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Preface
The present book is a handout lectures for the M.Sc. Course
ME532 : Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection & Mass Transfer. The course is
designed for M.Sc. Students in the Mechanical Engineering / ThermoFluids specialty.
The time schedule needed to cover the course material is 15 weeks , 3 hrs. per week. The
course had been taught by the author ( course tutor ) for more than 20 years. A short c.v.
for the course tutor is given below ;
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 2
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 3
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 4
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 5
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 6
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Chapter (1)
Introduction Concept
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 7
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Heat Transfer
Conduction Radiation
Stable
In moving deformable media
Unstable
Laminar
Convection
Turbulent
Convection: Convection involves the transfer of heat by mixing one parcel of fluid with
another. The motion of the fluid may result from density difference due to temperature
difference (natural convection) or may be produced by mechanical means (forced
convection).
Radiation: A hot body emits radiant energy in all directions. When this energy strikes
another body, part may be transmitted through the body, in which case the body is said
to be diathermanous. The reminder is absorbed and quantitatively transformed to heat.
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 8
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Convection
Stable Unstable
Laminar Turbulent
Transition
Instability
Motion
Deformable Rigid
Conduction
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 9
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
it into a conduction problem and convection problem. Then we try to solve each problem
separately after replacing the real interface boundary conditions with simpler but
somewhat artificial boundary conditions.
Convection
T∞
Nu=
Fluid q
w
Tw
Solid
Bi
Conduction
Fig. (1.4): Separation of an Actual Thermal Problem into Conduction Problem and a
Convection Problem
where (TwT ) denotes the difference between interface and ambient temperatures. The
heat flux( may also be expressed in terms of the thermal conductivity(K) of the fluid,
according to the Fourier law of conduction, as;
..................................... (1.2)
..................................... (1.3)
Or, in terms of the characteristic length (l) for the fluid domain, as;
Nu = ..................................... (1.4)
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Where (Nu) is the Nusselt number and ( the dimensionless distance normal to the
interface. Thus, the convection heat transfer through an interface is related to the
evaluation of the dimensionless wall gradient of the fluid temperature.
Clearly ( may also be expressed by conduction in the solid, which leads to the
definition of the Biot number;
= ..................................... (1.5)
Where the subscript (s) refers to the solid domain. In conduction problem, (h) and ( )
are given and equ. (1.1) is employed as a boundary condition. Whereas for convection
problem, equ. (1.3) is used to evaluate (h). Some sample valves of (h) are given in Table
(1.1).
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 11
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
1. Analytical Methods.
2. Experimental Methods.
3. Dimensional Analysis.
4. Methods of Analog between Momentum and Heat Transfer.
5. Computational Methods.
1.3.1 Analytical Methods
In these methods, a number of assumptions are made to simplify the governing
equations and get a solution for them. By their very nature, analytic convection solutions
often tend to be lengthy and difficult.
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 12
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
The advantage of using the dimensionless parameters is the reduction of the independent
variables controlling a problem. For example, in forced convection heat transfer in a
circular tube;
Nu=
………………………………… (1.7)
Nusselt No Nu = = =
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 13
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Prandtle No = =
Peclet No Pe = = RePr =
Stanton No St = =
Grashof No Gr =
Eckert No
Richardson No.: Ri =
Reynolds No Re = =
Biot No Bi =
Rayleigh No Ra =
Mach No M=
Note:
In general: Nu = Nu ( , , , )
Forced Convection: Nu = Nu ( , Low speed
Free Convection: Nu = Nu (
For High Speed; add (
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 14
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
If Reynolds theory is correct, and if, in fact, heat and momentum transfer follow
the same laws, it will be possible to predict rates of heat transfer from rates of
momentum transfer and to predict temperature profile from velocity profile. Reynolds
theory states that the analogy between heat and momentum transfer applies both for
laminar and turbulent flow, see Figs. (1.5) and (1.6).
1
T1 U1
1
b U
rw=2.44cm
y
Re=17300
Tb=24.8°C
Tw 0 Fluid air
0 b y 0
0 y/rw 1
To calculate the heat transfer of the flow over a cylinder, mass transfer analogy
may be used. The cylinder is coated with Naphthalene (with sub lines) and put the
cylinder in a wind tunnel with air velocity (U about (1hr) and then the weight of the
cylinder is measured. The difference in weight, which represents the mass transfer is
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 15
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
thus obtained and the mass flux and average mass transfer coefficient is obtained and
also the concentration coefficient. From the analogy between heat and mass transfer, we
can calculate the temperature distribution and the heat transfer coefficient. We are able
to do that since the equation of energy and mass transfer are identical.
u = D=Diffusion coefficient
+
transfer coefficient may be found.
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 16
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
1. External Flow: T∞
T∞
Tw
∆T= Tw  T∞
Tw =Highest Temperature Tw
2. Internal Flow: x
Tw = Highest temperature Tw
To
Uc
Tc = Lowest temperature Tc
∆T = Tw – To
Or ∆T = Tw  Tc
Or ∆T = Tw  T
Or ∆T = Tw  Tb
Where;
Tb = Bulk Temperature =
= ……………. …. (1.10)
For constant ( );
Tb= = …..(1.10a)
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 17
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
dx
2
Tb1 x Tb2
q= ha (π DL) …… (1.12) D
Tb1 L Tb2
Tw1 Tw2
Where;
(h1) based on the initial temperature difference
(ha) based on the arithmetic mean of the terminal temperature difference
(hln) based on the logarithmic temperature different = LMTD
(hln) is preferable for most calculations because it is less dependent on (L/D) than the
other two.
If the wall temperature distribution is initially unknown, or if the fluid properties
change along the pipe, then the local heat transfer coefficient (h 1oc) is defined as;
dq= h1oc (πDdx) ……………. …. (1.14)
Where:
dq = Heat added to the fluid in the distance (dx)
Tw – Tb= Local temperature difference
Equation (1.14) is widely used in engineering design.
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 18
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
when the fluid capacity rates are the same. This is, then a rather important boundary
condition.
This B.C could be produced by winding the tube with a heating wire at a uniform
pitch (after we insulate the tube with fiber glass) or using (Mgo).
The constant heat rate (qw) is obtained steal
Ni Cr
n
qw
due to the uniform pitch of the wire. Mgo
Flow
Flow
qW
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 19
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
This is another very common convection problem and occur in such heat
exchangers as evaporators, condensers, and, in fact, in any heat exchange where the fluid
has a very much higher capacity rate than the other.
Te
To produce constant (Tw), we surround the tube with Annulus
.
(Cp), i.e large (mcp), (Te – Ti) will be very small and we Ti
To obtain constant (Tw) we must have a phase change We want this variation
Ti
Fluid
at that pressure).
hot steam
To have a variable (Tw) along the tube, we can do that by
U tube
Condensate
film
sections. Condensate
Tw
1
Tw
2
f(r) alone ≠ f(x)
r0 r
Tw T
1
Tw T
1
Tw T
1
x
r0 r
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 20
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
The profile of the temperature is the same, only shifting by some constant value
occurs; i.e. if (Tw) is changed by (20 ₒC) for example, then the temperature of all points
are changed by the same amounts. Thus;
Then; = constant
Hence;
Thus; Nu
Fully developed
=0 ….….….….….…. (1.16) flow
x/d
= .….….….….…. (1.17)
Thus =0 Tw=
Cons t.
….….….….….…. (1.18)
This type of boundary conditions is very suitable for circular tubes, but for non –
circular ducts it is improper, due to the lack of symmetry in these ducts. This asymmetry
allows a peripheral temperature gradient to exist, which in turn cause a heat flow within
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 21
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
the wall. This heat flow will affects the temperature distribution of the wall, and
therefore, the thermal properties of the wall become a factor in the solution of the
problem.
2 Constant Heat Flux (qw) in the Axial Direction, but Constant Wall
Temperature (Tw) at Each Axial Location
This boundary condition is approached with a wall of large thermal conductivity.
Now;
qw = h (Tw Tb) Tw=
Cons t.
And; T Tw
T
Tb
=
And equation (1.17) will be; x
= = ….….….….…. (1.19)
3 Constant Heat Flux (qw) in both the Flow and Peripheral Directions
This boundary condition is approached with a wall of low thermal conductivity,
where the heat must enter the fluid at wall locations where it is generated. To find the
bulk temperature gradient , an energy balance is made to the fluid element shown in
Fig. (1.9).
qw
P=Perimeter
r ρ UACp(Tb+dTb)
u U
qw A
ρ UA cpTb Tb Tb+dTb
X

qw
X
dx
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Hence; =
; = ……………………. (1.20)
Balance of Liner
2 2 = 2 du=TdsPdv
Momentum
Maxwell Relation
Balance of Moment of
3 3 3
Total Momentum
Conservation of Total
4 4 P=
Energy
5 Increase of Entropy
Conservation of
6
Electric Charge
7 Lorentz Force
8 Ampere Circuit Law
9 Faraday Induction Law
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 23
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
……………………………... (1.21)
……………………………… .(1.22)
…………..…………….. (1.23)
…………………………….... (1.24)
Constitutive Relations:
……………………….…………… (1.25)
…………………………………………………………..… (1.26)
= or = ……………………………. (1.27)
Where:
(Substantial derivative)
………………………….……. (1.28)
N.S.
+ + …….. (1.29)
+ + ……………….. (1.30)
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
43 23 + ……………….. (1.31)
…… (1.32 a, b)
Dissipation Function:
…….. (1.33)
Equation of State:
= or = ………. (1.34)
N.S.:
….. (1.36)
….. (1.37)
….. (1.38)
……. (1.39)
Dissipation Function:
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 25
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
+ …..(1.40)
…………………………………………. (1.41)
= ……………………. (1.42)
……………..……………. (1.43)
For buoyancydriven flows, (p is negligibly small. However, for combined (forced
and buoyancydriven) flows the pressure term becomes appreciable.
Notes:
1. To = Uniform reference temperature.
2. P0 = Hydrostatic pressure corresponding to (T0 and
4.
Problems
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 26
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
1. What are the basic modes of heat transfer? Is convection heat transfer is one of them?
and why?
2. What is the difference between Biot number and Nusselt number?
3. What are the most important dimensionless numbers used in convection heat transfer?
and what are their physical significance? Which one of them is a property of the fluid?
4. What are the most familiar characteristic temperature different ( ) used in
convection heat transfer?
5. What are the basic types of thermal boundary conditions that are usually used in
convection heat transfer problems? And how we can achieve them experimentally?
6. What the criterion is for fully  developed temperature profile in internal flows?
Derive a general expression for this criterion, and then simplify this expression for the
two cases of constant heat flux and constant wall temperature thermal boundary
conditions. What is the most important parameter that controls the establishment of
this fully  developed temperature profile?
7. A liquid metal flows through a circular tube of radius (R). The velocity and
temperature profiles at each axial location may be approximated as uniform and
parabolic profiles respectably, i.e.;
Where (C1) and (C1) are constants. Assuming incompressible flow with constant fluid
properties ( ), evaluate the Nusselt number of the flow. Dose this value
is constant or it may change with the axial direction?
8. Derive the energy equation in Cartesian coordinates by making an energy balance
according to the first law of thermodynamics for a differential element in the flow
filed. Neglect the radiation effects.
9. Consider the steady flow of a fluid between two parallel plates. Simplify the energy
equation in rectangular coordinates for this flow, assuming fully developed flow and
the heat conduction in the xdirection is negligible compared to that in y direction.
Discuss the physical significance of each term in the simplified equation.
10.The steady state energy equation for flow inside a circular tube is given by:
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 27
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Discuss the assumptions made to simplify the energy equation to this form. Explain
the physical significance of each term in this equation.
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 28
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Chapter ( 2 )
Forced Convection Heat Transfer for Laminar Flow in Closed Conditions
The major technical applications of these types of flow are in the analysis and
design of heat exchanges. The main assumptions of the analysis are:
1. Negligible body forces.
2. Steady flow.
3. Constant fluid properties.
4. Fluid is forced through the tube by some external means unrelated to the
temperature filed in the fluid
3. Circular symmetry (
M.E. → .....(2.1) r
R
D=2R
X
E.E. ....(2.2)
Equ. (2.2) is applied for the two B.Cs. (constant heat rate and constant wall temperature).
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 29
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
at r = R T = Tw
Equ. (2.3) can be integrated twice to obtain;
T = Tw  ...................... (2.4)
Now:
………………………... (2.5)
Now;
or;
x/D
i.e.;
Nu= constant in fully developed flow
Note: Nu= StPrRe=4.364
St Pr =
H.T. (h) M.Flow (f)
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 30
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
......................................... (2.7)
B.Cs. at r = 0
at r = R T = Tw
There are two methods for solving equ. (2.7);
1 Successive Approximation Method:
a. Assume a profile for T=T(r) (use for example equ. (2.4) as a first trial), in the R.H.S.
of equ. (2.7) only (i.e for (TwT) term).
b. Solve equ. (2.7) for a new temperature profile T1(r).
c. Using T1(r), calculate Nu1.
d. Use T1(r) into equ. (2.7) and get T2(r). and Nu2.
e. Compare Nu1 and Nu2 until Nu becomes constant. The limit is;
Nu= 3.658 ……………………………………………………………... (2.8)
This value is 16% less than Nu= 4.364 for constant heat flux. This is due to temperature
profile. H=const. heat flux
T=const. wall temp.
H T
2 Asymptotic Method
In this method, we solve the problem of developing flow and find where (Nu)
becomes constant.
Note:
Developing flow solution
Constant Tw case is nothing but variable qw
Fullydeveloped
case, and constant qw case is nothing but
variable Tw case.
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
E.E. .....................(2.10) 2b x
B.Cs. at y=0
qw
at y=b T=Tw
* Ex. use equ. (2.9) and the constant hart rate B.C. and integrate equ. (2.10) to obtain;
Nu = ............................... (2.11)
Asymmetric Heating
q1
It may be that one plate is heated and
1
y
the other is cooled. This problem can be
x
b
solved by superposition technique (since the 2
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 32
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
q1
q1
1
Nu11 insulated
1
1
y
y
2b x T1 2b
+ x
2b
2
2 2
insulated q2
q2
Note: T0 = T1 + T2 Tb = Tb1 + Tb2. The position of the axes must be the same in all
cases.
Nu11 = Nu at plate 1 when plate 1 alone is heated = 5.385
Nu22 = Nu at plate 2 when plate 2 alone is heated = 5.385
Nu1 = Nu at plate 1
Nu1 ≠ Nu2
Nu2 = Nu at plate 2
The following steps may be followed to find Nu1& Nu2;
1. T1& T2 are the temperature distributions for the cases 1&2 respectively. They
contain q1& q2.
2. The temperature profile (T0) for the original case is obtains as (T0 = T1 + T2).
3. Find (Tb) from (T0) (by definition) or (Tb = Tb1 + Tb2).
4. q1 = h1(Tw1  Tb)
q2 = h2 (Tw2  Tb)
5. Nu1 = ………………………..(2.13)
6. Nu2 = ………………………....(2.14)
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Note: if → Nu1→ & h1→ , but this is not true because q is still finite. This
value flow A
x/d
2000K
500K
1500K
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 34
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
M.E. →
qo ri
qi
B= ..(2.16) ro
m=1+r*2B x
r*=
r
E.E. …………..(2.17)
B.Cs. at r = ri
at r = r0
Equ. (2.16) with (2.17) may be integrated to obtain the temperature profile and thus the
Nu can be calculated.
qi = hi (Twi  Tb)
q0 = h0 (Two  Tb)
Table (21): Circular Tube Annulus Solutions for Constant Heat Rate and Fully
Developed Velocity, and Temperature Profile
r* Nuii Nuoo
0 4.364 0
0.05 17.81 4.792 2.18 0.0294
0.1 11.91 4.834 1.383 0.0562
0.2 8.499 4.883 0.905 0.1041
0.4 6.583 4.979 0.603 0.1823
0.6 5.912 5.099 0.473 0.2455
0.8 5.58 5.24 0.401 0.299
1 5.385 5.385 0.346 0.346
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
If we make ri and ro but (rori) still have a finite value, we get two parallel
plates. For this reason, in parallel plates we get (Dh=2*2b=4b), and by letting
(ri, ro) where r*=1 and
When r*=0 (ri 0), we still have u=0 at (ri), i.e, we can't make
u=umax at ri as in the circular tube. Thus we cannot obtain the
circular tube solution from the annuls solution.
E.E. ……………………..(2.20)
y b
The solution of equ. (2.20) to give T=T(x, y, z) requires
acknowledge of the fully developed laminar velocity x a
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 36
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Empirical Relations:
1 Uniform wall temp.
500 …… (2.21)
Pr=0.7
500 …… (2.22)
Pr=0.7
Equations (2.21) & (2.22) were obtained on a square duct (0.18×0.18 in) with
( and a rectangular duct (0.151×0.395 in) with ( . All teats were
made on air. The value of may be obtained from table (2.2) or the figure.
de=
Example (2.1): Laminar fully –developed flow between parallel plates: Couette flow:
Sol.:
V=0,
u =U, T=Tb U
C.E
y b
M.E 0=
X
Thus; u =0, T=To
u= ……………(1)
B.Cs.
at y = 0 u = 0
at y = b u = U
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Eq. (2) comprise a linear velocity distribution between two plates due to simple
shear flow, superimposed on which is the quadratic distribution caused by the pressure
parameter P =
If u= ……..…….…..……(3)
Energy Equ.
E.E 0=k
……………………………………... (5)
For the case of zero pressure gradient, equ. (3) may be used;
B.Cs. at y = 0 T = T0 T0
at y = b T = Tb
………….………………….. (8)
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Equ. (8) consists of two relationships, the first is linear temperature profile for (Pr Ec=0)
(that is or U=0), and the second is parabolic distribution due to viscous heating
( (U and
Now, to find q at the upper plate;
1 ……………........ (9)
i.e 1
Or; Pr Ec=2
Pr ……………………. (10)
1
When Tad,b is the adiabatic wall temperature, that
is, the temperature assumed by the top plate
T>Tb
when heat flux through it is zero. Thus;
For cooling the top plate Tb< Tad,b
0
0 1
Thus; h =
Now; =
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 39
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
And; = ; hence;
Nu =
B.Cs. at y = 0
at y = b T=
= = h (TBTb)
Hence; Nuupper =
Nuupper =
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 40
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
where Tw
y
Uc x b
[B.Cs. y = 0 ;
Tw
E.E.: B.Cs. ,
Where; 1
2.2.1 Introduction
In the previous types of flow, we have fully–developed velocity and temperature
profiles, and (h) is constant with length. If the tube is short (as in heat exchanger) the
flow will be developing. The development of hydrodynamic ( and thermal
( boundary –layers depends on (Pr) value;
Pr=
Diffusivity is defined as the rate at which a particular effect is diffused through the
medium.
If (Pr=1), then heat and momentum are diffused through the fluid at the same
rates, if the velocity and temperature are both uniform at the entrance to a tube, the
velocity and temperature profiles will develop together.
Tw
Tw
U
Laminar
flow
u
T
Pr =1
LH=LT H.B.L=T.B.L.
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
If (Pr < 1), the velocity profile develops more rapidly than the temperature profile.
Actually, if (Pr < 5), the velocity profile leads the temperature profile sufficiently so that
a solution based on an already fullydeveloped velocity profile will applied quite
accurately even though there is no hydrodynamic starting length (before the section at
which heat transfer begins).We can assume that ( starts to develop right from point
(A) where the velocity profile is fullydeveloped. Most heat exchangers use fluids with
very high Prandtle number like oil, glycerin, engine oil).
Tw Tw
T∞
Pr < 1 H.B.L.
u
T.B.L.
LH
Pr< LT
If (Pr , the temperature profile develops more rapidly than velocity profile,
and we can use the "Slug" flow model, where we assume that the velocity is uniform
(u= u).
Tw Tw
Pr > 1 u
u=u
u= u
T
Pr LT
LH
10 2 10 1 10 0 10 1 10 2 10 3
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where c=constant
The fluid temperature T=T(x, y). For small values of y, . Also may be
cy …………………………………..(2.21)
B.Cs.
at x = 0 y< T=T
at x < 0 y T = Tw
at x < 0 y T=T
…………………………..…… (2.23)
B.Cs.
X=0 T = Tw
X= T=T
Equ. (2.23) has the following solution;
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………………………….. (2.24)
X I X I X I X I
0.95 0.7877
1 0.8075
Now; h =
Thus;
h= ……………..…………..….…….. (2.25)
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Equation (2.25) may be modified to give the Nusselt number in the entrance region of a
circular tube. If it is assumed that velocity distribution in the laminar boundary layer in
the entrance of a circular tube is parabolic, i.e.;
u = 2U …………………………………….…. (2.27)
Since r= y ; Then
h= ……………………………..…. (2.30)
And;
Where = = Re Pr
avg.net U
R
3 At x=0, the wall temperature changes
T=T∞ for x<0
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E.E.
= ……………………………………… (2.33)
……………………….. (2.35)
= ………………………… (2.36)
………………………… (2.37)
For (Re Pr)< , the last term may be neglected. Thus; the final form of the E.E. is;
= ………………………… (2.38)
………….…………………….. (2.39)
B.Cs.
1 at x = 0 T = Te (0,
2 at r = R T = Tw ( =0
3
……………………. (2.40)
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λ .............. (2.43)
Where Rn = Eigen Function, λn = Eigen value Cn = constants
Now;
λ ... (2.44)
λ
Now;
and;
Nux = 00
x
Thus;
= ……………….. (2.47)
λ
λ
0 7.312 0.749
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For infinitely long tube ( < . (i.e. fully  developed flow), only
the first term of the series is needed. Thus for (n=0);
λ λ
…………... (2.48)
λ λ
Which is the Nu value for fully developed flow. The thermal entry length must be
approximately ( ;
……………… (2.49)
Nux
or;
x+
0.1
In oil heat exchanger it is very rare indeed that anything approaching a fully
developed temperature profile is attained. In general, for high (Pr) applications, fully
developed solution is of little utility.
The complete results of the constant surface temperature solution are presented in
Table (2.5).
Table (2.5): Constant Temperature Solution
Nu
0 1
0.001 12.8 19.29 0.962
0.004 8.03 12.09 0.908
0.01 6 8.92 0.837
0.04 4.17 5.81 0.627
0.08 3.77 4.86 0.459
0.1 3.71 4.64 0.396
0.2 3.66 4.16 0.19
3.66 3.66 0
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<
Nu = 12.09
Note the very large error that would have obtained if fully developed solution has
been used (Nu = 3.66). If we use (Nu = 3.66) to rate the heat exchange, we get high exit
temperature than it is designed to because U will be very small (q= UA∆T). For given
(∆T), we get very large area if we use (Nu = 3.66) instead of (12.09)
For constant heat flux case, the solution is (Kays P.P.127);
With =4.364
Am =0.358
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C.E.
.....................(2.50)
HBL
u T.B.L.
M.E.
......(2.51)
E.E.
………………...... (2.52)
Define
Thus;
M.E.
E.E.
CombinedH.B.LandT.B.L.
the entrance in the case of combined HBL & TBL is to
yield a (Nu) that is always higher than if the velocity were TBL fully developed
3.66 velocity
Kays (p.p. 142) solved the combined entry  length problem for Pr = 0.7,
employing Langhaar's velocity profile (u=u (x, r)) (pp.62 in Kays) he linearized the M.E
and solve it). In this solution v is omitted since it is important only near the pip inlet.
Then Kay solved the E.E. by numerical integration.
Heatonet. al ( Kays p.p. 144 ) solve the E.E by linearizing it and thus obtain a
generalized temperature distribution at the entry region which could be used in the
energy integral equation.
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Problems
1. Derive the general energy equation in cylindrical polar coordinates; include the effects
of viscous energy dissipation. Show that viscous dissipation is important when the
Eckert number is large.
2. Obtain the value of fully  developed Nusselt number for flow between parallel plates
both of which are at the same;
(i) Constant temperature
(ii) Constant heat flux
3. Show that for a circular tube annulus with radius ratio equal to (0.2) and (0.6), the
fully  developed Nusselt numbers for constant heat flux on the inner tube with the
outer tube insulated are (8.499) and (5.912) respectively.
4. For a parallel plates flow with constant fluxes ( ) and ( ) on plates (1) and (2)
respectively, show that;
with
5. Consider a (0.25 in) inside diameter, (4 ft) long circular tube, wound by an electric
resistance heating element. Let the function of the tube be to heat an organic fuel from
(50 °F) to (150 °F). Let the mass flow rate of the fuel be (10 lbm / hr). The following
average properties may be treated as constant: (Pr = 10, =47 lbm/ft3 ,
C=0.5 Btu/ (lbm °F), K=0.079 5 Btu/ (hr Ft2 °F/ft), =1.6 lbm / (hr Ft) ). Calculate and
plot both tube surface temperature and fluid bulk temperature as a function of tube
length. What is the highest temperature experienced by any of the fluids?
6. Consider fully  developed constant  property laminar flow between parallel planes
with constant heat rate per unit of length and a fully  developed temperature profile.
Suppose heat is transferred "to" the fluid on one side and "out" of the fluid on the
other at the "same" rate. What is the Nusselt number on each side of the passage?
Sketch the temperature profile. Suppose the fluid is an oil for which the viscosity
varies greatly with temperature, but all other properties are relatively unaffected by
temperature. Is the velocity profile affected? is the temperature profile affected? Is the
Nusselt numbers affected? Explain.
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7. Consider laminar flow for fluid inside a circular tube with walls at constant surface
temperature. Plot the variation of Nusselt number with the parameter [Pe / (x/d)] using
(i) Leveque solution and (ii) Graetz solution.
8. Plot the radial temperature distribution of a cross  section (5 in) from the entrance of
a (1 in) diameter tube in which water at the rate of (200 lb/hr) is flowing. Tube wall
temperature is (200 °F) and the water inlet temperature is (100 °F).
9. Crude oil is to be heated from (65 °F) to (95 °F) in a shell and tube heat exchanger.
The oil flow rate through the tubes is (100,000 lb /hr). The tubes are (0.5 in) inside
diameter and the tube wall is at (200 °F). If the exchanger is to be no longer than (10
ft ), estimate the number of tube passes if there are (i) 20 tubes per pass (ii) 10 tubes
per pass. Use the following properties of oil; specific, gravity = 1.1, specific heat =
0.5, ºF , ºF , k=0.08 Btu / hrft2 °F. Estimate also the power
required to pump the oil through the tubes. State clearly the assumptions you may
need and use in the problem formulation and solution.
10. The viscosity of an oil as a function of temperature is given below:
Temp. (°F) 50 75 100 125 150 200 175
155 75 52 35 24 10 15
Specific gravity = 1.1, k= 0.08 Btu/hr ft 2 °F, specific heat = 0.5. This oil at (50 °F)
flows in (1 in) inside diameter tube at the rate of (6000 lb/hr). After a suitable calming
length the tube wall is maintained at (200°F). Estimate the length of heating required
for the flow to become turbulent.
11. An engine oil flows at (30 m/s) through a (25 mm) tube. The oil is at (160 °C) and the
tube surface is at (150 °C). If the tube is (2m) long, what is the average film
coefficient at the pipe surface? If the tube is (6.5m) long, what is the film coefficient?
(Use values from Table (8.4) of Kays and also empirical relations and compare the
results).
12. Compare the heat transfer results obtained from the Leveque solution and the Graetz
solution. Hence obtain the range of applicability of Leveque solution.
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13.Engine oil enters a (1.25 cm) diameter tube (3m) long at a temperature of (30 °C). The
tube wall is maintained at (65 °C) and the flow velocity is (30 cm/s). Estimate the total
heat transfer to the oil and the exit temperature of the oil.
14.(0.5 kg/min) of water is heated from (20 °C) to (40 °C) when passed through a tube of
(2.5 cm) diameter steel pipe. The pipe surface temperature is maintained at (110°C) by
condensing steam at its surface. Find out the length of the pipe required. The
properties of water at the mean temperature (110 + /2=70°C) are; = 978
kg/m3, k=0 0.575 kcal/mhr °C), cp = 1 kcal / kg °C, =0.415*106 m2/s. State clearly
any assumption you may need and use, and deriver all the relation used in the
solution.
15. A water heater consists of tube (4mm) in diameter which is provided with nichrome
heating wire over the tube which gives constant heat flux on tube surface. Water at the
rate of (3.6 kg/hr) passes through the tube and its temperature is increased from (25
°C) to (75 °C). The power input to the heating element is (200 W) per meter length of
the tube. Take the following properties of water at (50 °C): =984 kg/m3, = 4.76*10
7
m2/s, C=4187 J/kg °C, k=0.65 W/m °C. Estimate the tube length and the wall
temperature at the tube exit.
16. Consider the steady laminar Poiseuille flow of a constant property fluid between two
large fixed parallel and horizontal plates that are spaced a distance (b) and kept at
uniform temperature ( ). Assume constant pressure gradient in the flow direction
and neglect the edge effect and end effects (except for pressure), and including the
viscous dissipation effects, derive an expression for the temperature distribution and
Nusselt number of the flow.
17. Derive an expression for the fully developed temperature profile when a fluid
generating heat at a constant rate of (q"') per unit volume, flows with laminar flow
18. Consider the steady laminar two  dimensional flow between the two parallel plates
shown in the figure. The velocity profile is made of three straight lines as shown. For
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cross section.
T1
δ
uc
b
δ
T1
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Chapter (3)
C. E: + = 0 ……………………………………... (3.1)
M. E: +v = + …………………… (3.2)
E. E: +v = + ………………… (3.3)
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A A
U∞ Tb TBL y
H u x
1 Tw 2
Fig. (3.1): Control Volume for Integral Energy Analysis of Laminar Boundary – Layer
Energy Balance
Energy Convected in + Viscous Work within the Element + Heat Transfer at the Wall =
Energy Convected Out …………………… (3.4)
AA =
Energy AA = cp
Viscous work =
Combining these energy quantities according to equ. (3.4) and collecting terms give:
+ = .......................... (3.5)
This is the integral energy equation of the boundary – layer for constant properties and
constant free stream temperature to (
Ex. Derive equ. (3.5) by integrating equ. (3.3) using equ. (3.1).
If F(x) =
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For small flow velocities, the viscous dissipation terms are usually neglected.
To solve the energy equation (3.5), we need to know the temperature and velocity
profiles. Assume;
T = a + by + cy2 + dy3
u= + y + y2 + y3
B.Cs.
at y=0 T= Tw u= 0
at y= = T= T u=
at y= = =0 ( =0)
at y=0 =0 =0
Thus; we obtain;
……………………… (3.6)
……………………… (3.7)
The plate under consideration need not be heated over its entire length, as shown
in Fig. (3.2).
y
x
U∞
T∞
Inserting equs. (3.6) and (3.7) into equ. (3.5), neglecting viscous dissipation term:
= =
u =
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So, we have;
…………………………………….. (3.10)
Equ. (3.10) is an ordinary linear D. E. of the first order in ( ) and the solution is;
B. C.; at x = =0→c=
= = …………………..….. (3.11)
= = ………………. (3.12)
Now;
………………..……. (3.13)
And;
= ………………. (3.14)
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If = 0;
= 0.332 ……………………………………….…. (3.15)
Note:
hx whereas i.e, it dose not mean that when increase h will
increase, whereas for tube (h, )
Nux Nu,h
hx
x
x
h=
h = 2h ......................................... (3.16)
And thus;
......................................... (3.17)
Notes:
1. The properties are evaluated at the film temperature ( ); where
2. The above analysis was made on the assumption that < ,( = sine we
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=y .....(3.18)
ψ ..............................................(3.19)
ψ ψ
u= and v=  ....................................... (3.20)
.................................... (3.22)
Where (C) is an arbitrary constant and ( ) are the homogeneous and particular
solution respectively. It is convenient to choose boundary condition such that ( is the
solution of cooling problem where frictional heating is ignored, and ( ) is the solution
considered . Hence;
=0 ................................................... (3.24)
And;
= ............................ (3.25)
B.CS. (0) = ( ) =0 (
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C= ( ) ( ) ....................... (3.26)
( ) = 1 .....(3.27)
The numerical solutions of equ. (3.27) are shown plotted in fig (3.3) for a range of (
( )=1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
=y
0
0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2 2.4 2.6 3.2 4
Fig. (3.3): Temperature Distribution for Laminar Flow over a Flat Plate
Neglecting Frictional Heating
Or;
..... (3.28)
This shows that if we neglect the frictional heating, the velocity and temperature
distribution are similar if . For (0.6 < Pr ) it was found that the
dimensionless temperature gradient at the surface could be represented by;
And;
................................ (3.30)
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=2 ...................... (3.31)
Thus;
.................................. (3.32)
Referring to equ. (3.23), we may write the adiabatic plate solution as;
..... (3.33)
............................ (3.34)
Where (r) is the recovery factor and is for laminar flow depends on ( , when
( Approximately;
Oil Large ( r
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The recovery factor (r) is the ratio of the frictional or viscid temperature rise to the
frictionless or in inviscid temperature rise:
r= ............................... (3.36)
Now the general solution of equ. (3.3) from equ. (3.23) can be expressed as:
.............
(3.37)
Or:
................................ (3.38)
Now;
qw= k = (
qw= k
(0)
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qw = k
= k
qw=k ( )
Thus;
Note:
The temperature Distribution for laminar flow over a flat plate include frictional
heating is shown in fig. (3.4).
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0 2 4
0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6
Fig. (3.4) Temperature Distribution for Laminar Flow over a Flat Plate
Including Frictional Heating
For low < , and we can assume u= and that , Divide equ.
(3.24) by and differentiate;
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= .................... (3.41)
Which gives as ( );
= ........................ (3.42)
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Problems
1. Consider laminar flow over a heated flat plate with constant wall temperature.
Obtain expressions for ( ) using the integral method assuming the velocity and
temperature profile to follow;
(i) A liner equation (ii) Second degree equation
(iii) Third degree equation (iv) Fourth degree equation
Plot (u/u ) and ( )/( ) as a function of (y/ ). Compare the results
with the exact solution.
2. Air at (5 °C) and (70 kPa) flows over a flat plate at (6 m/s). A heater strip (2.5 cm)
long is placed over the plate at a distance of (15 cm) from the leading edge.
Calculate the heat lost from the strip per unit depth of the plate for a heater surface
temperature of (65 °C). Plot the velocity and temperature profiles at the end of the
heater.
3. Water at (90 °C) flows at a velocity of (1.5 m/s) past a flat plate maintained at a
temperature of (25 °C). Plot temperature and velocity profiles at stations (25 mm),
(50 mm) and (75 mm) from the leading edge of the plate. Also plot the variation of
local film coefficient on the first (75 mm) of the plate and determine the average
film coefficient for that distance.
4. Consider laminar flow past an adiabatic plate. The plate will reach an equilibrium
temperature (Tr) called the "recovery temperature". Obtain the necessary differential
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6. Determine the heat loss per hour from a wall of a building when the wind is blowing
parallel to its surface with a speed of (2 km/hr). The wall is (5m) long and (3m)
height. Temperature of the wall is (25 °C) and air temperature is (5 °C). Properties
of air at mean temperature of (15 °C) are; ( =1.226 kg/m3 , cp=0.24 kcal/ KgºC ,
k=2.2*102 kcal / mhr °C, =14.62*106 m2/s , Pr=0.704).
7. A plate of (100 cm 50 cm) and (2 cm) thick is placed in a horizontal plane. The top
surface is maintained at (100 °C). If the air is flowing over the plate at (3 m/s), find
the heat lost by the plate per hour. What should be the bottom temperature of the
plate for the steady state condition? The air temperature is (20 °C) and the thermal
conductivity of the plate material is (20 kcal/mhr °C). The (100 cm) side of the plate
is parallel to the air flow. The properties of air at the mean temperature of (60°C)
are; ( =1.06 kg/m3, cp=0.24 kcal/kg °C, k=2.49*102 kcal / mhr °C, =18.97*10
6
m2/s, Pr=0.696). State clearly any assumption you may need and use in the problem
formulation and solution.
8. Air at standard conditions of (760 mmHg) and (20ºC) flows over flat plate at (3
m/s). The plate is (50 cm* 25 cm). Find the heat lost per hour if air flow is parallel to
the 50cmside of the plate. If the 25cmside is kept parallel to airflow, what will be
the effect on heat transfer? The temperature of the plate is (100ºC), and the air
properties at (60ºC) are; ( =1.06 kg/m3, cp=0.24 kcal/KgºC, K=2.49*102
kcal/mhrºC, 18.97*106 m2/s, Pr=0.696.
9. Consider the steady laminar uniform flow of constant property fluid over isothermal
plate. The plate is porous and subjected to a uniform suction (V(x, 0) =V0), see figure.
Neglect the end and edge effects; derive an expression for the temperature
distribution of the fluid across the boundary layer.
x
V0 Tw
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10. Air at (20ºC) flows with (3m/s) velocity over a flat plate (0.5m) long and (1m)
wide. If the plate surface is maintained at (100ºC), find the total heat transfer rate,
and the hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layers thicknesses at the trailing edge
of the plate (X=0.5m).
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Chapter ( 4 )
Turbulent Forced Convection Heat Transfer
4.1Introduction
The transfer of heat to or from fluids flowing turbulently is one of the most
important modes of industrial heat transfer. The complicated nature of turbulent flow
prevents an analytical approach to the problem like that which can be made for laminar
flow. The energy equation is applicable both for turbulent and laminar flows. In turbulent
flow, however, heat is transferred by convection as well as by conduction, and knowledge
of the turbulent velocity fluctuations is required to obtain a solution of the energy
equation. Nevertheless, various studies on the basic mechanism of turbulent heat transfer
have continued throughout the years, so that in addition to empirical correlations (which
say nothing about mechanism) there are theoretical and semi empirical relationships
based on fundamental knowledge of the processes occurring.
4.2 Empirical Correlations for Turbulent Flow Heat Transfer in Closed Conduits
The more important empirical correlations of turbulent heat transfer data in closed
conduits are presented here. The relationships given apply for fluids with a (Pr=0.7)
Early experimental work on turbulent heat transfer in tubes was mainly on air and
water, covering a (Pr) range of (0.710). Later studies were made on various high
viscosity oils having Pr expending up to (1000).
The two common forms of equations relating dimensionless groups for turbulent
flow heat transfer are as follows;
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h* π …………………(4.3)
From equ. (4.3), (Nu and St) become;
Nu = …………………………. (4.4)
The (St) number may be determined without knowing or taking into account the
physical properties of the fluid. In calculating (Nu), one must include the mass flow rate,
the heat capacity and the thermal conductivity. An error in any of these is therefore
included in the Nusselt number. Another advantage of correlating data by equ. (4.2) is the
fact that, at constant Pr, the St varies as ,while Nu varies as .Equation (4.1)
requires a greater range of ordinates.
If the fluid properties were constant, the use of equs. (4.1) and (4.2) to correlate
data would be quite simple. However, the temperature of the fluid not only varies across
the section of the conduit but also along the length of the conduit. Since physical
properties change with temperature, there is always the problem of which temperature to
use for evaluating the properties. In early works, where temperature differences were low
and only air and water were studied, the bulk temperature of the fluid was suitable for
evaluation of all fluid properties. With heat transfer with oils, in which viscosity varies
greatly with temperature, it was necessary to use an additional dimensionless group
( to obtain satisfactory correlation of data. It has become common practice to
evaluate all fluid properties at socalled film temperature rather than using a viscosity –
ratio correction. The usual film temperature for evaluating properties is;
) …………………. (4.6)
Among the various other film temperatures which have been used are;
) ………………………. (4.7)
) ………………………. (4.8)
For fully –developed turbulent flow heat transfer in circular tubes at moderate
temperature difference, most of the data were correlated by three equations;
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
1 DitusBoelter Equation
Conditions
1 Fluid properties evaluated at arithmetic mean bulk temperature
2 Re< 10 000
3 0.7
4 n=0.4 for heating, 0.3 for cooling
5 <
2 Colburn Equation
4.10)
Conditions
1 Fluid properties, except (Cp) in St group, evaluated at film temperature (T0.5)
2 Re< 10 000
3 0.7
4 <
4.11)
Conditions
1 Fluid properties evaluated at bulk temperature expect (
2 Re< 10 000
3 0.7
4 <
An additional correlation for turbulent heat transfer data are available;
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..(4.12)
Conditions
1 Fluid properties are evaluated at film temperature
2 10000 Re 500000
3 30
4 600 ºR
5
…….(4.13 )
Conditions
1 Fluid properties are evaluated at bulk temperature
2 10000 Re 50 000
3
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…........……………….. (4.14)
….......……………….. (4.15)
Where is the mean turbulent shear stress. Prandtle expresses this turbulent shear
stress in terms of the mixing length (
= = ………………….....…… (4.16)
Where =eddy viscosity (+ve) value, therefore we use to give correct sign).Now;
……………….……… (4.17)
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
……………………… (4.18)
And;
……………………………………. (4.19)
In a similar analysis, the heat transfer across a turbulent stream may be dealt with. Fig.
(4.1) shows two sections of a fluid in turbulent motion, the distance between these two
sections being ( the Prandtle mixing length. The rate of turbulent heat transfer per unit
area is the product of the mass flow in the y –direction and temperature difference
between the two sections.
…………………….. (4.20)
…………………….. (4.21)
u+
T+
u=Ø(y)
u T
x
Fig. (4.1): Two Sections in a flowing fluid at a Different Velocity and Temperature
Equations (4.19) and (4.23) indicate that ( and are equal. These results from
the various assumptions Prandtle made in the analysis. He assumed that mixing length for
heat transfer is the same as the mixing length for momentum transfer. Under these
conditions, a true analogy exists between momentum and heat transfer for turbulent flow.
The use of the analogy between momentum and heat transfer for predicting heat
transfer from momentum transfer depends on the relationship between and ( .
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Wall layer
………………(4.24)
(2) The mechanisms responsible for heat and momentum transfer are identical, i.e,
…………......……(4.25)
Thus;
………………….. (4.26)
= ……………..…….. (4.27)
Hence;
But
Linear shear stress and heat flux distribution in the pipe
And
Thus;
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Integrate between the wall (w) and the center line (c), we get;
But = and
Thus, we get;
, or;
Molecular
( Phen.
Viscous sublayer
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Sublayer;
Thus; =
Turbulent Core:
( , thus, Reynolds analogy applied here, i.e. ;
................. (4.30) [ Reynolds analogy]
= [1+ ]
But;
And;
Thus:
Or;
Hence;
.................................. (4.31)
In equ. (4.31), and may be obtained from velocity data. Also a unity turbulent
Where; and
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Thus;
............................... (4.32)
Note:
When ( ) is very large, this high ( ) controls the heat transfer by conduction near the
wall due to low conductivity, ( ). So, whatever happens in the turbulent core, this
does not affect the conduction heat transfer in the laminar sublayer, so we have to take
into account the changes in the sublayer.
Turbulent
Zone
= linear 5<
laminar Buffer
= sudden change at
Sublayer Zone Re = 10000
= curve <
Zone
So, the integration has to be carried out in
the three regions.
5 30 200 y+
Consider the turbulent flow in a circular tube with constant heat flux.
E.E. y R
r
y=Rr
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................................ (4.33)
B.C.1 at y = 0 T = Tw
B.C.2 at y = R
So, we need u(y), we can use the power law, but here we will use (u to get an
approximate imagination for the problem. Hence integrate the above equation we result
get;
Thus;
Hence;
Integrate again;
T=
B.C.1 at y=0 T = Tw → C2 = Tw
Also, from energy balance, we have (
Thus;
T
Or, change to (
T = ............................. (4.34)
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Now,
At y = 0
At y = R
And;
Hence;
But;
Thus;
1 ................... (4.35)
0< →
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Or;
............. (4.36) (Liner Temperature distribution)
............................ (4.37)
II  Buffer Layer
5<
Assume 1 1
Assume
And
Thus:
..................... (4.38)
................................... (4.39)
compared to , i.e;
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error).
If Pr < , can be neglected ( ). Most of the resistance holds in the sublayer.
Or;
.............................. (4.40)
At the center y = R →
Then;
........................ (4.41)
We now have a complete temperature profile. To calculate the mean velocity (u)
and the bulk temperature ( ), we will use the power law .i.e;
.............................. (4.42)
............................. (4.43)
Thus;
............................ (4.44)
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By definition;
Thus;
With
Using equ. (4.45), we obtain;
........................... (4.46)
Equ. (4.46) is in good agreement with experimental data over the range 0.5 <
hand over a wide range of Re.
Constant as in laminar 1
T – Tw
flow. At high ( ), the resistance is Tc  Tw
0.8
0.4
( ) it is distributed over the entire fluid.
0.2
0
At low ( ), the term ( and the 1
y/R
The above analysis is not applicable for low since was neglected. Martinelli
included this term for low and perform the integration numerically.
4.3.4 Colburn Analogy
...................... (4.47)
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............................... (4.48)
But;
Thus;
Or;
............................... (4.49)
( and ( ) are independent of x. Equ.(4.49) gives the local (St).To solve equ.(4.49),
the temperature and velocity profiles are assumed to have the same from (Reynolds
analogy).The power law will be used; i.e.:
...................................... (4.50)
................................. (4.51)
The power law does not hold well near the wall since ( so,
Which gives;
................................... (4.52)
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So;
= =
Which becomes;
………………… (4.54)
To find (Nu);
The conditions of equ. (4.56) is the same as equ. (4.55). We get the same relation as in
tubes ( ), so the geometry is not important in turbulent flow.
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= ………......………. (4.57)
……..………………………. (4.59)
……………………………………… (4.61)
Conditions:
1 Turbulent b.l. starts at leading edge.
2 Heat transfer starts at leading edge.
3 Properties evaluated at .
4 <
Equ. (4.61) may be used to calculate local (Nu) for turbulent flow parallel to flat plate.
……………………………………… (4.62)
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Conditions:
1 <
2 Heat transfer and turbulent b.l. start at the leading edge.
3 Fluid properties at .
…………………….. (4.65)
L = Length for which h is to be calculated (including both laminar and turbulent parts)
In the above calculations, to calculate (h) we must integrate over the three regions.
But the transition region is undefined region and we don’t know much about it. Therefore
we assume the transition to be sudden at Xtr.
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h= f
Tunl
Lam.
Trus.
x
h
ht
hl
x
xtr
showed that the mean heat transfer coefficient in tubes were the same between ( from
(30) to (60).Nusselt studied the effect entrance length and recommended introducing the
factor ( , so that the resultant equation for the heat transfer coefficient becomes;
10 400 …....………………….(4.68)
Equ. (4.68) has been used extensively for predicting heat transfer coefficients in entrance
sections.
Boelter, Young and Iverson studied the effect of Entrance configuration on heat
transfer coefficients in circular tubes. They investigated the heat transfer to air in the
entrance of a tube in which (Tw=constant). They recommend the following relation;
< ………….(4.69)
Where experimental values of F1 are given for various types of entrance sections, see
Table (4.1).
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Entrance
Short calming section with sharp
3 ( approx )
edge entrance
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Problems
1. If a dimensionless temperature for turbulent flow past a flat plate is defined by;
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7. Atmospheric air at (100ºF) flows at a velocity of (150 ft/sec) past a flat plate (2 ft)
long with its surface at (500ºF).
(a) Find for (1ft) width the heat transferred to the air from the entire plate, from the
laminar part and the turbulent part of the boundary layer.
(b) What error is involved if the boundary – Layer is assumed to be entirely turbulent
from the leading edge?
(c) Repeat the above if the flow velocity is doubled and all other data remain the
same.
Assume incompressible flow in both cases.
8. Engine oil enters a (1.25 cm) diameter tube (3m) long at a temperature of (38ºC). The
tube wall temperature is (68ºC) and the flow velocity is (1 cm/s). Estimate the total
heat transfer rate and the exit bulk temperature of the oil. Use the following oil
properties; ( 877.367 kg/m3, cp=1.9556 kJ/kg k, =306*106 m2/s; Pr=3623 and
k=0.1441 W/mºC). State clearly any assumption you may need and use.
9. The wing of an aeroplane is considered as rectangular flat plate and its curvature is
neglected. The plane moves with a speed of (300 km/hr). Assuming the surrounding
air is stationary and at (2ºC) and pressure is (68 cmHg), find the following;
(a) The heat loss per meter length of the wing if the width of the wing (parallel to
flow direction) is (120 cm) and is at (18ºC).
(b) Assuming that the flow is completely turbulent over the width of the wing, find
the frictional force per meter length of the wing.
(c) Draw the curve of local heat transfer coefficient along the width of the wing.
The properties of air at ((10ºC) are;
( 1.18 kg/m3, =13.8*106 m2/s, cp=0.24 kcal/mhrºC), k=0.0214 kcal/mhrºC)
10.A thin square plate introduced in a flow of air at (2 m/s) parallel to the plate
experiences a drag force of (1.2*103 kgk). Calculate the heat transfer coefficient at the
plate surface.
Take ( =1.6*105 m2/s , 1.28 kg/m3,cp=0.24 kcal/kgºC, Pr =0.72)
Use Reynolds Analogy.
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11. Using Reynolds analogy, determine the temperature rise of a fluid flowing through a
pipe (15 cm) diameter and 2m) long from which heat is being transferred to the fluid if
the temperature of the pipe wall is constant. Take (f=0.005) and the temperature
difference between the wall and fluid at the entry is (30º).
12.Air at (20º) enters a circular pipe (16 cm) in diameter and (160 cm) long whose wall is
maintained at (160ºC). How much heat is transferred? Assume the flow is turbulent
and same heat transfer coefficient through. Average velocity is (15 m/s). Use
Reynolds analogy and take ( =22*106 m2/s, k=0.027kcal/mhrºC) for air at (90ºC).
State clearly the assumptions you need in the problem formulation, and derive the
relations you use in the solution.
13.(50 Kg) of water per minute is heated from (30ºC) to (50ºC) by passing through a pipe
of (2 cm) diameter. The pipe is heated by condensing steam on its surface at (100ºC).
Find the length of the pipe required. Take the following properties of water at (70ºC);
( =965 kg/m3, k=0.585kcal/mhrºC, cp = 1kcal/kgºC, =0.33*106 m2/s). Use
Reynolds analogy.
14.Water flows through a tube of (2.2 cm) in diameter with a velocity of (2m/s). The
water is heated from (15ºC) to (60ºC) by condensing the steam at (150ºC) on the outer
surface of the tube. Using Reynolds analogy, find the heat transfer coefficient and the
length of the tube required for transferring the above amount of heat. Neglect the tube
resistance as well as the outer surface film resistance. Take the following properties of
water at (37.5 ºC);( =990 kg/m3, cp=4160 J/kgk, 700*106 kg/ms, k=0.63 W/mK)
15.Using the principle of analogy between heat and momentum transfer, show that the
total heat transfer rate per unit area (q) in turbulent flow is given by the following
relation ;(
16.Describe the analogy between momentum and heat transfer in viscous fluids. State the
conditions upon which the analogy depends and then derive an expression relating
Stanton number and friction factor.
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Chapter ( 5 )
Free (Natural) Convection Heat Transfer
5.1 Introduction
In forced convection problems, the buoyancy forces due to the density gradients in
the fluid are ignored as they are usually small order terms. When there is no external flow
field, or the buoyancy forces are much greater than the inertia forces, that is;
or
In this case, we assume isothermally Umax
V V
<
V V Fbuoyancy (  )gV
∞
Fbuoyancy is small and hence the velocity produced is small and cannot be measured with
usual devices (Pitot tubes)
2 Schmidt and Beckman are the first people who measure the velocity in free
convection. They used the (Quartz Anemometer) Quartz=like fiber glass.
Heateded
tube plate
Quartz
fiber
Flow
direction
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The fiber is subjected to a uniform velocity, and it acts as a cantilever beam.The load
corresponds to the drag force on the fiber cylinder can be calculated exactly (low Re
flow). The deflection of the fiber can be measured by a (travelling microscope).
From the deflection, the drug force can be
calculated, and thus, the velocity. They fix
the fiber at a different distance from the plate
Microscope
and thus get velocity profile Temperature is fiber
easy to measure by good thermocouple
scale
3 Interferometer is a method which uses the
difference in density due to change of wave Fiber microscope
scale
length of light to predict the velocity in free
convection
g stable
Unstable
T(x) Fluid T(x)
circulation
ρ2 T2 T2 ρ2
(a) < (b) <
Free Convection Conduction (no Free Convection)
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In the above equations, ( is considered constant every where except in the buoyancy
varible properties.
It is clear that M.E &E.E are getting coupled, i.e, we have to solve them
simultaneously.
∞ ( ………………… (5.5)
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For =1 u = 0
For umax = ……………………. (5.9)
Also;
= ; = =
g  ∞ ………………….. (5.10)
( = 2 ……………….. (5.11)
=2 ……………….. (5.15)
Similarity solution exists only if both sides of the equations are independent of x.
Thus the exponents & must be related by;
2m1+m21 = m2 = m1m2
And + 1 = 
Which gives; and ……………….. (5.16)
Simultaneous solution of equs. (5.14) & (5.15) for the coefficients and provides the
results;
∞
=5.17 ………………….. (5.17)
∞
=3.93 …………… (5.18)
………… (5.19)
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∞
∞
Where =k (by using equ. 5.7)
Thus;
h= dx
∞
And hence;
Note:
Nu=
written as;
...................................... (5.22)
...................................... (5.23)
...................................... (5.24)
B.Cs.
u (0, y) = 0 u(x,0) = 0
v (x,0) = 0 v(x, ) = 0 ......................................(5.25)
(0, y) = 0 (x, ) = 0
(x, ) = 1
Using the similarity variables;
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=c , c= ............................................ (5.26)
Let;
........................................... (5.28)
Substitute (5.27) and (5.28) into equs. (5.23) & (5.24) using (5.26) we obtain;
B.Cs.
.............. (5.31)
Equations (5.29) and (5.30) may be converted to a set of coupled first  order D.E.,
which can be solved numerically to obtain the velocity and temperature distribution as a
function of ( ), see fig. (5.2).
0.8
0.6
θ=
0.4
0.2
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0.28
Pr=0.73
0.24
1
0.2
0.16
= 10
0.12
0.08
100
0.04
0 1000
Now;
......................... (5.34)
= .............. (5.35)
5.3. Turbulent Free Concretion Heat Transfer over Vertical Flat Plate
Here we assume;
u = u1 ................................. (5.37)
................................ (5.38)
Where; =
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.............. (5.43)
....................... (5.44)
.......................... (5.45)
=
i.e;
= ............................... (5.46)
Now, using (5.44);
..................... (5.47)
...................... (5.48)
Hence;
...................... (5.49)
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Thus: ( Nu) =
.................................. (5.53)
S.l.
S.l
g g
Cylinder D
L
(a) (b)
4. Transition to turbulence occurs at Ra = Gr Pr =
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<
............ (5.54)
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
1. The outside wall of a building (6m) height receives an average radiant heat flux of
(1100 W/m2). Assuming that (95 W/m2) is conducted through the wall, estimate the
outside wall temperature. Air temperature is (20ºC).
2. A horizontal pipe (30 cm) in diameter and (4m) long is at a temperature of (250ºC). It
is exposed to air in a room at a temperature of (15ºC). Calculate the total heat loss by
the pipe. If the pipe was vertical, find the percentage change in heat loss.
3. Steam (400 psia, 600ºF) flows at the rate of 1000 ft/min through a (6 in) schedule 40
pipe which is covered with (1.5 in) of 85% magnesia insulation. The pipe is
horizontal and placed in a room where the ambient temperature is (70ºF). Find the
temperature of the outer surface of the insulation and the amount of heat loss per foot
of pipe length.
4. A vertical plate of (20 cm) height at (100ºC) is exposed to the atmospheric air. Find
the heat flow per hour from the plate by natural convection from both sides. Width of
the plate is (10 cm) and the air temperature is (20ºC). The properties of air at (60ºC)
are:( = 1.06 kg/m3, cp=0.24 kcal/kgºC, k=0.0249 kcal/mhrº C, 2.05*106
kgf.s/m2,v=18.97*106 m2/s)
5. A hot plate (20cm) in height and (60 cm) wide is exposed to the ambient air at
(30ºC). Assuming the temperature of the plate to be maintained at (110ºC), find the
heat loss from both surfaces of the plate. The properties of air at (70ºC) are; ( = 1.03
kg/m3, 2. 1*106 kgf.s/m2 , =20.02*106 m2/s, cp=0.24 kcal/kg ºC, k=2.55*10 2
kcal/mhrºC).
6. Heat transfer coefficient for forced convection and free convection over vertical
plates are to be compared. Find the relation between (Re) and (Gr) assuming the heat
transfer coefficients for pure forced convection and pure free convection are equal.
Assume laminar flow in both cases.
7. A steel plate of (20 cm) square and (4mm) thickness is heated uniformly to (500ºC)
and then exposed to atmospheric air at (30ºC). Assuming the plate is vertical, find the
approximate time required for the plate to cool to (200ºC). For steel ( = 7900 kg/m3,
cp=0.11 Kcal/kgºC). Assume cooling take place only due to convection Hint:
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Assume lumped system and consider the cooling in three stages from (500 ,
400 300 and 300 200) ºC.
8. Two vertical flat plates at (60ºC) are placed in a tank of water at (20ºC). If the plates
are (10 cm) height, what is the minimum spacing which will prevent interference of
the free convection boundary – layers?
9. A vertical plate (20 cm* 20 cm) in size at (65ºC) is exposed to atmospheric air at
(15ºC). Compare the free convection heat transfer from this plate with that which
would result from forcing air over the plate at a velocity equal to the maximum
velocity which occurs in free convection boundary –layer. The properties of air at
(40ºC) are ;( = 1.128 kg/m3, cp=0.24 kcal/kgºC, k=2.37*102 kcal/mhºC, =1.95*106
kgf s/ m2, =19.96*106 m2/s).
10.A thin (4cm) diameter horizontal circular plate is maintained at (130ºC) in a large
body of stagnant water at (70ºC). The plate convects heat from both its top and
bottom surfaces. Determine the rate of heat input into the plate necessary to maintain
temperature of (130º). Use ( = 960.3 kg/m3, cp=4216 J/kgK, k=0.68W/mK,
=0.75*103/K, =0.294*106 m2/s, =1.68*107 m2/s).
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Chapter ( 6 )
Condensation and Boiling Heat Transfer
The subject of boiling and condensation in horizontal or vertical conduits under
conditions of natural or forced convection is an extremely important one. The design of
watertube boilers pipe stills, refrigeration equipment, water cooled nuclear reactors,
evaporators, and many other items of chemical and power plan is dependent upon
knowledge of the fluid dynamics and heat transfer processes occurring during convective
boiling and condensation.
Convective boiling will be defined as being the addition of heat to a liquid in such
a way that generation of vapor occurs. This definition therefore excludes the process of
flashing where vapor generation occurs solely as a result of a reduction in system
pressure. In many applications, however the two processes do occur simultaneously and
therefore cannot be clearly separated. Condensation is conversely defined as the removal
of heat from the system in such a way that vapor is converted into liquid.
The two phenomena are rather different in nature, but they are usually bringing
together for two reasons;
1. Boiling and condensation most often occur together in real processes, such as
refrigeration and steam power plant.
2. Both phenomena are twophase flow processes.
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of a surface condenser. In this later case there are two forms of heterogeneous
condensation, dropwise and filmwise condensation filmwise condensation occur on a
cooled surface which is easily wetted. On nonwetted surfaces the vapor condenses in
drops which grow by further condensation and coalescence and then roll over the
surfaces. New drops then form to take their place.
Condensate may form from vapor in a number of different ways. These ways are as
follows;
1 Filmwise Condensation: The condensate forms a
continuous film on the cooled surface. This is the
most important mode of condensation occurring in
industrial equipment.
2 Homogeneous Condensation: The vapor condensate
out as droplets suspended in the gas phase, thus
forming a fog. Necessary condition for this to occur is
that the vapor is below (Tsat), which may be achieved
by decreasing (Pvapor) as the vapor flows through a
smooth expansion in flow area. In condensers, this
occurs when condensing high molecular weight
vapors in the presence of non –condensable gas.
3 Dropwise Condensation: This occurs when the condensate is formed as
droplets on a cooled surface instead of as a continuous film. High heat
transfer coefficients can be obtained with dropwise condensation, but this
is difficult to maintain continuously in heat exchangers.
4 Direct Contact Condensation: This occurs when vapor is brought directly into
contact with a cold liquid.
vapor
Liquid vapor
spary
pool
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Note:
1 h 170290 kW/m2 o C ( Dropwise Condensation )
h 1729 kW/m2 o C ( Filmwise Condensation )
2 Dropwise condensation can be maintained in laboratory only. One way is to cover
the surface with oil, because water cannot stick to the surface in this
case.(Example for such surfaces are waxed papers, Teflon papers)
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X+dx
Mass Transfer
condensation
dq
x
convection dq
X+dx
Heat Transfer
g
X+dx
θ Force Balance
The first step is to calculate the velocity distribution in the liquid film –shown in
Fig. (6.1) for a unit width of the plane surface. At a distance x from the top of the surface,
the thickness of the film is (
= max = 0
shear
Thus;
( dx ( g sin = dx ………………….…..(6.1)
u= ………………………………..… (6.2)
= ………………………….. (6.3)
The rate of increase of film flow rate with film thickness ( is;
………………………………….. (6.4)
If the film surface temperature is (Tv) and the wall temperature is (Tw), the heat
transferred by conduction to an element of length (dx) is;
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dq =  …………………………………(6.5)
d = ………………………….….. (6.6)
g sin ……………….(6.7)
………………… (6.8)
The local heat transfer coefficient (hx) for the film at any (x) is given by;
hx ………………(6.9)
Now;
h= ………………….. (6.11)
Notes;
1. h=
2. Experimental measurements show that the factor (0.943) in eq. (6.11) should be
(1.13), i.e, equ. (6.11) is 20% lower than the experimental value. This is so due to
roughness (wavg) of the film surface.
h may be written as;
h= …………………. (6.12)
Where =condensate flow at distance (L) from the top of the plane surface.Combine
equs. (6.12) and (6.6);
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………………. (6.13)
………….. (6.14)
Equation (6.15) relates heat coefficient with condensate loading. If condensate loading
( ) known, calculate h from equ (6.15) and thus find L from (6.12) as ( L= .
When ( (horizontal plate), (h =0), but what happens is that the film grows as
shown in the figure and the movement of the film become
Hydrostatic
under the action of hydrostatic pressure. So, pressure force
= …………………… (6.16)
Or;
………………………. (6.17)
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……………………. (6.18)
……………………. (6.19)
Co = …………………….……..…… (6.20)
Thus;
Co= ………………………………….…….. (6.21)
= ………………………….. (6.22)
should be used instead of ( in the derived equations. Equ. (6.22) is applicable for
vertical plates and vertical tube in which d< and Pr˃0.5. For smaller (d), the effects of
curvature appear.
………………….. (6.23)
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And;
…………………… (6.25)
Sol.;
Assume;
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= 0.596 Kg/m3
At Tf = 75 ºC
=375* Pa.s
=0.668 W/m.K
Use equation (6.11);
h = 1.13 W/
Since laminar
Using (6.8) mm
Plane surface
……...(6.26)
where;
……………………(6.27) h
= ………………………… (6.28)
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4 I II III CHF IV V VI
5 x 10
bubble ris to interface
a
Particle nucleate boiling of
b
Nm cleat boiling
state beginuing
unstable film
Spheroideal
by superheated
3 liquid rising to the
5 x 10 liquid – varop
interface where
evaporation take
2 place
5 x 10
5 x 10
0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000
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Region I free convection currents are responsible for motion of the fluid near surface. In
this region the liquid near the heated surface is superheated slightly, and it subsequently
evaporates when it rises to the surface.
Region II Bubbles begin to form on the surface of the wire and are dissipated in the
liquid after breaking away from the surface. This region indicates the beginning of
"nucleate boiling".
Region III Bubbles from more rapidly and rise to the surface of the liquid, where they
are dissipated.
Region IV Bubbles are formed so rapidly that they blanket the heating surface and
present the inflow of fresh liquid from taking their place. At this point the bubbles
coalesce and from a vapor film which covers the surface. The heat must be conducted
through this film before it can reach the liquid and affect the boiling process. The thermal
resistance of this film causes a reduction in heat flux. This region represents a transition
from nucleate boiling to film boiling and is unstable (the film destroyed and formed
again)
Region VI Stable film boiling continuous, and a significant portion of the heat lost by the
surface may be the result of thermal radiation.
An eclectically heated wire is unstable at point "a" Critical Heat Flux since a small
increase in at this point results in a decrease in the boiling heat flux. But the wire still
must dissipate the same heat flux, or its temperature will rise resulting in operation
farther down on the boiling curve. Eventually, equilibrium may be reestablished only at
point "b" in the film boiling region. This temperature usually exceeds the melting
temperature of the writ, so that burnout results. If the electric energy input is quickly
reduced when the system attains point "a", it may be possible to observe the partial
nucleate boiling and unstable film region
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Notes:
1 Experiment of Boiling
A
* The heater is used to maintain
Brass jag
H2O at Tsat., i.e not boiled.
Platinum wine
Heater
Also;
Tsat
When: E= Voltage
I= Current
R= Resistance
During the experiment, we change the current and note what happens to the pt.
wire. is increased by increasing the power.
2 In region I, (since in free convection) so, the slope
is of power (5/4)
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7 Liedenfrost Effect:
Occur in film boiling. If we drop water on a very hot plate, the water drop will
(dance) due to formation of vapor film (due to high ) under the water drop, and when
this film expands, it pushes the water drop.
Water Vapor
drop film
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For nucleate pool boiling, Rohsenow correlated experimental data with the following
relation;
Or;
..................………..... (6.29)
The peak (critical) heat flux for nucleate pool boiling is indicated as point
"a" in fig. (6.2). Zuber has developed an analytical expression for the peak heat flux in
nucleate boiling by considering the stability requirements of the interface between the
vapor film and liquid. This is relation is;
........................... (6.30)
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(q/A) max
FluidSurface
Btu/ W/m2 ºc
Water  Copper 200270 620850 2328
Benzene  Copper 43.5 130
Aluminum 50.5 160
Water  Chrome plate 300400 9401240
Propane NiCu 67110 210340 4250
So, water is the best (high burnout heat flux), because of the high ( )
Note: Equ. (6.30) is usually used to find (q / A)max and then use (6.29) to find ( )
Bromley suggests the following relation for calculating heat transfer
coefficients in stable film  boiling region (hb) on a horizontal tube:
....................... (6.31)
h= ................................................... (6.32)
Where;
.................................... (6.33)
W/m2K4)
Emissivity of the surface. Equ. (6.32) require an iterative solution. The properties of
the vapor in equ. (6.31) are to be evaluated at the film temperature;
While ( ) is to be evaluated at ( ).
Note: For large film boiling (
For small nucleate boiling
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
3 CHF
Sol.;
= 4.217 kJ/kg K
=1.76
= 2257 kJ /kg
=0.0589 N/m
= 0.5955 kg/m3
q= → b = 27.4 kg / h Ans.2
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Example (6.3):
Tw= 255 °C
= 2257 kJ/kg
= 2.56 kJ/kgk
= 0.0331 W/mk
Equ. (6.32);
h=
h = 453 + 21.3
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I II III IV V VI
Region I: Forced Convection Liquid: Tliq < Tsat. Liquid is heated by forced convection.
Region II: Bubbly Flow: Boiling starts and bubbles appear at the tube surface which
grow and separated and go with liquid.
Region III: Bubbly and Slug Flow: The volumetric ratio of the vapor increases and
bubble coalesce to form larger bubbles which may fill the tube cross section
Region IV: Annular Flow: A film of liquid is formed on the on the tube surface, and the
vapor flows in the pipe center with a velocity higher than the liquid velocity.
Region V: Liquid Droplets: Dry regions appear on the tube surface which cause a
decrease in (h) and a transition region between regions 4 and 5 occurs. Small liquid
droplets appear in the vapor.
Region VI: Forced Convection Vapor: the liquid droplets disappear and the vapor is
heated or superheated by forced convection.
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Problems
1. A (56 mm) outer diameter vertical tube condenser operates at a pressure of (1.53*10 4
Pa) and condenses steam free from noncondensable gas at a rate of (25 kg/hr) per
tube. Determine the heat transfer coefficient and the length of tube required if the
temperature drop across the condensate film is (50ºC).
2. A saturated steam at (1 atm) is in contact with a vertical flat plate (1m) height and
(0.5m) wide maintained at (70ºC). Estimate the heat transfer rate to the plate and the
rate of condensation.
3. A vertical square flat plate (0.5 m* 0.5 m) is maintained at (84ºC) and is exposed to
a saturated steam at (1 atm)
(a) Estimate the local heat transfer coefficient at the steam at the middle and bottom
of the plate.
(b) Estimate the average heat transfer coefficient for the whole plate.
(c) Find the total rate of condensation and total heat transfer rate.
4. A saturated stem at (1 atm) condenses on the outer surface of a vertical tube (100mm)
outer diameter and (1m) in length maintained at (94ºC). Estimate the total rate of
condensation and the total heat transfer rate to the tube. Find the mass flow rate of the
cooling water required to maintain the tube wall at (94ºC) knowing that the
temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of the tube is (4ºC).
5. Estimate the heat transfer coefficient for pool boiling of water under (1 atm.) in a
smooth stainless steel container, when the excess temperature is (15 ˚C).
6. Find the critical heat flux for pool boiling of water under normal conditions. What
would be this flux when (p= 2 bar).
7. Estimate the current at which a Nickel wire (1 mm) diameter will burn when
submerged horizontally in water at (1 bar). The resistance of the wire is (0.129 Ω /m).
8. A Platinum wire (1 mm) in diameter and (1 m) length is submerged horizontally in
water at (1 atm) and is kept at (115 ˚C) by heating it electrically. Estimate;
(a) The rate of water evaporation.
(b) The current at which the wire will burn if its resistance is (0.129 Ω).
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Chapter (7)
Mass Transfer
7.1 Introduction
Mass transfer can result from several different phenomena. There is mass transfer
associated with convection in that mass transported from one place to another in the flow
system. This type of mass transfer occurs on a "macroscopic" level and is usually treated
in the subject of fluid mechanics. When a mixture of gases or liquids is contained such
that there exists a concentration gradient of one or more of the constituents across the
system, there will be a mass transfer on a "microscopic" level as the result of diffusion
from region of high concentration to region of low concentration.
Mass transfer processes occur in a variety of applications in mechanical, chemical,
and aerospace engineering; physics, chemistry; and biology. Typical examples include;
1. Transpiration cooling of jet engines and rocket motors.
2. Ablative cooling of space vehicles during reentry to atmosphere.
3. Mass transfer from laminar and turbulent streams onto surfaces.
4. Evaporation or condensation on surfaces.
5. Absorption and desorption.
6. Distillation.
7. Solvent extraction.
8. Drying.
9. Humidification.
10. Sublimation.
11. Oxygenation of blood.
12. Food and drug assimilation.
13. Respiration mechanism.
When mass transfer takes place in a fluid at rest, the mass is transferred by purely
molecular diffusion resulting from concentration gradients; the process is analogous to
heat diffusion resulting from temperature gradients. When the fluid is in motion, mass
transfer takes place by both molecular diffusion and convective motion of the bulk fluid;
then a knowledge of velocity field is needed to solve the mass transfer problem. For low
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
concentrations of the mass in the fluid and low mass transfer rates, the convective heat and
mass transfer processes are analogous, and many of the results derived in connection with
convective heat transfer are applicable to convective mass transfer. However, under high
mass  flux conditions and with chemical reactions there is significant difference between
heat and mass transfer processes.
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0
2 Mole Basis
Concentration is expressed in terms of molar concentration (or molar density) in
(kmol / m3).
0 and =1
Now; since;
M ..................................................... (7.5)
Where M= Molecular Weight (Molar Mass), (kg/kmol)
Thus;
M = …..….... (7.7)
..…..…... (7.8)
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Concentration of
species A
CA (X)
Area A
Mole Basis; Concentration
profile of species A
........ (7.12) x
Fig.(71)
Where;
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and C, then;
..............................…….... (7.11a)
...........................….…….. (7.12a)
The assumption of constant and C is usually appropriate for "solids" and "dilute liquid

solutions", but often this is not the case for gas mixtures or concentrated liquid solutions.
For 2D and 3D cases, Fick's law can be expressed in vector form as;
..................................….. (7.13)
Because of the complex nature of mass diffusion, the diffusion coefficients are
usually determined experimentally. The kinetic theory of gases indicates that the diffusion
coefficient for dilute gases at ordinary pressures is essentially independent of mixture
composition and tends to increase with temperature while decreasing with pressures;
.....................….…. (7.14)
Gilliland proposed the following semi empirical equation for the diffusion
coefficient in gases;
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The diffusion coefficients for solids and liquid also tend to increase with
temperature while exhibiting a strong dependence on the composition. The binary
diffusion coefficient for several binary gas mixtures and solid and liquid solutions are
given in Tables (7.4) and (7.5), from which we may observe;
1. The diffusion coefficients are in general highest in gases and lowest in solids.
2. The diffusion coefficient increases with temperature.
Due to its practical importance, the diffusion of water vapor in air has been the topic of
several studies. Marrero and Mason proposed the following formula;
K ......................… (7.16)
Where (p) is the total pressure in (atm) and (T) in (K). Table (7.6) gives typical values of
( ).
Example (7.1): The composition of dry standard atmosphere is given in molar basis to be
78.1%N2, 20.9% O2 and 1% Ar, and other constituents. Treating other constituents as Ar,
determined the mass fraction of the constituents of air.
Sol.:
From tables;
M=
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Atomic Atomic
Matter Matter
Volume Volume
Air 29.9 Bromine 27
Carbon 14.8 Carbon Dioxide 34
Chlorine
21.6 Hydrogen, molecule (H2) 14.3
Terminal as in RCL
24.6 In Compounds 3.7
Medial as in RCHCLR
Fluorine 8.7 Iodine 37
Nitrogen, Molecule (N2) 15.6 Oxygen, Molecules (O2)
In Primary Amines 10.5 Coupled to Two Other 7.4
In Secondary Amines 1.2 Elements
In Aldehydos and
Phosphorus 27 7.4
Ketones
Sulpher 25.6 In Methyl Easters 9.1
In Ethyl Easters 33
In Higher Easters a
11
Water 18.8 Weather
In Acids 12
In Union with S,P,N 8.3
Table (7.3): Binary Diffusion Coefficients of Some Gases in Air at 1 atm Pressure
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Benzene water 293 1.0x109 Nitrogen Natural rubber 298 1.5 x 1010
Carbon dioxide water 298 2.0x109 Oxygen Natural rubber 298 2.1 x 1010
chloroform methanol 288 2.1x109 Carbon Iron (fcc) 3273 3.0 x 1011
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or 2.09 2.17 2.25 2.33 2.42 2.5 2.59 2.68 2.77 2.96 3.99 5.18
105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105
m2/s
The concentration of species A at any point will not change with time (steady
operation), and there will be no production or destruction of species A, since no chemical
reaction exist. Then, the conservation of mass for species A can be expressed as;
Then;
Hence;
......................……........ (7.17)
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Or;
...........................……..... (7.19)
Where;
...........................……...... (7.20)
is the " diffusion resistance" of the wall, which is analogous to the electrical conduction
resistance, see Fig.(7.3). The mass fraction wA(x) at any location (x) can be determined
by replacing ( ) by wA(x) and (L) by (x)
T1 T2 V1 V2 WA1 WA2
Re
Fig. (7.3)
On molar basis;
.................. (7.21)
Where;
................................................. (7.22)
is the "molar diffusion resistance" of the wall.
In the above analysis, the species A can be a gas, liquid, or a solid. Also, the wall
can be a plane layer of a liquid or gas provided that it is "stationary".
The analogy between heat and mass transfer also applies to cylindrical and
spherical geometries. The following analogous relations for steady, one  dimensional
mass transfer through non reacting cylindrical and spherical layers.
Cylindrical: .......... (7.23)
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In molar basis,
B
... (7.25) WA2
r2 r1
WA1
... (7.26)
Example (7.2): Pressurized hydrogen gas is stored at 358 K in a 4.8 m outer diameters
spherical container made of nicle. The shell of the container is 6 cm think. The molar
concentration of hydrogen in the nickel at the inner surfaces is determined to be 0.087
kmol/m3. The concentration of hydrogen in the nickel at the outer surface is negligible.
Determine the mass flow rate of hydrogen by diffusion through the nickel container.
Sol.
From table (7.5), DH2Ni = 1.2 * 1012 m2/s
c=cA+cB ≃ cB (cA <<1 ≃0)
Thus; from equ. (7.26);
= 7.8
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Atmospheric air can be viewed as a mixture of dry air and water vapor and
atmospheric pressure is the sum of the pressure of dry air and the pressure of water vapor
(pv). Air can hold a certain amount of moisture only, and the ratio of the actual amount of
moisture in the air at a given temperature to the maximum amount air can hold at that
temperature is called the relative humidity ( ), which ranges from for dry air to 100%
for saturated air (air that cannot hold any more moisture). The partial pressure of water
vapor in saturated air is called the saturation pressure (psat).
........................................ (7.27)
The mass flow rate of moisture ( ) through a plain layer of thickness L and
............................ (728)
Air
2
1
water
p
Fig.(7.4)
This air movement is assumed that it does not create turbulence or otherwise alters the
composition profiles in the air in the tank. We further assume that both the air and water
vapor behave as a perfect (ideal) gas.
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As the water evaporates, it will diffuse upward through the air, and at steady state
this upward movement must be balanced by a downward diffusion of air so that the
concentration at any x position will remain constant. But at the surface of the water, there
can be no net mass movement of air downward. Consequently, there must be a bulk mass
movement upward with a velocity just large enough to balance the diffusion of air
downward. This bulk mass movement then produces additional mass flux of water vapor
upward.
The diffusion of air downward may be calculated from equ. (711), noting that
( , as;
……………………………….. (7.29)
Where A=C.S.A. of the tank. This must be balanced by the bulk mass transfer upward so
that;
AV = AV ……………………………………. (7.30)
Where (V) is the bulk mass velocity upward. Combining (729) and (7.30), we find;
V= …………………………………………….. (7.31)
……………………………….. (7.32)
……………………………….. (7.33)
The total mass transport is the sum of those given in equs. (7.32) and (7.33). Adding these
quantities and make use of equ. (7.31) gives;
Hence;
= .......…………………… (7.34)
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
= .........……………. (7.35)
Example (7.3): Determine the mole fraction of the water vapor at the surface of a lake
whose temperature is 15ºC and compare it to the mole fraction of water in the lake. Take
(patm=92 kPa).
Sol.:
At T =15ºC psat.=1.705 kPa
Air 92 Kpa, 15°C
Saturated Air
pv=psat.=1.705 kPa
Thus; (Mole fraction of water at the lake
Example (7.4): Estimate the diffusion rate of water from the bottom of a tube (10mm) in
diameter and (15 cm) long into dry atmosphere air at 25ºC.
Sol.:
We use equ. (735) to calculate the mass flux.
= psat. at 25ºC (77ºF) =0.4593 psi 2
= 0 (dry air) patm =14.696 psi
Thus; =p =14.237 psi = 98.155 kPa
1
=p = 14.696 psi = 101.32 kpa
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Thus;
=0.00113
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Conduction
Heat T = =
c
Diffusion
=
Mass
y
=
w
For the case of a semiinfinite medium with constant surface concentration, the
solution can be expressed as;
……………………… (7.36)
……………. (7.37)
Semiinfinite
medium
=0.38 mm
That is, Zinc will penetrate to a depth of about 0.38 mm in an
Fig.(7.5)
appreciable amount in 10 h, and there will hardly be any zinc in
the copper block beyond a depth of 0.38 mm.
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Example (7.5): The surface of mild steel is hardened by packing the component in a
carbonaceous material in a furnace at high temperature for a predetermined time. Consider
such a component with a uniform initial carbon concentration of 0.15 percent by mass.
The component is now packed in a carbonaceous material and is placed in a high
temperature furnace. The diffusion coefficient of carbon in steel at furnace temperature is
(4.8*1010 m2/s), and the equilibrium concentration of carbon in the iron at the interface is
determined from equilibrium data to be 1.2 percent by mass. Determine how long the
component should be kept in the furnace for the mass concentration of carbon (0.5mm)
below the surface to reach 1 percent.
Sol.
Carbonaceous
material
0 x
0.5 Steel
mm component
Thus;
carbon
t= =1 h 15 min.
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
the free stream value far from the surface. Analogous to the "thermal/boundary layer",
the" concentration boundary layer" is defined as the region of the fluid in which
concentration gradient exists. In external flow", the thickness of concentration boundary
layer ( c) for a species A at a specified location on the surface is defined as the normal
distance y from the surface at which;
y Concentration
profile
Concentration
Boundary layer
Species A
Fig.(7.6)
Concentration b.I
as;
VdA …………….(7.40) Fig.(7.7)
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Pr = = ………………………….. (7.41)
Sc = = ……………………….. (7.42)
Thus; if Pr = 1 =
And if c =1
Le = = = ……………………………. (7.43)
In laminar flow;
; ; and ………………(7.44)
…..(7.45)
Fig. (7.8)
(This is analogous to heat transfer at the surface being by conduction only and expressed
by Fourie’s law).
The rate of heat convection for external flow was expressed as;
......…………. (7.46)
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Nu = …………………………………. (7.48)
………………………… (7.49)
(Nu) and ( represents the effectiveness of heat and mass convection at the surface,
respectively.
Sometimes, it is more convenient to express heat and mass transfer coefficients in
terms of Stanton number ;
…………………….. (7.50)
= = ………………….. (7.51)
Where (u= for external flow and (u) for internal flow.
In forced convection;
= f (Re, )
Where the function (f) is the same for a given geometry, providing the thermal and
concentration boundary conditions are the same type.
In natural convection;
=f( , )
Where;
= ……………………….. (7.54)
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
=
..................... )7.77(
= = ………………… (7.56)
Thus;
.............)7.77(
......
Nu = 0.664 Pr<0.6
.............)7.72(
Nu = 0.664 <0.5
Nu = 0.037 Pr<0.6
.............)7.79(
Sh = 0.037 <0.5
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
3. Natural Convection
(a) Vertical Plate
Nu=0.59 ( 105 109
.............)7..2(
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Example (7.6): Consider a circular pipe of (0.015m) inner diameter whose inner surface
is covered with a layer of liquid water as result of condensation, see the figure. In order to
dry the pipe, air (300K, 1atm) is forced through it with average velocity of (1.2 m/s).
Determine the mass transfer coefficient inside the pipe for fully developed flow.
Sol.:
Re = = laminar flow
Nu = 3.66
=0.0062
Example (7.7): During a certain experiment involving the flow of dry air at 25ºC and 1
atm at a free stream velocity 2 m/s over a body covered with a layer of naphthalene, it is
observed that(12g) of naphthalene has sublimated in(15min), see the figure. The surface
area of the body is (0.3 m2). Both the body and the air were Kept at (25ºC). The vapor
pressure of naphthalene in air at 25ºC is (DAB=0.61*105m2/s). Determine the heat transfer
coefficient under the same flow conditions over the same geometry.
Naphthalene
Air 0.3 m 2
1 atm
The molecular weight of naphthalene =128.2 kg/kmol 25°C Body cover with
a layer of
2 naphthalene
Tables
Air at 25ºC kg/m3, cp= 1005 J/ kg.K and
=2.18*105 m2/s (mixture properties)
The incoming air is free of naphthalene =0
= 4.8*104
Thus;
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Example (7.8): Air at (1 atm and 25ºC) containing small quantities of ionide flows with
(u=5.18 m/s) inside a tube with (ID=0.03048m). Determine the mass transfer coefficient
for ionide transfer from the gas stream to the wall surface, and the rate of deposition of
ionide on the tube surface.
Sol.; From tables; ;
Sc = 1.89
Thus;
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Example (7.9): Hot water baths with open tops are commonly used in manufacturing
spray paints. The pressurized paint cans are temperature tested by submerging them in hot
water at 50˚c to ensure that the cans can withstand temperature up to 50˚c during
transportation and storage, see the figure. The water bath is (1m) wide and (3.5m) long,
and its top surface is open to ambient air to facilitate easy observation for the workers.
The average conditions in the plant are (92kPa, 25˚C & 52%RH). Determine the rate of
heat of heat loss from the top surface of water bath by;
Surrounding
(a) Radiation Surface
20°C
Air,20°C
(b) Natural Convection 92 Kpa
52%RH
(c) Evaporation
Wat er Aerosol
both
Assume the water is well agitated and at 50°C
con
Sol.:
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
The air at the surface is saturated, and thus, the vapor pressure at the surface is simply
Far from the surface
(at T = 25˚c = 3.17 kPa). Thus;
= 0.52 * 3.17
Treating water vapor and air as ideal gases, and noting that the total atmospheric pressure
is the sum of the vapor and dry air pressures, the densities of the water vapor, dry air, and
the mixture at the water – air interface and far from the surface are found to be:
At the surface:
as = as = 0.8592
Therefore;
=
ºC
Thus, =
(c) Utilizing analogy between heat and mass transfer; the mass diffusivity of water
vapor in air at (37.5ºc) is determined from table (7.4) to be /s
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
= 0.00146*2383
The total loss of heat rate ( ) from the water to the surrounding is
Thus, a (4.6 kW) resistance heater will be needed to make up for heat loss from
water surface. The total heater size will have to be larger to account for heat losses from
the side and bottom surfaces, and heat absorbed by paint cans as they are heated to (50ºc).
Also, water needs to be supplied to the bath at a rate of (5.25 kg/h) to make up for water
lost by evaporation.
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Problems
1. Helium gas is stored at (293 k) in a (3 m) outer diameter spherical container made of
(5 cm) thick Pyrex. The molar concentration of Helium in the Pyrex is (0.00073 kmol
/ m3) at the inner surface and negligible at the outer surface. Determine the mass flow
rate of Helium by diffusion through the Pyrex container.
2. A thin plastic membrane separates hydrogen from air. The molar concentration of
hydrogen in the membrane at the inner and outer surfaces are determined to be (0.065
and 0.003 kmol / m3 ), respectively. The binary diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in
plastic at operation temperature is (5.3 x 10 10 m2/s). Determine the mass flow rate of
hydrogen by diffusion through the membrane under steady conditions if the thickness
of the membrane is (a) 2mm (b) 0.5mm.
3. A steel part whose initial carbon content is (0.12%) by mass is to be case – hardened
in a furnace at (1150K) by exposing it to a carburizing gas. The diffusion coefficient
of carbon in steel is strongly temperature dependent, and at the furnace temperature it
is given to be (DAB = 7.2 * 1012 m2/s). Also the mass fraction of carbon at the
exposed surface of the steel part is maintained at (0.011) by the carbon  rich
environment in the furnace. If the hardening process is to continue until the mass
fraction of carbon at a depth of (0.7 mm) is raised to (0.32%), determine how long
the part should be held in the furnace.
4. A pond whose initial oxygen content is zero is to be oxygenated by forming a tent
over the water surface and filing the tent with oxygen gas at (25 ˚c) and (130 kPa).
Determine the mole fraction of oxygen at a depth of (2 cm) from the surface after (12
h).
5. The average heat transfer coefficient for air flow over an odd – shaped body is to be
determined by mass transfer measurements and using the Chilton – Coburn Analogy
between heat and mass transfer. The experiment is conducted by blowing dry air at
(1 atm) at a free stream velocity of (2 m/s) over a body covered by a layer of
naphthalene .The surface area of the body is (0.75 m2), and it is observed that (100 g)
of naphthalene has sublimated in (45 min). During the experiment, both the body and
the air were kept at (25˚c), at which the vapor pressure and mass diffusivity of
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
naphthalene are (11 Pa) and (DAB = 0.61 x 105 m2/s), respectively. Determine the
heat transfer coefficient under the same flow conditions over the same geometry.
6. Dry air at (15 ˚C) and (92 kPa) flows over a (2 m) long wet surface with a free stream
velocity of (4 m/s). Determine the average mass transfer coefficient.
7. One way of increasing heat transfer from the head on a hot summer day is to wet it.
This is especially effective in windy weather, as you may have noticed.
Approximating the head as a (30 cm) diameter sphere at (30 ˚c) with an emissivity of
(0.95), determine the total rate of heat loss from the head at ambient air conditions of
(1 atm), (25 ˚C), 40% relative humidity, and 25 winds if the head is (a) dry (b)
wet.
8. You are asked to design a heating system for a swimming pool that is (2 m) deep, (25
m) long, and (25 m) wide. Your client desires that the heating system be large enough
to raise the water temperature from (20 ˚c) to (30 ˚c) in (3h). The heater must also be
able to maintain the pool at (30 ˚c) at the outdoor design conditions of (15 ˚C, 1 atm,
35% RH, 40 mph) winds, and effective sky temperature of (10 ˚C). Heat losses to the
ground are expected to be small and can be neglected. The heater considered is a
natural gas furnace whose efficiency is (80%). What heater size (in Btuh input)
would you recommend that your client buy?
15°C
1 atm Heat loss
Evaporation 35% RH
pool
Heating
fluid
9. Dry air at atmospheric pressure and (25 ˚c) blows across a flat plate at a velocity of
(1.5 m/s). The plate is (30 cm) square and is covered with a film of water which may
evaporate into the air. Plot the heat flow from the plate as a function of the plate
temperature between (Tw = 15 ˚C) and (Tw = 65 ˚C).
10.Dry air at (25 ˚C) and atmospheric pressure flows inside a (5 cm) diameter pipe at a
velocity of (3 m/s). The wall is coated with a thin film of water, and the wall
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
temperature is (25 ˚C). Calculate the water vapor concentration in the air at exit of a
(3 m) length of the pipe.
11.A (30 cm) square plate is placed in a low speed wind tunnel: the surface is covered
with a thin layer of water. The dry air is at atmospheric pressure and (43 ˚C) and
blow over the plate at a velocity of (12 m/s). The enclosure wall of the wind tunnel is
at (10 ˚C). Calculate the equilibrium temperature of the plate, assuming an emissivity
of unity for the water film.
12.Dry air at (65 ˚C) blows over a (30 cm) square plate at a velocity of (6 m/s). The plate
is covered with a smooth porous material, and water is supplied to the material at (25
˚C). Assuming that the underside of the plate is insulated, estimate the amount of
water that must be supplied to maintain the plate temperature at (38˚C). Assume that
the radiation temperature of the surrounding is (65 ˚C) and that the porous surface
radiates as a blackbody.
13.A test tube (1.25 cm) in diameter and (15 cm) deep contains benzene at (26 ˚C) and is
exposed to dry air at (1 atm) and (26 ˚C). Calculate the evaporation rate of benzene in
grams per hour. For benzene, use (Pv = 13.3 kPa, hfg = 377 kJ/kg).
14.Air at (25 ˚C) and atmospheric pressure floes with a velocity of (7.6 m/s) inside a (2.5
cm) ID pipe. The inside surface of the tube contains deposit of naphthalene.
Determine the mass transfer coefficient for the transfer of naphthalene from the pipe
surface into the air in regions away from the inlet.
15.Atmospheric air at ( ) flows over a wet – bulb thermometer, which reads
( ). Calculate the concentration of water vapor in the air stream and the
relative humidity of the air stream.
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Appendix – A
Summary of Some Equations, Relations, and Tables for
Convection Heat and Mass Transfer
Table of Contents
Article Page
Title
No. No.
/ Table of Contents 155
A.1 Governing Equations is Cartesian Coordinates 156
A.2 Governing Equations is Cylindrical Coordinates 157
A.3 Governing Equations is Spherical Coordinates 158
A.4 Common Dimensionless Numbers 159
A.5 Asymmetric Heating in Laminar Flow 160
A.6 Laminar Forced Convection in Rectangular Dust 161
A.7 Leveque Solution 162
A.8 Graetz Solution 163
A.9 Integral Laminar Boundary –Layer Equations 164
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
C.E. y y V
x
( ) ( )+ ( )=0 Z
w
u
ƶ
XM.E.
x
Z
yM.E.
ZM.E.
E.E.
]+ β
Note:
2. β
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
C.E. Z
Vz
V
θ
( ) ( )+ ( )=0 Vr
y
r
θ
rM.E.
x
M.E.
M.E.
E.E.
( β
Where;
And:
V r2
Note: M.E. and E.E. are written for constant fluid properties (
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
θ ,Vθ
( ) ( )+
θ W
y
M.E Ø
=
M.E.
M.E.
Where;
E.E. ( const.)
)+
+ β
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
2 +
Note: M.E and E.E are written for constant fluid properties (
Nusselt No Nu= = =
∞
Prandtle No = =
Stanton No St=
∞
∞
Grashhof No Gr =
π
Graetz No = (for entrance region)
Eckert No
Reynolds No Re= =
Biot No Bi=
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Mach No M=
β
Rayleigh No Ra=
β
Richardson No.: Ri=
Note: In general;
Nu= Nu ( , , , )
2 Tw2
Nu2= =
q2
Nuo= =
= 
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
0 4.364 0
0.05 17.81 4.792 2.18 0.0294
0.1 11.91 4.834 1.383 0.0562
0.2 8.499 4.883 0.905 0.1041
0.4 6.583 4.979 0.603 0.1823
0.6 5.912 5.099 0.473 0.2455
0.8 5.58 5.24 0.401 0.299
1 5.385 5.385 0.346 0.346
N
Constant wall Temp. Constant Heat Flux
num. exact num. exact
1(square) 2.89 2.976 3.63 3.608
0.713   3.78 
0.5 3.39 3.391 4.11 4.123
0.333   4.77 
0.25  4.439 5.35 5.331
0.125  5.597  6.49
0(parallel
7.6 7.542 8.24 8.235
plate)
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
500 =0.7
∞
Arithmetic Mean Nu
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
R
; r
x
Te=Entrance Temp.
∞
λ = Eigen Value
= Constant
 (1)
n
0 7.312 0.749 <
λ
1 44.62 0.544
λ
2 113.8 0.463
3 215.2 0.414
4 348.5 0.382
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
0
0.002 12
0.004 9.93
0.01 7.49
0.02 6.14
0.04 5.19
0.1 4.51
4.36
∞ Y
δh
X δT
∞ ∞ X0
∞
ρ
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
= =0.332
F(x)=
1 Re<
1DitusBoelter Equation
2 n=0.4 heating, 0.3 cooling
3 <
2Colburn Equation
Re<
<
<
4 0.8
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
2 <
St =
St=
y R
r
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
y
δT = δh
St=
Nux = 0.0292
For (Pr =1)
Nu = 0.0366
Nux =
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
= 1+ F1 <
Entranuce
Short calming section with sharp
3 ( approx )
edge entrance
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
2
u=u1 (1  )
= (1  )2
ν
u1 = c1 x1/2 ; c1 = 5.17 ν
= c2 x1/4 ; c2 = 3.93 ν
Nu = 
= c2 x0.7 c2=
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Gz = Pe
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Tw
Co = 1.47
Where; Co =
for up to 3200
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
d= pipe diameter
where;
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Cp k
°F °C 3 Pr
kJ/kg.°C kg/m kg/m.s W/m.°C
1/m3 . °C
32 0 4.225 999.8 1.79 103 0.566 13.25 1.91 109
40 4.44 4.208 999.8 1.55 103 0.575 11.35 6.34 109
50 10 4.195 999.2 1.31 103 0.585 9.40 1.08 1010
60 15.56 4.186 998.6 1.12 103 0.595 7.88 1.46 1010
70 21.11 4.179 997.4 9.8 104 0.604 6.78 1.91 1010
80 26.67 4.179 995.8 8.6 104 0.614 5.85 2.48 1010
90 32.22 4.174 994.9 7.65 104 0.623 5.12 3.3 1010
100 37.78 4.174 993.0 6.82 104 0.630 4.53 4.19 1010
110 43.33 4.174 990.6 6.16 104 0.637 4.04 4.89 1010
120 48.89 4.174 988.8 5.62 104 0.644 3.64 5.66 1010
130 54.44 4.179 985.7 5.13 104 0.649 3.30 6.48 1010
140 60 4.179 983.3 4.71 104 0.654 3.01 7.62 1010
150 65.55 4.183 980.3 4.3 104 0.659 2.73 8.84 1010
160 71.11 4.186 977.3 4.01 104 0.665 2.53 9.85 1010
170 76.67 4.191 973.7 3.72 104 0.668 2.33 1.09 1011
180 82.22 4.195 970.2 3.47 104 0.673 2.16
190 87.78 4.199 966.7 3.27 104 0.675 2.03
200 93.33 4.204 963.2 3.06 104 0.678 1.90
220 104.4 4.216 955.1 2.67 104 0.684 1.66
240 115.6 4.229 946.7 2.44 104 0.685 1.51
260 126.7 4.250 937.2 2.19 104 0.685 1.36
280 137.8 4.271 928.1 1.98 104 0.685 1.24
300 148.9 4.296 918.0 1.86 104 0.684 1.17
350 176.7 4.371 890.4 1.57 104 0.677 1.02
400 204.4 4.467 859.4 1.36 104 0.665 1.00
450 232.2 4.585 825.7 1.20 104 0.646 0.85
500 260 4.731 785.2 1.07 104 0.616 0.83
550 287.7 5.024 735.5 9.51 105
600 315.6 5.703 678.7 8.68 105
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
i = = = = =
Ficks Law :
D=435.7
Mass Convection
c=
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Natural Convection
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Note: The effect of pressure and temperature on DAB can be accounted for through DAB –
T3/2/ P . Also, multiply DAB values by 10.76 to convert them to ft2/s.
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ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Table (7.5): Binary Diffusion Coefficients of Dilute Liquid Solutions and Solid
Solutions at 1 atm
(a) Diffusion through Liquids (b) Diffusion through Solids
Substance Substance Substance
Substance T, DAB T, DAB
A A B
B (Solvent) K m2/s K m2/s
(Solute) (Solute) (Solvent)
Carbon Natural
Ammonia Water 285 1.6× 109 298 1.1 × 1010
dioxide rubber
Natural
Benzene Water 293 1.0 × 109 Nitrogen 298 1.5× 1010
rubber
Carbon Natural
Water 298 2.0× 109 Oxygen 298 2.1 × 1010
dioxide rubber
Chlorine Water 285 1.4× 109 Helium Pyrex 773 2.0× 1012
Ethanol Water 283 0.84× 109 Helium Pyrex 293 4.5× 1015
Silicon
Ethanol Water 288 1.0× 109 Helium 298 4.0× 1014
dioxide
Ethanol Water 298 1.2× 109 Hydrogen Iron 298 2.6× 1013
Glucose Water 298 0.69× 109 Hydrogen Nickel 358 1.2× 1012
Hydrogen Water 298 6.3× 109 Hydrogen Nickel 438 1.0× 1011
Methane Water 275 0.85× 109 Cadmium Copper 293 2.7× 1019
Methane Water 293 1.5× 109 Zinc Copper 773 4.0× 1018
Methane Water 333 3.6× 109 Zinc Copper 1273 5.0× 1013
Methanol Water 288 1.3× 109 Antimony Silver 293 3.5× 1025
Nitrogen Water 298 2.6 × 109 Bismuth Lead 293 1.1 × 1020
Oxygen Water 298 2.4× 109 Mercury Lead 293 2.5× 1019
Water Ethanol 298 1.2× 109 Copper Aluminum 773 4.0× 1014
Ethylene
Water 298 0.18× 109 Copper Aluminum 1273 1.0× 1010
glycol
Water Methanol 298 1.8× 109 Carbon Iron (fcc) 773 5.0× 1015
Chloroform Methanol 288 2.1× 109 Carbon Iron (fcc) 1273 3.0× 1011
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 179
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
Note:
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 180
ME532 Advanced Heat Transfer / II – Convection and Mass Transfer 2016
vaporization,
Number, Pr
Enthalpy of
K Btu/h.hft.0F
hfg Btu/lbm
µ lbm/ft.h
T ºF
Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor
32.05 0.0887 62.41 0.00030 1075 1.010 0.446 0.324 0.0099 4.336 0.0223 13.5 1.00
40 0.1217 62.42 0.00034 1071 1.004 0.447 0.329 0.0100 3.740 0.0226 11.4 1.00
50 0.1780 62.41 0.00059 1065 1.000 0.448 0.335 0.0102 3.161 0.0229 9.44 1.01
60 0.2563 62.36 0.00083 1060 0.999 0.449 0.341 0.0104 2.713 0.0232 7.95 1.00
70 0.3632 62.30 0.00115 1054 0.999 0.450 0.347 0.0106 2.360 0.0236 6.79 1.00
80 0.5073 62.22 0.00158 1048 0.999 0.451 0.352 0.0108 2.075 0.0240 5.89 1.00
90 0.6988 62.12 0.00214 1043 0.999 0.453 0.358 0.0110 1.842 0.0244 5.14 1.00
100 0.9503 62.00 0.00286 1037 0.999 0.454 0.363 0.0112 1.648 0.0248 4.54 1.01
110 1.2763 61.86 0.00377 1031 0.999 0.456 0.367 0.0115 1.486 0.0252 4.05 1.00
120 1.6945 61.71 0.00493 1026 0.999 0.458 0.671 0.0117 1.348 0.0256 3.63 1.00
130 2.225 61.55 0.00636 1020 0.999 0.460 0.675 0.0120 1.230 0.0260 3.28 1.00
140 2.892 61.38 0.00814 1014 0.999 0.463 0.678 0.0122 1.129 0.0264 2.98 1.00
150 3.722 61.19 0.0103 1008 1.000 0.465 0.381 0.0125 1.040 0.0269 2.73 1.00
160 4.745 60.99 0.0129 1002 1.000 0.468 0.384 0.0128 0.963 0.0273 2.51 1.00
170 5.996 60.79 0.0161 996 1.001 0.472 0.386 0.0131 0.894 0.0278 2.90 1.00
180 7.515 60.57 0.0199 990 1.002 0.475 0.388 0.0134 0.834 0.0282 2.15 1.00
190 9.343 60.35 0.0244 984 1.004 0.479 0.390 0.0137 0.781 0.0287 2.01 1.00
200 11.53 60.12 0.0297 978 1.005 0.483 0.391 0.0141 0.733 0.0291 1.88 1.00
210 14.125 59.87 0.0359 972 1.007 0.487 0.392 0.0144 0.690 0.0296 1.77 1.00
212 14.698 59.82 0.0373 970 1.007 0.488 0.392 0.0145 0.682 0.0297 1.75 1.00
220 17.19 59.62 0.0432 965 1.009 0.492 0.393 0.0148 0.651 0.0300 1.67 1.00
230 20.78 59.36 0.0516 959 1.011 0.497 0.394 0.0152 0.616 0.0305 1.58 1.00
240 24.97 59.09 0.0612 952 1.013 0.503 0.394 0.0156 0.585 0.0310 1.50 1.00
250 29.82 58.82 0.0723 946 1.015 0.509 0.395 0.0160 0.556 0.0310 1.43 1.00
260 35.42 58.53 0.0850 939 1.018 0.516 0.395 0.0164 0.530 0.0319 1.37 1.00
270 41.85 58.24 0.0993 932 1.020 0.523 0.395 0.0168 0.506 0.0324 1.31 1.01
280 49.18 57.94 0.1156 925 1.023 0.530 0.395 0.0172 0.484 0.0328 1.25 1.01
290 57.53 57.63 0.3390 918 1.026 0.538 0.395 0.0177 0.464 0.0333 1.21 1.01
300 66.98 57.31 0.1545 910 1.029 0.547 0.394 0.0182 0.445 0.0338 1.16 1.02
320 89.60 56.65 0.2033 895 1.036 0.567 0.393 0.0191 0.412 0.0347 1.09 1.03
340 117.93 55.95 0.2637 880 1.044 0.590 0.391 0.0202 0.383 0.0356 1.02 1.04
360 152.92 55.22 0.3377 863 1.054 0.617 0.389 0.0213 0.359 0.0365 0.973 1.06
380 195.60 54.46 0.4275 845 1.065 0.647 0.385 0.0224 0.337 0.0375 0.932 1.08
400 241.1 53.65 0.5359 827 1.078 0.683 0.382 0.0237 0.318 0.0384 0.893 1.11
450 422.1 51.46 0.9082 775 1.121 0.799 0.370 0.0271 0.278 0.0407 0.842 1.20
500 680.0 48.95 1.479 715 1.188 0.972 0.352 0.0312 0.246 0.0432 0.830 1.35
550 1046.7 45.96 4.268 641 1.298 1.247 0.329 0.0368 0.219 0.0461 0.864 1.56
600 1541 42.32 3.736 550 1.509 1.759 0.299 0.0461 0.194 0.0497 0.979 1.90
650 2210 37.31 6.152 422 2.086 3.103 0.267 0.0677 0.167 0.0555 1.30 2.54
700 3090 27.28 13.44 168 13.80 25.90 0.254 0.1964 0.123 0.0736 6.68 9.71
705.44 3204 19.79 19.79 0 0.104 0.1043  
Note:
Prof. Dr. Ihsan Y. Hussain / Mech. Engr. Dept.  College of Engr. – University of Baghdad Page 181