhrº C, 2.05*10-6
kgf.s/m2,v=18.97*10-6 m2/s)
5. A hot plate (20cm) in height and (60 cm) wide is exposed to the ambient air at
(30ºC). Assuming the temperature of the plate to be maintained at (110ºC), find the
heat loss from both surfaces of the plate. The properties of air at (70ºC) are; ( = 1.03
kg/m3, 2. 1*10-6 kgf.s/m2 , =20.02*10-6 m2/s, cp=0.24 kcal/kg ºC, k=2.55*10 -2
kcal/mhrºC).
6. Heat transfer coefficient for forced convection and free convection over vertical
plates are to be compared. Find the relation between (Re) and (Gr) assuming the heat
transfer coefficients for pure forced convection and pure free convection are equal.
Assume laminar flow in both cases.
7. A steel plate of (20 cm) square and (4mm) thickness is heated uniformly to (500ºC)
and then exposed to atmospheric air at (30ºC). Assuming the plate is vertical, find the
approximate time required for the plate to cool to (200ºC). For steel ( = 7900 kg/m3,
cp=0.11 Kcal/kgºC). Assume cooling take place only due to convection Hint:

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Assume lumped system and consider the cooling in three stages from (500 ,
400 300 and 300 200) ºC.
8. Two vertical flat plates at (60ºC) are placed in a tank of water at (20ºC). If the plates
are (10 cm) height, what is the minimum spacing which will prevent interference of
the free convection boundary – layers?
9. A vertical plate (20 cm* 20 cm) in size at (65ºC) is exposed to atmospheric air at
(15ºC). Compare the free convection heat transfer from this plate with that which
would result from forcing air over the plate at a velocity equal to the maximum
velocity which occurs in free convection boundary –layer. The properties of air at
(40ºC) are ;( = 1.128 kg/m3, cp=0.24 kcal/kgºC, k=2.37*10-2 kcal/mhºC, =1.95*10-6
kgf s/ m2, =19.96*10-6 m2/s).
10.A thin (4cm) diameter horizontal circular plate is maintained at (130ºC) in a large
body of stagnant water at (70ºC). The plate convects heat from both its top and
bottom surfaces. Determine the rate of heat input into the plate necessary to maintain
temperature of (130º). Use ( = 960.3 kg/m3, cp=4216 J/kgK, k=0.68W/mK,
=0.75*10-3/K, =0.294*10-6 m2/s, =1.68*10-7 m2/s).

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Chapter ( 6 )
Condensation and Boiling Heat Transfer
The subject of boiling and condensation in horizontal or vertical conduits under
conditions of natural or forced convection is an extremely important one. The design of
water-tube boilers pipe stills, refrigeration equipment, water cooled nuclear reactors,
evaporators, and many other items of chemical and power plan is dependent upon
knowledge of the fluid dynamics and heat transfer processes occurring during convective
boiling and condensation.
Convective boiling will be defined as being the addition of heat to a liquid in such
a way that generation of vapor occurs. This definition therefore excludes the process of
flashing where vapor generation occurs solely as a result of a reduction in system
pressure. In many applications, however the two processes do occur simultaneously and
therefore cannot be clearly separated. Condensation is conversely defined as the removal
of heat from the system in such a way that vapor is converted into liquid.
The two phenomena are rather different in nature, but they are usually bringing
together for two reasons;
1. Boiling and condensation most often occur together in real processes, such as
refrigeration and steam power plant.
2. Both phenomena are two-phase flow processes.

6.1 Condensation Heat Transfer


If the temperature of the wall (Tw) exposed to a condensable vapor is below the
saturation temperature (Tsat) of the vapor, condensate will form on the surface and under
the action of gravity will flow down the plate.
Condensation is defined as the removal of heat from a system in such a manner
that vapor is converted into liquid. This may happen when vapor is cooled sufficiently
below (Tsat) to induce the nucleation of droplets. Such nucleation may occur
homogeneously within the vapor or heterogeneously on entrained particular matter, for
example, within the low-pressure stage of large steam turbine. Heterogeneous nucleation
may also occur on the walls of the system, particularly if these are cooled as in the case

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of a surface condenser. In this later case there are two forms of heterogeneous
condensation, dropwise and filmwise condensation filmwise condensation occur on a
cooled surface which is easily wetted. On non-wetted surfaces the vapor condenses in
drops which grow by further condensation and coalescence and then roll over the
surfaces. New drops then form to take their place.
Condensate may form from vapor in a number of different ways. These ways are as
follows;
1- Filmwise Condensation: The condensate forms a
continuous film on the cooled surface. This is the
most important mode of condensation occurring in
industrial equipment.
2- Homogeneous Condensation: The vapor condensate
out as droplets suspended in the gas phase, thus
forming a fog. Necessary condition for this to occur is
that the vapor is below (Tsat), which may be achieved
by decreasing (Pvapor) as the vapor flows through a
smooth expansion in flow area. In condensers, this
occurs when condensing high molecular weight
vapors in the presence of non –condensable gas.
3- Dropwise Condensation: This occurs when the condensate is formed as
droplets on a cooled surface instead of as a continuous film. High heat
transfer coefficients can be obtained with dropwise condensation, but this
is difficult to maintain continuously in heat exchangers.

4- Direct Contact Condensation: This occurs when vapor is brought directly into
contact with a cold liquid.

vapor

Liquid vapor
spary
pool

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5- Condensation of Vapor Mixtures Forming Immiscible Liquids: A typical


example of this is when a steam hydrocarbon mixture is condensed. The
patterns formed by the liquid phase are complicated and varied.

Note:
1- h 170-290 kW/m2 o C ( Dropwise Condensation )
h 17-29 kW/m2 o C ( Filmwise Condensation )
2- Dropwise condensation can be maintained in laboratory only. One way is to cover
the surface with oil, because water cannot stick to the surface in this
case.(Example for such surfaces are waxed papers, Teflon papers)

6.1.1. Film Condensation on a Planar Surface: Nusselt Theory


The first attempt to analyze the filmwise condensation problem was that of Nusselt
who made the following assumptions;

1. The flow of condensate in the film is laminar.


2. The fluid properties are constant.
3. Subcooling of the condensate may be neglected [ H.T.= hfg neglect hf]
4. Momentum changes through the film are negligible: there is essentially a static
balance of forces (inertia effects neglected)
5. The vapor is stationary and exerts no drag force on the downward motion of
the condensate.
6. Heat transfer is by conduction only.
7. Film surface is smooth.
8. Vapor is pure and there is no noncondensible gas.
9. Vapor is saturated (not superheated).

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X+dx

Mass Transfer
condensation
dq
x
convection dq

X+dx

Heat Transfer

g
X+dx

θ Force Balance

Fig. (6.1): Flow of a Laminar Film over an Inclined Surface (Nusselt)

The first step is to calculate the velocity distribution in the liquid film –shown in
Fig. (6.1) for a unit width of the plane surface. At a distance x from the top of the surface,
the thickness of the film is (
= max = 0
shear
Thus;

( dx ( g sin = dx ………………….…..(6.1)

Rearranging and integrating with B.C. u = 0 at y = 0, then;

u= ………………………………..… (6.2)

The mass flow rate per unit width ( ) is given by;

= ………………………….. (6.3)

The rate of increase of film flow rate with film thickness ( is;

………………………………….. (6.4)

If the film surface temperature is (Tv) and the wall temperature is (Tw), the heat
transferred by conduction to an element of length (dx) is;

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dq = - …………………………………(6.5)

The mass rate of condensation on this area (d ) is therefore (dq=d hfg);

d = ………………………….….. (6.6)

Where hfg = latent heat of vaporization


Substitute (6.6) into (6.4), separating variables and integrating (noting that at
x = 0);

g sin ……………….(6.7)

The film thickness ( is given by;

………………… (6.8)

The local heat transfer coefficient (hx) for the film at any (x) is given by;

hx ………………(6.9)

The local Nusselt number (Nux) is given by;

Nux = …………………. (6.10)

Now;

h= ………………….. (6.11)

Notes;
1. h=

2. Experimental measurements show that the factor (0.943) in eq. (6.11) should be
(1.13), i.e, equ. (6.11) is 20% lower than the experimental value. This is so due to
roughness (wavg) of the film surface.
h may be written as;

h= …………………. (6.12)

Where =condensate flow at distance (L) from the top of the plane surface.Combine
equs. (6.12) and (6.6);

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………………. (6.13)

Combine (6.13) with (6.3) yields;

………….. (6.14)

Integrating over (L) gives;

h=0.925 ……………………. (6.15)

Equation (6.15) relates heat coefficient with condensate loading. If condensate loading

( ) known, calculate h from equ (6.15) and thus find L from (6.12) as ( L= .

When ( (horizontal plate), (h =0), but what happens is that the film grows as
shown in the figure and the movement of the film become
Hydrostatic
under the action of hydrostatic pressure. So, pressure force

equs. (6-11) &(6-15) are not applicable for


g

small values of or in horizontal plates,


since the film thickness become large and h
is small
A Reynolds number for the flow of a film of liquid over a plate of width (Z) may
be defined as;

= …………………… (6.16)

Where de = hydraulic diameter = 4

And G = mass velocity ( , is mass flow rate per unit area


Thus;

Or;

………………………. (6.17)

Note: Laminar flow is for 1800


Substitute equ. (6.17) into equ. (6.15), we obtain;

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……………………. (6.18)

And from equ. (6.9)

……………………. (6.19)

The condensation number (Co) is defined as;

Co = …………………….……..…… (6.20)

Thus;
Co= ………………………………….…….. (6.21)

6.1.2 Improvements to the Original Nusselt Theory


A number of papers have made significant improvements to the Nusselt theory.
The original analysis was extended by Bromley who considered the effects of subcooling
the condensate and by Rohsenow who also allowed for the non-linear distribution of
temperature through the film due to energy convection.

= ………………………….. (6.22)

should be used instead of ( in the derived equations. Equ. (6.22) is applicable for

vertical plates and vertical tube in which d< and Pr˃0.5. For smaller (d), the effects of

curvature appear.

6.1.3 Condensation on Horizontal and Inclined Tubes


Laminar film condensation on the outside of a single horizontal tube was first
examined by Nusselt, who, using a derivation exactly similar to the plane surface,
obtained the following relationships;

………………….. (6.23)

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Where ( is the angle with the vertical,


and is the local mass flow rate of
D
condensate per unit length of tube, and (h) film

is found by integrating equ.(6.23) from


=0 to = ;

h=0.725 ………………….……. (6.24)

And;

…………………… (6.25)

Equ. (6.25) is valid up to of (3200)

The above equations may be applied to inclined tubes by replacing (g) by


(g sin .Also the condition of <1.8 tan must be achieved.
Equating equs. (6.11) and (6.24) shows that (h) on vertical plate of height (Y) and
on horizontal tube of a diameter (D) will be the same if
( =2.76). When < 2.76, < .

Example (6.1): Saturated Vapor at (1 atm) Condenses on a


D= 0.08 m
vertical cylinder as shown in figure. Calculate:
Cold
water 1m

1. Heat Transfer rate. Tw=50°C

2. Rate of condensation Θ=90

Sol.;

Assume;

1. Laminar film condensation


2. On vertical plate
Sat.Vap
At P=1 atm Tsat=100 ºC

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= 0.596 Kg/m3

At Tf = 75 ºC

=375* Pa.s
=0.668 W/m.K
Use equation (6.11);

h = 1.13 W/

q = h A (Tsat-Tw) =h D L (Tsat-Tw) q = 60708 W


q= =0.0269 kg/s

Since laminar
Using (6.8) mm
Plane surface

6.1.4 Condensation on Bundle of Horizontal Tubes


In a bank of horizontal tubes it is possible for the condensate to run off the bottom
of the upper onto the next tube below.
(h) is the same given by equ.(6.24) with D replaced by
(ND), where(N) is the number of tubes using (6.25);

……...(6.26)

where;

……………………(6.27) h

The average coefficient hnth for the nth the tube is


related to that for the top tube be (h1) by:

= ………………………… (6.28)

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6.2 Boiling Heat Transfer


When a surface is exposed to a liquid and is maintained at a temperature above the
saturation temperature of the liquid, boiling may occur and the heat flux will depend on
the difference in temperature between the surface and the saturation temperature. When
the heated surface is submerged below a free surface of liquid the process is referred to a
"Pool Boiling". If the temperature of the liquid is below the saturation temperature, the
process is called "subcooled" or " local" boiling. If the liquid is maintained at saturation
temperature, the process is known as "saturated" or “bulk" boiling.
6.2.1 Pool Boiling
The different regimes of pool boiling are indicated in Fig.(6.2), when heat
flux data from an electrically heated platinum wire submerged in water are plotted against
temperature excess ( ).

Interface Bubbles Film


evaporation

4 I II III CHF IV V VI
5 x 10
bubble ris to interface

a
Particle nucleate boiling of

b
Nm cleat boiling

Stable film boiling

Radiation come into play


Nm cleat boiling bubble converse in

state beginuing

Pur convection H.T


superheated liquidates assists

unstable film
Spheroideal

by superheated
3 liquid rising to the
5 x 10 liquid – varop
interface where
evaporation take
2 place
5 x 10

5 x 10
0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000

0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000

Fig (6.2): Pool Boiling

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Region I free convection currents are responsible for motion of the fluid near surface. In
this region the liquid near the heated surface is superheated slightly, and it subsequently
evaporates when it rises to the surface.

Region II Bubbles begin to form on the surface of the wire and are dissipated in the
liquid after breaking away from the surface. This region indicates the beginning of
"nucleate boiling".

Region III Bubbles from more rapidly and rise to the surface of the liquid, where they
are dissipated.

Region IV Bubbles are formed so rapidly that they blanket the heating surface and
present the inflow of fresh liquid from taking their place. At this point the bubbles
coalesce and from a vapor film which covers the surface. The heat must be conducted
through this film before it can reach the liquid and affect the boiling process. The thermal
resistance of this film causes a reduction in heat flux. This region represents a transition
from nucleate boiling to film boiling and is unstable (the film destroyed and formed
again)

Region V Region of stable film boiling required high temp.

Region VI Stable film boiling continuous, and a significant portion of the heat lost by the
surface may be the result of thermal radiation.

An eclectically heated wire is unstable at point "a" Critical Heat Flux since a small
increase in at this point results in a decrease in the boiling heat flux. But the wire still
must dissipate the same heat flux, or its temperature will rise resulting in operation
farther down on the boiling curve. Eventually, equilibrium may be reestablished only at
point "b" in the film boiling region. This temperature usually exceeds the melting
temperature of the writ, so that burnout results. If the electric energy input is quickly
reduced when the system attains point "a", it may be possible to observe the partial
nucleate boiling and unstable film region

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Notes:

1- Experiment of Boiling
A
* The heater is used to maintain
Brass jag
H2O at Tsat., i.e not boiled.

* Cu-conductors must be made


thick so as not to be heated; only v
pt. wire must be heated.
Distilled
* heat flax on the pt. wire qw ; H2O
Cu - conductor

Platinum wine
Heater
Also;

Tsat

When: E= Voltage

I= Current

R= Resistance

 During the experiment, we change the current and note what happens to the pt.
wire. is increased by increasing the power.
2- In region I, (since in free convection) so, the slope
is of power (5/4)

3- In region II bubbles form at nucleation sites (A),


where the resistance is high and temperature in high.
The bubble is acted upon by and . When
FB
Fn
becomes large, the bubble detach the surface and rose bubble

in the liquid and loss heat to the liquid and then


disappears.

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4- In region III vapor columns occur.


5- At point (a) [CHF], a vapor film covers the surface and large is required for the
same amount of heat flux, since vapor is poor conductor.
6- In the experiment; is the independent variable and is depended variable up to
the point (a) (the burn out flux), after that, we must make ( ) as the indepented variable.
( )
Since = const., we must change ( )
To calculate ( ), we collect the
Control valve
condersate of the condesing
Condensing (to control the
x pressure)
medium after a certain time and medina

form the enthalpy we calculate Tsat


( ).

7- Liedenfrost Effect:
Occur in film boiling. If we drop water on a very hot plate, the water drop will
(dance) due to formation of vapor film (due to high ) under the water drop, and when
this film expands, it pushes the water drop.
Water Vapor
drop film

Empirical Relations in Pool Boiling


Rohsenow conducted a large number of experiments and collected data from other
workers in boiling. His experiments are;
1. In various liquids
2. Wide range of
3. Different heating surfaces (Platinum, Cupper, Steel, Brass,...)
4. Correlate into. and other parameters.

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For nucleate pool boiling, Rohsenow correlated experimental data with the following
relation;

Or;

..................………..... (6.29)

Where ( ) = properties of stated liquid


= density of stated vapor
= surface tension of liquid vapor interface
gc = 1 (in SI units)
S= 1 for water and 1.7 for other liquids
= constant, determined from experimental data ( = surface fluid)

Fluid - Heating Surface Combination


Water - Copper 0.013
Water - Platinum 0.013
Water - Brass 0.006
Water -Steel 0.013
Water - Nicle 0.006

The peak (critical) heat flux for nucleate pool boiling is indicated as point
"a" in fig. (6.2). Zuber has developed an analytical expression for the peak heat flux in
nucleate boiling by considering the stability requirements of the interface between the
vapor film and liquid. This is relation is;

........................... (6.30)

Equ. (6.30) is usually used independent of surface material or geometry.

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(q/A) max
Fluid-Surface
Btu/ W/m2 ºc
Water - Copper 200-270 620-850 23-28
Benzene - Copper 43.5 130
Aluminum 50.5 160
Water - Chrome plate 300-400 940-1240
Propane Ni-Cu 67-110 210-340 42-50

So, water is the best (high burnout heat flux), because of the high ( )
Note: Equ. (6.30) is usually used to find (q / A)max and then use (6.29) to find ( )
Bromley suggests the following relation for calculating heat transfer
coefficients in stable film - boiling region (hb) on a horizontal tube:

....................... (6.31)

Where d= diameter of pipe


( ) = properties of saturated vapor.
Equ. (6.31) considers only the conduction through the film and does not included
the effect of radiation. The total heat transfer coefficient (h) including both radiation and
conduction may be calculated from the empirical relation:

h= ................................................... (6.32)

Where;

.................................... (6.33)

W/m2K4)
Emissivity of the surface. Equ. (6.32) require an iterative solution. The properties of
the vapor in equ. (6.31) are to be evaluated at the film temperature;

While ( ) is to be evaluated at ( ).
Note: For large film boiling (
For small nucleate boiling
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Example (6.2): P = 1 atm


Copper pan
water Tw = 118°C

For the copper pan shown, find; D = 0.3 m


q

1- Required electrical input power (q)

2- Rate of water evaporation.

3- CHF

Sol.;

at p = 1 atm = 957.9 kg/m3

= 4.217 kJ/kg K

279 * 10-6 Pa.s

=1.76

= 2257 kJ /kg

=0.0589 N/m

= 0.5955 kg/m3

=118-100= 18 °C → nucleate boiling

From equ. (6.29) q/A = 243.5 kW/m2

q=q/A * → q = 17.2 kW Ans.1

q= → b = 27.4 kg / h Ans.2

Equ.(6.30) → q/A CHF = 1.52 MW/m2 Ans.3

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Example (6.3):

Metal – cladded electrical heater

D= 6mm water D=6 mm


Tw=225°C
Tsat.=100°C
C= 1

Tw= 255 °C

Find the dissipated power?


Sol.;
Sat.

At T=100ºC H2O = 957.9 kg/m3

= 2257 kJ/kg

Sat. H2o at (450 k) = = 4.808 kg/m3

= 2.56 kJ/kgk

= 0.0331 W/mk

=14. 85 * 10-6 Pa.s

= = 155 ⁰C < 150 stable film boiling

From equ. (6.31) hb = 453 W/m2k

From equ. (6.33) hr = 21.3 W/m2k

Equ. (6.32);

h=

h = 453 + 21.3

By trial and error h= 469 W/m2k

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q= h A T = h DL = 469 *0.006*155 q= 1.37 kW/m


6.2.2. Convective Boiling
The addition of heat to a flowing liquid causing vapor generation.

I II III IV V VI

Region I: Forced Convection Liquid: Tliq < Tsat. Liquid is heated by forced convection.

Region II: Bubbly Flow: Boiling starts and bubbles appear at the tube surface which
grow and separated and go with liquid.

Region III: Bubbly and Slug Flow: The volumetric ratio of the vapor increases and
bubble coalesce to form larger bubbles which may fill the tube cross section

Region IV: Annular Flow: A film of liquid is formed on the on the tube surface, and the
vapor flows in the pipe center with a velocity higher than the liquid velocity.

Region V: Liquid Droplets: Dry regions appear on the tube surface which cause a
decrease in (h) and a transition region between regions 4 and 5 occurs. Small liquid
droplets appear in the vapor.

Region VI: Forced Convection Vapor: the liquid droplets disappear and the vapor is
heated or superheated by forced convection.

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Problems

1. A (56 mm) outer diameter vertical tube condenser operates at a pressure of (1.53*10 4
Pa) and condenses steam free from non-condensable gas at a rate of (25 kg/hr) per
tube. Determine the heat transfer coefficient and the length of tube required if the
temperature drop across the condensate film is (50ºC).
2. A saturated steam at (1 atm) is in contact with a vertical flat plate (1m) height and
(0.5m) wide maintained at (70ºC). Estimate the heat transfer rate to the plate and the
rate of condensation.
3. A vertical square flat plate (0.5 m* 0.5 m) is maintained at (84ºC) and is exposed to
a saturated steam at (1 atm)
(a) Estimate the local heat transfer coefficient at the steam at the middle and bottom
of the plate.
(b) Estimate the average heat transfer coefficient for the whole plate.
(c) Find the total rate of condensation and total heat transfer rate.
4. A saturated stem at (1 atm) condenses on the outer surface of a vertical tube (100mm)
outer diameter and (1m) in length maintained at (94ºC). Estimate the total rate of
condensation and the total heat transfer rate to the tube. Find the mass flow rate of the
cooling water required to maintain the tube wall at (94ºC) knowing that the
temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of the tube is (4ºC).
5. Estimate the heat transfer coefficient for pool boiling of water under (1 atm.) in a
smooth stainless steel container, when the excess temperature is (15 ˚C).
6. Find the critical heat flux for pool boiling of water under normal conditions. What
would be this flux when (p= 2 bar).
7. Estimate the current at which a Nickel wire (1 mm) diameter will burn when
submerged horizontally in water at (1 bar). The resistance of the wire is (0.129 Ω /m).
8. A Platinum wire (1 mm) in diameter and (1 m) length is submerged horizontally in
water at (1 atm) and is kept at (115 ˚C) by heating it electrically. Estimate;
(a) The rate of water evaporation.
(b) The current at which the wire will burn if its resistance is (0.129 Ω).

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Take the following properties of water at (1 atm):

Pa.s , =1.76,hfg=2257 kJ/kg, k ).


9. For condensation on a bundle of vertical in – line (N) horizontal tubes, show that the
average heat transfer coefficient (hn th) for the (n th) tubs is related to that for the top

tube (h1) by the following relation: ( )

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Chapter (7)
Mass Transfer
7.1 Introduction
Mass transfer can result from several different phenomena. There is mass transfer
associated with convection in that mass transported from one place to another in the flow
system. This type of mass transfer occurs on a "macroscopic" level and is usually treated
in the subject of fluid mechanics. When a mixture of gases or liquids is contained such
that there exists a concentration gradient of one or more of the constituents across the
system, there will be a mass transfer on a "microscopic" level as the result of diffusion
from region of high concentration to region of low concentration.
Mass transfer processes occur in a variety of applications in mechanical, chemical,
and aerospace engineering; physics, chemistry; and biology. Typical examples include;
1. Transpiration cooling of jet engines and rocket motors.
2. Ablative cooling of space vehicles during reentry to atmosphere.
3. Mass transfer from laminar and turbulent streams onto surfaces.
4. Evaporation or condensation on surfaces.
5. Absorption and desorption.
6. Distillation.
7. Solvent extraction.
8. Drying.
9. Humidification.
10. Sublimation.
11. Oxygenation of blood.
12. Food and drug assimilation.
13. Respiration mechanism.
When mass transfer takes place in a fluid at rest, the mass is transferred by purely
molecular diffusion resulting from concentration gradients; the process is analogous to
heat diffusion resulting from temperature gradients. When the fluid is in motion, mass
transfer takes place by both molecular diffusion and convective motion of the bulk fluid;
then a knowledge of velocity field is needed to solve the mass transfer problem. For low

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concentrations of the mass in the fluid and low mass transfer rates, the convective heat and
mass transfer processes are analogous, and many of the results derived in connection with
convective heat transfer are applicable to convective mass transfer. However, under high
mass - flux conditions and with chemical reactions there is significant difference between
heat and mass transfer processes.

7.2 Analogy between Heat and Mass Transfer


The mechanisms of heat and mass transfer are analogous to each other, and thus we
can develop an understanding of mass transfer in a short time with little effort by simply
drawing "parallels" between heat and mass transfer. Establishing those "bridges" between
the two seemingly unrelated areas will make it possible to use heat transfer knowledge to
solve mass transfer problems. Alternatively, gaining a working knowledge of mass
transfer will help to better understand heat transfer processes by thinking of heat as a
massless substance as they did in the 19 th century. Mass is, in essence, energy according to
Einstein's formula (E=mc2). Therefore, we can look at mass and heat as two different
forms of energy. Table (7.1) shows the "parallels" drawn between heat and mass transfer.
Table (7.1): Analogy between Heat and Mass Transfer

Process Heat Mass


Fourier's Law of Conduction Fick's Law of Diffusion
Conduction

Heat Convection Mass Convection


Convection
H.T. Coefficient Mass Transfer Coefficient
Driving Temperature Difference Concentration Difference
Force (kg / m3)
Heat Generation (W/m3) Species Generation
Conversion of some form of Volumetric phenomenon occur
energy (electrical, chemical, through the medium due to
nuclear..) into sensible heat chemical reaction, and called
Volumetric energy in the whole medium "homogenous reaction"
Phenomenon (volumetric phenomena)
Surface heat flux (q"), Generation of spices at the
convection from the surface as a result of
surface, surface radiation, chemical reaction at the
surface frictional heating surface

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7.3 Mass Diffusion


7.3.1 Definitions
The concentration of a species can be expressed in several ways. The most two
common ways are those based on "mass" or "mole" basis.
1- Mass Basis
Concentration is expressed in terms of density ( ), i.e, “mass concentration", which is
mass per unit volume.

Partial Density of Species i (kg /m3)

Total Density of Mixture (kg /m3) ....................…... (7.1)

Mass Fraction of Species i .................................... (7.2)

0
2- Mole Basis
Concentration is expressed in terms of molar concentration (or molar density) in
(kmol / m3).

Partial Molar Concentration of Species i (kmol /m3)

Total Molar Concentration of Mixture (kmol /m3) ......... (7.3)

Mole Fraction of Species i = .............................. (7.4)

0 and =1
Now; since;
M ..................................................... (7.5)
Where M= Molecular Weight (Molar Mass), (kg/kmol)

Thus;

i.e.; ; …..….... (7.6)

M = …..….... (7.7)

..…..…... (7.8)

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Ideal Gas Mixtures


At low pressures, a gas or gas mixture can conveniently be approximated as an ideal
gas with negligible error. The Dalton's law of partial pressures can be applied here. It
states that the total pressure of gas mixture (p) is equal to the sum of partial pressures (p i)
of the individual gases in the mixture;
p= ...........................................…..... (7.9)
is the partial pressure of species (i) exerted if it exists alone at the mixture
temperature and volume. From prefect gas law;
p = NRT
Where R= universal gas constant = RM, R=gas contrast
Thus, the “pressure fraction" of species (i) can be expressed as;
-
- = ................................….…. (7.10)

Thus; pressure fraction = mole fraction

7.3.2 Fick's Law of Diffusion


The rate of mass diffusion of chemical species in a stagnant medium in a specified
direction is proportional to the local concentration gradient in that direction. This liner
relationship between the rate of diffusion and the concentration gradient proposed by Fick
in 1855 is known as " Fick's Law of Diffusion " and can be expressed for the diffusion of
species A in a stationary binary mixture of species (A) and (B) in a specified direction (x),
see Fig. (7.1), as;
Mass Basis; higher lower

Concentration of
species A

....... (7.11) Slope =

CA (X)
Area A
Mole Basis; Concentration
profile of species A

........ (7.12) x

Fig.(7-1)

Where;

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Mass Flux per Unit Time (kg /s)


= Diffusive Mass Flux (kg / s.m2)
-
= Diffusive Molar Flux (mol/s.m2)

= Diffusion Coefficient (m2/s) (or Mass Diffusivity)

Note that ( and ( may vary throughout the mixture.

Therefore; and . But in the special case of constant

and C, then;

..............................…….... (7.11a)

...........................….…….. (7.12a)

The assumption of constant and C is usually appropriate for "solids" and "dilute liquid
-
solutions", but often this is not the case for gas mixtures or concentrated liquid solutions.
For 2-D and 3-D cases, Fick's law can be expressed in vector form as;
..................................….. (7.13)

Because of the complex nature of mass diffusion, the diffusion coefficients are
usually determined experimentally. The kinetic theory of gases indicates that the diffusion
coefficient for dilute gases at ordinary pressures is essentially independent of mixture
composition and tends to increase with temperature while decreasing with pressures;

.....................….…. (7.14)

Gilliland proposed the following semi empirical equation for the diffusion
coefficient in gases;

D=435.7 .............................. (7.15)

Where; D = Diffusion Coefficient (cm2/s)


T = Absolute Temperature (k)
p = Total System Pressure (pa)
= Atomic Volume of Constituents, see Table (7.2)
= Molecular Weights

Table (7.3) gives the diffusion coefficient of some gases.

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The diffusion coefficients for solids and liquid also tend to increase with
temperature while exhibiting a strong dependence on the composition. The binary
diffusion coefficient for several binary gas mixtures and solid and liquid solutions are
given in Tables (7.4) and (7.5), from which we may observe;

1. The diffusion coefficients are in general highest in gases and lowest in solids.
2. The diffusion coefficient increases with temperature.

Due to its practical importance, the diffusion of water vapor in air has been the topic of
several studies. Marrero and Mason proposed the following formula;

K ......................… (7.16)

Where (p) is the total pressure in (atm) and (T) in (K). Table (7.6) gives typical values of
( ).

Example (7.1): The composition of dry standard atmosphere is given in molar basis to be
78.1%N2, 20.9% O2 and 1% Ar, and other constituents. Treating other constituents as Ar,
determined the mass fraction of the constituents of air.
Sol.:
From tables;

M=

(7.8) mass fraction


Thus;

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Table (7.2): Atomic (Molecular) Volumes

Atomic Atomic
Matter Matter
Volume Volume
Air 29.9 Bromine 27
Carbon 14.8 Carbon Dioxide 34
Chlorine
21.6 Hydrogen, molecule (H2) 14.3
Terminal as in R-CL
24.6 In Compounds 3.7
Medial as in R-CHCL-R
Fluorine 8.7 Iodine 37
Nitrogen, Molecule (N2) 15.6 Oxygen, Molecules (O2)
In Primary Amines 10.5 Coupled to Two Other 7.4
In Secondary Amines 1.2 Elements
In Aldehydos and
Phosphorus 27 7.4
Ketones
Sulpher 25.6 In Methyl Easters 9.1
In Ethyl Easters 33
In Higher Easters a
11
Water 18.8 Weather
In Acids 12
In Union with S,P,N 8.3

Table (7.3): Binary Diffusion Coefficients of Some Gases in Air at 1 atm Pressure

T Binary Diffusion Coefficient, m2/s 105


(k) O2 CO2 H2 NO
200 0.95 0.74 3.75 0.88
300 1.88 1.57 7.77 1.8
400 5.25 2.63 12.5 3.03
500 4.75 3.85 17.1 4.43
600 6.46 5.37 24.4 6.03
700 8.38 6.84 31.7 7.82
800 10.5 8.57 39.3 9.78
900 12.6 10.5 47.7 11.8
1000 15.2 12.4 56.9 14.1
1200 20.6 16.9 77.7 19.2
1400 26.6 21.7 99 24.5
1600 33.2 27.5 125 30.4
1800 40.3 32.5 152 37
2000 48 39.4 180 44.8

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Table (7.4): Binary Diffusion Coefficients of Dilute Gas Mixtures at 1 atm


Substance Substance T, DAB or DBA, Substance Substance T, DAB or DBA,
A B K m2/s A B K m2/s
Air Acetone 273 1.1x10-5 Argon, Ar Nitrogen,N2 293 1.9 x10-5
Air Ammonia, NH3 298 2.6x10-5 Carbon dioxide,CO2 Benzene 318 0.72 x 10-5
Air Benzene 298 0.88x10-5 Carbon dioxide,CO2 Hydrogen, H2 273 5.5 x 10-5
Air Carbon dioxide 298 1.6x10-5 Carbon dioxide,CO2 Nitrogen,N2 293 1.6 x 10-5
Air Chlorine 273 1.2x10-5 Carbon dioxide,CO2 Oxygen, O2 273 1.4 x 10-5
Air Ethyl alcohol 298 1.2x10-5 Carbon dioxide,CO2 Water vapor 298 1.6 x 10-5
Air Ethyl ether 298 0.93x10-5 Hydrogen, H2 Nitrogen,N2 273 6.8 x 10-5
Air Helium, H2 298 7.2x10-5 Hydrogen, H2 Oxygen, O2 273 7.0 x 10-5
Air Hydrogen, H2 298 7.2x10-5 Oxygen, O2 Ammonia 293 2.5 x 10-5
Air Iodine, l2 298 0.38x10-5 Oxygen, O2 Benzene 296 0.39 x 10-5
Air Methanol 298 1.6x10-5 Oxygen, O2 Nitrogen,N2 273 1.8 x 10-5
-5
Air Mercury 614 4.7x10 Oxygen, O2 Water vapor 298 2.5 x 10-5
Air Naphthalene 300 0.62x10-5 Water vapor Argon, Ar 298 2.4 x 10-5
Air Oxygen, O2 298 2.1x10-5 Water vapor Helium, He 298 9.2 x 10-5
Air Water vapor 298 2.5x10-5 Water vapor Nitrogen,N2 298 2.5 x 10-5
Table (7.5): Binary Diffusion Coefficients of Dilute Liquid Solutions
and Solid Solutions at 1 atm
(a) Diffusion through liquids (b) Diffusion through solids
Substance Substance T, DAB Substance Substance T, DAB
A (solute) B (solvent) K m2/s A (solute) B (solvent) K m2/s
Ammonia water 285 1.6x10-9 Carbon dioxide Natural rubber 298 1.1 x 10-10

Benzene water 293 1.0x10-9 Nitrogen Natural rubber 298 1.5 x 10-10
Carbon dioxide water 298 2.0x10-9 Oxygen Natural rubber 298 2.1 x 10-10

Chlorine water 285 1.4x10-9 Helium Pyrex 773 2x 10-12

Ethanol water 283 0.84x10-9 Helium Pyrex 298 4.5 x 10-15

Ethanol water 288 1.0x10-9 Helium Silicon 298 4.0 x 10-14


dioxide
Ethanol water 298 1.2x10-9 Hydrogen Iron 298 2.6 x 10-13

Glucose water 298 0.69x10-9 Hydrogen Nickel 358 1.2 x 10-12

Hydrogen water 298 6.3x10-9 Hydrogen Nickel 438 1.0 x 10-11

Methane water 272 0.85x10-9 Cadmium Copper 293 2.7 x 10-19

Methane water 293 1.5x10-9 Zinc Copper 773 4.0 x 10-18

Methane water 333 3.6x10-9 Zinc Copper 1273 5.0 x 10-13

methanol water 222 1.3x10-9 Antimony Silver 293 3.5 x 10-25

Nitrogen water 298 2.6x10-9 Bismuth Lead 293 1.1 x 10-20

Oxygen water 298 2.4x10-9 Mercury Lead 293 2.5 x 10-19

water methanol 298 1.2x10-9 Copper Aluminum 773 4.0 x 10-14

water Ethylene 298 0.18x10-9 Copper Aluminum 3273 1.0 x 10-10


glycol
water methanol 298 1.8x10-9 Carbon Iron (fcc) 773 5.0 x 10-15

chloroform methanol 288 2.1x10-9 Carbon Iron (fcc) 3273 3.0 x 10-11

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Table (7.6): Binary Diffusion Coefficients of Water Vapor in Air at 1 atm


T (ºC) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 50 100 150

or 2.09 2.17 2.25 2.33 2.42 2.5 2.59 2.68 2.77 2.96 3.99 5.18
10-5 10-5 10-5 10-5 10-5 10-5 10-5 10-5 10-5 10-5 10-5 10-5
m2/s

7.3.3 Steady State Diffusion through a Wall


The problem is analogous to steady state one-dimensional heat conduction problem
-
by replacing T by wi (or yi), k by DAB (or cDAB), and q by Ji (or Ji).
Consider a solid plane wall (medium B) of area
C.S.A. =A

A, thickness L and density . The wall is Medium


B

subjected on both sides to different


WA1
WA (X)
concentrations of a species A to which it is
WA2

permeable. The boundary surfaces at x=0 and O L x

x=L have mass fractions wA1 and wA2


respectively, at all times, see Fig. (7.2). Fig.(7.2)

The concentration of species A at any point will not change with time (steady
operation), and there will be no production or destruction of species A, since no chemical
reaction exist. Then, the conservation of mass for species A can be expressed as;

Then;

Hence;

......................……........ (7.17)

Assuming to be constants, then;


.....................……...... (7.18)

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Or;

...........................……..... (7.19)

Where;

...........................……...... (7.20)

is the " diffusion resistance" of the wall, which is analogous to the electrical conduction
resistance, see Fig.(7.3). The mass fraction wA(x) at any location (x) can be determined
by replacing ( ) by wA(x) and (L) by (x)

T1 T2 V1 V2 WA1 WA2

Re

(a) Heat Flow (b) Current Flow (c) Mass Flow

Fig. (7.3)
On molar basis;
.................. (7.21)
Where;
................................................. (7.22)
is the "molar diffusion resistance" of the wall.

In the above analysis, the species A can be a gas, liquid, or a solid. Also, the wall
can be a plane layer of a liquid or gas provided that it is "stationary".
The analogy between heat and mass transfer also applies to cylindrical and
spherical geometries. The following analogous relations for steady, one - dimensional
mass transfer through non reacting cylindrical and spherical layers.
Cylindrical: .......... (7.23)

Spherical: ..... (7.24)

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In molar basis,
B
... (7.25) WA2
r2 r1

WA1

... (7.26)

Example (7.2): Pressurized hydrogen gas is stored at 358 K in a 4.8 m outer diameters
spherical container made of nicle. The shell of the container is 6 cm think. The molar
concentration of hydrogen in the nickel at the inner surfaces is determined to be 0.087
kmol/m3. The concentration of hydrogen in the nickel at the outer surface is negligible.
Determine the mass flow rate of hydrogen by diffusion through the nickel container.
Sol.
From table (7.5), DH2-Ni = 1.2 * 10-12 m2/s
c=cA+cB ≃ cB (cA <<1 ≃0)
Thus; from equ. (7.26);

= * 2.34 * 2.4 * 1.2 * 10-12 *10-10

= 7.8

7.3.4 Water Vapor Migration in Buildings


Moisture greatly influences the performance and durability of buildings
materials, and thus moisture transmission is an important consideration in the construction
and maintenance of buildings. The most important effects of moisture are;
1. The dimensions of wood and other hygroscopic substances change with moisture
content, which leads to cyclic changes.
2. Excess moisture can cause change in the appearance and physical properties of
materials, corrosion and rusting in metals, rotting in woods, and peeling of paint.
3. Moisture affects the effective conductivity of porous medium and also the specific
heat.

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Atmospheric air can be viewed as a mixture of dry air and water vapor and
atmospheric pressure is the sum of the pressure of dry air and the pressure of water vapor
(pv). Air can hold a certain amount of moisture only, and the ratio of the actual amount of
moisture in the air at a given temperature to the maximum amount air can hold at that
temperature is called the relative humidity ( ), which ranges from for dry air to 100%
for saturated air (air that cannot hold any more moisture). The partial pressure of water
vapor in saturated air is called the saturation pressure (psat).
........................................ (7.27)

The mass flow rate of moisture ( ) through a plain layer of thickness L and

normal area A can be expressed as;

............................ (7-28)

Where ( ) is the vappor permeability of the material, which is usually expressed on a


mass basis in the unit (ng/s.m.Pa), where ng=10-12 Kg, and 1 Pa=10-5 bar.

7.3.5 Diffusion of Water Vapor in Air


Consider the isothermal evaporation of water from a surface and the subsequent
diffusion through a stagnant air layer, see Fig. (7.4). The free surface of the water is
exposed to air in the tank. We assume that the system is isothermal and that the total
pressure remains constant. Steady state is also assumed. This requires that there be a slight
air movement at the top of the tank to remove the water vapor which diffuses to that point.

Air
2

1
water
p

Fig.(7.4)

This air movement is assumed that it does not create turbulence or otherwise alters the
composition profiles in the air in the tank. We further assume that both the air and water
vapor behave as a perfect (ideal) gas.

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As the water evaporates, it will diffuse upward through the air, and at steady state
this upward movement must be balanced by a downward diffusion of air so that the
concentration at any x position will remain constant. But at the surface of the water, there
can be no net mass movement of air downward. Consequently, there must be a bulk mass
movement upward with a velocity just large enough to balance the diffusion of air
downward. This bulk mass movement then produces additional mass flux of water vapor
upward.
The diffusion of air downward may be calculated from equ. (7-11), noting that

( , as;

……………………………….. (7.29)

Where A=C.S.A. of the tank. This must be balanced by the bulk mass transfer upward so
that;

AV = AV ……………………………………. (7.30)
Where (V) is the bulk mass velocity upward. Combining (7-29) and (7.30), we find;

V= …………………………………………….. (7.31)

The mass diffusion of water vapor upward is;

……………………………….. (7.32)

And the bulk transport of water vapor is;

……………………………….. (7.33)
The total mass transport is the sum of those given in equs. (7.32) and (7.33). Adding these
quantities and make use of equ. (7.31) gives;

But; p = pA + pw = const. and DWA =DAW = 0

Hence;

= .......…………………… (7.34)

This relation is called Stefan's law. It may be integrated to give;

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= .........……………. (7.35)

Example (7.3): Determine the mole fraction of the water vapor at the surface of a lake
whose temperature is 15ºC and compare it to the mole fraction of water in the lake. Take
(patm=92 kPa).

Sol.:
At T =15ºC psat.=1.705 kPa
Air 92 Kpa, 15°C
Saturated Air

The air at the water surface will be saturated.


Therefore, the water vapor pressure in the air at the Lake

lake surface will be psat.; 15ºC

pv=psat.=1.705 kPa
Thus; (Mole fraction of water at the lake

surface on air side)


yw =1(100%) (Mole fraction of water at the lake surface on liquid side)

Example (7.4): Estimate the diffusion rate of water from the bottom of a tube (10mm) in
diameter and (15 cm) long into dry atmosphere air at 25ºC.
Sol.:
We use equ. (7-35) to calculate the mass flux.
= psat. at 25ºC (77ºF) =0.4593 psi 2
= 0 (dry air) patm =14.696 psi
Thus; =p =14.237 psi = 98.155 kPa
1
=p = 14.696 psi = 101.32 kpa

From table (7.4); DWA =0.25 = D;

Thus; from equ. (7-35):

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Thus;

=0.00113

7.3.6 Transient Diffusion


The steady analysis discussed earlier is useful when determining the leakage rate of
a species through stationary layer. But sometimes we are interested in the diffusion of a
species into a body during a limited time before steady operation conditions are
established. Such problems are studied using "transient analysis". Some examples are;
1. Surface hardening of metals, by diffusing carbon molecules into the surface of
products. The process is made in furnaces at high temperatures, since diffusion
rate increases with temperature.
2. Coloring clear stones in the gem industry.
3. Drying processes of coal, timber, food, textile,……..
Transient mass diffusion in a stationary medium is analogous to transient heat transfer
provided that the solution is dilute and thus the density is constant.The analogus 1-D
transient mass diffusion problems satisfy the following;
1. The diffusion coefficient is constant. This is valid for an isothermal medium
since DAB varies with temperature. (Corresponds to constant thermal
diffusivity ).
2. There are no homogenous reactions in the medium that generates or deplete the
diffusing species A (corresponds to no heat generation)
3. Initially (t=0) the concentration of species A is constant throughout the medium
(corresponds to uniform initial temperate).
Table (7.7) shows the analogous quantities between heat and mass.

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Table (7.7): Analogy between Transient Heat & Mass Diffusion.

Conduction
Heat T = =

c
Diffusion

=
Mass

y
=
w
For the case of a semi-infinite medium with constant surface concentration, the
solution can be expressed as;

……………………… (7.36)

Where; = Initial concentration of species A at t=0


= Concentration at the inner side of the exposed surface
Now, for dilute solutions, it can be shown that;

……………. (7.37)

Therefore, other measures of concentration can be used in equ. (7.37).


A quantity of interest in mass diffusion process is the depth of diffusion at a given
time. This is usually characterized by” Penetration Depth" defined as” the location x
where the tangent to the concentration profile at the surface (x=0) intercepts the
line as shown in Fig. (7.5). Using equ. (7.36), it can be shown that;
......…….. (7.38)

For example, the diffusion coefficient of zinc in copper at


Cai(x,t)
(1000ºC) is (5* . Then, the penetration depth of zinc in
copper in 10 h is; CAi 0

Semi-infinite
medium
=0.38 mm
That is, Zinc will penetrate to a depth of about 0.38 mm in an
Fig.(7.5)
appreciable amount in 10 h, and there will hardly be any zinc in
the copper block beyond a depth of 0.38 mm.

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Example (7.5): The surface of mild steel is hardened by packing the component in a
carbonaceous material in a furnace at high temperature for a predetermined time. Consider
such a component with a uniform initial carbon concentration of 0.15 percent by mass.
The component is now packed in a carbonaceous material and is placed in a high
temperature furnace. The diffusion coefficient of carbon in steel at furnace temperature is
(4.8*10-10 m2/s), and the equilibrium concentration of carbon in the iron at the interface is
determined from equilibrium data to be 1.2 percent by mass. Determine how long the
component should be kept in the furnace for the mass concentration of carbon (0.5mm)
below the surface to reach 1 percent.
Sol.

Carbonaceous
material

0 x

0.5 Steel
mm component
Thus;
carbon

t= =1 h 15 min.

4.7 Mass Convection


7.4.1 Introduction
The mass convection (or convective mass transfer) is the transfer of mass between a
surface and a moving fluid due to both "mass diffusion" and " bulk fluid motion". As fluid
motion enhances heat transfer, it also enhances mass transfer by removing high
concentration fluid near the surface. In the limiting case of no bulk fluid motion, mass
convection reduces to mass diffusion, just as convection reduces to conduction. The
analogy between heat and mass convection holds for both forced and natural convection,
laminar and turbulent flow, and internal and external flow.
Consider the flow of air over the free surface of a water body such as lake under
isothermal conditions, see Fig. (7.6). If the air is not saturated, the concentration of water
vapor will vary from a maximum at the water surface where the air is always saturated to

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the free stream value far from the surface. Analogous to the "thermal/boundary layer",
the" concentration boundary layer" is defined as the region of the fluid in which
concentration gradient exists. In external flow", the thickness of concentration boundary
layer ( c) for a species A at a specified location on the surface is defined as the normal
distance y from the surface at which;

y Concentration
profile
Concentration
Boundary layer

Species A

Fig.(7.6)

In internal flow, we have "concentration entrance region" where the concentration


develops, see Fig. (7.7).
The fully developed region is characterized by;
Concentration Fully
entry length Developed

……………… (7.39) Lc region

Concentration b.I

where ( is the bulk mean density of species A defined Species


A

as;
VdA …………….(7.40) Fig.(7.7)

Therefore, the nondimensionalized concentration difference profile as well as the


mass transfer coefficient remains constant in the fully developed region. This is analogues
to the friction factor and heat transfer coefficients remaining constant in the fully
developed region.
In convection, the relative magnitudes of momentum and heat diffusion are
expressed by Prandtle number (Pr). The corresponding quantity in mass convection is the
Schmidt (Sc) number, which represents the relative magnitudes of molecular momentum
and mass diffusion;

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Pr = = ………………………….. (7.41)

Sc = = ……………………….. (7.42)

Thus; if Pr = 1 =
And if c =1

The Lewis number (Le) is defined as;

Le = = = ……………………………. (7.43)

In laminar flow;

; ; and ………………(7.44)

Note that species transfer at the surface Concentration


profile

(y=0) is by diffusion only because of no-slip


Mass diffusion
condition, and mass flux is expressed by
0

Fick's law, see Fig.(7.8); Species A

…..(7.45)

Fig. (7.8)

(This is analogous to heat transfer at the surface being by conduction only and expressed
by Fourie’s law).
The rate of heat convection for external flow was expressed as;

Likewise, the rate of mass convection can be expressed as;

......…………. (7.46)

Where; hmass = average mass transfer coefficient (m/s)


And; hmass = mass transfer coefficient (kg/m2.s)
If hmass varies in the flow direction, then;
hmass avg = …………………………….(7.47)

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Now, in convectional heat transfer,

Nu = …………………………………. (7.48)

Similarly, in mass convection the, Sherwood number ( is defined as;

………………………… (7.49)

(Nu) and ( represents the effectiveness of heat and mass convection at the surface,
respectively.
Sometimes, it is more convenient to express heat and mass transfer coefficients in
terms of Stanton number ;

…………………….. (7.50)

= = ………………….. (7.51)

Where (u= for external flow and (u) for internal flow.
In forced convection;

Nu = f (Re, Pr) .........………………………….. (7.52)

= f (Re, )

Where the function (f) is the same for a given geometry, providing the thermal and
concentration boundary conditions are the same type.

In natural convection;

Nu = f (Gr, Pr) ………………………….. (7.53)

=f( , )

Where;

= ……………………….. (7.54)

Note that in homogenous fluids; ( this is only true when

no concentration gradient exists. For nonhomogeneous fluid, both temperature and

concentration gradient exist, and thus ( which gives ( .

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7.4.2 Analogy between Friction, Heat and Mass Transfer Coefficients


The analogy between heat and momentum transfer can be used to predict mass
transfer, providing that the mass flux is low relative to total flow rate so that mass transfer
between the fluid and the surface does not affect the flow velocity.

I-Reynolds Analogy (Pr=Sc=1)

=
..................... )7.77(

II Chilton-Colburn Analogy (Pr )

= = ………………… (7.56)
Thus;

.............)7.77(
......

7.4.3 Mass Convection Relations

1. Forced Convection over a flat Plate

(a) Laminar Flow (Re

Nu = 0.664 Pr<0.6
.............)7.72(
Nu = 0.664 <0.5

(b) Turbulent Flow (5*105 Re 107)

Nu = 0.037 Pr<0.6
.............)7.79(
Sh = 0.037 <0.5

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2. Fully Developed Flow in Smooth Circular Pipes


(a) Laminar Flow (Re )
Nu = 3.66 UWT
= 4.36 UHF
.............)7..7(
= 3.66 Uniform Wall Mass Concentration

= 4.36 Uniform Wall Mass Flux

(b)Turbulent Flow (Re< 10000)

=0.023 0.7 160


.............)7..3(

3. Natural Convection
(a) Vertical Plate
Nu=0.59 ( 105 109
.............)7..2(

Nu=0.1 ( 109 1013


.............)7..3(
.

(b)Upper Surface of Horizontal Plate (Surface is Hot <

Nu=0.54 ( 104 107


...............)7..4(

Nu=0.15 ( 107 1011 ...............(7.65)

(c) Lower Surface of a Horizontal Plate (Surface is Hot <


<
Nu=0.27( 105 1011
...............(7.66)

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Example (7.6): Consider a circular pipe of (0.015m) inner diameter whose inner surface
is covered with a layer of liquid water as result of condensation, see the figure. In order to
dry the pipe, air (300K, 1atm) is forced through it with average velocity of (1.2 m/s).
Determine the mass transfer coefficient inside the pipe for fully developed flow.
Sol.:

At 300K Wet pipe


Air
300K V=1.2 m/s
From table (7.4) 1 atm

Re = = laminar flow
Nu = 3.66
=0.0062
Example (7.7): During a certain experiment involving the flow of dry air at 25ºC and 1
atm at a free stream velocity 2 m/s over a body covered with a layer of naphthalene, it is
observed that(12g) of naphthalene has sublimated in(15min), see the figure. The surface
area of the body is (0.3 m2). Both the body and the air were Kept at (25ºC). The vapor
pressure of naphthalene in air at 25ºC is (DAB=0.61*10-5m2/s). Determine the heat transfer
coefficient under the same flow conditions over the same geometry.
Naphthalene

Sol.: Sol.: vapor

Air 0.3 m 2
1 atm

The molecular weight of naphthalene =128.2 kg/kmol 25°C Body cover with
a layer of
2 naphthalene
Tables
Air at 25ºC kg/m3, cp= 1005 J/ kg.K and
=2.18*10-5 m2/s (mixture properties)
The incoming air is free of naphthalene =0
= 4.8*10-4

Thus;

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Using equ. (7.57);

h=0.0776*1.19*1005 =217 W/m2ºC

Example (7.8): Air at (1 atm and 25ºC) containing small quantities of ionide flows with
(u=5.18 m/s) inside a tube with (ID=0.03048m). Determine the mass transfer coefficient
for ionide transfer from the gas stream to the wall surface, and the rate of deposition of
ionide on the tube surface.
Sol.; From tables; ;

Re= turbulent flow

From equ. (7.59);

Sc = 1.89

Thus; = 0.023 (104)0.8 (1.89)1/3

hmass = 0.57 * 10-2 m/s


0

Thus;

7.5 Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer:-


Many mass transfer process encountered in practice occur isothermally, and thus
they do not involve heat transfer. But some engineering applications involve simultaneous
heat and mass transfer. In general, any mass transfer problem involving "phase change”
(evaporation, condensation, sublimation, melting,…. etc) must also involve heat transfer,
since latent heat is involved in the problem, and simultaneous heat and mass transfer must
be considered. Examples are;
1. Drying
2. Evaporation Cooling.

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3. Transpiration (or sweat) Cooling


4. Cooling by Dry Ice
5. Ablation Cooling of Space Vehicles During Reentry
6. Combustion of Fuel Droplets
7. Ordinary events like Rain, Snow, Hail…

Example (7.9): Hot water baths with open tops are commonly used in manufacturing
spray paints. The pressurized paint cans are temperature tested by submerging them in hot
water at 50˚c to ensure that the cans can withstand temperature up to 50˚c during
transportation and storage, see the figure. The water bath is (1m) wide and (3.5m) long,
and its top surface is open to ambient air to facilitate easy observation for the workers.
The average conditions in the plant are (92kPa, 25˚C & 52%RH). Determine the rate of
heat of heat loss from the top surface of water bath by;
Surrounding
(a) Radiation Surface
20°C
Air,20°C
(b) Natural Convection 92 Kpa
52%RH

(c) Evaporation
Wat er Aerosol
both
Assume the water is well agitated and at 50°C
con

maintained at uniform temperature of 50˚C at


Resistance Heater
all time by heater, and take the average
temperature of the surrounding surfaces to be
(20˚C).

Sol.:

(a) The emissivity of liquid water 0.95


=
(b) The air –water vapor mixture is dilute, and we can use dry air properties at the

average temperature and

K= 0.0269W/m˚c Pr= 0.711 = 2.6*10-5m2/s v= 1.84* 10-5m2/s

Water at 50˚c hfg = 2383 , pv = 12.35 kPa

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The air at the surface is saturated, and thus, the vapor pressure at the surface is simply
Far from the surface
(at T = 25˚c = 3.17 kPa). Thus;
= 0.52 * 3.17
Treating water vapor and air as ideal gases, and noting that the total atmospheric pressure
is the sum of the vapor and dry air pressures, the densities of the water vapor, dry air, and
the mixture at the water – air interface and far from the surface are found to be:
At the surface:

as = as = 0.8592

= + = 0.942 (mixture dencity)

Away from surface:

To calculate the characteristic length of the water bath,

Therefore;
=

ºC

Thus, =
(c) Utilizing analogy between heat and mass transfer; the mass diffusivity of water
vapor in air at (37.5ºc) is determined from table (7.4) to be /s

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= 0.00588*3.5*(0.0823-0.012) = 5.25 kg/h

= 0.00146*2383
The total loss of heat rate ( ) from the water to the surrounding is

Thus, a (4.6 kW) resistance heater will be needed to make up for heat loss from
water surface. The total heater size will have to be larger to account for heat losses from
the side and bottom surfaces, and heat absorbed by paint cans as they are heated to (50ºc).
Also, water needs to be supplied to the bath at a rate of (5.25 kg/h) to make up for water
lost by evaporation.

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Problems
1. Helium gas is stored at (293 k) in a (3 m) outer diameter spherical container made of
(5 cm) thick Pyrex. The molar concentration of Helium in the Pyrex is (0.00073 kmol
/ m3) at the inner surface and negligible at the outer surface. Determine the mass flow
rate of Helium by diffusion through the Pyrex container.
2. A thin plastic membrane separates hydrogen from air. The molar concentration of
hydrogen in the membrane at the inner and outer surfaces are determined to be (0.065
and 0.003 kmol / m3 ), respectively. The binary diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in
plastic at operation temperature is (5.3 x 10 -10 m2/s). Determine the mass flow rate of
hydrogen by diffusion through the membrane under steady conditions if the thickness
of the membrane is (a) 2mm (b) 0.5mm.
3. A steel part whose initial carbon content is (0.12%) by mass is to be case – hardened
in a furnace at (1150K) by exposing it to a carburizing gas. The diffusion coefficient
of carbon in steel is strongly temperature dependent, and at the furnace temperature it
is given to be (DAB = 7.2 * 10-12 m2/s). Also the mass fraction of carbon at the
exposed surface of the steel part is maintained at (0.011) by the carbon - rich
environment in the furnace. If the hardening process is to continue until the mass
fraction of carbon at a depth of (0.7 mm) is raised to (0.32%), determine how long
the part should be held in the furnace.
4. A pond whose initial oxygen content is zero is to be oxygenated by forming a tent
over the water surface and filing the tent with oxygen gas at (25 ˚c) and (130 kPa).
Determine the mole fraction of oxygen at a depth of (2 cm) from the surface after (12
h).
5. The average heat transfer coefficient for air flow over an odd – shaped body is to be
determined by mass transfer measurements and using the Chilton – Coburn Analogy
between heat and mass transfer. The experiment is conducted by blowing dry air at
(1 atm) at a free stream velocity of (2 m/s) over a body covered by a layer of
naphthalene .The surface area of the body is (0.75 m2), and it is observed that (100 g)
of naphthalene has sublimated in (45 min). During the experiment, both the body and
the air were kept at (25˚c), at which the vapor pressure and mass diffusivity of

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naphthalene are (11 Pa) and (DAB = 0.61 x 10-5 m2/s), respectively. Determine the
heat transfer coefficient under the same flow conditions over the same geometry.
6. Dry air at (15 ˚C) and (92 kPa) flows over a (2 m) long wet surface with a free stream
velocity of (4 m/s). Determine the average mass transfer coefficient.
7. One way of increasing heat transfer from the head on a hot summer day is to wet it.
This is especially effective in windy weather, as you may have noticed.
Approximating the head as a (30 cm) diameter sphere at (30 ˚c) with an emissivity of
(0.95), determine the total rate of heat loss from the head at ambient air conditions of

(1 atm), (25 ˚C), 40% relative humidity, and 25 winds if the head is (a) dry (b)

wet.
8. You are asked to design a heating system for a swimming pool that is (2 m) deep, (25
m) long, and (25 m) wide. Your client desires that the heating system be large enough
to raise the water temperature from (20 ˚c) to (30 ˚c) in (3h). The heater must also be
able to maintain the pool at (30 ˚c) at the outdoor design conditions of (15 ˚C, 1 atm,
35% RH, 40 mph) winds, and effective sky temperature of (10 ˚C). Heat losses to the
ground are expected to be small and can be neglected. The heater considered is a
natural gas furnace whose efficiency is (80%). What heater size (in Btuh input)
would you recommend that your client buy?
15°C
1 atm Heat loss
Evaporation 35% RH

pool
Heating
fluid

9. Dry air at atmospheric pressure and (25 ˚c) blows across a flat plate at a velocity of
(1.5 m/s). The plate is (30 cm) square and is covered with a film of water which may
evaporate into the air. Plot the heat flow from the plate as a function of the plate
temperature between (Tw = 15 ˚C) and (Tw = 65 ˚C).
10.Dry air at (25 ˚C) and atmospheric pressure flows inside a (5 cm) diameter pipe at a
velocity of (3 m/s). The wall is coated with a thin film of water, and the wall

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temperature is (25 ˚C). Calculate the water vapor concentration in the air at exit of a
(3 m) length of the pipe.
11.A (30 cm) square plate is placed in a low speed wind tunnel: the surface is covered
with a thin layer of water. The dry air is at atmospheric pressure and (43 ˚C) and
blow over the plate at a velocity of (12 m/s). The enclosure wall of the wind tunnel is
at (10 ˚C). Calculate the equilibrium temperature of the plate, assuming an emissivity
of unity for the water film.
12.Dry air at (65 ˚C) blows over a (30 cm) square plate at a velocity of (6 m/s). The plate
is covered with a smooth porous material, and water is supplied to the material at (25
˚C). Assuming that the underside of the plate is insulated, estimate the amount of
water that must be supplied to maintain the plate temperature at (38˚C). Assume that
the radiation temperature of the surrounding is (65 ˚C) and that the porous surface
radiates as a blackbody.
13.A test tube (1.25 cm) in diameter and (15 cm) deep contains benzene at (26 ˚C) and is
exposed to dry air at (1 atm) and (26 ˚C). Calculate the evaporation rate of benzene in
grams per hour. For benzene, use (Pv = 13.3 kPa, hfg = 377 kJ/kg).
14.Air at (25 ˚C) and atmospheric pressure floes with a velocity of (7.6 m/s) inside a (2.5
cm) ID pipe. The inside surface of the tube contains deposit of naphthalene.
Determine the mass transfer coefficient for the transfer of naphthalene from the pipe
surface into the air in regions away from the inlet.
15.Atmospheric air at ( ) flows over a wet – bulb thermometer, which reads
( ). Calculate the concentration of water vapor in the air stream and the
relative humidity of the air stream.

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Appendix – A-
Summary of Some Equations, Relations, and Tables for
Convection Heat and Mass Transfer

Table of Contents

Article Page
Title
No. No.
/ Table of Contents 155
A.1 Governing Equations is Cartesian Coordinates 156
A.2 Governing Equations is Cylindrical Coordinates 157
A.3 Governing Equations is Spherical Coordinates 158
A.4 Common Dimensionless Numbers 159
A.5 Asymmetric Heating in Laminar Flow 160
A.6 Laminar Forced Convection in Rectangular Dust 161
A.7 Leveque Solution 162
A.8 Graetz Solution 163
A.9 Integral Laminar Boundary –Layer Equations 164

A.10 Empirical Correlations for Turbulent Flow Heat Transfer 165


in Closed Conduits
A.11 Methods of Analogy Between Momentum and Heat 166
Transfer
A.12 Turbulent Flow Parallel to Flat Plate 167
A.13 Developing Turbulent Flow Heat Transfer 168
A.14 Free Convection Relations 169
A.15 Condensation Heat Transfer Relations 171
A.16 Boiling Heat Transfer Relations 172
A.17 Properties of Air and Water 173
A.18 Mass Transfer Relations and Tables 175

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A.1 Governing Equations in Cartesian Coordinates

C.E. y y V
x

( ) ( )+ ( )=0 Z
w
u

ƶ
X-M.E.
x
Z

y-M.E.

Z-M.E.

E.E.

]+ β

Where ( is the dissipation function given by;

Note:

1. M.E. and E.E are written for constant fluid properties (

2. β

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A.2 Governing Equations in Cylindrical Coordinates

C.E. Z
Vz
V
θ

( ) ( )+ ( )=0 Vr

y
r
θ
r-M.E.
x

-M.E.

-M.E.

E.E.

( β

Where;

And:

V r2

Note: M.E. and E.E. are written for constant fluid properties (

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A.3 Governing Equations in Spherical Coordinates


C.E. ƶ
r,Vr
Ø /VØ

θ ,Vθ
( ) ( )+
θ W

y
-M.E Ø

=-

-M.E.

-M.E.

Where;

E.E. ( const.)

)+

+ β

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Where ( is the dissipation function given by;

2 +

Note: M.E and E.E are written for constant fluid properties (

A.4 Common Dimensionless Numbers

Nusselt No Nu= =- =

Prandtle No = =

Stanton No St=


Grashhof No Gr =

Peclet No Pe= = RePr =

π
Graetz No = (for entrance region)

Eckert No

Reynolds No Re= =

Biot No Bi=

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Mach No M=

β
Rayleigh No Ra=

β
Richardson No.: Ri=

Fourier No.: ( Dimensionless Time )

Note: In general;

Nu= Nu ( , , , )

Forced convection: Nu= Nu ( ,


Low speed
Free convection: Nu=Nu (

For high speed; add (

A.5 Asymmetric Heating in Laminar Flow


q1
(I) Parallel Plates
1
.
Tw1
Nu1= =

2 Tw2
Nu2= =
q2

(II) Concentric Circular Tube Annulus


qo
Nui= = qi ri
ro

Nuo= =

= -

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0 4.364 0
0.05 17.81 4.792 2.18 0.0294
0.1 11.91 4.834 1.383 0.0562
0.2 8.499 4.883 0.905 0.1041
0.4 6.583 4.979 0.603 0.1823
0.6 5.912 5.099 0.473 0.2455
0.8 5.58 5.24 0.401 0.299
1 5.385 5.385 0.346 0.346

A.6 Laminar Forced Convection in Rectangular Ducts


y
E.E.: b
X
a
The Fully–developed exact and numerical solutions are ƶ

listed in the following table for (N ∞

N
Constant wall Temp. Constant Heat Flux
num. exact num. exact
1(square) 2.89 2.976 3.63 3.608
0.713 ------ ------ 3.78 ------
0.5 3.39 3.391 4.11 4.123
0.333 ------ ------ 4.77 ------
0.25 ------ 4.439 5.35 5.331
0.125 ------ 5.597 ------ 6.49
0(parallel
7.6 7.542 8.24 8.235
plate)

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Empirical Correlations for Developing Flow


Uniform Wall Temperature

500 =0.7

Uniform Heat Flux


500 =0.7

de=4 , ∞ is obtained from the above table

Arithmetic Mean Nu

A.7 Leveque Solution


; X=y

c = Constant = in the circular tubes

Values of the Integral I=


X I X I
0 0 1.05 0.8246
0.05 0.05 1.1 0.839
0.1 0.1 1.15 0.851
0.15 0.15 1.2 0.8609
0.2 0.1996 1.25 0.8689
0.25 0.249 1.3 0.8752
0.3 0.298 1.35 0.8801
0.35 0.3463 1.4 0.8838
0.4 0.3937 1.45 0.8866
0.45 0.44 1.5 0.8886
0.5 0.4849 1.55 0.8901
0.55 0.5282 1.6 0.8911
0.6 0.5695 1.65 0.8918
0.65 0.6078 1.7 0.8922
0.7 0.6454 1.75 0.8925
0.75 0.6796 1.8 0.8927
0.8 0.711 1.85 0.8928
0.85 0.7395 1.9 0.8929
0.9 0.7651 1.95 0.8929
0.95 0.7877 2.00 0.893
1.00 0.8075

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A.8 Graetz Solution

R
; r
x
Te=Entrance Temp.

(I) Constant Wall Temperature (


λ = Eigen Value
= Constant
- (1)

n
0 7.312 0.749 <
λ
1 44.62 0.544
λ
2 113.8 0.463
3 215.2 0.414
4 348.5 0.382

0 0.001 0.004 0.01 0.04 0.08 0.1 0.2


12.8 8.03 6 4.17 3.77 3.71 3.66 3.66
19.29 12.09 8.92 5.81 4.86 4.64 4.15 3.66
0 0.962 0.908 0.837 0.628 0.459 0.396 0.19 0

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(II) Constant Heat Flux

( Fully –Development Value )


m For large (m)
1 27..2 7.63
2 23.2. 2.058
3 174.2 0.901
4 296.5 0.487
5 450.9 0.297

0
0.002 12
0.004 9.93
0.01 7.49
0.02 6.14
0.04 5.19
0.1 4.51
4.36

A.9 Integral Laminar Boundary-Layer Equations

∞ Y
δh
X δT

∞ ∞ X0


ρ

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Neglecting Viscous Dissipation Effect;

= =0.332

Note: Leibnitz Rule for Integration;

F(x)=

A.10 Empirical Correlations for Turbulent Flow Heat Transfer in Closed


Conduits

1- Re<
1-Ditus-Boelter Equation
2- n=0.4 heating, 0.3 cooling

3- <

2-Colburn Equation
Re<

<

3-Sieder and Tate Equation Re<

<

4-Air at high Temperature and Temperature Difference


2- 120
.............
3-

4- 0.8

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5-Water at High Pressure and Temperature


1-

2- <

6-Molten Sodium Hydroxide

h 1.2*(h of Ditus-Boelter eq.) ; for <

A.11 Methods of Analogy between Momentum and Heat Transfer


(1) Reynolds Analogy:
St =

(2) Prandtle – Taylor Analogy

St =

(3) Von – Karman Analogy


u+ = y+ 0< y+ <5
y+=
u+ =-3.05 + 5 ln(y+) 5< y+ <30
u+ =5.5 + 2.5 ln(y+) y+ >30 u+=

St=

y R
r

(4) Colburn Analogy


(St)b =

Note: Eddy Conductivity = CP H

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A.12 Turbulent Flow Parallel to Flat Plate

(I) Integral Analysis

y
δT = δh

[ neglecting viscous dissipation]

St=

Nux = 0.0292
For (Pr =1)
Nu = 0.0366

(II) Prandtle Analogy

Nux =

(III) Colburn Analogy


Nux =0.0292

(IV) Combined Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layer

Nu = 0.0366 For Retr = 105

Nu = 0.0366 For Retr = 5*105

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A.13 Developing Turbulent Flow Heat Transfer

(Nu)b = 0.036 10< < 400

Effect of Entrance Configuration

= 1+ F1 <

= Fully - Developed Value, and F1 is Given in The Following Table;


Entrance Description F1

Bell - mouth 0.7

Bell - mouth with screen 1.2

Entranuce
Short calming section with sharp
3 ( approx )
edge entrance

Entranuce Large calming section with sharp


1.4 ( approx )
edge entrance

45° - angle bend entrance 5 ( approx )

90° - angle bend entrance 7 ( approx )

1-in square - edge orifice


16 ( approx )
entrance

1-5 in square - edge orifice


7 ( approx )
entrance

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A.14 Free Convection Relations

(I) Integral Analysis (Laminar Case)

2
u=u1 (1 - )

= (1 - )2

ν
u1 = c1 x1/2 ; c1 = 5.17 ν

= c2 x1/4 ; c2 = 3.93 ν

Nu x= 0.508 (0.952+ Pr )-1/4

(II) Exact Analysis (Laminar Case)


Nu x= -

Nu = -

(III) Turbulent Free Convection Integral Analysis


1/7
u= u1 (1 - )4
1/7
= (1 - )

u1= c1 x0.5 c1=0.0689 ν

= c2 x0.7 c2=

Nu x= 0.0295 (1+ 0.494 + )-2/5

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(IV) Empirical Correlations

Flat Plates and Cylinders

Nuf = c = c ( Grf Prf)m

Geometry Raf (Grf Prf) c m


104 -109 0.59 1/4
Vertical Planes and Cylinders 109-1013 0.021 2/5
109-1013
0.1 1/3
(Preferred)
0-10-5 0.4 0
Horizontal Cylinders 104-109 0.53 1/4
109-1012 0.13 1/3
Hot Surface Up
2*104-8*106 0.54 1/4
or Cool Surface
Down 8*106-1011 0.15 1/3
Horizontal Plates
Hot Surface
Down or Cool 105-1011 0.58 1/5
Surface Up

(IV) Combined Free and Forced Convection

Nu = 1.75 [Gz+ 0.012 (Gz Gr 1/3)4/3]1/3

Gz = Pe

Nu combined Nu forced (forced predominant)


Nu combined Nu free (free predominant)

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A.15 Condensation Heat Transfer Relations


Nusselt Theory Results

Tw

Co = 1.47

Where; Co =

Turbulent Condensation ( <

Condensation on Horizontal and Inclined Tubes

for up to 3200

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A.16 Boiling Heat Transfer Relations

Nucleate Pool Boiling (Rohsenow Correlation)

=1 for water and 1.7 for other liquids


gc = 1 in SI units

Fluid - Heating Surface Combination Csf


Water - Copper 0.013
Water -Platinum 0.013
Water - Brass 0.006
Water - Steel 0.013
Water - Nicle 0.006

Critical Heat Flux (Zuber Correlation)

Stable Film - Boiling (Bromley Correlation)

d= pipe diameter

h= ( Properties at Film Temperature )

where;

= 5.67 10-8 W/m2K4

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A.17 Properties of Air and Water


Properties of Air at Atmospheric Pressure
( The values of .k. cp and pr are not strongly pressure- dependent and may be used over
a fairly wide range of pressures ).
Cp . k
2
T, k kJ/ 5 m /s W/ m2/s Pr
kg/m3 kg/m.s 10
kg. °C 106 m. °C 104
100 3.6010 1.0266 0.6924 1.923 0.009246 0.02501 0.770
150 2.3675 1.0099 1.0283 4.343 0.013735 0.05745 0.753
200 1.7684 1.0061 1.3289 7.940 0.01809 0.10165 0.739
250 1.4128 1.0053 1.488 9.49 0.02227 0.13161 0.722
300 1.1774 1.0057 1.983 16.84 0.2624 0.22160 0.708
350 0.9980 1.0090 2.075 20.76 0.03003 0.2983 0.697
400 0.8826 1.0140 2.286 25.90 0.03365 0.3760 0.689
450 0.7833 1.0207 2.484 31.71 0.03707 0.4222 0.683
500 0.7048 1.0295 2.671 37.90 0.04038 0.5564 0.680
550 0.6423 1.0392 2.848 44.34 0.04360 0.6532 0.680
600 0.5879 1.0551 3.018 51.34 0.04659 0.7512 0.680
650 0.5430 1.0635 3.177 58.51 0.04953 0.8578 0.682
700 0.5030 1.0752 3.332 66.25 0.05230 0.9672 0.684
750 0.4709 1.0856 3.481 73.91 0.05509 1.0774 0.686
800 0.4405 1.0978 3.625 82.29 0.05779 1.1951 0.689
850 0.4149 1.1095 3.765 90.75 0.06028 1.3097 0.692
900 0.3925 1.1212 3.899 99.3 0.06279 1.4271 0.696
950 0.3716 1.1321 4.023 108.2 0.06525 1.5510 0.699
1000 0.3524 1.1417 4.152 117.8 0.06752 1.6779 0.702
1100 0.3204 1.160 4.44 138.6 0.0732 1.969 0.704
1200 0.2947 1.179 4.69 159.1 0.782 2.251 0.707
1300 0.2707 1.197 4.93 182.1 0.0837 2.583 0.705
1400 0.2515 1.214 5.17 205.5 0.0891 2.920 0.705
1500 0.2355 1.230 5.40 229.1 0.0946 3.262 0.705
1600 0.2211 1.248 5.63 254.5 0.100 3.609 0.705
1700 0.2082 1.267 5.85 280.5 0.105 3.977 0.705
1800 0.1970 1.287 6.07 308.1 0.111 4.379 0.704
1900 0.1858 1.309 6.29 338.5 0.117 4.811 0.704
2000 0.1762 1.338 6.50 369.0 0.124 5.260 0.702
2100 0.1682 1.372 6.72 399.6 0.131 5.715 0.700
2200 0.1602 1.419 6.93 432.6 0.139 6.120 0.707
2300 0.1538 1.482 7.14 464.0 0.149 6.540 0.710
2400 0.1458 1.574 7.35 504.0 0.161 7.020 0.718
2500 0.1394 1.688 7.57 543.5 0.175 7.441 0.730

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Properties of Water ( Saturated Liquid)

Cp k
°F °C 3 Pr
kJ/kg.°C kg/m kg/m.s W/m.°C
1/m3 . °C
32 0 4.225 999.8 1.79 10-3 0.566 13.25 1.91 109
40 4.44 4.208 999.8 1.55 10-3 0.575 11.35 6.34 109
50 10 4.195 999.2 1.31 10-3 0.585 9.40 1.08 1010
60 15.56 4.186 998.6 1.12 10-3 0.595 7.88 1.46 1010
70 21.11 4.179 997.4 9.8 10-4 0.604 6.78 1.91 1010
80 26.67 4.179 995.8 8.6 10-4 0.614 5.85 2.48 1010
90 32.22 4.174 994.9 7.65 10-4 0.623 5.12 3.3 1010
100 37.78 4.174 993.0 6.82 10-4 0.630 4.53 4.19 1010
110 43.33 4.174 990.6 6.16 10-4 0.637 4.04 4.89 1010
120 48.89 4.174 988.8 5.62 10-4 0.644 3.64 5.66 1010
130 54.44 4.179 985.7 5.13 10-4 0.649 3.30 6.48 1010
140 60 4.179 983.3 4.71 10-4 0.654 3.01 7.62 1010
150 65.55 4.183 980.3 4.3 10-4 0.659 2.73 8.84 1010
160 71.11 4.186 977.3 4.01 10-4 0.665 2.53 9.85 1010
170 76.67 4.191 973.7 3.72 10-4 0.668 2.33 1.09 1011
180 82.22 4.195 970.2 3.47 10-4 0.673 2.16
190 87.78 4.199 966.7 3.27 10-4 0.675 2.03
200 93.33 4.204 963.2 3.06 10-4 0.678 1.90
220 104.4 4.216 955.1 2.67 10-4 0.684 1.66
240 115.6 4.229 946.7 2.44 10-4 0.685 1.51
260 126.7 4.250 937.2 2.19 10-4 0.685 1.36
280 137.8 4.271 928.1 1.98 10-4 0.685 1.24
300 148.9 4.296 918.0 1.86 10-4 0.684 1.17
350 176.7 4.371 890.4 1.57 10-4 0.677 1.02
400 204.4 4.467 859.4 1.36 10-4 0.665 1.00
450 232.2 4.585 825.7 1.20 10-4 0.646 0.85
500 260 4.731 785.2 1.07 10-4 0.616 0.83
550 287.7 5.024 735.5 9.51 10-5
600 315.6 5.703 678.7 8.68 10-5

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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

A.18 Mass Transfer Relations and Tables


Definitions

i = = = = =

Ficks Law :

Diffusion Coefficient in Gases:

D=435.7

D H2o-Air = 1.87 10-10 280 < T< 450 ( p in atm , T in K)

Stefan's Law: Diffusion of Water Vapor (w) In Air (A)

Transient Mass Diffusion

Mass Convection

c=

Reynolds Analogy: Stmass =

Chilton - Coburn analogy : Stmass Sc2/3 = cp Le2/3

Forced Convection over a Flat Plate:


Laminar: h= 0.664 Re < 5 105 , c >0.5

Turbulent: h= 0.037 5 105 < Re <107 , c>0.5

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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

Fully Developed Flow in Smooth Circular Pipes:


Laminar ( : h = 3.66 Uniform Wall Mass Counteraction
h = 4.36 Uniform Wall Mass Flux
Turbulent ( < : h =0.023 Re0.8 Sc0.4 0.7 < c< 160

Natural Convection

Vertical Plate: h = 0. 59 (Grmass Sc)1/4 105 < Grmass c < 109


h = 0. 1 (Grmass Sc)1/3 109 < Grmass c < 1013
Upper Surface of a Horizontal Plate ( <
h =0. 54 (Grmass Sc)1/4 104 < Grmass Sc < 107
h =0. 15 (Grmass Sc)1/3 107 < Grmass Sc < 1011

Lower Surface of a Horizontal Plate( <


h =0. 27 (Grmass c)1/4 105 < Grmass c < 1011
Complementary Error Function Values
erfc ( ) erfc ( ) erfc ( ) erfc ( ) erfc ( ) erfc ( )
0.00 1.00000 0.38 0.5910 0.76 0.2825 1.14 0.1069 1.52 0.03159 1.90 0.00721
0.02 0.9774 0.40 0.5716 0.78 0.2700 1.16 0.10090 1.54 0.02941 1.92 0.00662
0.04 0.9549 0.42 0.5525 0.80 0.2579 0.18 0.09516 1.56 0.02737 1.94 0.00608
0.06 0.9324 0.44 0.5338 0.82 0.2462 1.20 0.08969 1.58 0.02545 1.96 0.00557
0.08 0.9099 0.46 0.5153 0.84 0.2349 1.22 0.08447 1.60 0.02365 1.98 0.00511
0.10 0.8875 0.48 0.4973 0.86 0.2239 1.24 0.07950 1.62 0.02196 2.00 0.00468
0.12 0.8652 0.50 0.4795 0.88 0.2133 1.26 0.07476 1.64 0.02038 2.10 0.00298
0.14 0.8431 0.52 0.4621 0.90 0.2031 1.28 0.07027 1.66 0.01890 2.20 0.00186
0.16 0.8210 0.54 0.4451 0.92 0.1932 1.30 0.06599 1.68 0.01751 2.30 0.00114
0.18 0.7991 0.56 0.4284 0.94 0.1837 1.32 0.06194 1.70 0.01612 2.40 0.00069
0.20 0.7773 0.58 0.4121 0.96 0.1746 1.34 0.05809 1.72 0.01500 2.50 0.00041
0.22 0.7557 0.60 0.3961 0.98 0.1658 1.36 0.5444 1.74 0.01387 2.60 0.00024
0.24 0.7343 0.62 0.3806 1.00 0.1573 1.38 0.05098 1.76 0.01281 2.70 0.00013
0.26 0.7131 0.64 0.3654 1.02 0.1492 1.40 0.04772 1.78 0.01183 2.80 0.00008
0.28 0.6921 0.66 0.3506 1.04 0.1413 1.42 0.04462 1.80 0.01091 2.90 0.00004
0.30 0.6714 0.68 0.3362 1.06 0.1339 1.44 0.04170 1.82 0.01006 3.00 0.00002
0.32 0.6509 0.70 0.3222 1.08 0.1267 1.46 0.03895 1.84 0.00926 3.20 0.00001
0.34 0.6306 0.72 0.3086 1.10 0.1198 1.48 0.03635 1.86 0.00853 3.40 0.00000
0.36 0.6107 0.74 0.2953 1.12 0.1132 1.50 0.03390 1.88 0.00784 3.60 0.00000

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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

Table (7.2): Atomic (Molecular) Volumes


Atomic Atomic
Matter Matter
Volume Volume
Air 29.9 Bromine 27
Carbon 14.8 Carbon dioxide 34
Chlorine
Hydrogen, Molecule (H2) 14.3
Terminal as in R-Cl 21.6
in compounds 37
Medial as in R-CHCl-R 24.6
Fluorine 8.7 Iodine 37
Nitrogen, Molecule (N2) 15.6 Oxygen, Molecules (O2) 7.4
In primary Amines 10.5 coupled to two other
In Secondary Amines 1.2 In Aldehydes and Ketones 7.4
Phosphorus 27 In Methyl Easters 9.1
Sulpher 25.6 In Ethyl Easters 99
In Higher Easters and
Ethers 11
Water 18.8 In Acids 12
In Union with S,P,N 8.3

Table (7.3): Binary Diffusion Coefficients of Some Gases in Air at 1 atm


T Binary Diffusion Coefficient, m2/s 105
(K) O2 CO2 H2 NO
200 0.95 0.74 3.75 0.88
300 1.88 1.57 7.77 1.8
400 5.25 2.63 12.5 3.03
500 4.75 3.85 17.1 4.43
600 6.46 5.37 24.4 6.03
700 8.38 6.84 31.7 7.82
800 10.5 8.57 39.3 9.78
900 12.6 10.5 47.7 11.8
1000 15.2 12.4 56.9 14.1
1200 20.6 16.9 77.7 19.2
1400 26.6 21.7 99 24.5
1600 33.2 27.5 125 30.4
1800 40.3 32.8 152 37
2000 48 39.4 180 44.8

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Table (7.4): Binary Diffusion Coefficients of Dilute Gas Mixture at 1 atm


Substance Substance T, DAB or DBA Substance Substance T, DAB or DBA
A B K m2/s A B K m2/s
Air Acetone 273 1.1 × 10-5 Argon, Ar Nitrogen, N2 293 1.9× 10-5
Carbon dioxide,
Air Ammonia, NH3 298 2.6× 10-5 Benzene 318 0.72× 10-5
co2
Carbon dioxide,
Air Benzene 298 0.88× 10-5 Hydrogen, H2 273 5.5× 10-5
co2
Carbon dioxide,
Air Carbon dioxide 298 1.6× 10-5 Nitrogen, N2 293 1.6× 10-5
co2
Carbon dioxide,
Air Chlorine 273 1.2× 10-5 Oxygen, O2 273 1.4× 10-5
co2
Carbon dioxide,
Air Ethyl alcohol 298 1.2× 10-5 Water vapor 298 1.6× 10-5
co2
Air Ethyl ether 298 0.93× 10-5 Hydrogen, H2 Nitrogen, N2 273 6.8× 10-5
Air Helium, He 298 7.2× 10-5 Hydrogen, H2 Oxygen, O2 273 7.0× 10-5
Air Hydrogen, H2 298 7.2× 10-5 Oxygen, O2 Ammonia 293 2.5× 10-5
Air Iodine, I2 298 0.83× 10-5 Oxygen, O2 Benzene 296 0.39× 10-5
Air Methanol 298 1.6× 10-5 Oxygen, O2 Nitrogen, N2 273 1.8× 10-5
Air Mercury 614 4.7× 10-5 Oxygen, O2 Water vapor 298 2.5× 10-5
Air Naphthalene 300 0.62× 10-5 Water vapor Argon, Ar 298 2.4× 10-5
Air Oxygen, O2 298 2.1 × 10-5 Water vapor Helium, He 298 9.2× 10-5
Air Water vapor 298 2.5× 10-5 Water vapor Nitrogen, N2 298 2.5× 10-5

Note: The effect of pressure and temperature on DAB can be accounted for through DAB –
T3/2/ P . Also, multiply DAB values by 10.76 to convert them to ft2/s.

Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept. - College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 178
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

Table (7.5): Binary Diffusion Coefficients of Dilute Liquid Solutions and Solid
Solutions at 1 atm
(a) Diffusion through Liquids (b) Diffusion through Solids
Substance Substance Substance
Substance T, DAB T, DAB
A A B
B (Solvent) K m2/s K m2/s
(Solute) (Solute) (Solvent)
Carbon Natural
Ammonia Water 285 1.6× 10-9 298 1.1 × 10-10
dioxide rubber
Natural
Benzene Water 293 1.0 × 10-9 Nitrogen 298 1.5× 10-10
rubber
Carbon Natural
Water 298 2.0× 10-9 Oxygen 298 2.1 × 10-10
dioxide rubber
Chlorine Water 285 1.4× 10-9 Helium Pyrex 773 2.0× 10-12
Ethanol Water 283 0.84× 10-9 Helium Pyrex 293 4.5× 10-15
Silicon
Ethanol Water 288 1.0× 10-9 Helium 298 4.0× 10-14
dioxide
Ethanol Water 298 1.2× 10-9 Hydrogen Iron 298 2.6× 10-13
Glucose Water 298 0.69× 10-9 Hydrogen Nickel 358 1.2× 10-12
Hydrogen Water 298 6.3× 10-9 Hydrogen Nickel 438 1.0× 10-11
Methane Water 275 0.85× 10-9 Cadmium Copper 293 2.7× 10-19
Methane Water 293 1.5× 10-9 Zinc Copper 773 4.0× 10-18
Methane Water 333 3.6× 10-9 Zinc Copper 1273 5.0× 10-13
Methanol Water 288 1.3× 10-9 Antimony Silver 293 3.5× 10-25
Nitrogen Water 298 2.6 × 10-9 Bismuth Lead 293 1.1 × 10-20
Oxygen Water 298 2.4× 10-9 Mercury Lead 293 2.5× 10-19
Water Ethanol 298 1.2× 10-9 Copper Aluminum 773 4.0× 10-14
Ethylene
Water 298 0.18× 10-9 Copper Aluminum 1273 1.0× 10-10
glycol
Water Methanol 298 1.8× 10-9 Carbon Iron (fcc) 773 5.0× 10-15
Chloroform Methanol 288 2.1× 10-9 Carbon Iron (fcc) 1273 3.0× 10-11

Table (7.6): Diffusion Coefficients of Water Vapor in Air at 1 atm


T (oC) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 50 100 150
DH2o –Air
or 2.09 2.17 2.25 2.33 2.42 2.5 2.59 2.68 2.77 2.96 3.99 5.18
D Air –H2o ×10-5 ×10-5 ×10-5 ×10-5 ×10-5 ×10-5 ×10-5 ×10-5 ×10-5 ×10-5 ×10-5 ×10-5
m2/s

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Saturation pressure, P KPa


Properties of Saturated Water (in SI Units)

Tem perature, TºC


Density, Enthalpy Specific heat, Thermal Dynamic
Prandtle
kg/m3 of Cp J/kg. ºC Conductivity, Viscosity,
Number, Pr
vapori-zation, KW/m. ºc µ kg/m. s
Liquid vapor hfg kj/kg Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor Liquid vapor Liquid vapor
0.01 0.6113 999.8 0.0048 2501 4217 1854 0.561 0.0171 1.792×10-3 0.922×10-5 13.5 1.00
5 0.8721 999.9 0.0068 2490 4205 1857 0.571 0.0173 1.519×10-3 0.934×10-5 11.2 1.00
10 1.2276 999.7 0.0094 2478 4194 1862 0.580 0.0176 1.307×10-3 0.946×10-5 9.45 1.00
15 1.7051 999.1 0.0128 2466 4186 1863 0.589 0.0179 1.138×10-3 0.959×10-5 8.09 1.00
20 2.339 998.0 0.0173 2454 4182 1867 0.598 0.0182 1.002×10-3 0.973×10-5 7.01 1.00
25 3.169 997.0 0.0231 2442 4180 1870 0.607 0.0186 0.891×10-3 0.987×10-5 6.14 1.00
30 4.246 996.0 0.0304 2431 4178 1875 0.615 0.0189 0.798×10-3 1.001×10-5 5.42 1.00
35 5.628 994.0 0.0397 2419 4178 1880 0.623 0.0192 0.720×10-3 1.016×10-5 4.83 1.00
40 7.384 992.1 0.0512 2407 4179 1885 0.631 0.0196 0.653×10-3 1.031×10-5 4.32 1.00
45 9.593 990.1 0.0655 2395 7480 1892 0.637 0.0200 0.596×10-3 1.046×10-5 3.91 1.00
50 12.35 988.1 0.0831 2383 4181 1900 0.644 0.0204 0.547×10-3 1.062×10-5 3.55 1.00
55 15.76 985.2 0.1045 2371 4183 1908 0.649 0.0208 0.507×10-3 1.077×10-5 ..25 1.00
60 19.94 983.3 0.1304 2359 4185 1916 0.654 0.0212 0.467×10-3 1.093×10-5 2.99 1.00
65 25.03 980.4 0.1614 2346 4187 1926 0.659 0.0216 0.433×10-3 1.110×10-5 2.75 1.00
70 31.19 977.5 0.1983 2334 4190 1936 0.663 0.0221 0.404×10-3 1.126×10-5 2.55 1.00
75 38.58 974.7 0.2421 2321 4193 1948 0.667 0.0225 0.378×10-3 1.142×10-5 2.38 1.00
80 47.39 971.8 0.2935 2309 4197 1962 0.670 0.0230 0.355×10-3 1.159×10-5 2.22 1.00
85 57.83 968.1 0.3536 2296 4201 1977 0.673 0.0235 0.333×10-3 1.176×10-5 2.08 1.00
90 70.14 965.3 0.4235 2283 4206 1993 0.675 0.0240 0.315×10-3 1.193×10-5 1.96 1.00
95 84.55 961.5 0.5045 2270 4212 2010 0.677 0.0246 0.297×10-3 1.210×10-5 1.85 1.00
100 101.33 957.9 0.5978 2257 4217 2029 0.679 0.0251 0.282×10-3 1.227×10-5 1.75 1.00
110 143.27 950.6 0.8263 2230 4229 2071 0.682 0.0262 0.255×10-3 1.261×10-5 1.58 1.00
120 198.53 943.4 1.121 2203 4244 2120 0.683 0.0275 0.232×10-3 1.296×10-5 1.44 1.00
130 270.1 934.6 1.496 2174 4263 2177 0.684 0.0288 0.231×10-3 1.330×10-5 1.33 1.01
140 361.3 921.7 1.965 2145 4286 2244 0.683 0.0301 0.197×10-3 1.365×10-5 1.24 1.02
150 475.8 916.6 2.546 2114 4311 2314 0.682 0.0316 0.183×10-3 1.399×10-5 1.16 1.02
160 617.8 907.4 3.256 2083 4340 2420 0.680 0.0331 0.170×10-3 1.434×10-5 1.09 1.05
170 791.7 897.7 4.119 2050 4370 2490 0.677 0.0347 0.160×10-3 1.468×10-5 1.03 1.05
180 1002.1 887.3 5.153 2015 4410 2590 0.673 0.0364 0.150×10-3 1.502×10-5 0.983 1.07
190 1254.4 876.4 6.388 1979 4460 2710 0.669 0.0382 0.142×10-3 1.537×10-5 0.947 1.09
200 1553.8 864.3 7.852 1941 4500 2840 0.663 0.0401 0.134×10-3 1.571×10-5 0.910 1.11
220 2318 840.3 11.60 1859 4610 3110 0.650 0.0442 0.122×10-3 1.641×10-5 0.865 1.15
240 3344 813.7 16.73 1767 4760 3520 0.632 0.0487 0.111×10-3 1.712×10-5 0.836 1.24
260 4688 783.7 23.69 1663 4970 4070 0.609 0.0540 0.102×10-3 1.788×10-5 0.832 1.35
280 6412 750.8 33.15 1544 5280 4835 0.581 0.0605 0.094×10-3 1.870×10-5 0.854 1.49
300 8581 713.8 46.15 1405 5750 5980 0.548 0.0695 0.086×10-3 1.965×10-5 0.902 1.69
320 11.274 667.1 64.57 1239 6540 7900 0.509 0.0836 0.078×10-3 2.084×10-5 1.00 1.97
340 14.586 610.5 92.62 1028 8240 11870 0.469 0.110 0.070×10-3 2.255×10-5 1.23 2.43
360 18.651 528.3 144.0 720 14690 25800 0.427 0.178 0.060×10-3 2.471×10-5 2.06 2.73
374.14 22.090 317.0 317.0 0 0.043×10-3 4.313×10-5 - -

Note:

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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016

Properties of Saturated Water ( in English U.S. Units )

Saturation pressure, P, psia


Specific heat, Thermal Dynamic
Density, Prandtle
Cp Btu/lbm ºF Conductivity, Viscosity,
Tem perature,

vapori-zation,
Number, Pr

Enthalpy of
K Btu/h.hft.0F

hfg Btu/lbm
µ lbm/ft.h
T ºF

Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor

32.05 0.0887 62.41 0.00030 1075 1.010 0.446 0.324 0.0099 4.336 0.0223 13.5 1.00
40 0.1217 62.42 0.00034 1071 1.004 0.447 0.329 0.0100 3.740 0.0226 11.4 1.00
50 0.1780 62.41 0.00059 1065 1.000 0.448 0.335 0.0102 3.161 0.0229 9.44 1.01
60 0.2563 62.36 0.00083 1060 0.999 0.449 0.341 0.0104 2.713 0.0232 7.95 1.00
70 0.3632 62.30 0.00115 1054 0.999 0.450 0.347 0.0106 2.360 0.0236 6.79 1.00
80 0.5073 62.22 0.00158 1048 0.999 0.451 0.352 0.0108 2.075 0.0240 5.89 1.00
90 0.6988 62.12 0.00214 1043 0.999 0.453 0.358 0.0110 1.842 0.0244 5.14 1.00
100 0.9503 62.00 0.00286 1037 0.999 0.454 0.363 0.0112 1.648 0.0248 4.54 1.01
110 1.2763 61.86 0.00377 1031 0.999 0.456 0.367 0.0115 1.486 0.0252 4.05 1.00
120 1.6945 61.71 0.00493 1026 0.999 0.458 0.671 0.0117 1.348 0.0256 3.63 1.00
130 2.225 61.55 0.00636 1020 0.999 0.460 0.675 0.0120 1.230 0.0260 3.28 1.00
140 2.892 61.38 0.00814 1014 0.999 0.463 0.678 0.0122 1.129 0.0264 2.98 1.00
150 3.722 61.19 0.0103 1008 1.000 0.465 0.381 0.0125 1.040 0.0269 2.73 1.00
160 4.745 60.99 0.0129 1002 1.000 0.468 0.384 0.0128 0.963 0.0273 2.51 1.00
170 5.996 60.79 0.0161 996 1.001 0.472 0.386 0.0131 0.894 0.0278 2.90 1.00
180 7.515 60.57 0.0199 990 1.002 0.475 0.388 0.0134 0.834 0.0282 2.15 1.00
190 9.343 60.35 0.0244 984 1.004 0.479 0.390 0.0137 0.781 0.0287 2.01 1.00
200 11.53 60.12 0.0297 978 1.005 0.483 0.391 0.0141 0.733 0.0291 1.88 1.00
210 14.125 59.87 0.0359 972 1.007 0.487 0.392 0.0144 0.690 0.0296 1.77 1.00
212 14.698 59.82 0.0373 970 1.007 0.488 0.392 0.0145 0.682 0.0297 1.75 1.00
220 17.19 59.62 0.0432 965 1.009 0.492 0.393 0.0148 0.651 0.0300 1.67 1.00
230 20.78 59.36 0.0516 959 1.011 0.497 0.394 0.0152 0.616 0.0305 1.58 1.00
240 24.97 59.09 0.0612 952 1.013 0.503 0.394 0.0156 0.585 0.0310 1.50 1.00
250 29.82 58.82 0.0723 946 1.015 0.509 0.395 0.0160 0.556 0.0310 1.43 1.00
260 35.42 58.53 0.0850 939 1.018 0.516 0.395 0.0164 0.530 0.0319 1.37 1.00
270 41.85 58.24 0.0993 932 1.020 0.523 0.395 0.0168 0.506 0.0324 1.31 1.01
280 49.18 57.94 0.1156 925 1.023 0.530 0.395 0.0172 0.484 0.0328 1.25 1.01
290 57.53 57.63 0.3390 918 1.026 0.538 0.395 0.0177 0.464 0.0333 1.21 1.01
300 66.98 57.31 0.1545 910 1.029 0.547 0.394 0.0182 0.445 0.0338 1.16 1.02
320 89.60 56.65 0.2033 895 1.036 0.567 0.393 0.0191 0.412 0.0347 1.09 1.03
340 117.93 55.95 0.2637 880 1.044 0.590 0.391 0.0202 0.383 0.0356 1.02 1.04
360 152.92 55.22 0.3377 863 1.054 0.617 0.389 0.0213 0.359 0.0365 0.973 1.06
380 195.60 54.46 0.4275 845 1.065 0.647 0.385 0.0224 0.337 0.0375 0.932 1.08
400 241.1 53.65 0.5359 827 1.078 0.683 0.382 0.0237 0.318 0.0384 0.893 1.11
450 422.1 51.46 0.9082 775 1.121 0.799 0.370 0.0271 0.278 0.0407 0.842 1.20
500 680.0 48.95 1.479 715 1.188 0.972 0.352 0.0312 0.246 0.0432 0.830 1.35
550 1046.7 45.96 4.268 641 1.298 1.247 0.329 0.0368 0.219 0.0461 0.864 1.56
600 1541 42.32 3.736 550 1.509 1.759 0.299 0.0461 0.194 0.0497 0.979 1.90
650 2210 37.31 6.152 422 2.086 3.103 0.267 0.0677 0.167 0.0555 1.30 2.54
700 3090 27.28 13.44 168 13.80 25.90 0.254 0.1964 0.123 0.0736 6.68 9.71
705.44 3204 19.79 19.79 0 0.104 0.1043 - -

Note:

Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept. - College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 181

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