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Republic of the Philippines

Laguna State Polytechnic

Del Remedio, San Pablo City
EDUC 607
Curriculum Development, Instruction and Supervision
1st Semester, AY 2018-2019
Ed.D. major in Educational Management Professor


Definition of Curriculum
In education, a curriculum is broadly defined as the totality of student experiences that
occur in the educational process. The term often refers specifically to a planned sequence of
instruction, or to a view of the student's experiences in terms of the educator's or school's
instructional goals.

Types of Curriculum

Allan Grathon (2000), as cited by Bilbao et al. (2008), describes the seven types of
curriculum as follows:

1. Recommended Curriculum

It is recommended by scholars and professional organizations. It also encompasses the

curriculum requirements of policy making groups, such as DepEd, CHED and DOST. It is a
curriculum that stresses “oughtness”, identifying the skills and concepts that ought to be
emphasized, according to the perceptions and value systems of the sources.

In the Philippines, for example, what is being implemented by the Department of Education
(DepEd) or the Commission on Higher Education (CHEd), is an example of a recommended

In some cases, a law making body like the congress and the senate, or a university or a
school can recommend a subject, a course, or any academic program which is deemed necessary
for national identity and security, for environmental protection and sustainable development,
among others. PAGE |
2. Written Curriculum

This refers to a lesson plan or syllabus written by teachers. Another example is the one
written by curriculum experts with the help of subject teachers. This kind of written curriculum
needs to be pilot tested or tried out in sample schools to determine its effectiveness.

It is intended primarily to ensure that the educational goals of the system are being
accomplished; it is a curriculum of control. Typically, the written curriculum is much more specific
and comprehensive than the recommended curriculum, indicating a rationale that supports the
curriculum, the general goals to be accomplished, the specific objectives to be mastered, the
sequence in which those objectives should be studied and the kinds of learning activities that
should be used.

The written curriculum is an important component of authentic literacy, the ability to read,
write and think effectively.

3. Taught Curriculum

This is about the implementation of the written curriculum. Whatever is being taught or an
activity being done in the classroom is a taught curriculum. So, when teachers give a lecture,
initiate group work, or ask students to do a laboratory experiment with their guidance, the taught
curriculum is demonstrated. This curriculum contains different teaching styles and learning styles
to address the students’ needs and interests.

4. Supported Curriculum

Instructional materials, such as textbooks, audio visual materials, blogs, wikis, and others
are examples of support curriculum. Other examples are playgrounds, zoos, gardens, museums,
and real life objects. It is called supported curriculum because it helps teachers implement a
written curriculum thus enables the students to become life-long learners.

5. Assessed Curriculum

When students take a quiz or the mid-term and final exams, these series of evaluations
are the so-called assessed curriculum. Teachers may use the pencil and paper tests, and
authentic assessments like portfolio and performance based assessments in order to know if the
students are progressing or not. PAGE |
6. Learned Curriculum

This type of curriculum indicates what the students have actually learned. This can be
measured through learning outcomes. A learning outcome can be manifested by what students
can perform or do either in their cognitive, affective or psychomotor domains. The learning
outcome can be determined by the results of the tests, and it can be achieved by the students
through the use of learning objectives.

7. Hidden Curriculum

This refers to the unplanned or unintended curriculum but plays an important role in
learning. It defines what students learn from physical environment, the policies and the
procedures of the school.

Classroom Implications of Curriculum

Let’s assume that you are a college student taking up Bachelor of Secondary Education,
major in English. Your course or degree program is a recommended curriculum prescribed by
CHED. The syllabi given to you by your teachers are the written curriculum. When your teachers
start to teach, that is a taught curriculum. And when they ask you to use the internet and search
information about a given topic, this is a supported curriculum.

Furthermore, teachers need to evaluate your performance. So, when you are given a test
or exam that is the assessed curriculum. The results of the assessed curriculum will determine
what you have actually learned – and that is the so-called learned curriculum. However, the
hidden curriculum can affect what will be taught and assessed by your teachers, and eventually
may affect what you will learn.

To sum it up, curriculum is not only about a course or a simple listing of subjects
but it is the total learning experience of students as indicated by the seven types of

Bilbao, P. P., Lucido, P. I., Iringan, T. C., and R. B. Javier (2008). Curriculum development.
Quezon City: Lorimar Publishing, Inc.

Glatthorn, Allan A. The Principal as Curriculum Leader: Shaping What Is Taught and Tested. 2nd
ed. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Corwin Press 2000.