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Cholera gives city Superfood scientists say Chinese, French firms top foreign
a wakeup call can make you live longer oil and gas suppliers’ database

Issue No. 555 Jan. 18 - 24 2019 Ushs 5,000,Kshs 200, RwF 1,500, SDP 8

Uganda’s growing
public debt
Separating facts from fiction and
politicking
Private
Bank
1%

Bilateral
Multilateral Creditors
Creditors 29%
70%

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Jan. 18 - 24 2019 1
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Issue No. 555 Jan. 18 - 24 2019

News analysis Business Health Arts Motoring

Cover story
Uganda’s growing public debt
Separating facts from fiction and politicking

4 The Week
30 Comments
NRM youths protest as UK parliament
debates Uganda’s democracy Cheat sheet for Vice chancellors:
Constant protests on some
campuses shouldn’t distract
9 The Last Word
vice-chancellors from the core
The value of loyalty: What the business of a university
story of a simple attendant at a
fuel station can help us learn about
32 Health
building successful organisations
The superfood scientists say can
make you live longer: Experts say
14 Analysis a diet high in fibre - found in high-
carb foods - could cut the risk of
Cholera’s wakeup call: Why the heart disease, stroke and diabetes.
unexpected outbreak happened

35 Arts & Culture
27 Business Beautiful art waits in Kla’s
non- traditional spaces:
Chinese, French firms top foreign oil and gas
More energy, creativity, and
suppliers’ database: What Chinese, French
innovation without traditional
domination of Uganda’s oil and gas supplier hindrances of space or materials
database means for Ugandan entrepreneurs

STRATEGY & EDITORIAL DIRECTOR: Andrew M. Mwenda WRITERS:Ronald Musoke, Flavia Nassaka, Ian Katusiime,
MANAGING EDITOR: Joseph Were Agnes Nantaba, Julius Businge.
INVESTIGATIONS EDITOR: Haggai Matsiko DESIGN/LAYOUT: Sarah Ngororano
BUSINESS EDITOR: Isaac Khisa CARTOONIST: Harriet Jamwa
PHOTOGRAPHER: Jimmy Siya

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2 Jan. 18 - 24 2019
Offline

Los Angeles, US:
Jennifer Hudson
performs a medley
during the recording
of Aretha! A Grammy
Celebration for The
Queen Of Soul at the
Shrine Auditorium
“What we are trying to do is align
the Penal Code so none of us here is
saying remove the death penalty.
That is not what the Bill is seeking
to do.”Medard Sseggona, Busiro East
MP on Death Penalty Bill

Melbourne,
Australia:
Andy Murray
reacts after
being defeated
by Roberto
Bautista Agut
during the
first day of
the Australian “If I and President Museveni were
Open tennis
tournament obstructed, would I be a priest, and
would he be a President? There
is succession at every stage and
ignoring this comes with severe
consequences,” Fr Gaetano Batanyenda
on succession
Stoke-on-Trent, England:
Theresa May talks to
Valerie Muni during a
visit to the Portmeirion
factory

“Majority of KCCA directors are holding
officers in acting capacity. Both
the executive director and deputy
executive director are on temporary
terms. Why can’t the appointing
authority have substantive employees
in these positions?” Kampala Lord Mayor
Erias Lukwago

People who perished Hectares of forest cover Money students
16 in an accident in
Pakwach last week
4000 restored by UWA in
Kibale conservation area
Shs12bn owe public
universities

Jan. 18 - 24 2019 3
week

Enanga back as spokesperson
Police Spokesperson Fred Enanga and
his deputy Polly Namaye are once again
occupying the office they shared back
in 2016 before being sent for refresher
courses. They got their positions back in a
reshuffle of over 140 officials by the Inspec-
tor General of Police Martin Okoth Ochola
over the weekend.
Emilian Kayima who has been speak-
ing for the force was transferred to the
office of the Political Commissar whereas
his deputy Patrick Onyango is now the
spokesperson of Kampala Metropolitan
Deputy Speaker Jacob Oulanyah flags off the charity walk
Police, a position that was being held by
Luke Owoyesigyire. Owoyesigyire is now
Onyango’s deputy.
Shs42million raised for albinos in annual parliament week
The reshuffle also affected officials in the The annual parliament week ends today to start as albinos need urgent interventions
Forensics and Flying Squad directorates. (Jan.18) with the Public Parliament debate as they face a lot of stigma in places where
on the theme “championing accountability they seek services.
to improve service delivery”. This will be Doreen Mawejje Mayanja one of the albi-
the climax of a week-long of activities that nos present said many women have been
started with a fundraising walk aimed at abandoned by their partners for giving birth
finding funds for construction of a rehabili- to albinos and yet some people treat them
tation center for the albino community. inhumanely. “When we ask for lotion, we
In a charity walk attended by people liv- are seen as a burden to the nation, but when
ing with albinism, NGOs, politicians and we get skin lotions, we will be protected
government officials, Shs42.8million shil- from any cancer and we will not be a bur-
lings was raised this year which will be used den anymore. You know treating cancer is
to build a hostel, rehab and a medical facil- very expensive. Once we are protected, we
ity for people living with albinism. can be valuable citizens”.
“The project budget requires sh5b. Par- Other activities held include an
liament raised sh72m last year,” Deputy exhibition to showcase what parliament
Speaker of Parliament, Jacob Oulanyah does, meet an MP Sessions and a public
urged more people to contribute for works tour of parliament.

NRM youths protest as UK parliament debates Uganda’s democracy
Kyaddondo East legislator and musician Party politician, the MPs highlighted the ment who protested outside the British high
Robert Kyagulanyi was invited to UK’s par- arrest and torture of Members of the Ugan- commission warning the UK to stay away
liament as the house debated on the state dan Parliament, Robert Kyagulanyi known from Uganda’s domestic issues. Also Minis-
of democracy in Uganda. He didn’t attend as Bobi Wine, Paul Mwiru, Francis Zaake, ter for Information Frank Tumwebaze said,
but law makers at the House of Commons Gerald Karuhanga, and Kasiano Wadri’ “Uganda’s democracy is not discussed and
deliberated on the issue on Jan.08 where as acts that have no place in a democratic debated in London. That can’t be democ-
some proposed cancellation of funding of country. racy but rather an abuse of real democracy.
army programmes over alleged torture of However, these discussions didn’t go We got enough of their imported democ-
members of the opposition. well with sections in the country like youth racy before 1962 and it was up to no good”,
Led by Dr. Paul Williams a British Labour belonging to the National Resistance Move- when this was put to him.

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4 Jan. 18 - 24 2019
Week
Medical equipment to be assessed for standards Police arrests
General Hospitals and Health
centres. This assessment will
woman who claims
facilitate the preparation for fea-
sible solutions in terms of fund-
her husband killed
ing and equipping the health Muslim clerics
facilities with some of the key
equipment that are missing at A video in which a woman
these facilities. claiming a plan to kill Muslim
Seven Regional Referral cleric and army official Muham-
Hospitals – Fort Portal, Soroti, mad Kiggundu was hatched at
Entebbe, Mbale, Lira, Jinja and her house had been circulating
Gulu, 47 General Hospitals, on social media platforms before
2 Health Center IIIs and 5 she was arrested on Jan.12.
Health Center IVs have been Outgoing police spokersper-
earmarked for assessment that son Emilian Kayima said Jean
will mainly cover Imaging and Nyinarukundo is in custody
Intensive Care departments. awaiting mental health tests.
They come in amidst increas- She is said to have visited
A team from General Elec- in the country on Jan.14 to ing claims of misdiagnosis Mama Fiina popular traditional
tric, an American multinational conduct an assessment of the which at times medical workers healer and wife to the deceased
that deals in among others status of medical equipment blame on faulty equipment. major’s house in Wakiso to
healthcare equipment arrived in Regional Referral Hospitals, testify this claiming that her life
was in danger because of her
knowledge of this plot. She said
Police celebrates life of MDD department head her husband John Zimula is part
of the clique that has been gun-
She joined the police Ugandan Inspector Generals ning down
a minor and is the only of Police to date, it is only “I would rather die when I
woman who has led the Josephine who would put have told the truth than dying
Police’s department of up her hand. That is why with guilt. I have tried to inform
music dance and drama she wore three medals, one the police and also reported
since Independence, for distinguished service, the case to Nabweru Police Sta-
Commissioner of Police the independence and long tion but I was not helped and I
Josephine Kakooza service medal that is given thought the only way to let the
succumbed to a stroke on to people who have served country know the truth was to
Jan.09 at the age of 64. for more than 30 years”, he tell Mama Fina because late Maj.
Kakooza who joined the of the department of music said she is the only one who Kiggundu was her husband”
police at the age of 14, first and would direct music and has served under all the IGPs she is reported to have said nam-
serving in the police band lead band members. In his after independence. ing other members of the group
because she was too young message at a requiem mass, Kakooza attended Ntinda as Meddy Musitwa who is
to join the force has been Inspector General of Police Nursery School and St Agnes under trial and another Baker to
working with the force since Martins Okoth – Ochola Naggalama, Nabagereka have been involved in the brutal
1969. eulogized the deceased as a Primary School for her murder of Shiekhs Hassan Kirya
Kakooza who was laid to selfless person who served primary education and and Abdul Khadir Muwaya.
rest on Jan.12 at Namumira the force with passion. Trinity College Nabbingo for The resident of Nabweru pos-
village in Mukono “If you asked in the two years before dropping sesses text messages allegedly
Municipality was in charge Uganda Police Force, out to join the force. from Zimula threatening her
of the general administration which officer had served all with death.

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Jan. 18 - 24 2019 5
Week
Controversy as MPs discuss death penalty bill Egypt prepares to host African Cup games
On Jan.10, members of with the discretionary
parliament discussed whether sentence and to remove the
or not the death Penalty law restriction on mitigation in
should be scrapped. the case of convictions that
A news report by Uganda carry a death penalty.
Radio Network shows The Legal and
although several legislators Parliamentary Affairs
stood in support of the Death committee of Parliament had
penalty, a section of others earlier suggested that the
argue that convicts deserve proposal on the abolition
an opportunity to reform. of the death penalty be
The discussion came up as subjected to a referendum.
parliament debated the law President Museveni has in
revision (penalties in criminal the past spoken in favor of
matters) miscellaneous the death penalty, saying it is After being granted rights South Africa who were put to
amendment bill 2015. The necessary to deal with those to host the 2019 African Cup of polls in which Egypt won with
bill seeks to amend the Penal involved in serious crimes Nations by the Confederation 16 votes against South Africa’s
Code Act, the Anti-Terrorism and that scrapping it would of African Football last week, one.
Act, the Uganda Peoples be a source of instability. preparations are in high gear in They won the slot, thanks
Defense Forces (UPDF) Act, Some of the crimes that Egypt’s capital of Cairo. They to a promotional video posted
and the Trial on Indictment can lead one to death row have six months to prepare on the internet and presented
Act, by scrapping all include among others as the games are scheduled to before the selection committee
references to the mandatory murder, aggravated robbery, start on June 15 and end on highlighting the country’s abil-
death penalty and restrict its treason and kidnap with July13. ity as well as its various stadi-
application to most serious intent to murder, terrorism, After Cameroon was ums such as the Port Saidi, the
crimes. The bill proposes to and treachery among others. stripped of the right to host in Ismailia, Al Salam, Alexandria,
replace the death sentence There are at least 480 death December due to delay in the Suez and Cairo stadiums.
with a life sentence and row inmates in the country preparations, the remaining Egypt last hosted the games
mandatory death sentence currently. spot was given to Egypt and in 2006.

*terms and conditions apply

AfricellUG @AfricellUG

6 Jan. 18 - 24 2019
Humour Did you know?

The Earth’s magnetic field
is behaving strangely and
no-one knows why
The magnetic field which surrounds Earth
At least 800 traffic police officers have been arrested for taking bribes and are to face disciplinary action. is acting weirdly and its behaviour has left
scientists baffled. Our planet is surrounded
by an invisible aura produced by the molten
iron which sloshes around deep beneath
humanity’s feet. But the magnetic north pole
at the top of our planet is now moving so
quickly that geomagnetic experts have been
forced to take urgent steps to make sure its
‘skittering’ doesn’t cause global chaos. Later
this month, the World Magnetic Model will
be updated. This is the system which allows
ships and planes to navigate themselves
around the world. It was last updated in
2015 and was supposed to stay the same
until 2020, but the magnetic field changes
have been so profound that it will now be
updated on January 30 after being post-
poned by a fortnight due to the U.S. govern-
ment shutdown. ‘The error is increasing all
the time,’ Arnaud Chulliat, a geomagnetist
at the University of Colorado told Nature.
CCTV footage pins Bank of Uganda’s former executive director of ‘What’s happening?’ he asked. Apocalypse
supervision Justine Bagyenda on intrusion into Bank of Uganda offices. prophets are obsessed with the idea that the
magnetic poles will one day flip, wiping out
modern civilisation and sending humanity
back to the Stone Age. Luckily, the wander-
ing poles do not show this is going to hap-
pen. It’s thought there are two ‘patches’
where the magnetic field is strong over Sibe-
ria and Canada. These are involved in a ‘tug
of war’ right now, with the Russian patch
currently winning so that the pole is being
dragged from Canada into Siberia to such
an extent it recently crossed the International
Date Line. The movement of the pole has
also picked up speed of late. In the 1990s, it
sped up from 15 kilometres a year to 55 km
a year. ‘The location of the north magnetic
pole appears to be governed by two large-
scale patches of magnetic field, one beneath
Canada and one beneath Siberia,’ said Phil
Livermore, a geomagnetist at the University
The MP Kyaddondo East Robert Kyagulanyi also known as singer Bobi Wine of Leeds. ‘The Siberian patch is winning the
has been criticized by sections of pastors over his new song Tuliyambala Engule. competition.’

Jan. 18 - 24 2019 7
Tokyo, Japan: Twenty-year-old Japanese women take a ride on a roller-coaster after
a Coming-of-Age Day celebration ceremony at Toshimaen amusement park
The Last Word Opinion

The value of loyalty
By Andrew M. Mwenda
What the story of a simple attendant at a fuel station can
help us learn about building successful organisations

O
n Tuesday January 8, 2019 I Akerlof argues that when a person makes believe in professional competence as the
passed a Total service station in a leap in identity and identifies themselves foundation of success. I was always keen to
Luzira to load Mobile Money. as a great plumber, teacher, journalist, criticise leaders who emphasise loyalty over
Because there was no V-Power lawyer, surgeon or engineer, they will seek competence. In an ideal world it is best to
Petrol on all Shell stations in Kampala and I to see great plumbing, teaching, journalism, have people who are both loyal and compe-
had a few minutes to spare, I decided to ask lawyering, surgery or engineering respec- tent. But if you had to choose between com-
a fuel attendant at this Total station, a one tively in his/her work. Such a person will petence and loyalty, the latter wins.
Vincent Komakech, whether their fuel is fit want to see their great selves reflected in the Indeed reading Akerlof and Kranton
for my car. results of their work. reminded me of what Norman Schwar-
Komakech then proceeded to give me an Successful countries and organisations zkopf, a former American military com-
elaborate explanation on how their petrol, make their citizens and employees identify mander of Operation Desert Storm, said in
Excellium, is better than V-Power. He said with the values and vision of the country his autobiography: `It doesn’t take a hero’
it cleans the engine more effectively than and/or organisation. that leadership requires competence and
V-Power and yet is cheaper and more fuel- A person may be highly paid but have character. But if you are to have only one of
efficient i.e. gives user more kilometres per little commitment to the goals of the organ- these, it’s better to have character, not com-
litre. isation. Such a person will not do a great petence. Equally, in his book, `Winning’, the
How do you know this, I asked him. He job. former CEO of General Electric, Jack Welch,
did not give any scientific explanation. Equally, a person may be highly skilled said that leadership requires strategy and
Instead he answered that many of his cus- as a lawyer or doctor but does not share the values. He added that if one is to have only
tomers who were previously using Shell’s vision of the organisation. Such a person one of these two, it is better to have values
V-Power and tried Total’s Excellium often will not apply his skills to the best of their than strategy.
tell him the Total product is superior and ability to meet the goals and vision of the Komakech teaches us that you do not
never use V-Power again. organisation. have to be the CEO or the manager or even
I was not convinced. The little scientific This lesson is best illustrated by Rwanda. supervisor to promote the interests of your
explanations I had previously read online By all measures, Kenya especially, but also organisation even when it is not your duty.
about the quality of different fuels made me Uganda have much better human capital The success of the company you work for,
doubt Komakech’s explanation. In spite of than Rwanda. By human capital here I am or the country you live in, is equally your
his confident delivery, he based only on the referring specifically to professional skills success. You cannot prosper in a failing
behaviour of his customers. But Komakech and experience – in both the private and country or company. Having the right atti-
insisted I try Excellium; promising I will public sector. Yet in terms of performance, tude individually and collectively is good
never look back. less competent public officials in Rwanda for you and your organisation.
I yielded and filled my tank – not because out perform their colleagues in Kenya and Across the world, nations try to inculcate
he convinced me but because of the energy Uganda. Why? Identity! nationalism and patriotism in their citizens
and conviction in his effort of trying to per- President Paul Kagame personally and his in order to make themselves successful.
suade me to change from Shell and become political party, the Rwanda Patriotic Front, After the failure of communism, China
a client of Total. I felt his effort should be generally, have articulated a vision of the turned to nationalism to rally its people
rewarded. I paid for the fuel and gave him a Rwanda they want and have mobilised around a shared goal or national economic
commission for his good services. the population politically around a shared transformation. If Africa is failing, it is
I called Total headquarters and gave vision of national reconstruction backed by partly, if not largely, because we have less
them his name and fuel station and sug- dignity (agaciro) in being a Munyarwanda. nationalism and patriotism i.e. we have little
gested they recognise his good work; a Hence everywhere you go in that country loyalty to our nations and their aspirations.
request they accepted. I will follow up to public officials carry themselves with pride Indeed, it is because we elites lack a shared
see whether they actually met that promise. and purpose, and dedicate themselves to or common agreement on basic national
I took a picture with him and visited him their work to realise the goals and objectives goals.
the next day. I did all this because I was of the state. They identify themselves as “I It is my hope that Total will reward
inspired by Komakech attitude and work am a Munyarwanda, I have dignity and I Komakech in a public way to serve as an
ethic. am rebuilding my country”. example for many other attendants at their
Komakech reminded me of a book I read They may earn less money and possess numerous fuel stations. But most critically,
titled “Identity Economics: How Our Iden- less skill yet work more with greater dedica- it should be a lesson to our national and
tities Shape Our Work, Wages And Well- tion. It is their identifying with the vision corporate leaders – that when you have citi-
being” written by George Akerlof, a Nobel of the country that works and is producing zens, partisans and employees who exhibit
laureate in economics, together with Rachel better economic growth and welfare ben- such loyalty, they need to be rewarded and
Kranton. They argue that what defines a efits. used as an example to others.
successful person, organisation, country The book by Akerlof and Kranton became
or company is not incentive pay or profes- an important turning point especially for amwenda@independent.co.ug
sional skills. It is identity. its insight for a person like me who used to

Jan. 18 - 24 2019 9
cover story

Uganda’s growing
public debt
Separating facts from fiction and
politicking
By Andrew M. Mwenda

10 Jan. 18 - 24 2019
O
cover story
n January 10, I watched
with increasing depression Debt to GDP ratio for Sub Sahara Africa
a debate about Uganda’s
national debt on the NBS 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 proj. 2019 proj.
Frontline show. Although Angola 40.7 64.6 79.8 65.3 73.0 71.6
the Minister of State for
Finance, David Bahati, made many good Benin 30.5 42.4 49.7 54.6 55.1 52.6
arguments in defence of government, his Botswana 17.3 16.3 15.5 15.6 14.9 12.8
delivery was not effective. Burkina Faso 30.4 35.8 38.3 38.3 41.0 41.3
The moderator, Charles Odongotho,
appeared uninformed about the subject Burundi 35.8 45.3 47.2 56.7 65.1 69.4
and failed to generate the right questions or Cabo Verde 115.9 126.0 129.5 126.0 124.7 126.7
direct the discussion well.
Cameroon 21.5 30.9 33.3 38.2 39.3 38.9
I expected Fred Muhumuza, with a PhD
in economics and who once served as an Central African 69.2 64.0 56.0 53.4 48.6 44.4
advisor in the Ministry of Finance, to lift the Republic
debate to some higher intellectual plane. Chad 41.5 43.8 52.4 52.5 48.1 45.4
Instead he plunged into narrowly focused
Comoros 22.6 25.9 31.7 28.4 28.4 28.5
theoretical arguments spiced with the usual
Ugandan populist talk that attracts praise on Congo, DR 17.5 16.1 16.8 15.7 14.5 13.3
social media but has little substance. Congo, Brazaville 47.6 97.1 114.6 119.1 110.4 105.0
Opposition politicians Salamu Musumba
and Nandala Mafabi could not get them- Côte d’Ivoire 44.8 47.3 47.0 46.8 48.7 47.3
selves out of cheap politicking. Instead of Equatorial Guinea 12.7 36.4 47.9 42.7 45.6 48.4
raising the many vital criticisms of govern- Eritrea 128.7 132.5 132.8 131.2 129.4 127.3
ment borrowing, they kept heckling and
speaking a lot of inconsequential things. Ethiopia 46.8 54.0 55.0 56.2 57.9 56.4
Ofwono Opondo was, as usual, logical Gabon 34.1 44.7 64.2 61.1 59.3 59.3
but uninformed. Norbert Mao looked com-
Gambia, The 104.9 105.3 118.5 123.2 111.4 105.2
pletely lost.
In my view, any discussion on Uganda’s Ghana 70.2 72.2 73.4 71.8 69.1 65.9
national debt must first lay down the follow- Guinea 35.1 42.1 42.9 39.7 43.7 44.7
ing facts: It is hard to nail down out actual
debt since it is a moving figure. But as of end Guinea-Bissau 54.9 50.3 48.8 42.0 40.1 37.6
of March 2018, Uganda’s total public debt Kenya 48.6 51.4 53.2 58.0 60.3 59.6
stock (excluding undisbursed debts) was
Lesotho 36.8 41.2 35.4 34.7 39.5 41.7
$10.5 billion (Shs38.8 trillion). Out of this
foreign debt was $7.2 billion (Shs26.5 trillion) Liberia 21.6 25.8 28.3 34.4 38.7 39.1
or 68.2% of the total while domestic debt Madagascar 34.7 35.5 38.4 37.3 37.2 38.0
was $3.4 billion (Shs 12.4 trillion) or 31.5%.
The debt to GDP ratio was 39.9% below the Malawi 55.2 61.1 60.3 59.3 57.8 57.6
recommended ceiling of 50%. I will explain Mali 27.3 30.7 35.9 35.6 35.9 36.6
the implications of these figures later in this Mauritius 57.5 60.2 60.1 60.2 59.9 59.1
article.
Be that as it may, such a debate needed to Mozambique 62.4 88.1 118.8 102.2 110.1 116.6
be premised on the fact that Uganda is not Namibia 25.2 40.3 44.8 46.1 52.4 58.5
an island on Mars cut off from what is hap-
Niger 32.0 41.0 45.1 46.5 46.2 47.5
pening in the region (East Africa), continent
(Sub Sahara Africa) and the globe. Therefore, Nigeria 13.1 16.0 19.6 21.8 26.6 26.8
any serious discussion of our growing debt Rwanda 29.1 33.4 37.3 40.6 41.3 43.1
must provide not just the historical context
of Uganda but also the broader regional and São Tomé and Príncipe 69.6 86.0 94.0 83.3 76.9 72.2
global context. Senegal 42.4 44.5 47.8 48.3 49.4 47.7
For example, the Standard Gauge Rail-
Seychelles 72.7 68.0 69.0 63.3 58.5 53.7
way, which will add $2 billion to our debt, is
a regional project. Second, across Africa, all Sierra Leone 35.0 45.3 54.9 58.4 63.7 64.0
nations are borrowing heavily to invest in South Africa 47.0 49.3 51.6 53.0 55.0 56.0
transport and energy infrastructure.
Table 1 shows the debt to GDP ratio of all South Sudan 38.3 69.3 86.5 66.3 51.0 48.6
the 45 nations of Sub-Sahara Africa. Only 13 Swaziland 14.3 18.4 24.8 29.2 36.2 41.0
of them have a debt to GDP ratio lower than Tanzania 33.8 37.2 38.0 36.9 37.0 38.1
Uganda’s.
Togo 60.4 72.2 81.6 78.6 75.6 70.6
Why is debt growing? Uganda 30.8 33.5 37.4 39.9 42.9 45.0
Placing Uganda in the regional and global
Zambia 36.1 62.3 60.7 62.8 71.1 74.2
context helps illuminate the broader factors
driving borrowing. It helps us avoid the Zimbabwe 49.6 51.9 69.8 78.4 75.2 72.6
pathology of claiming that borrowing is a
Museveni/Uganda problem – if it is a prob- Table 1, Source: IMF

Jan. 18 - 24 2019 11
cover story
growth performance of 6.92% between
The Next Convergence 1986 and 2013, in these circumstances, is a
miracle. Indeed no lesser a person than for-
Economy Period of high growth Per capita income at the beginning and in 2005 mer Singaporean Prime Minister, Lee Kuan
Botswana 1960-2005 210 3,800 Yew, said in an April 14th 1988 speech, that
Brazil 1950-1980 960 4,000 Uganda’s world had “collapsed” and could
China 1961-2005 105 1,400 not be rebuilt even in 100 years. Yet it took
Hong Kong* 1960-1997 3,100 29,900 only 14 years (1986 to 2000) for our country
Indonesia 1966-1997 200 900 to rebound and reach her 1970 peak in GDP
Japan* 1950-1983 3,500 39,600 per capita. This recovery, in face of such
Korea,Rep.of* 1960-2001 1,100 13,200 doomsday predictions, shows how remark-
Malaysia 1967-1997 790 4,400 able Uganda’s economic reconstruction and
Malta 1963-1994 1,100 9,600 state reconfiguration have been.
Oman 1960-1999 950 9,000 More critically for Muhumuza, histori-
Singapore* 1967-2002 2,200 25,400 cally few countries have ever sustained an
Taiwan* 1965-2002 1,500 16,400 average annual GDP growth rate of 6.92%
Thailand 1960-1997 330 2,400 for 30 years. In his book, `The Next Con-
vergence’, Nobel Laureate in economics,
Table 2, Source : The Next Convergence, Michael Spence. Michael Spence, looked at all economies
Source: World Bank. World Development Indicators. of the world from 1950 to 2005. He found
*Economies that have reached industrialized countries' per capita income levels. only 13 countries have ever sustained an
Period in which GDP growth was 7 percent per year or more. annual average rate of GDP growth at 7%
In constant U.S dollars of 2000. and above over a 30 years period, see Table
2. So what gives Muhumuza confidence to
Real GDP Growth (% annual change) declare that an annual average rate of 6.92%
2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017* 2018* Average Growth Rate for Uganda over a period of 28 years is
( 2012-2016) below the country’s potential?
Ethiopia 8.6 10.6 10.3 10.4 7.6 6.5 7.3 9.5 I agree that from 2012 to 2018, Uganda’s
Rwanda 8.8 4.7 7.6 8.9 5.9 6.2 6.8 7.2 rate of GDP growth has decelerated to 4.1%.
D.R Congo 7.1 8.5 9.5 6.9 2.5 3.0 3.0 6.9 Table 3 shows the GDP growth rates of 12
Tanzania 5.1 7.3 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 6.8 6.7 of Uganda’s closest neighbours over this
Djibouti 4.8 5.0 6.0 6.5 6.7 6.8 6.8 5.8 period. So we can agree with Muhumuza
Kenya 4.5 5.9 5.4 5.7 5.8 5.2 5.9 5.5 that over the last seven years Uganda has
Seychelles 3.7 5.0 6.2 4.3 5.9 4.1 3.4 5.0 performed below her potential. Why? This
Eritrea 7.0 3.1 5.0 4.8 3.5 3.2 3.4 4.7 was a critical question that Odongotho
Uganda 3.2 4.7 4.6 5.7 2.3 5.2 5.7 4.1 could have brought forth. Part of the answer
Madagascar 3.0 2.3 3.3 3.1 4.2 4.3 4.5 3.2 is embedded in the ballooning of domestic
Comoros 3.0 3.5 2.1 1.0 2.2 3.0 3.4 2.4 debt, which we must worry about in large
Burundi 4.4 4.9 4.5 -3.9 -0.5 0.0 0.0 1.9 part because of its high interest costs.
There are many factors. One of them
Table 3, Source: IMF is that in 2012, Uganda passed the Anti-
homosexuality Act. For the first time under
Museveni, this decision enjoyed broad-
lem at all. Uganda the 17th fastest growing economy
based support across the political and social
It is understandable though not excus- in the world, 6th in Africa. If we remove
spectrum. Western donors responded by
able, for politicians such as Mao, Musumba oil and gas producing countries from the
cutting aid, yet government was not will-
and Mafabi to score political points by mak- sample (because they were enjoying God’s
ing to cut down her spending in the face
ing arguments stripped of context, but not or nature’s bounty), Uganda was 9th fastest
of this shock. Instead it went on the credit
for Muhumuza, a scholar. growing economy in the world; in Africa it
market to borrow to fill the gap. This was
There are four critical questions on pub- was second to Ethiopia.
the first time government of Uganda was
lic borrowing, which I felt the moderator Muhumuza argued that Uganda’s
borrowing to fund the budget; previously
would try to focus the panellists on. One economy has been growing below her
it only sold treasury bonds for monetary
is the purpose of debt: is it financing con- potential. What is it in “Uganda’s potential”
policy objectives. As a consequence, interest
sumption or investment? Second is the cost that would generate growth rates higher
on treasury bills reach 21%. Banks smelling
of this debt. Is it prohibitive? Third, given than those experienced? Uganda is land-
profit shifted a lot of their lending from the
Uganda’s current and projected domestic locked, was engulfed in civil war from 1986
private sector to government, or increased
revenue and foreign exchange earnings, is to 2005 i.e. 20 out of 28 years of this growth
their lending rates. This was a double edged
the debt sustainable? Fourth, and related to marathon. It is neighbouring Rwanda to the
sword: on the one hand government bor-
the third point: do the investments financed south, which was engulfed in a civil war
rowing crowded the private sector out of
by debt have a good return? from 1990 to 2001. To the West is Congo
the credit markets while on the other it
All Uganda’s foreign debt is nominally which has been in civil war since 1996. To
made the little credit available to the pri-
going to develop infrastructure – roads, rail- the north is Sudan, which has been at war
vate sector extremely expensive – in some
ways, dams, transmission lines, airports etc. for all this period except between 2005 and
cases hitting 30%. Companies that had bor-
Some money is lost to corruption but it is a 2013. And beyond we have Burundi, Soma-
rowed at lower rates all of a sudden had to
very small fraction. The rest goes to the right lia and Central Africa republic all of which
pay more than they had projected. Many
things: transport and energy infrastructure are at war. This is not to mention that from
began to default, others would not borrow
has potential to give the economy future 1986 to 2000 most of Sub Sahara Africa was
and invest, banks became vulnerable and
productivity gains. Uganda’s economy stagnating.
growth decelerated.
grew rapidly at an annual average rate of Even a third rate economist would tell
This shock was compounded by another
6.92% between 1986 and 2013. That made you that Uganda’s average annual GDP
factor: Uganda, like most other nations of
12 Jan. 18 - 24 2019
cover story
Sub Sahara Africa, had run a growth mara- me as an investment with a positive return to long-term affordable credit. Three years
thon of 25 years with little investment in on the dollar. But taking electricity to the ago government decided to recapitalise
transport and energy infrastructure. Thus as rural poor has political value: politicians Uganda development Bank (UDB) with
businesses expanded, demand for transport win votes, a factor we cannot avoid in a Shs500 billion but only Shs200 billion has
and energy infrastructure outstripped sup- democracy. Secondly, it may have a positive been released so far, a drop in the ocean.
ply. Businesses increasingly faced unreliable impact on education (kids in villages do Government can do more on Ease of Doing
power, constant outages, and expensive not have to read on tadooba (wick candles) Business, on tax and other policy incen-
alternatives like diesel generators not to and ruin their eyes, health (rural people do tives that make investments decisions by
mention bad roads to transport goods not have to suffer chest infections inhaling firms difficult to resist. On the contrary, the
across the country. This began chocking kerosene smoke), and environment (it may Uganda government seems forever commit-
national economic growth. reduce the burning of trees). One would ted to IMF and World Bank policies that are
This challenge was not unique to Ugan- have to look at all these factors before con- out-dated, ideological, and inappropriate
da. All our neighbours to wit Rwanda, cluding that a particular investment does for our context.
Tanzania and Kenya faced it. All of them not have a good return. What is even absurd is that govern-
have since been borrowing heavily to invest Now there is one problem with Uganda’s ment has not synchronised her investment
in transport and energy infrastructure to borrowing for infrastructure, which Mafabi decisions. For example, last year a private
fill the gap between demand and supply of raised – low levels of local content. I wished investor completed a 43MW dam in Aswa.
these critical public goods and services. Mafabi could have focused on Museveni’s Six months later there is no transmission
Uganda is beginning to overcome these 32 years of promoting policies that have line to take this power anywhere it can be
infrastructure bottlenecks, part of the reason either displaced or stifled the growth of consumed. Consequently, under the Power
growth has picked apace. In 2018, Uganda’s local firms; especially in construction. Con- Purchase Agreement, the government is
economic growth reached 6.1%. A 2017 sequently, Uganda is now borrowing and paying $43,000 per day to this investor for
Harvard study projects that between now spending over $20 billion for infrastructure no electricity being produced because it can-
and 2025, Uganda will be the second fastest and there is hardly any local firm taking any not be evacuated. Delays in procurement
growing economy in the world – growing of these mega construction projects. Chi- to build a transmission line are evidence of
at 7.2%. nese firms have also been known to import disorganisation and incompetence. Even
This may not come to pass, but it is cement and steel for these projects, although Karuma will be completed before a trans-
wrong to argue that borrowing to invest the government has since intervened and mission line has been built. Uganda’s oppo-
in energy and transport infrastructure is stopped this. sition lack even such basic facts as ammuni-
wrong policy. Secondly, Uganda has peak electricity tion in their struggle. Why? Because they
demand of 600MW yet by end of this year only care about political power, not policy!
Is debt unsustainable? when Karuma comes on board we shall There are many more issues about our
This leads us to the second and third have installed capacity of 2000MW. Even national debt and the existing plans or lack
questions: is the cost of borrowing prohibi- if we connected every hamlet and home to of them to make its use more productive.
tive and is the debt therefore unsustainable? the grid, domestic users cannot consume all Yet only Bahati made informed arguments.
First, 99% of Uganda’s total foreign debt is this power. Besides the cost of investment The rest were totally clueless. I am aware
from multilateral and bilateral bodies. It is in transmission and distribution cannot be that it is fashionable and cool to be seen to
given on highly concessionary terms: it has recovered from the tariff without making oppose Museveni these days, regardless of
a high grant component (20-40%), with a electricity unaffordable to the poor or caus- one’s values, cause or facts. For the mass of
long grace period (six to ten years), and an ing government to pay heavy subsidies, a frustrated angry Ugandans on social media,
even longer maturity period (30-40 years) point Muhumuza raised. a panellist only makes sense if they just
at very low interest rates (0.75% to 1.5%). Let us remember that electricity demand denounce Museveni. This has led to devel-
This is what makes our foreign debt sustain- is growing at an annual average rate of opment of a culture that does not care about
able. Sustainability of foreign debt is mea- 10% i.e. by 70MW. So where can Uganda the quality of the alternative. This attitude
sured by the ratio of debt service to export sell her surplus? Rwanda, Tanzania and can cause change but not for the better.
receipts. In 2018 Uganda earned over $6.4 Kenya have installed capacity above their Remember righteous anger is rarely a basis
billion from export of goods and services. needs. Our petty quarrels with Kigali also for sound public policy or liberal politics.
However, debt service is only $209 million undermined Rwanda as a destination for All too often it has led to anti-democratic
– 3.27%. our power exports. The only export options outcomes and destructive policies.
Now to the final question: do our invest- are South Sudan and DRC – countries lack- It is understandable that many Ugandans
ments in transport and energy infrastruc- ing basic transmission and distribution are tired of Museveni’s long and corrupt
ture have a good rate of return? It depends infrastructure (both hard and soft) to evacu- rule. Yet those who denounce his misrule
on what you are looking at. In terms of ate power from the border, sell it, collect are often beaten and teargased by the police,
economic return, some do, some do not. money and pay us back. So export markets their rallies blocked violently. This has cre-
But I do not think the only reason a coun- are closed. ated a lot of sympathy for the opposition
try develops infrastructure is about dollar Therefore, only by attracting large manu- but equally blinded many well-meaning
returns. For example, Uganda built a road facturing firms can Uganda hope to increase intellectual elites in Uganda from the glar-
from Sorori to Moroto and from Moroto to demand for electricity to meet supply that ing disaster in the opposition; especially
Nakapiripirit, which I suspect has no viable we shall have. Otherwise we have installed their lack of basic interest in and knowledge
return in a strict economic sense. But it has capacity way above our current demand yet of public policy.
an important social return of taking services we have foreign loans to pay back. This is Many Ugandans hope, quite naively, that
to Karamoja and integrating that region into a strategic risk for the country, which Mao, any change would be better. I do not agree.
this nation. The opposition can argue, quite Mafabi and Musumba could have raised. Opposition politicians must be taken to task
convincingly, that we can invest in produc- They didn’t even try. to explain their policy alternatives; we must
tive regions first, and the gains therefrom Government has been investing in hard- demand that they do serious research about
can finance investments in Karamoja. But ware (infrastructure) but has done little public issues. The opposition politicians I
the opposition does not argue that. investment in software (policies that can watched on television that January 8th night
Equally, Uganda has invested heavily make investment in manufacturing attrac- are ill equipped to even manage the econo-
in rural electrification. It does not strike tive). For example, there is limited access my of a sub-county.

Jan. 18 - 24 2019 13
news analysis

Nalukolongo channel in Kampala.

Cholera’s wakeup call
Why the unexpected outbreak happened
By Flavia Nassaka
Emma Tagobya; the Local Council Chairman of Sembule B Zone of
Kabowa Parish, Rubaga Division has been quite busy lately – battling a
cholera outbreak in his area.

S
embule B Zone is right on the edge small, low cost bungalows, piled next put our call on hold, we could hear him
of Kampala city along Entebbe to each other without plan, and looking telling someone to go pick the patients.
Road in the Ndeeba area but it unkempt. Cholera is common. Then he turned to a team of volunteers
looks quite rural with its unpaved When we spoke to Tagobya on Jan.11, who needed him to authorise them to use
roads that billow clouds of dust in dry two people had already died in the area the ambulance.
weather and become rivers of flood water and one was a confirmed cholera case. Tagobya blames the cholera outbreaks
when it rains. Another 16 people suspected to be infected on the lack of toilets. His area, the second
Located in a low-lying water-clogged with cholera were being monitored in most populated parish after Nateete
marshland a few minutes south of the hospital. A couple and their four children in Rubaga Division of Kampala, has
city, the only reminders of urban life had just been reported to have developed 20,000 people but only two public toilets
in Sembabule B are the mounds of symptoms of cholera. which too have long been closed. Most
uncollected garbage around the many We spoke on phone and when Tagobya households do not have private toilets.

14 Jan. 18 - 24 2019
news analysis
Kampala city managers too. Lubigi Channel which ends in the major
In just three days, the Minister of Lubigi wetland along Masaka Road.
State for Health In-charge of Primary The Nalukolongo Channel is critical
Health Care, Dr. Joyce Moriku Kaducu, to the health of residents in the city
had visited the place twice. She told suburbs of Rubaga, Natete, Ndeeba, and
The Independent that her first visit was Nalukolongo. But as Tagobya explained, it
meant to do a spot check on the area, see is clogged with silt, sewage, and debris and
the triggers and come up with specific requires major de-silting and expansion.
solutions that can work for the area. “That Nalukolongo channel is supposed
When she returned, she distributed to be four feet wide but it’s now less than
recovery kits to people who had been a foot wide. All those polythene bags there
affected by the disease and had since been are full of faeces,” he said, “I mobilized
discharged from hospital. residents to desilt it (but) we couldn’t
Kampala Lord Mayor Erias Lukwago handle the filth.”
visited the area, gave some of the residents Widening the Nalukolongo channel was
who are among the most desperate urban first mooted in 2009 when the World Bank
poor some cash, bars of soap, and put in gave Kampala City Council (KCC) US$10
place an ambulance to transport patients. million for the job. However, KCC diverted
The Minister of State Minister for the money to other uses.
Kampala, Benna Namugwanya, had In 2014, Kampala Capital City Authority
also been there and participated in a (KCCA) again got money from the World
gang cleanup of the area together with Bank under the US$183.7 million Kampala
the locals. She said ‘Bulungi bwa nsi’, as Institutional Infrastructure Development
the activity is locally known, can help Project –I (KIIDP-I). The money was
to ensure that the area is kept clean and to expand and line the 5.5 km primary
keep such diseases as cholera at bay. She Nalukolongo channel, and 0.7 km of
proposed to residents to make it a norm to secondary channels.
set aside a day every month to do this kind Five year later, no work had been done.
of general cleaning. Informed sources say local leaders are
She also banned the sale of unpackaged resisting an alleged move by consultants
cold drinks and fresh eats in the area hired by KCCA to inflate the cost of
saying the ban will also extend to other compensation of project affected persons
parts of the city as a bigger plan to regulate (PAPs). The consultants say that requires
the sale of fruits is still being discussed. Shs8 billion but the local politicians say
As regards garbage collection, she said Shs5 billion is needed. It is not clear how
Kampala City Council Authority had the figure was reached by local leaders but
asked the concessionaire – Home Klean to compensation of PAPs on public works
increase the number of the times they pick projects is a known area for corruption. As
Poor solid waste disposal is a major rubbish from Kabowa and similar areas the wrangle over money rages, the locals
contributor to the spread of cholera, that risk getting affected by cholera. continue to suffer.
which is transmitted through drinking It appears the main components of the Tagobya says floods in the already
or eating foodstuffs contaminated with Ministry of Health’s Cholera Elimination swampy slum make it difficult to construct
a bacterium called Vibrio cholera which Strategy were kicking in early. These the cheapest form of toilets; the squat pits.
thrives in faeces. An infected person focus mainly on behavioral change and Tagobya is no expert but Engineer Obed
will die in a matter of hours if they don’t enforcement Lutaakome who is an expert on waste
receive immediate medical attention. But, while all the visitors to the area management also appeared to agree when
They develop high fevers, severe diarrhea, agreed that it is time to act on the national he spoke to The Independent.
dehydration and seizures may occur in clean up days and sensitising people more Lutaakome said the traditional pit
severe cases. on the need to stay in a clean environment, latrine which is cheap and mostly used
For a week, Tagobya’s office had been people knowledgeable about the area say by people in slum areas has been found
operating as a call center for reporting the managers are tackling a wrong issue, to pollute the environment. In Kampala,
anyone who develops symptoms after the the real issue is the toilet. for example, only about 70 percent of the
highly infectious bacterial disease hit his Tagobya told The Independent that the city residents have access to clean water.
area. real challenge that baffles them is how and The rest use water that is sometimes
That morning, he said, he had brokered where to dispose of fecal matter. contaminated by pit latrines.
a deal with one of his residents to provide “You know our toilets here are Lutaakome said, however, the modern
the community with a private toilet that polythene bags, buckets and the flush or waterborne toilets are also not a
they could use at least until they nip the Nalukolongo channel. We have no public good idea for low income earners because
scourge in the bud. The Shs200,000 deal toilets and landlords don’t provide private of the cost of maintenance that comes with
also involved emptying the facility which toilets for their tenants. We can’t stop them.
was already filling and putting in place cholera in such a situation,” he said when Instead, he recommended lined up
a supervisor to ensure that it’s clean at all he came online again. toilets built with a septic tank that can be
times. emptied whenever it fills. The beauty with
Failing government projects this type, he says, is that innovations such
Health managers panic The Nalukolongo Channel is a small as employing chemicals to dry the fecal
But the disease has not just put the stream that flows through the area right matter can be used which saves users from
people of Kabowa in panic mode but from the Kabaka’s Lake in Ndeeba in the the cost of emptying.
healthcare managers, politicians and city where it starts before finally joining the A study by the African Development

Jan. 18 - 24 2019 15
news analysis
Bank has found some 92.7% of Kampala’s the mother Public Health Act that requires Cholera also struck Kampala last year
population used on-site sanitation systems every landlord to provide toilet facilities to in June, which is one of the driest months.
including septic tanks and pit latrines. their tenants hadn’t started biting. One person died and 16 were admitted to
However, emptier services, which are “This cholera outbreak was a wakeup the Isolation Centre at Mulago National
offered mainly by private sector on a cash- call. We have to enforce our by law now Referral Hospital in Kampala.
on-demand basis, were inadequate. when everybody is still scared.” Then in July, another dry month,
With such a situation, KCCA might cholera swept across the country killing
need to consider Lutaakome’s proposal New challenges nine people and infecting 263. Kampala
in their new plan to construct toilet Another challenge is that this time, recorded the most cases; 92 and one died.
facilities around Kampala. Already they cholera appears to have come early and Kween district had 83 cases and four
have secured a $4million grant from the Tagobya and other leaders in the area are death, Mbale 46 cases and three deaths,
US based NGO Bill and Melinda Gates baffled and appear stuck. and Bulambuli 42 cases and one death. It
foundation for the construction. “You see this is a dry season (and) one appears cholera outbreaks are occurring
Minister Namugwanya told The wouldn’t expect a cholera outbreak now outside of the rainy and flooding season.
Independent that the plan is to construct because there are no floods,” he says. This appears to be mainly due to rising
300 public facilities. She did not have Tagobya says he wrote to the town clerk urbanisation without matching growth in
details of the type and how these are to and the mayor of the division in September water and sanitation facilities. In the case of
be maintained. But she confirmed that last year, warning them about what was Kabowa parish, although the government
Kabowa will definitely be among the happening in Kabowa and what they recognises that it has a population density
beneficiaries. needed to do to save the situation. He had which qualifies for water and sewerage
realised there was a public health crisis in services, the earliest plans target 2033 as
Wrong KCCA plan waiting. It appears nothing was done and the year of intervention.
But Lutaakome says KCCA’s plan Tagobya’s warning became reality. According to the Uganda Bureau of
might not work. He says it is not a good Since cholera outbreaks have historically Statistics (UBOS), Uganda is urbanizing at
idea for central authorities like KCCA to been linked to the rain season and a rate of 5.4% per year, which is far higher
provide free sanitary services because of flooding as Tagobya says, it is likely that than the 3.7% for Sub-Saharan Africa and
the challenge of maintenance. He says the Ministry of Health and other public 4% of Africa.
the authority’s role should only involve health managers in the area had targeted Areas such as Sembule B in Kabowa,
enforcement and regulation. the months of August, September, October, which are slums offering cheap albeit
Even with the grants, he says, KCCA and November as the main event months. hazardous accommodation, are the first
should just end at providing the structures This is when central Uganda experiences staging points for the rural poor migrating
and leave management to the local the longest rains. March, April, and May into town. Unfortunately, slums rarely
authorities. Managing at the center he have heavier rains but for a shorter period. have any social amenities like running
predicts will fail like the previous projects Last year, the main cholera outbreaks water and sanitation, and hygiene and
have. KCCA was building public toilets occurred in October. That is when health services. They become hotspots of
in slums like Kabowa until they realised it cases were reported across the country; epidemics.
was not sustainable, he says. in Kampala, Mbale, Tororo,Hoima, According to a recent Budget
“We resolved that people have their own Bulambuli, Amudat, Kyegegwa, Kagadi, Monitoring and Accountability Unit
infrastructure privately because it’s not just and Kween. This was during the rainy (BMAU) briefing paper, although 89%
about the structure but its maintenance. season; what the health ministry refers to of Kampala households have access to
There is no way KCCA would ensure that as the “epidemic season”. some form of sanitation facility; 90%
all toilets are clean for instance. It wasn’t But another cholera epidemic had use latrine. According to the Water and
making sense.” Without any toilets in place occurred earlier in the year, in February, in Environment Sector Performance Report of
yet, Tagobya says local authorities have Kyangwali Refugee Settlement and on the 2017, only 2% use flush toilets. Up to 6% of
resolved to strengthen enforcement based shores of Lake Albert. This killed 27 people households do not have toilet facilities and
on a by- law they passed last year to either and infected 700 people; mainly new open defecation and solid waste disposal
lock the houses or ask tenants not to pay to arrivals from the Democratic Republic of generally are major public health concerns.
their landlords until they avail them with Congo (DRC). One person died of cholera They require urgent attention to avert
toilet facilities. The by-law which reechoes in Mbale around the same time. epidemics such as cholera.

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16 Jan. 18 - 24 2019
news analysis

Entebbe Airport to get
By Independent Team

G
emalto, in
cooperation with

self-check-in service
local partner SCINTL,
has been awarded
the contract for the supply of
a Border Management System
(BMS); including airport self-
service eKiosks at Entebbe Gemalto awarded contract for Uganda’s
International Airport.
The appetite for automated,
self-service travel experiences
new e-Immigration solution
is already evident in the
success of electronic travel
document checking systems, Gemalto has emerged as a
online check-in and electronic world leader in digital security.
border gates. It teams up with IER, a leading
Self-service solutions offer supplier of mobile devices and
more personalised options self-service machines for major
for travelers, giving them transport networks, that is part
greater control. Moreover, time of the Bolloré Group, a French
saved through automation transportation company.
benefits airports, airlines, and Together they designed IER
travelers. Fly to Gate, an end-to-end self-
Self-service options can be service experience for travelers
introduced at every step of that improves the flow of
the passenger journey, from goods and people.
check-in to boarding, and they The offer includes solutions
greatly enhance the overall to reduce waiting times,
airport experience. especially at security check,
Gemalto’s e-Immigration border control, and baggage
solution uses fingerprint and drop. These cause the most
facial recognition technology, negative emotions, frustration,
combined with a passport scan and even fear among
to ensure swift and accurate passengers.
identification of passengers An increasing number of
leaving the country. airports across the world are
It is built on the Gemalto number of business and leisure processing and issuance for already investing in automated
Visa Management System visitors heading to Uganda. all pre-paid visas and permits, border control, check-in,
(VMS) that was first deployed “Rapid growth in and incorporates a secure and and bag-drop solutions that
in 2014 by the Directorate of international air travel is convenient online portal, and increase speed and efficiency,
Citizenship and Immigration going hand in hand with biometric enrolment facilities while maintaining high levels
Control (DCIC), under the profound cross-border threats in foreign missions and on of security.
Ministry of Internal Affairs. such as terrorism, illegal arrival in the country. In According to Gemalto,
“The new ABC – Automated immigration and organized December 2017, the VMS won airlines forecast that self-
Border Control Solution marks crime,” said Thierry Mesnard, the Uganda Government’s service and automatic check-
the latest step forward in the VP Sales Africa for Gemalto. JLOS ICT Innovation Award. in will be used by 72% of
modernisation, enhancement “With the introduction of SCINTL will provide vital travelers and will be a key
of security of border control advanced automated kiosks local support and know-how differentiator in their overall
management in Uganda, at Entebbe Airport, the for a solution that encompasses passenger value proposition. It
delivering important benefits Ugandan authorities are once supply, installation and cites the Société Internationale
for visitors and citizens alike,” again demonstrating their maintenance. de Télécommunications
said General Jeje A. Odongo, commitment to addressing all “Overseas visitors are Aéronautiques (SITA), a
the Minister of Internal Affairs. these challenges.” playing a key role in Uganda’s member-based organisation
Entebbe International Once implementation of economic development, and working at airports around
Airport, which is undergoing the e-Immigration solution is many will now enjoy the the world to transform the air
major expansion, renovation, complete in 2019, passengers option of a safe, fast-track transport community through
and modernization, will enjoy the option of a border crossing experience,” technology, emphasizing
handled over 1.5 million rapid, self-guided pathway said Cephas T. Bushuyu, cost-effectiveness, operational
travelers in 2017, but this through border control, whilst Managing Director for efficiency and cost reductions,
number is expected to grow authorities are provided with SCINTL. as well as the sharing of new
rapidly as business picks comprehensive, real-time data Across the world, airports technology and innovation for
up in the tourism, oil, and on departures. and airlines are making it a the community’s benefit.
manufacturing sectors. Gemalto is an established priority to provide passengers
The new eKiosks are technology partner for the with a unique, enjoyable and
expected to boost the airports DCIC. The existing VMS memorable travel experience.
capacity to handle the growing combines applications, According to its website,

Jan. 18 - 24 2019 17
news analysis

A torn portrait of DR Congo’s former president Joseph Kabila in the Nimite neighbourhood of the capital Kinshasa on Jan. 14. Martin Fayulu, who came second in DR
Congo’s presidential election, has appealed to the Constitutional Court to annul the provisional result which awarded victory to his opposition rival Felix Tshisekedi.

DR Congo election
Kabila out but loser goes to court over rigging
By Agencies abuse,” he told AFP, referring to the Inde- The Southern African Development

D
pendent National Election Commission, Community (SADC), a bloc that includes
R Congo’s Constitutional Court which supervised the election. Angola and South Africa, on Jan.13 called
said it would start hearing an ap- Tshisekedi was credited with 38.57 per- for a unity government.
peal Jan.15 against presidential cent of the vote, against 34.8 percent for The SADC also urged a recount to “pro-
election results that gave victory Fayulu, according to the provisional results. vide the necessary reassurance to both win-
to opposition leader Felix Tshisekedi. Emmanuel Ramazani Shadary, the candi- ners and losers.”
Martin Fayulu, also from the opposition, date backed by Kabila, came a distant third It sounded a somewhat softer tone on
was declared runner-up in the December with 23.8 percent. Jan.14, stressing that any such consideration
30 poll to choose a successor to President In the few opinion polls conducted before “should be left to the sovereign internal pro-
Joseph Kabila, who had been in power for the vote, Fayulu had been tipped as clear cedures” of the DRC.
the last 18 years. favourite. He claims he garnered 61 percent Also on Jan.14, Foreign Minister Didier
Fayulu says the results released on Jan.10 of the ballot. Reynders of Belgium -- the Democratic
were an “electoral coup” that, he alleges, Republic of Congo’s former colonial power
was forged in backroom dealings between Spotlight on court -- said a recount was a good idea.
Tshisekedi, leader of the Congolese main Fayulu filed his appeal on Friday. The “Obviously, having transparency is
opposition party, the Union for Democracy nine-member court has a week to study the always the first step, and then you have to
and Social Progress (UDPS), and Kabila. request before giving its ruling, with the ask yourself if, on the basis of what has been
“What we are expecting from the Consti- new president scheduled to be sworn in on published, one should start a recount pro-
tutional Court is for the truth of the ballot January 22, according to Corneille Nangaa, cess,” he told the public broadcaster RTBF.
box to be restored,” said Albert Fabrice head of CENI. Tshisekedi’s spokesman, Vidiye Tshiman-
Puela, one of Fayulu’s lawyers. In the meantime, voices suggesting a ga, said his party, the UDPS, “will accept
“The result announced by CENI is an recount have risen from abroad. a recount if it is a decision by the Constitu-

18 Jan. 18 - 24 2019
news analysis
tional Court.” as president in the midst of conflict that change.” La LUCHA is a non-partisan citi-
“However, we are against a recount if it spilled over from the Rwandan genocide zen movement with as many as 3,000 activ-
is imposed by foreign countries,” he told a in 1994. Assassinated by his bodyguard ists who engage in non-violent campaigns
press conference. in 2001, Kabila was succeeded by his son to raise awareness of human rights and
Constitutional law expert Sylvain-Patrick Joseph who has been in office ever since. cultivate a demanding citizenry.
Lumu Mbaya said that a recount was cer- Violent protests followed rigged elections in Another citizen’s movement is Filimbi,
tainly one of the options available to the 2006 and 2011. which means “blow of the whistle” in Swa-
court. The quiet work of pro-democracy hili.
“The court may have doubts (about the activism has been ongoing in the Congo In 2011, rappers and journalists in Sene-
result), and if so, it can take exceptional since 2012 and the process of cultivating gal founded Y’en a marre (“We are fed up”).
measures, including a recount,” he said. a demanding citizenry is visibly yielding They protested against unreliable electricity
However, suspicions about the court’s results. A recent example was when 21 civic and corruption, registered young voters and
impartiality run deep in a country where organisations mobilised, vowing to use non- ousted Abdoulaye Wade. In 2013, hip-hop
Kabila’s influence is widespread. violent protest to defend the outcome of the artist, Smockey Bambara, and reggae artist,
Last April, two judges who were consid- election. Sams’K le Jah, joined forces in Burkina Faso
ered to be the most independent quit. As There can be little doubt that a paradigm to create Balai Citoyen (“Citizen’s Broom”).
one of the successors, Kabila named a for- shift of historic importance is underway. They led an uprising that evicted Blaise
mer legal advisor, Norbert Nkulu Kilombo. Widespread irregularities have been Compaoré after 27 years and then swept the
documented in the recent election despite streets as a symbolic gesture of civic engage-
Troubled past the presence of 40,000 observers. Nonethe- ment inspired by Thomas Sankara.
The DRC’s political crisis erupted two less, preliminary reports by the powerful In 2015 and 2016, massive mobilisation
years ago when Kabila refused to step Catholic church with direct knowledge of in the DRC, supported by activists from
down at the end of his constitutional term the process, claim that one presidential can- Senegal and Burkina Faso, put pressure on
in office, sparking protests which were bru- didate has clearly won. Diplomatic sources Kabila, who ultimately decided not to cling
tally repressed. identify the winner as Martin Fayulu. to power. A coalition in the DRC formed the
The vast, unstable country has never “2016 Citizen’s Front,” including Filim-
had a peaceful transition of power since bi, la LUCHA, Katumbi, Fayulu calling
gaining independence from Belgium in for Kabila to respect the Constitution.
1960. In 2016, la LUCHA shared Amnesty
It became a battlefield for two region- International’s Ambassadors of Con-
al wars in 1996-97 and 1998-2003, and science Award with Angelique Kidjio,
the last two presidential elections, in Y’en a marre and Balai Citoyen.
2006 and 2011, were marked by bloody
clashes. Breaking a cycle of violence
The influential Roman Catholic Fayulu is an anti-corruption reform
Church, which says it deployed 40,000 candidate. He ran on a platform prom-
observers to monitor the poll, has also ising to restore dignity, to invest in edu-
dismissed the official outcome as not cation and to enforce the rule of law.
reflecting the true result. Educated in France and the US, he was
But it has held back from saying who, Felix Tshisekedi. an executive at Exxon Mobile before
in its opinion, was the victor. being elected to Parliament in 2006.
Once results started to come in on Fayulu was backed by an opposition
What it means for democracy December 31, confirming Fayulu’s over- coalition and supported by two powerful
There hasn’t been a peaceful transition whelming victory, the government shut figures: Jean-Pierre Bemba, a former war-
of power in this country since the end of down the Internet, Radio France Interna- lord, and Moïse Katumbi, a wealthy busi-
Belgian rule in 1960. But this election could tionale’s FM broadcasting signal, and cell nessman from Katanga.
cement a new era of representative govern- phone service across the country. Many There’s no disputing that Kabila’s regime
ment in Africa. believe Kabila’s attempt to fix the election did use violence to intimidate citizens
The deferral of representative govern- in favour of his handpicked successor, during the election process. But it doesn’t
ment in the DRC has a long history. After Emmanuel Ramazani Shadary, didn’t work. appear to have completely undermined the
the Berlin Conference (1884-85), Belgium They interpret the information blackout as process.
acquired the Congo as a colonial territory stalling and censorship, rather than a means To be sure, some observers will dismiss
and, from Léopold II to King Baudoin I, of avoiding false news as alleged. the election as late, flawed and a chaotic
Belgian administrators oversaw one of the As the world waits for the outcome of mess. Doubtless more remains to be done to
most brutal regimes on the continent. In the constitutional court process and SADC guarantee the integrity of future elections.
1960, Patrice Lumumba became the first intervention, it’s already possible to see that And whoever wins will have much to do to
prime minister, sharing power with Joseph significant change has come to the Congo. recover from decades of corrosive violence
Kasa-Vubu as president. A confluence of Massive voter turnout under very dif- and autocratic rule.
internal and external factors unleashed a ficult circumstances is compelling evidence Yet it’s also possible to look at this elec-
crisis that led to Lumumba’s assassination of the people’s commitment to a democratic tion as evidence of the people’s commit-
in 1961 and Mobutu Sese Seko’s rise to transition, even though the process was far ment to democracy, even when the process
power in 1965. With the support of Western from perfect. is messy. The fact is that this election – and
nations, Mobutu presided over the looting its promise for the future – adds to a wave
of his country’s natural wealth as one of the Wave of progressive political change of progressive political change across Africa
most tenacious gatekeeping dictators of the Recent civic engagement in the DRC led by students, musicians, journalists and
20th century. He clung to power for more has emerged as part of a pan-African activist citizens.
than 30 years. trend. In 2012, students in Goma founded
In 1997, Laurent-Désiré Kabila took over La LUCHA, shorthand for “struggle for

Jan. 18 - 24 2019 19
news analysis

Behind
Bitcoin’s
collapse
The real cost of the digital
cryptocurrency’s fall from grace

An Israeli holds a visual representation of the digital cryptocurrency Bitcoin, at the “Bitcoin Change” shop in the Israeli city of Tel Aviv on January 17,
2018. At the end of 2017 Israel Securities Authority said it was moving to ban trading in cryptocurrency-based companies on the Tel Aviv market until
transactions involving digital coins are legally regulated.   / AFP PHOTO / JACK GUEZ (Photo credit should read JACK GUEZ/  AFP/Getty Images)

By Carmen Aguilar Garcia, Rowland recognised their own opportunism and the previous year.
Manthorpe, and Alexander J Martin expected the bubble would burst, and More than 200 of those companies

B
the price would eventually plummet, were incorporated with Companies
itcoin hit its highest valuation but they expected to sell before this House during 2017, when the value of
a year ago, reaching above happened. Bitcoin surged 1,500% through to its
£15,000 on some exchanges. Others confessed to being blinded peak in December.
Since then, a unit of the by the fear of missing out. Even if they Hugh Halford-Thompson, an early
cryptocurrency has dropped 80% enjoyed the casual chat about how the cryptocurrency enthusiast and founder
and is valued at less than £3,000. future of global exchange naturally of several blockchain companies - who
According to Sky News of Britain, lay with a decentralised currency, they even sold Bitcoin to George Osborne
hundreds of businesses are being just expected to get rich quick. when he was chancellor - told Sky
dragged down with Bitcoin’s value, News that the influx of inexperienced
and with them mortgages and even In general, this did not happen. investors during this period had
marriages. Analysing data from Companies concerned him.
The dreams of getting rich for some House and OpenCorporates, Sky “We had a Bitcoin ATM that we set
of those who spoke to Sky News were News has found that at least 340 up in Shoreditch in a place called the
not especially virtuous or grounded in companies related to cryptocurrencies Vape Lab, an e-cigarette cafe in the
notions of productivity. or blockchain were dissolved or cool part of town.
Many of the Bitcoin investors liquidated in 2018, compared to 139 in “That was back in 2013, when the

20 Jan. 18 - 24 2019
news analysis
and investors, one particular tragedy

We had a stood out as typical.
Married men accessed equity

Bitcoin ATM through their family homes, and
often - whether because they felt

that we set up
they needed to act quickly to make
the most money, or because they

in Shoreditch
feared that their investment would
be criticised by their spouses - did

in a place
so without informing their families,
only to see the value of their assets

called the
evaporate, followed by their homes.
One man told Sky News he lost his

Vape Lab, an
marriage and remortgaged his home
after he defaulted on loans he had

e-cigarette
used to invest in cryptocurrencies. He
said he wished he had never heard of
Bitcoin.
cafe in the He and many other investors and
businesses declined to be identified in
cool part of this article, explaining that they feared
mockery from friends and relatives.
town Over the course of 2017, enthusiasts
began ploughing as much cash as
they could into Bitcoin and other
cryptocurrencies because customers
were becoming increasingly interested
in them.
people who didn’t understand When the prices dropped and
investments (were getting involved, customers grew sparse, many
and they) made or lost money in fairly businesses cut their losses and
big ways. dissolved. Maybe they didn’t exit at
“It’s a lot worse when it’s the the peak, but some came away from
general public.” the wild ride with a bit of extra cash.
It seemed like a gold rush - until the One small business owner told
price began to sink. Sky News he wasn’t quite ready to
“There was a lot of people trying dissolve his business. Despite his
to work out how they can get in four losses, he hoped his experience would
days before the big crash,” Halford- be of benefit to potential customers
Thompson said. - although he wasn’t prepared to
“I saw a lot of companies get identify himself or his business.
involved when the hype was building. Last December, the interest in
There are a lot of issues in that whole Bitcoin seemed divorced from any
sector. knowledge about the technology
price first spiked to about £250 early “What you’ve had since the crash underpinning it - other than the name.
in that year, and later that year spiked is a clean-out of the companies that Shares in an unprofitable company
to £1,200.” don’t really have much and probably called Long Island Iced Tea soared up
When the December spike came shouldn’t have been there in the first to 289% when it renamed itself Long
round, he went abroad and didn’t place.” Blockchain - although that company
have access to his funds to sell them Bitcoin shed half of its peak value by was subsequently de-listed from the
at the peak, which he describes as “a March 2018 and has continued to fall, Nasdaq stock, and has now been
shame” - but even then there were a fall matched by an increase in the issued with a subpoena by the U.S.
other people looking to enter the number of companies being dissolved. Securities and Exchange Commission.
market. By June, Bitcoin was less than a Of the businesses which haven’t
“There was a lot of people getting third of its peak value, and an average been dissolved, Sky News has
in, and I think for the first time I felt of one company was being dissolved found more than 50 which have
there were a large number of people every day. changed their names to no-longer
who really didn’t understand what Since then Bitcoin’s value has reference Bitcoin, blockchain, or
they were getting into as well. continued to sink to less than a fifth cryptocurrencies.
“So every Uber driver I had either of its peak value, and 60% of the The chief executive of one business
had invested or was thinking about it. 340 companies dissolved in 2018 said this was because opening a bank
“I had people asking me genuinely ceased operations between June and account with one of those words in the
which coin to put their children’s November. company name proved a nightmare
university funds into. That’s not good. For the first time, the number - although Sky News identified
“I didn’t follow up with them, but I of newly-registered companies is hundreds of other businesses with
hope they didn’t,” Halford-Thompson growing more slowly than the number similar titles.
added. of dissolved businesses.
“For the first time a lot of normal Speaking to small business owners

Jan. 18 - 24 2019 21
news analysis

Understanding Blockchain
Bitcoin is often confused with blockchain which is
the technology on which the cryptocurrency is based
By Morris Borris Atugonza are added to a block. Each block contains a ers/nodes. This means there is no third

A
unique code called a `hash’. It also contains party to trust and pay a fee to.
blockchain is a database that is the hash of the previous block in the chain.  Unbreakable and security:
shared across a network of com- Any change in the block or information Blockchain technology is secured with
puters. Once a record has been generates an entirely new hash. cryptographic techniques making it near
added to the chain it is very dif- impossible for hacking or illicit changing of
ficult to change it. Records are bundled STEP FOUR data. The only illicit way to make changes
together into blocks and added to the chain The block is added to the blockchain. The would be to hack more than half of the
one after another. The basic parts of block- hash codes connect the blocks together in a nodes in the blockchain since the database
chain comprise `the record’; that is any specific order. cannot be changed without more than half
information - for example a deal, `the block’, of the network agreeing, which again, is
which is a bundle of records, and `the chain’ Difference between block chain and why it is more secure to have more nodes/
which is the blocks linked together. traditional ledgers computers running the blockchain.
 Trust and transparency
Here’s how a deal gets included in a The way that traditional (non-blockchain) Trust occurs due to the shared database
blockchain: ledgers work is very similar to the way you where everyone can view the full details
would share a Microsoft Word document. of the transactions within it; including the
STEP ONE While you are editing the document, every- original source, date, time and the destina-
body else is locked out and cannot make tion of the transaction.
A trade is recorded. For example, X is changes. Once you have finished making  Cost-effective
selling two of his coins to Y for Shs10,000. your changes, you send it out. Then it can Blockchain is a trusted peer-to-peer
The record lists the details, including a digi- be changed further. When another party network so it removes the need for a cen-
tal signature from each party. works on the document, you too are locked tral third party hence eliminates the costs
out and cannot make changes until they are rewuired for a third party.
STEP TWO finished and send it back to you. In a block- This was further attested to by Patrick
The record is checked by the network. chain system, however, all users can view Mweheire , Chairman of Uganda Banker’s
The computers in the network, called the changes while they are being made. Association and Stanbic Bank managing
‘nodes’, check the details of the trade to director. He said banks could adopt block-
make sure it is valid. The nodes on the net- Characteristics and advantages of chain technology to lower operational costs
work work together to verify transactions blockchain and risks. In an interview, Mweheire told
and are rewarded with the blockchain’s Daily Monitor that besides the risks associ-
currency; a process known as `mining’. The  Decentralisation: ated with blockchain technology, there are
miners are rewarded for their work. It cov- Blockchain requires no central server to certain aspects which are ideal for the bank-
ers their running costs (electricity and main- store the data, which means it is not central- ing sector. Aspects such as data processing,
tenance etc.) and a profit. ised. This is what makes the blockchain so settlements and payments and anything
powerful. Instead of the server being stored that reduces costs and risks.
STEP THREE in one place, it is stored on the blockchain A number of operational costs feed into
The records that the network accepted and is powered by many different comput- bank accounts, which Mweheire said could

22 Jan. 18 - 24 2019
news analysis
be eliminated by blockchain technology.  value-added step. This way the brand does Cloud Storage
“Banks face high operational cost of up to not take the backlash. Companies that have
70 per cent. Therefore, if there is a way we tried this include provenance and skuchain.  With the connectivity of various com-
can eliminate them, why not?” he said, indi- puter systems, block chains avails unlimited
cating that the banking sector was ready to Healthcare Cloud storage. One company, Storj is offer-
adopt some areas of blockchain technology.  With blockchain, medical history could ing secure cloud storage using this applica-
According to the 2017 financial results be securely stored and controlled by tion. Average users get to store data while
Stanbic spent close to Shs400 billion on patients. on the other hand significantly reducing the
operational costs; among them employee cost of data storage data for companies and
costs, premises costs, franchise fees, and IT Voting any other personal users.
expenses.  Blockchain records could create tamper-
Mweheire said Stanbic uses Shs40 billion on proof election returns. There is also unin- Crowdfunding
ICT, which could reduce through the use of terrupted voting in business and transac- Crowdfunding is the practice of fund-
blockchain technology. tions. As such the latest, fastest, consensus ing a project or venture by raising small 
Availability model is Delegated Proof of Stake (dpos). amounts of money from a large number of
Blockchain peer-to-peer network elimi- “dpos leverages the power of stakeholder people typically via the internet. Innova-
nates the central point of failure; hence even approval voting to resolve consensus issues tions such as kickstater and Gofundme
if a computer breaks down or leaves the in a fair and democratic way. All network suggest that people want to have a direct
network, there are other computers that parameters, from fee schedules to block say in product development. Blockcahin
will keep the network running. This is most intervals and transaction sizes, can be takes this to the next level by potentially
applicable in hospital and taxation servers tuned via elected delegates. Deterministic creating crowd-sourced venture capital
where data needs to be accessed at all times selection of block producers allows transac- funds. A good example of these would be
and shared across the entire network. tions to be confirmed in an average of just participants purchasing tokens allowing
1 second. Perhaps most importantly, the them to vote on a smart contract venture
Applications of blockchain consensus protocol is designed to protect all capital investment. Voting power is appro-
participants against unwanted regulatory priated according to the tokens held. This
Cryptocurrencies interference.” system was used in the 2016 Decentralised
The first and foremost known use of Autonomous Organisation that was Ethe-
blockchain technology is cryptocurrencies Property records reum based.
such as bitcoin, onecoin to mention but a Storing land records on a blockchain
few of the 1,600 crypto currencies avail- could cut down on costly title research and Intellectual Property.
able to-date. Bitcoin is often confused with insurance. In politically unstable places, Digital information can be easily repro-
blockchain. Bitcoin is a digital currency and it could help prove ownership. This has duced and likely distributed. However with
blockchain is the technology on which the evolved into the new form of real estate blockchain smart contracts we can have
currency is based. record keeping. Block chain could come in protection of copyright and automate the
handy in the process of land registration. sale of creative work on the internet. One
How does bitcoin work? This provides publically accessible legers. such system is Mycelia that uses block-
Bitcoin was the first cryptocurrency to Many countries are picking up this idea for chain to create a peer to peer distribution of
use blockchain technology. It acts as a store example Netherlands, Sweden, and Geor- music. Mycelia enables musicians sell songs
of value. It allows for peer-to-peer transac- gia. directly to the listener as well as provide
tions that do not need a third party, such as license samples to producers all automated
paypal or a bank. The bitcoin blockchain is a Smart Contracts by smart contracts and crypotcurrency.
database (known as a “ledger”) that consists  Smart contracts are “self-automated
only of bitcoin transaction records. There is computer programs that can carry out the Anti-Money Laundering and Know
no central location that holds the database, terms of any contract. This means this is your Customer
instead it is shared across a huge network financial security (mainly cryptocurrency)
of computers. So, for new transactions to that is held in escrow by a network Every financial institution must perform
be added to the database, the nodes must and is to be routed to recipients based due diligence for your Know You Custom-
agree that the transaction is real and valid. on future events, and computer code. er process as demanded by the Financial
Smart contracts enable businesses to Institutions Act section 7 as amended in
Banking bypass regulations and lower the costs 2016. Furthermore all financial institu-
Financial institutions have been invest- for common financial transactions. tions are to avail account information on
ing in blockchains to simplify their record- These contracts come with the security demand and when it exceeds a specific
keeping for payments. of blockchains i.e. they are unbreakable amount in a bid to fight money launder-
and without third party interference. ing to the Financial Intelligence Authority
Supply chain Best example of smart contract would be (Section 18 Anti money Laundering Act).
Recording trades on a blockchain offers the release of the Ethereum project. The This process is labour intensive and can
a way to check the history of a product. Ethereum project could be defined as “a be reduced through cross institution client
For example, jewelry companies hope it decentralised platform that runs smart verification. A start up known as Tradle is
can assure customers that diamonds are contracts: applications that run exactly developing an application known as Trust
not from places where they could finance as programmed without any possibility in Motion (TiM) that allows customers to
war. Considering that most products on the of downtime, censorship, fraud or third take snapshots of key document such as
market are not made by one single entity party interference. One company called passports, utility bills. Once verified by the
rather by a chain of suppliers who sell their Slock uses an Ethereum-enabled platform bank, this document is cryptographically
components. Using blockchain technol- to allow customers to rent bicycles where stored on the blockchain.
ogy would “proactively provide digitally they can unlock a smart lock after both
permanent, audit-able records that show parties agreed on the terms of the contract. Morris Borris Atugonza is a law student at
stakeholders the state of the product at each Makerere University

Jan. 18 - 24 2019 23
interview

Buganda wants autonomy
and self-determination
The voluminous 520-page book, `Protection, Patronage or Plunder? British Machinations and (B)
uganda’s Struggle for Independence’, by Apollo Nelson Makubuya; the 3rd Deputy Prime Minister
(Katikkiro) and Minister for Justice and Constitutional Affairs of the kingdom of Buganda, has
attracted a lot of attention. He spoke to The Independent’s Agnes E Nantaba about it and more.

A lot has been written about how colonial has continued to play a significant role not and believes in the system which makes it
rule impacted on Uganda’s politics and only because of the size of its population, a legitimate system compared to systems in
economics. What new strands does the but also because of its centrality, geography, which people don’t have much confidence.

T
book present? business, and politics. Many things have Our country has been unstable since
his book is unique. The author is an rotated around Buganda. Buganda has been 1966 and even after 1986; there hasn’t been
indigenous Ugandan and Muganda, at the heart of Uganda, contributing to the absolute peace and harmony. As
so it offers a perspective of a native stability, peace, and prosperity. Buganda, we continue to
who appreciates the perspective agitate for some form of
from within as opposed to researchers How has politics impacted on Bu- autonomy and self-
outside. It also relies on material that hasn’t ganda’s contribution to Uganda’s determination which
been in the public domain; I spent a long growth economically? our colleagues in
time in the national archives of UK which If it weren’t for the problems the central govern-
many people don’t have access to. There are that we suffered between 1964 ment and other
new angles on personalities, secret missions and 1966 and all the war period; parts of the coun-
that the British had, the role of both British Buganda’s growth and that of try either don’t
and Uganda personalities behind the scenes Uganda would have been appreciate or just
in collaboration with the British or other Af- phenomenal. Because of the don’t want. This
ricans in advancing certain interests - most gap of leadership between form of under-
times personal interests which is not much 1966 and 1993 when the lying tension
different from what we see today. kingdom was restored, we inhibits unity
lost time and opportunities. In
The book dwells on the ‘Buganda Ques- Buganda, a large part of the
tion’ as an issue that cannot disappear population supports
from the records of Uganda’s history. How the Kabaka
best can the question be addressed?
I think it should be the `Uganda ques-
tion’ because when you characterise it as a
`Buganda question’, it makes other people
think that we take ourselves to be special.
We are not just another part of Uganda but
we have a history that predates Uganda. It
is, therefore, a Uganda problem because of
how Uganda was created and divided at
birth. There are problems in other parts of
the country, so we can’t isolate the question
to Buganda. It’s a bundle of questions; like
national integration, leadership, founda-
tions of colonial legacy which per-
petuate the divisions and continued
dependency on Britain. We have a
paradox of being a democratic and
independent country in name
but not in reality.

What is Buganda’s role
in the greater social and
economic status of the
Uganda?
The kingdom of Buganda
is a constituent part of
Uganda and has a long his-
tory that predates Uganda. It

24 Jan. 18 - 24 2019
interview
and harmonious development at national dom in this struggle?
level. That is why in this book, I discuss the If it were implemented as it was initially
question and challenges of national inte- intended, it would have been very effective

Buganda
gration. When the British created Uganda, in getting us back as a kingdom. The agree-
they had their own mission, interests and ment was made more than five years ago

has been
agenda which thrived on divided Uganda. and if you look at the assets returned, it has
Many decades later, there is a way in which been implemented in an erratic, piecemeal

at the heart
even in post-colonial Uganda we continue and incomplete way and that is why from
to live with divide and rule. Buganda has time to time, we have gone back to the Pres-

of Uganda,
sometimes been misunderstood to be selfish ident to demand outstanding arrears and
and not care about the rest of the country implementation of the agreement.

contributing
but when you look at the facts, Baganda is
not just a tribe but a nation that incorpo- Land is one of the prevailing problems in

to the stability,
rates people from all ethnic backgrounds. Buganda and Uganda. How does the book
We have welcomed people who now own address the land problem?
land and this cannot be seen in many other The book addresses the origins of land
parts of the country. If we had continued in
the spirit of inclusiveness and building our
peace, and distribution starting with the 1900 agree-
ment and the designs of the British division
traditional institutions, our country would
have advanced much faster. There is need
prosperity and allocation of land. Eventually some
people were dispossessed of their land
to revisit the role of traditional and cultural and the land went to be owned by some
institutions in the new era. We have tried powerful landed gentry or protectorate
decentralisation and national republic unity government at the expense of the peasantry
which hasn’t served us well as a country. and that scheme has continued to date. In
That is why 56 years after independence agreements, they would take away resourc- Buganda we have a problem of Bibanja
people still talk about national dialogue. es; including land. In the case of Buganda holders who don’t have access to land titles
We need to come together and agree on 1900 agreement, Britain took over control and those who have acquired land eventu-
how best to live together. This history and of over 50 percent of all the land includ- ally using force to evict occupants. I address
how it is problematic is covered in the book. ing crown land. That is plunder. Beyond that history in the book with some of the
When Uganda was being created by the plunder, they used patronage and influence proposed solutions to deal with the prob-
British colonialists, the foundations were to compromise leaders of the time both in lem. For instance, we can’t have multiple
undemocratic, militaristic and unaccount- Buganda and in other parts. The military layers of ownership on the same land so
able to the people. They supported impu- coups in Uganda didn’t start in 1971 (Idi there is bound to be conflict. That crisis will
nity by deporting the Kabaka. Post- colonial Amin) but right from when King Mwanga continue unless something is done about it.
regimes have built on those foundations. was ousted from his seat (1888), also in
That is why we have so much military at the 1953 was another military coup led by Sir What is your take on the move by the
centre of politics. If we are to embark on the Andrew Cohen who forcefully removed British parliament to debate the issue of
new future, we need to address those issues. Muteesa and deported him to UK. The democracy in Uganda?
history of forceful, undemocratic and mili- We live in a global world where issues of
The book gives an insight into how British taristic takeover of traditional governments lack of democracy concern people in a glo-
Protectorate administrators deliberately laid a foundation for what happened later balised environment and like Martin Luther
“plundered” and disempowered Buganda on in 1966. said, injustice to anyone is injustice to all
Kingdom. How was this done? and so to that extent, I don’t have a problem
The first people who visited Uganda What impact has patronage, plunder and with the discussions. However, by having
were explorers; then missionaries. Within protectionism had on Buganda’s political the British parliament discuss democracy
the missionaries, there were divisions that and economic standing to date? in Uganda shows continued interest. Why
were planted in the country; others were I make the case that when the British would they be discussing democracy in
advancing agenda for Protestantism, first came to Buganda, they were amazed Uganda yet we can’t discuss the same?
Catholicism or Islam. These were fol- at the level of organisation as a society with These are other new forms of influence
lowed by proper colonial masters; some form of government, a leader with the which are being maintained. So it is impor-
starting with Captain Lugard of Lukiiko or council was quite impressive at tant that we understand those forces and
the IBEACO. The idea was to the time. Buganda had people in different find a way of working around them so that
extract, exploit and subjugate fields and the society was on a move. How- we don’t continue to limit development.
the people so that they can ever, by the time the British left, Baganda
serve British interests. were on their knees because, all over sud- Some palace officials say that you are
There was forced labour den, we were incorporated in the new thing tipped to replace Charles Peter Mayiga as
and paying taxes with- called Uganda where everybody looked Kingdom Premier. What is your take on
out accountability to at us as a threat and vice versa. Before we this?
serve the protectorate knew it, the Buganda kingdom was abol- Our focus should not be on who leads.
regime. The surplus ished in 1967. The kingdom that was on We should support the leader and work
would go to Europe. the rise was down. That is why we are still with the central government and the rest
During the first and struggling to re-energise and rebuild as a of the country to advance unity so that we
second world war, kingdom. stop being the back waters of Africa and
our fore fathers revive the glorious history. We are all under
were asked to pay Buganda wants back its expropriated as- the King and it’s his prerogative to choose
to support the wars sets and progress was made with the 2013 whom he wants.
of imperialism and Ebyaffe agreement. What opportunities
through dubious does the agreement present to the king-

Jan. 18 - 24 2019 25
Weatherford is among the 1700 companies that have been vetted by the Petroleum Authority of Uganda to render services in the Industry.  COURTESY PHOTO

Chinese, French firms top foreign
oil and gas suppliers’ database
What Chinese, French domination of Uganda’s oil and gas
supplier database means for Ugandan entrepreneurs

A
By Ronald Musoke Mineral Development said recently, “Let us bilities of qualified Ugandan and foreign
be part of the process.” companies in the sector in order to enhance
s pressure to develop key Senior government officials say if exploit- transparency in the procurement process.
upstream infrastructure ed well, Uganda’s oil and gas industry has PAU also intends to uphold the legal
picks up with billions of dol- the potential to boost the competitiveness of requirements on local content, unless the
lars expected to pour into the home grown businesses while stimulating joint oil venture partners demonstrate that
Ugandan economy starting nationwide development. there are no Ugandan entities that meet the
this year, focus is now turn- For a country whose current GDP is standards before going for foreign compa-
ing onto who is likely to take home the big- US$27bn, government officials say it is nies.
gest chunk of the oil dollars. critical to retain a significant portion of this This means that Ugandan suppliers inter-
The government has over the last three investment in the country. ested in providing goods and services to the
years been asking Ugandan entrepreneurs Peninah Aheebwa, the technical support fledgling oil and gas sector are also required
to register on the national oil and gas sup- service director at the Petroleum Authority to build partnerships with their internation-
plier database if they intend to take a share of Uganda (PAU), said during the launch al counterparts if they are to fully partici-
of the US$20 bn that is expected to be sunk of the database in 2017, that there are up to pate in the multi-billion dollar opportunities
into a wide range of infrastructure projects, 26 services ring-fenced for Ugandan entre- expected in the next couple of years.
including; an export pipeline, an oil refin- preneurs including; transportation, work The Uganda Chamber of Mines and
ery, a products pipeline, an international safety products, road construction, security Petroleum has in the recent past consistently
airport and a myriad other oil field projects and hospitality. These are the sectors that advised local suppliers to partner with
in western Uganda. are less technical and where local capacity national players to enhance their capabilities
“We have been telling the Ugandan pri- exists. The suppliers’ database is to help the as the oil and gas sector is a capital intensive
vate sector, don’t let this money pass us by,” government know the experience and capa- business. But can this aspiration be realized
Irene Muloni, the Minister of Energy and

26 Jan. 18 - 24 2019
business
considering recent develop- Rubondo told The Independent ensure that every company is fer pricing.”
ments on the National Oil Sup- recently. given a fair chance of getting Transfer pricing refers to
pliers’ Data Base? “The announcements are the deals. the terms and conditions sur-
made both in country and inter- “The pre-qualifications for rounding transactions in a
French, Chinese firms join nationally; so all companies procurement are normally the multi-national firm. It concerns
the dance across the world are welcome.” same whether the potential the prices charged between
An investigation by The Inde- Rubondo said joint venture supplier is from China, France associated enterprises estab-
pendent has found that of the partners have to undertake a or wherever,” she said. lished in different countries for
more than 1700 firms that the procurement process which the Sector observers, however, their inter-company transac-
Petroleum Authority approved authority sees. say oil companies prefer to use tions which at times can prove
in June, last year, to do business “They have to demonstrate the service providers that they difficult to reconcile for host
in Uganda’s oil and gas indus- that they have advertised have worked with for the last government technocrats.
try; close to 300 are French, Brit- publicly (nationally and inter- 4—50 years. “We need to be mindful
ish and Chinese in origin. nationally) and so even if there Don Bwesigye Binyina, about how strong our trans-
A section of observers say might be more French and Chi- the executive director of the fer pricing regulations are to
this could be a big handicap for nese companies on the national African Centre for Energy and ensure that the dealings of these
Ugandan entrepreneurs con- supplier database, the process Mineral Policy (ACEMP), a home-based companies and the
sidering that the joint venture of identifying the company to Kampala-based non-profit told JV partners are at arm’s length,”
partners currently overseeing Binyina says, “As long as you
the development of the infra- have weak transfer pricing
structure have either worked Countries with the biggest number of companies laws, quite often you will
have a lot of money being
with them in similar projects on Uganda’s oil & gas supplier database spent without being account-
elsewhere or come from their
home countries. ed for and yet it is money that
Uganda
For instance, the China Off- has to be cost.”
shore Oil Engineering Com- China

pany Ltd (COOEC), is a sub- United Kingdom
Possible solutions
sidiary of CNOOC that won Going forward, observ-
and implemented last year
France ers say there is need to do a
the contract to do a front end Tanzania
follow-up and see how and
engineering design study for with whom the joint venture
the Kingfisher oil field on the
South Africa partners are doing their busi-
southern tip of Lake Albert—a Kenya nesses.
project that is under CNOOC. But Aheebwa told The
Italy
Fred Muhumuza, an econo- Independent that the author-
mist at Makerere University United Arab Emirates ity has already anticipated
says the strong showing of The Netherlands
the challenge and it has put
French, Chinese and British in place mechanisms to deal
firms on the national oil and
Russia with issues relating to transfer
gas database speaks to the fact United States of America pricing in case a joint venture
that the JV partners are here partner prefers to use its sub-
for business.
Mauritius sidiary.
“Uganda’s local content is Germany “We already have several
mainly at the level of politi- mechanisms which include
0 300 600 900 1200 1500
cal rhetoric because we have an elaborate system whereby
very weak enterprises in the
No. of Suppliers before any JV partner spends
Source: 2017 National Supplier Database (Petroleum Authority of Uganda website) they must first agree with
country which might struggle
competing with foreign-based PAU on the relevance of the
companies,” he said. activities,” she says adding
But does the domination do the work is still open.” The Independent on Jan.11 that it “Once we have agreed on the
of Chinese, French and even is clear that the oil companies relevance, we have to agree on
British companies worry the Foreign firms dominating are always likely to transact the budgeting.”
Authority executives? database isn’t a surprise with home-country affiliated She said in instances where
“Not really,” says Ernest Similarly, Aheebwa, told The companies. the joint venture partners
Rubondo, the executive director Independent that it is not surpris- “Quite often, you will notice intend to use an affiliate, the
of the Petroleum Authority of ing that the response of compa- that CNOOC is may be doing Authority will require them to
Uganda, “The PAU is supposed nies intending to do business business with the Chinese produce a certificate from an
to ensure that the best compa- in Uganda’s oil sector has come company registered on the auditor saying that the rate they
nies are selected to offer goods from the home countries of the national supplier database and will give their affiliate is at “no
and services, and not where JV partners. the French companies will be gain, no loss.”
they come from.” She said this is due to the dealing with Total while the “We also require them to
“The national suppliers’ data fact that besides the authority UK companies are more likely prove that if they were going
base is an open system and the spreading the news to poten- to work with Tullow.” to use a third party the rate
Petroleum Authority of Ugan- tial suppliers both locally and However, Binyina told The would be the same or relatively
da’s role is to announce that in internationally, the JV partners Independent that the prolifera- the same. At the end of it all,
order to do business in Ugan- have also been encouraged to tion of companies on the data- we will work with the Auditor
da’s oil and gas industry, an do this promotion in their own base with some being affiliated General to ascertain that what-
entity must be registered on the countries. to the JV partners is most likely ever has been done, there has
national suppliers’ database,” She, however, said PAU will to bring in an element of “trans- been value for money.”

Jan. 18 - 24 2019 27
business

Xsabo Group to boost
Uganda’s electricity sector
The firm plans to invest US$200million in solar project

By Julius Businge

X
sabo Group plans to invest
US$200million in the generation
of solar power to supply to the
national grid, according to its
Managing Director and Chief Executive
Officer, David Alobo.
Alobo, who on Jan. 10, together with
President Yoweri Museveni and Vice
President, Edward Ssekandi, unveiled the
first 20MW solar plant in Kabulasoke in
Gomba District worth US$24.5million, said
the firm in partnership with the Dutch-
based Great Lakes Energy Company N.V,
plans to generate 150MW to the national
grid in the next few years.
He said the company plans to
implement similar projects in Soroti
(50MW), Mubende (50MW), Kasese
(20MW), and Lira (10MW). The expensive to stimulate industrial growth. Uganda’s peak demand for electricity that
development work in Mubende is This development comes as the ERA was recorded at around 600MW as at the
expected to commence in April this year revealed plans to commission a 10MW end of last year.
followed up with Soroti and others. solar plant in Mayuge District, eastern Simon D’Ujanga, the state minister for
“This is just the beginning; we have the Uganda. energy and mineral development said the
money ready,” he said. “We are doing In 2016, two companies – Access country will have 120MW of solar energy
this out of patriotism and love for our dear Power and PV Power Company Limited connected to the national grid as at the end
country and our dear people.” launched 10MW solar plants each in Soroti of this year.
The Kabulasoke power project sits on and Tororo respectively. The two plants, “We want to use solar to enhance
a 120 acre piece of land with a 20-year however, were developed under the Global electricity access in rural areas,” he said,
generation concession issued by the Energy Transfer Feed in Tariff (“GET FiT”), “These investors are complementing
industry regulator, Electricity Regulatory a support scheme for renewable energy government efforts of supporting
Authority. projects managed by Germany’s KfW industrialisation and socio-economic
Alobo said households that surround Development Bank in partnership with the development.”
the projects would benefit through Electricity Regulatory Agency (ERA).
land compensation and free electricity The Kabulasoke solar project comes The President’s view
connectivity to the nearby schools and at the time the government plans to President Museveni said at the launch
health centres. commission the 183MW Isimba and that as the country increases electricity
“The general idea behind these projects the 600MW Karuma hydropower dams generation, user tariffs currently ranging
is to generally support investments, power sometime this year. The government plans between Shs350-700kWh for the various
industries which are instrumental in to set the cost of electricity from these categories of consumers would gradually
supporting growth of the economy,” he dams at US$4-5 cents per kWh. reduce.
said. Sector analysts say the completion of He also said households should get
He, however, said there is a lot of 150MW solar power project will make ready and tap into the new opportunities
bureaucracy in the process of acquiring a tangible contribution to increasing in the frontline sectors of information and
generation licenses and investment permits the country’s installed electricity communication technologies, commercial
and a lot of resistance fronted by area generation capacity that stood at 955MW agriculture, and industry and services
residents with backing from politicians. (hydropower, thermo) as at the end of given that the problem of electricity is
The company would sell its electricity to last year amidst growing demand from being tackled.
Uganda Electricity Distribution Company domestic and commercial consumers. The government would also continue
Limited at U$11cents.This cost, however, is Analysts are backing continued to support households to improve their
the same as that of electricity generated at investments in the electricity sector as income through operation wealth creation
Bujagali Hydropower dam in Jinja, which more investors enter Uganda’s market. programme, Museveni said.
some sector experts have described as too This is expected to cause an increase in

28 Jan. 18 - 24 2019
business

COMESA trade barriers
Experts call for harmonisation of standards within the trading bloc
By Julius Businge policy. services for good agricultural cultural products.

T
She said it is on the basis of and manufacturing practices. According to available sta-
he Common Market for trade policy that the govern- Uganda’s National Develop- tistics, trade volumes in the
Eastern and Southern ment has made tremendous ment Plan (NDPII) 2015/16- COMESA region grew by 5% in
Africa bloc presents strides in the formulation of 2019/20 recognises agriculture 2016 with total exports amount-
huge opportunities for plans, policies, laws and regula- and trade sectors as some of the ing to US$471bn.
businesses but a number of tions that provide for protection key drivers for private sector But intra COMESA trade
challenges remain. of human, animal and plant life led economic growth. remains low relative to other
Delegates from Kenya, and health – all geared towards Currently, the sector employs regions stagnating at around
Uganda, Rwanda, Ethiopia and improving the competitive- around 70% of the population 11% of total COMESA exports
Malawi said at a recent meet- ness of Uganda’s products in and contributes around 26% to (2016) and with the majority of
ing in Kampala that despite the COMESA. national GDP. traded products being with low
availability of the US$682billion value addition.
market and a population of Over 90% of the member
slightly over half a billion states trade with other parts of
people, a cocktail of challenges the world.
including low awareness on Although intra Comesa
sanitary and phytosanitary trade is low, Cheluget said,
(SPS) obligations and responsi- there is potential trade worth
bilities, weaknesses in the legal US$82bn.
and policy frameworks are hin- “So we must work out
dering trade within the bloc. how to realise that enormous
SPS measures are mandatory potential,” he said.
requirements instituted by gov- Richard Kamajugo from
ernments in the COMESA bloc Trademark East Africa said
to protect human, animal and that government and devel-
plant health; they take the form opment partners should
of legislation, inspection, test- take lead in ensuring quality
ing requirements and border Kyambadde (L) together with Ambassador Kipyego Cheluget attending standards of goods by imple-
controls which are all linked to the COMESA meeting at the Kampala Serena Hotel. menting the policy and legal
trade. frameworks that are in place.
Other challenges discussed She listed them as; the Kyambadde said non- “We will work closely with
include; inadequate capacity to National Agriculture Policy compliance with SPS mea- COMESA to enhance trade,”
negotiate equivalence, mutual 2013, the National Trade Policy sures recently cost COMESA he said, “we will get in this area
recognition agreements for 2008, The Foods and Drugs Act, countries tremendous export with the same zeal and energy
market access and weak coor- 1964, The Public Health Act opportunities, both at the intra- that we have invested in other
dination amongst government 1969, The Plant Protection and regional and the international areas.”
institutions. Health Act, 2015, The Animal level. Daniel Njiwa, a consultant
Also, agriculture trade flows Diseases Act 2006, The National “Recently fruits and veg- for COMESA said that dealing
– one of the largest trading sec- Food Safety Strategic plan etables worth US$60million with trade barriers in the bloc
tor – is characterised by high 2006-2016, The Agricultural from 53 firms holding export would require governments to
levels of informality estimated Chemical control Act, 2006, The license were intercepted and involve the people in the for-
at over 70% as well as a rigid Public Health Act 2000, and The rejected by the European Union mulation process of the policies
policy and centralised regulato- National Drug Act, 2000. due to lack of compliance with and laws regarding standards.
ry framework that discourages However, Kyambadde said sanitary and phytosanitary He also said government
smooth flow of products. discussing the challenges and standards,” she said. agencies need to strengthen
These challenges were pre- having the legal framework The Assistant Secretary Gen- coordination in addition to
sented by several discussants without real solutions to the eral in charge of Programmes at harmonising of standards for
including Martha Byanyima problems would not help. COMESA secretariat, Ambas- agricultural inputs as well as a
from the COMESA secretariat, She suggested that there sador Kipyego Cheluget said all supportive tax regime.
Doris Kiconco, Paul Omanyi is need for member states to the 21 member states are heav- Daniel Birungi, the executive
and Gilbert Sebutare – all from formulate and amend relevant ily dependent on fisheries and director of Uganda Manufactur-
the Uganda’s Ministry of Agri- policies related to post-harvest agriculture and thus should ers Association said that there
culture Animal Husbandry and handling, production, market- address the constraints. is need for strengthening col-
Fisheries. ing and transportation; building He said there is low compli- laboration between government
Amelia Kyambadde, the institutional capacity in the ance to standards by small and and the private sector, investing
minister of trade, who was the local governments, private sec- medium enterprises which heavily in storage facilities in
chief guest, said sanitary and tor, producer groups; investing undermines industry competi- addition to quick implementa-
phytosanitary standards are in laboratories, sensitisation of tiveness, trade facilitation and tion of trade related decisions
a crucial dimension of trade farmers and boosting extension market access for food and agri- made by the governments.

Jan. 18 - 24 2019 29
Business
fuel aviation

Board approves Kenol Kobil sale to French firm Emirates targets travelers

D
until February 18 to accept or decline the of- ubai based Emirates is targeting
fer, according to reports from Kenya’s local to win hearts of more travelers
dailies. “After deliberations and on the basis with special 2019 fares in Uganda
of independent financial advice, the direc- for those planning to travel to
tors (of KenolKobil) are recommending to destinations in Europe, Far East, South
the shareholders of the company that they Asia and Americas. The offer applies to
should accept the takeover offer by Rubis bookings made from January 7-21 for those
Energie,” Kenol Kobil chairman, James travelling between Jan.13 – 30. Economy
Mathenge said in a statement. The French Class passengers will pay a minimum of
firm already owns a 25% stake in Kenol $745 to Europe, $749 to the Far East, $1,019
Kobil that it bought from Wells Petroleum to the Americas and $549 to South Asia.
in October 2018. Rubis has proposed to pay Business Class passengers would enjoy

T
Ksh23 a share for the remaining 75% stake, fares starting $2,670 to Europe, $2,580 to the
he board of the regional oil mar- valuing the company at Kshs Sh35.7 billion Far East, $3,405 to the Americas and $1,980
keter, Kenol Kobil, has approved the Rubis already operates in 12 African coun- to South Asia. The Airline said in a notice
proposed takeover of the firm by tries in the mid and downstream oil market, that its special fares will help travelers have
the French based company, Rubis but has no presence in the Eastern and Cen- a flying start to 2019.
Energie. The shareholders, however, have tral Africa region.

telecom paint

Telcos to list 30% AkzoNobel unveils paint challenge

C
stake on stock market alling all startups, scale- the Future offers winners passionate about what we do

U
ups, entrepreneurs the opportunity to accelerate and always looking ahead.
ganda will and innovators! The commercialization of their Now, we are looking to go
expect major first edition of Paint solution. The Netherland-based even further, painting the
telecommunication the Future - the AkzoNobel firm is the owner of Sadolin future together with the
companies startup challenge is now open Paint brand in the world. “We world’s coolest innovators.”
operating in the country and ready to discover new can’t wait to see what exciting The challenge is unveiled in
to list 30% of their stock and revolutionary solutions developments this collaborative partnership with KPMG and
on the local bourse under that will accelerate innovation experience brings to the paints focuses on five key areas:
a new policy intended to in the world of paints and and coatings industry,” says Smart application, enhanced
align operations in the coatings. Spearheaded by the AkzoNobel CEO, Thierry functionality, circular solutions,
sector with market realities. company’s Chief Technology Vanlancker. “We are driven to life science infusion and
256businessnews.com says Officer, Klaas Kruithof, Paint create value for our customers, predictable performance.
the target is the two major
mobile telephone players csr
pr

PR firm brainchild Burson-Marsteller rebrands NSSF blood campaign
– MTN and Airtel that

A
control 92% of the Ugandan
s part of its corporate

U
telecom market. Under the
policy that was adopted by ganda’s public rela- captivating brand campaigns social responsibility
cabinet last September and tions firm, brainchild and inventive experiences to the function, the National
will guide the sector for Burson-Marsteller, has Ugandan companies looking Social Security Fund
(NSSF) kicked off its annual
the next five years, the ICT rebranded to brain- for full service integrated com-
countrywide blood donation
ministry sees listing as an child BCW (Burson Cohn & munication capabilities. Last
drive at Mulago hospital on
opportunity to boost local Wolfe), embracing the year, BCW Africa was
Jan.14.The Fund’s MD, Richard
ownership of the sector and identity of BCW, one named the African
Byarugaba said over 6,000 units
to dampen capital occasion of the world’s largest Network of the Year
of blood would be collected this
by repatriation of profits and full-service com- for the third succes- year to support those in need of
dividends. Listing on the munications agency sive year at South Af- it. “We are one of the organisa-
local bourse, will become and Africa’s largest rica’s PRISM Awards tions that have a footprint across
a licensing condition for PR network. The while Cohn & Wolfe the country or whose business
incumbent and prospective development comes was awarded the affects a wider population. We
telecommunications on the back of the Global Agency of the are passionate about the com-
operators in the sector that 2018 global merger of Year by the Holmes munities we serve and believe a
boasted 23.6 million mobile Burson-Marsteller and Report at the Global healthy community is critical for
telephone subscribers by Cohn & Wolfe. Walter Wafula, SABRE Awards. Similarly, the fulfilment of our mandate.
June 2017. This similar the head of business unit at brainchild BCW was awarded That is why we are committing
action has been taken in brainchild BCW in Uganda said the Best Specialist Digital Com- resources and our office spaces
Ghana, Nigeria, Tanzania as partners in the BCW Africa, munications firm in Uganda by this week as donation collection
and Zambia. the new brand identity will Acquisition International Global points,” Byarugaba said amidst
enable them to better deliver Excellence Awards. other government officials.

30 Jan. 18 - 24 2019
Business

Power tariffs drop
By Patricia Akankwatsa in economic indicators.

U
Despite the slight drop in
ganda’s Electricity electricity tariffs, available
Regulatory Authority statistics indicates that it has
has slightly reduced consistently gone up.
the electricity tariffs For instance, an earlier
for the first quarter of 2019 analysis by The Independent
compared with preceding shows that the government
quarter but not enough to increased electricity tariffs by
stimulate industrial growth. over 22% over the past three
The latest consumer tariff years to 2016, with domestic
schedule shows that domes- consumers whose usage is
tic consumers will now pay more than 15 units per month
Shs718.9, down from Shs 771.1 paying an average of Shs635.2
per kWh, small scale indus- as at the end of 2016, up from
tries Shs 648.3, down from Shs Shs518.6 per KWh in 2014.
NSSF Managing Director, Richard Byarugaba (L) takes notes alongside 687 per kWh whereas medium Commercial consumers
other officials during the launch of the Fund’s annual countrywide blood industrial consumers will pay such as welders and water
donation drive at Mulago National Referral Hospital on January 14. The Shs 592.5, down from Shs pumps saw their electricity
campaign is expected to add over 6,000 units of blood to the National 615.3 per kWh. tariff increased by 20.7% to Shs
Blood Bank, according to Byarugaba.  Independent/Julius Businge Large scale industrial con- 570.6 per KWh while medium
sumers, who seem to be the and large industrial consumers
big beneficiaries in this new saw their tariffs increased from
tariff, will now pay Shs375.5, an average of Shs450.1 and
down from Shs 383.8 per kWh Shs308.5 per KWh in 2014 to
while tariffs for street lighting Shs526.7 and Shs355.8 in 2016,
dropped by nearly Shs51 to respectively during the same
Shs 701.9 per kWh. period.
The regulator, which This development comes
reviews electricity tariffs at as consumers eagerly wait for
the beginning of each quarter the commissioning of Isimba
taking into account changes and Karuma Hydropower
in the exchange rate, inflation dams this year, a move that
and fuel prices, said the slight is expected to drive electricity
drop in the electricity tariffs is tariffs downwards.
attributed to the improvement

The Director Financial Sector Deepening Rashmi Pillai, the IRA Acting
Director Market Research and Development Sande Protazio and Paul
Kavuma, Chief Executive Officer Uganda Insurers Association in discussion
after the launch of the Micro Insurance Challenge Fund at Protea Hotel,
Kampala. Three to five successful companies will secure a development
support of £100,000 each.   Courtesy Photo. Weekly share price movement (Jan. 14)
Security Jan. 14 Jan. 04 Movement
BATU 30,000 30000 00
BOBU 135 138 2.2
CENT 1,049 1,071 2.0
QCL 174 190 8.4
DFCU 822 822 00
EABL 5,941 6,313 5.8
EBL 1,346 1,242 7.7
JHL 15,135 15,259 0.8
KA 290 319 9.0
KCB 1,345 1,350 0.4
NIC 14 14 00
NMG 2,296 2,386 3.7
NVL 338 338 00
SBU 30 30 00
Andela Uganda Director, Jackie Ochola (middle) addressing over 50 information UCHM 31 29 6.8
technology experts at their headquarters on Bukoto Street, Kamwokya on Jan.14. UCL 19 19 00
Ochola said that 2019 will be a year for Andela to partner with ICT players and UMEME 300 320 6.2
government to boost the sector’s growth prospects.   Independent/Julius Businge ALSI -- -- --

Jan. 18 - 24 2019 31
Most people do not eat the amount of fibre needed to prevent key life-threatening illness, scientists say.

The superfood scientists say
can make you live longer
Experts say a diet high in fibre could cut heart disease, stroke

A
By Agencies “Our research indicates we should have who consumed the most fibre.
at least 25g to 29g of fibre from foods daily, A high-fibre diet also showed up to a 24%
diet rich in fibre found in although most of us currently consume less fall in rates of colorectal cancer, type 2 dia-
bread, pasta, wholegrain ce- than 20g of fibre daily,” said Dr Andrew betes, coronary heart disease and stroke.
reals and potatoes could cut Reynolds, lead author of the study. For every 1,000 participants in the 243
the risk of early death by up “Our findings provide convincing evi- studies and trials, the impact of consuming
to a third, a study suggests. dence for nutrition guidelines to focus on higher fibre intakes translates into 13 fewer
The review commissioned increasing dietary fibre and on replacing deaths and six fewer cases of coronary heart
by the World Health Organisation showed refined grains with whole grains. This disease when compared to those consuming
there was clear evidence people should reduces incidence risk and mortality from lower fibre diets.
increase their intake of fibre - which is a broad range of important diseases,” UK nutrition guidelines since 2015
found in high-carb foods - to reduce the risk said Professor Jim Mann, who co-led the recommend a daily fibre intake of 30g, but
of heart disease, stroke, diabetes and other research. only 9% of adults manage to reach this
chronic diseases. The team from the University of Otago target.
It has reignited debate – and confusion - in New Zealand looked at 185 clinical trials Professor Mann said the health benefits
on carbohydrates, which in the weight loss and 58 studies carried out during the last of dietary fibre - contained in foods such
world are considered “bad”. four decades involving more than a million as whole grains, pulses, vegetables and
According to the study’s authors, it is the people. fruit - come from its chemistry, physical
type, quality and quantity of carbohydrates Their analysis found up to a 30% reduc- properties, physiology and its effects on
in people’s diets that is important. tion in deaths from all causes among those metabolism.

32 Jan. 18 - 24 2019
health

Why does malaria recur?
How pieces of the puzzle are slowly being filled in
By Miles B. Markus is derived from the Greek words hypnos analysis of published literature, some of it

S
(sleep) and zoon (animal). Thus, a “sleeping relatively obscure.
ome people suffer from repeated animal”.
attacks of malaria. These can occur When a hypnozoite wakes up, it mul- A paradigm shift
weeks to months or longer after tiplies in the liver cell in which it’s living, This improved understanding is an
contracting the disease. The phe- resulting in the formation of a large num- important development and has implica-
nomenon is only too familiar to those who ber of progeny, called merozoites. After tions for both the treatment of malaria and
were bitten by mosquitoes carrying the type emerging from the liver cell, they invade elimination of malaria parasites in human
of malaria-causing organism known as Plas- red blood cells and reproduce inside them. populations. This is because there are indi-
modium vivax. Whereas the malaria agent When these cells burst, they release merozo- cations that a drug that kills merozoites in
in Africa is primarily Plasmodium falci- ites which then enter other red blood cells, one site in the body will not necessarily kill
parum, P. vivax is the most widespread of in which the cycle is repeated. all merozoites that occur elsewhere.
the more than half a dozen malaria parasite It’s the ongoing proliferation of merozoite So not only might the patient not be
species that infect humans globally. stage parasites in the bloodstream that leads cured, but parasites may periodically enter
An unresolved issue is why people the circulating bloodstream and be sucked
experience recurrences of P. vivax malaria up by mosquitoes when they feed. This can
despite having received treatment for the result in further transmission of malaria
disease. There’s also still not absolute clarity when the infected mosquitoes bite other
about where – in which organs and tissues – people.
the parasites that are responsible for persist- But scientific dogma is often firmly
ing infections hide. Because we don’t know entrenched. It took until last year for the
this, we can’t determine how to kill them. idea that there is a dual origin of non-blood-
Without filling in these blanks, we won’t stream parasites in P. vivax recurrences
be able to achieve the goal of eradicating (both merozoites outside the bloodstream
malaria parasites everywhere in the world. and hypnozoites) to gain acceptance.
For the past four decades, I have intermit- Disbelief – as well as some demonisation
tently been giving consideration to what in knee-jerk reactions to my unconventional
makes malaria recur long after people have views – is progressively metamorphosing
become infected by P. vivax, and have made into agreement. This is happening mainly
some significant conceptual breakthroughs. to a recurrent bout of symptomatic illness. because of new research at Harvard Univer-
These, combined with subsequent research Until now, liver cells – and especially sity, the University of Glasgow, and else-
by other scientists, have greatly enhanced blood vessels – have generally been con- where. Studies have yielded results which
our understanding of why malaria recurs. sidered to be the only habitats in humans can be adduced as additional support for
The most recent advance has been the where malaria parasites live and multiply. my seven-year-old concept.
ultimate acceptance of the theory I first pro- But biomedical knowledge has changed. Consequently, a dramatic – and welcome
pounded seven years ago. Namely, that the It’s now becoming clearer that recurrences – shift in attitude is taking place. Malariolo-
parasite multiplies – undetected – in more are caused by not only merozoites inside gists are beginning to reiterate my concept
organs and tissues in the body than only blood vessels, but in fact by merozoites out- and repeat supporting evidence for it that
the liver and bloodstream (which is conven- side blood vessels too. I had unearthed and included in bits and
tional dogma). Seven years ago, I pointed out for the first pieces in my publications in recent years,
One of the outcomes of this new conclu- time (on the basis of some complicated ini- as well as presented at international confer-
sion is the increasing realisation that drugs tial evidence) that P. vivax recurrences can ences.
might not eliminate malaria parasites with also be explained if there is a reservoir of
equal efficacy in all of the parts of the body merozoites outside the bloodstream. What’s next
that they inhabit. This is a possible explana- The concept is simply that the non-blood- More research is being carried out to
tion (there are others too) for why malaria stream origin of P. vivax malarial recurrenc- gain an even deeper understanding of the
can recur despite treatment. es can be both merozoites that occur outside process of malarial recurrence. It involves
We still don’t have all the answers. But blood vessels and hypnozoites in the liver studying parasites in cell culture, labora-
significant new insights are emerging which (not hypnozoites only). tory mice, and non-human primates, using
have important implications for the treat- More recently, I figured out at the Univer- sophisticated imaging and other cutting
ment of malaria, and eventually its eradica- sity of the Witwatersrand that bone marrow edge techniques. In association with this
tion. probably serves as a merozoite reservoir for work, drug-related investigations are being
the P. vivax parasite. Other researchers had undertaken in order to find out how best to
The journey of discovery already suggested the possibility. treat patients who have P. vivax malaria.
For some time now, it has been assumed Additionally, I have repeatedly ration-
that there’s only one source of malarial alised that the same thing might apply to Miles B. Markus is Honorary Professorial
relapse, namely, a dormant liver stage of the the spleen, and perhaps other sites too. Research Fellow, University of the
P. vivax parasite called the “hypnozoite”. This was concluded by joining the dots (in Witwatersrand
This term, which I coined 41 years ago, other words, theoretically), partly through Source:theconversation

Jan. 18 - 24 2019 33
comment
By Jonathan Jansen
Cheat sheet for Vice chancellors
Constant protests on some campuses shouldn’t distract
vice-chancellors from the core business of a university

A
t least once a month, a head- will demand things from you. They will after a near terminal crisis. Choose a few
hunting firm calls me seeking look up to you but they will also blame things that resonate with the university
advice on a search for a university you. In good times and bad, remember, it’s community and put all your energy into
vice-chancellor. They want to not about you. You are privileged to lead making those commitments real.
pick my brains because of what I’ve learnt, your institution but on behalf of others. A short line to your boss. Your nominal
sometimes the hard way, over seven years The adulation could go to your head. Keep boss is the Chair of Council. It is the single
as a vice-chancellor, 12 years as an aca- telling yourself it is about the students, most important relationship you should
demic dean and two years as an adminis- the academics, the staff and the workers. develop. Most universities that fall into
trator of struggling universities. You exist to serve them. It definitely is not crisis do because of a breakdown between
By the time the headhunter makes the about you. governance (Council) and management
call, the university would have advertised A sense of your own limitations. A vice- (Executive). Meet at least once a fortnight
the position more than once but simply chancellor stands or falls by the quality to build the interpersonal relationship,
couldn’t find the right person for the job. and cohesiveness of the senior team. It’s share your agenda and remind each other
I often advise on three starting criteria. In crucially important that the absolute best of the line that must not be crossed—man-
addition, my long tenure in higher educa- people are hired as deputy-vice chancel- agers do not govern and governors don’t
tion has also taught me that there’s addi- lors for the key portfolios such as finance, manage.
tional knowledge that’s useful for a uni- research, teaching and information tech- Invest in your own development. Make
versity leader to have, particularly in these nologies. These are persons who should sure you build into your contract nego-
turbulent times facing higher education. complement the competency set of the tiations with Council the necessary time
Let me start with the criteria that head vice-chancellor and who are resolutely off to continue your own research and
hunters should be looking for. committed to the academic mission of the writing especially when your goal is to
First, candidates need to be major university. The vice-chancellors role is to re-enter academic life at a later stage. A
scholars in their field of expertise. Your keep them together (not always easy) and vice-chancellor who is academically active
credibility as an academic is critical in a listen to their counsel. sets a powerful example to both staff as
serious university. If your Senate cannot A singular ambition. Sitting in the main well as students. Furthermore, taking off
respect you, you will sound foolish trying office, you tend to overreach by wanting regular time to rebuild your energies in a
to make the case for enhancing the stan- to do everything on a long list of goals. demanding job is the best way in which to
dards of the professoriate or demanding Do one or two big things well and you are continue doing your job well.
quality scholarship in learned journals. more likely to make an impact. That ambi- It is a university. The constant protests
Second, a competent manager with broad tion may be to dramatically raise the aca- and instability on some campuses con-
knowledge across the range of university demic standard of a mediocre university stantly threaten to distract vice-chancellors
functions – from information technolo- or to stabilise the finances of an institution from the core business of a university. Find
gies to residence management to internal ways of delegating demanding functions
auditing. No vice-chancellor is an expert in like constant negotiations with students or
more than one of these managerial disci- workers to offset protests. Be there, but not
plines. But candidates must know enough
to ask their directors or heads of depart-
The constant all the time. You are running an academic
institution and that focus could be easily
ment the right questions. protests and lost in a context or climate where crisis
And third, an inspiring leader who has management redefines the role of the head
the ability to connect with – and command instability on of a university.
the respect – of diverse people across the
institution from workers to junior lecturers some campuses Use the platform. A vice-chancellor has a
once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to address
to senior professors. constantly burning issues in the broader society from
an institutional platform. Do not draw
Some pointers for candidates threaten to inwards and disappear from public view.
Potential candidates should consider
what they need to offer inspiring leader- distract vice- Draw on your specialist training and speak
to critical concerns. Whether you like it or
ship and effective management to universi-
ties. Based on my experience, this is what
chancellors not, a vice-chancellor is a public persona
who is likely to be listened to by govern-
you need to know, and how you need to from the core ment, the media and the broader commu-
be.
A good dose of humility. The four business of a nity by virtue of the position.

opening words in the best-selling book,
`The Purpose Driven-Life’ by evangelical
university Jonathan Jansen is Distinguished Professor,
Stellenbosch University
pastor and author Rick Warren is all you Source: the conversation
need to read: It’s not about you.
People will sing your praises but they

34 Jan. 18 - 24 2019
ART | BOOKS | SOCIETY | TRAVEL | CULTURE

Beautiful art waits in Kla’s
non- traditional spaces
More energy, creativity, and innovation without
traditional hindrances of space or materials

K
By Dominic Muwanguzi
the customary art spaces. The objective was bags and bottles collected from the fishing
ampala is witnessing a mush- breaking the stereotype that art is for the community. With this approach, the artist
rooming of non-traditional art elite community or that it does not address successfully showed that art is not exclusive
spaces on the local art scene. the day to day issues faced by the average to particular people and has narratives for
Different from traditional citizen on the streets. whole communities. The artist showed that
museums and galleries, none Similarly, the organisers of the Kampala the physicality of the landing site, fish mar-
traditional art spaces in Kam- Art Biennale 2018 aka KAB 18 selected a ket, and noisy space can inspire art.
pala include Design Hub Kampala, 32⁰ East, derelict warehouse in the middle of a busy Such impact is often absent in the tradi-
Afriart on Seventh, The Big Kafunda and industrial park on Fifth Street to bring art tional gallery space where art showcased is
public avenues like the Royal mile- Kabaka and its producers; the artists, outside the two dimensional and sometimes abstract.
Ajangala Road- in Mengo. comfort zone of the gallery with white Where censorship of art is common, the
These are interesting because they are washed walls and a serene environment. dialogue on the political, socio-economic
more open to the public and enable diverse In the derelict warehouse, the floor was content of art in non-traditional settings has
audiences to access or interact with art dump and unkempt and so were the walls been appreciated more by audiences. The
regardless of social class or age. They also that had peeling paint and cracks. Here, the artists are also energised to be more creative
allow innovation and experimentation artists were challenged to create art with and innovative without traditional hin-
because they usually are large spaces, inte- the political- social content of everyday life drances of space or materials.
grate their atmosphere with the artworks, situated within the local and international But non-traditional art spaces often face
and enable displays of site specific instal- context. a challenge in terms of art supervision as
lations. They are perfect for experimental The warehouse also gave an opportu- few curators and critics are involved. This
artworks; including permanent or imper- nity to the public to interact with art in an affects the quality of artworks exhibited.
manent sculptures, public installations, and unusual way and inspire new narratives as With a few exceptions, most emerging
performance art. the unconventional display of art left the non-traditional art spaces suffer mediocre
In the third edition of Kampala Contem- audience intrigued about art’s impact on art production and display. They tend to
porary Art Festival dubbed KLA ART 018, life, how the artists produce it, and how it is interpret art as a commodity rather than a
the organisers included sites along Kiyembe consumed. medium designed to inspire a particular
Lane- a busy street in the Kampala Central Sandra Ssubi’s installation titled `In conversation among the public.
Business District, and Ham Mukasa House. Transit at Ggaba beach, an Island on Lake
These were selected to enable the public- Victoria’, for example, was constructed Image courtesy of 32⁰ East Kampala
everyday people- to interact with the art from familiar media like fish skin, wooden
and to inspire artists to create art outside boats, fish scales, old tyres, and plastic

Jan. 18 - 24 2019 35
Chinese schools track students with GPS-enabled `smart uniforms’
Eleven schools in the Chinese prov- which allow both the school and the chil- during classes. It also allows students’ par-
ince of Guizhou have introduced micro- dren’s parents to monitor their activity ents to monitor their purchases at school
chipped uniforms that track and monitor at all times. A GPS system informs both and set spending limits via a mobile app.
the students even beyond school grounds. teachers and parents whenever a student The smart uniforms are part of China’s
The smart uniforms feature two micro- leaves the classroom or school grounds broader “smart campus” initiative which
chips embedded into the shoulder pads without permission, or if he falls asleep aims to digitalise education.

Fake chicken Samsung Galaxy
eggs are a S10 release date
problem in China revealed
They first appeared in The next flagship phone
the mid-90s and production in Samsung’s long-running
spread all over China. The fake Galaxy series, the S10, is slated
eggs are made from a mixture to break cover on Feb.20. The
of resin, coagulant and starch, South Korean tech powerhouse
complete with pigment for has sent out a notice that it’ll be
colour, as well as a counterfeit holding one of its ‘Unpacked’
shell. One person can make events at the Bill Graham Civic
approximately 1500 per day. Auditorium in San Francisco.
Coincidentally, this year marks
the 10th anniversary of the Gal-
axy series – and the company
Could Louis Pastor uses whisky to get men closer to God doesn’t leave much room for
doubt on its official invitation.
Vuitton braids be mayA German pastor thinks he
have found an effective
to use the same catalyst to get
through to men in matters of Last year’s Samsung Galaxy
the next big thing? way to approach the men in
his community and it involves
religion. He recently announced
that he was organising a “whis-
S9 didn’t meet sales expecta-
tions, despite being an excellent
You don’t have to be particu- phone. So we’re expecting big
one of his greatest passions, ky retreat” for men and all the
larly fashion-forward to recog- things for 2019 if the company
whisky. Thomas Eschenbacher, 30 available spots were sold out
nise the Louis Vuitton logo. One wants to reverse the trend.
a 53-year-old Franconian pastor almost instantly.
aspiring designer and rapper, from Hammelburg, in Bavaria, “Bible reading events don’t
Magnus Juliano, has taken the has long been looking for ways really work, but with whisky
signature design of the brand to approach men and talk to can I reach the men, it’s a topic
and turned it into something them about God and the Chris- that interests them,” Thomas
out of the ordinary; braid acces- tian faith. A big fan of the Scot- Eschenbacher told the German
sories. The 27-year-old graphic tish spirit, the pastor noticed Press Agency.
designer from Columbus, Ohio how easy it was to start a con- Eschenbacher has been
has used 3D printing to create versation about whisky during praised by the Church for his
the colourful look. And it’s not a leisurely whiskey tasting eve- ingenious idea to get people
just about trendy hair accesso- ning with friends, and decided closer to God.
ries, he says, it’s about honour-
ing African American roots.
Social media addicts similar to drug users
There is a link between study, published in the Journal researcher Dr Dar Meshi, from
excessive social media use of Behaviour Addictions, Michigan State University.
and behaviour seen in drug shows a connection between “Our findings will hopefully
addicts, researchers have risky decision-making - a motivate the field to take social
found. Scientists carrying out common feature of drug media overuse seriously.”
a gambling experiment found addiction - and excessive social
the worst performers tended media use.
to be those who regularly used “Around one-third of
platforms such as Facebook. humans on the planet are using
The same trend was also social media, and some of
observed among people who these people are displaying
are reliant on drugs such as maladaptive, excessive use
cocaine and heroin. The US of these sites,” said lead

36 Jan. 18 - 24 2019
Ford unveils the allow us to grow.”
“The new Explorer is very important for
Ford,” said Jeff Schuster, analyst at auto-

new 2020 Explorer
motive consulting firm LMC Automotive.
“Even though the Explorer is the top-selling
midsize SUV, there’s a lot more competition
and new models coming in the next couple
of years.”
While there were 21 midsize SUV’s avail-
It’s popular SUV’s first redesign in 8 years able in the U.S. last year, LMC Automotive
expects that number to climb to 26 next year
and to 30 models by 2022.
By Agencies That’s critical since Ford will be relying on That competition will be looking to

F
its trucks and SUVs to generate profits while cut into the Explorer’s No. 1 position
ord unveiled the newly redesigned it restructures its business, investing billions in the midsize SUV market. Last year,
2020 Explorer, which has special fea- in future technology like autonomous drive Ford sold more than 261,000 Explorers.
tures, new technology and creature vehicles. An impressive number considering the
comforts SUV owners have come “We are on our toes again,” said Farley. model has not had a major makeover
to expect. That includes Ford Co-Pilot360, “We will grow more revenue, better profit- in years.
which provides driver assistance to avoid ability, you know, this is when the car busi- “The Explorer is really in the sweet
collisions. ness is great.” spot of the market,” said Schuster.
Ford increased the towing capacity by 66 “The company thrives when we have “Last year, midsize SUVs made up
percent while making the Explorer lighter fresh product, it is just as simple as that,” almost 14 percent of the market and we
and more fuel efficient. Ford’s president of global markets, Jim Far- think the segment will keep growing.”
Unveiled on Jan.09 in New York, the new ley, told journalists after unveiling the new Whether or not the Explorer remains
model should position Ford to continue Explorer. “With this new line-up of utilities the leader of the SUV market remains
doing well in the midsize SUV segment. from top to bottom, it is just really going to to be seen.

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Jan. 18 - 24 2019 37
Allan Ssewanyana on
his love for Lukwago
By Agnes E Nantaba spected by cabinet and President Yoweri born in the family of ten. He started school

A
Museveni and the high level of commer- at Biwologoma Nursery School before
llan Aloysius Ssewanyana is the cialisation of politics in the country. joining Nakivubo Blue Primary School
Member of Parliament represent- He says, “Commercialisation of politics where he sat his Primary Leaving Exami-
ing Makindye West Constituency. means going against the will of the people nations (PLE). He proceeded to St Mathias
He is among the opposition MP’s and using the money to manipulate them Kalemba SS for ordinary level and Mengo
who made news headlines for brawling in which eventually creates a generation of Senior School. He joined Makerere Uni-
the House during debate of the controver- dictators”. versity graduating with a
sial lifting of the presidential age limit in Ssewanyana is also a passionate Bachelor’s in Human
September 2017. sports journalist, commonly Resource Man-
The legislators pulled and tagged each known as ‘Omusajja Wa agement in
other after MP Ssewanyana alleged that Bwiino’ that is loosely 2008. He has
guns had been smuggled into the chamber. translated as ‘A man two chil-
But that was not the first time Ssewanyana of facts”. He is a co- dren and
was involved in a public protest brawl; dur- sports analyst on looks
ing his tenure as Councilor LCV for Kam- NBS TV for the forward
pala Capital City Authority (KCCA) rep- daily lunchtime to get-
resenting constituents of Makindye West, sports edition. ting
Ssewanyana leaped over desks and heads In 2006, he mar-
in the KCCA Council chambers to attempt joined the cam- ried
to stop impeachment proceedings against paign team for very
Lord Mayor Erias Lukwago. former Kampala soon.
While some political analysts consider city Mayor Alhajji
Ssewanyana’s behavior to be unbecom- Nasser Sebaggala
ing of a legislator, he lists the incidents as as the secretariat
some of the highest moments in his political secretary. And
career. when Sebaggala
“One of the achievements that I am so emerged victori-
proud of is the way we dealt with the issue ous, Ssewanyana
of Article 102 (b) of the constitution using continued with
mechanisms that to some looked bogus but his work as a
made a mark,” he says. sports journal-
“It wasn’t an easy task for the President ist working at Top
as he spent billions, other people were radio. It is about the
killed and others nursed wounds in the same time that he got in
struggle.” touch with Erias Lukwago,
He says that a similar scenario had hap- then MP for Kampala Cen-
pened some years ago leading to the aboli- tral who turned out to be his
tion of term limits but few Ugandans got to political mentor. During the sev-
know about it. Ssewanyana maintains that eral visits to KCC turned KCCA,
the public was so detached from the hap- Ssewanyana developed interest in
penings in the country but with the amend- becoming a councilor LCV.
ment of Article 102 (b), the entire country When opportunity arose, Ssewan-
got to know how the president struggled to yana offered to replace MP Hussein
amend and disorganise the constitution. Kyanjo who had said he would not
He says his politics is inspired by Lord stand again. He joined parliament
Mayor Erias Lukwago whom he talks of a in 2016 on Democratic Party (DP)
strong pillar in his political career. He also ticket.
strives to inspire the young generation to Born 32 years ago to
join the struggle through elective politics Aloysius and Sarah
and maintain the vocal voice of those who Ssendawula in
went before him. Kibuye, Ssewan-
“I have maintained the strong voice in yana is the
parliament for my constituency by being a fourth
star performer following in the footsteps of
Hon. Ssebaana Kizito, Hon. Nsambu and
Hussein Kyanjo,” he says.
Ssewanyana remains critical of the way,
he says, the law making house is disre-

38 Jan. 18 - 24 2019
Q&A

Allan Ssewanyana’s Liteside
Any three things that we world. He is also rich What do you most What do you regard

I
don’t know about you? not through stealing but dislike about your as the lowest depth of
am a hard to bend earning from his sweat. appearance? misery?
person; it takes I would love to follow Nothing although I With politics, the day
someone too much his path because it is my don’t want to grow fat. you live is what you
time to get me on greatest aspiration. count. There is no lower
their side and once I get Which living person do moment than living a
there it is hard to change What is your greatest you most despise? life where tomorrow is
me. It’s because I take extravagance? I don’t despise so uncertain.
so much time analyzing I can be extravagant in I don’t expect to be
someone or an issue. sports; I can sponsor a despised. What is your favorite
That makes me an honest team or individual who occupation?
person. I hate it when wants to grow a talent in What is the quality you Being a journalist.
someone despises me sports. most like in a woman?
which is why I don’t Loyalty and honesty. What do you most value
despise others. I am What is the greatest in your friends?
passionate about sports; thing you have ever What is the quality you Loyalty and being able
it’s my first in life. done? most like in a man? to accept me the way I
Becoming Vice Consistency. am.
What is your idea of chairman of KCCA FC
perfect happiness? and won two trophies What or who is the Who are your favorite
I am very happy when at the national level. I greatest love of your writers?
I see things moving the was still very young but life? Nelson Mandela
right way. In sports, I managed to lead a team My parents, children, and Chinua Achebe;
am happy when I see a at such a top level which and Lord Mayor Erias their writings have
team that I support win; was a dream come true. Lukwago. been a great source of
for instance Juventus and It has gone down to inspiration.
Katwe United. history that I am an MP When and where were
for Makindye West; an you happiest? Who is your hero of
What is the trait opportunity that not so When I graduated in fiction?
you most deplore in many shall have. 2008; it created a very I m not a fan of fiction.
yourself? good sense in me. I was
My facial expression What do you consider also happy being elected Which historical figure
puts away many people the most overrated a councilor in 2011 and do you most identify
from getting to me yet virtue? being sworn in as MP with?
they would be useful Attention to social for Makindye West at an Nelson Mandela would
to me and vice versa. life; the media and other early stage in life. It gives be a great option for me.
I would like to look a platforms all concentrate me the courage to do He fought for power and
simple person but at on the social life. It has more things. eventually after getting
times I look to be an taken too much of our it, served for a short time
arrogant and proud man time and space yet we Which talent would you and left others to take the
which I am not. cannot achieve a lot from most like to have? mantle.
it. I would love to become
What is the trait you an investor not through What is your greatest
most deplore in others? What does being stealing but in a straight regret?
I don’t like people who powerful mean to you? and decent way. I once regretted failing
are easily compromised Being powerful is to become a lawyer
by anything or anyone. I being able to influence If you could change one but not anymore. I am
like strong and consistent decisions. It gets better thing about yourself, now grateful to God for
characters around me. when someone has such what would it be? guiding my paths.
influence not because of None
Which living person do the money but a diligent How would you like to
you most admire? character. Where would you most die?
Silvio Berlusconi; he like to live? Through sickness
was a journalist who On what occasion do you I don’t plan to leave because it allows you
joined politics and used lie? my country even if the time to reconcile and
it to change football in If someone intends to current circumstances speak to those round me.
Italy when he owned AC kill me and only lies can push many to leave.
Milan and made it one save me. What is your motto?
of the best clubs in the I win you win.

Jan. 18 - 24 2019 39
Global comment
By Bruno Dobrusin
Rewriting the future of work
Current trends underscore why it is important to
democratise how technology is built into business processes

M
uch has been written about The second assumption is that the informal sector, compared to 192
the “future of work,” automation will not benefit most million who are unemployed.
and much of it makes for workers. But people and politics To be sure, today’s new technologies
gloomy reading. Study – not machines – will determine are affecting workers in adverse
after study predicts that automation how workers fare. If we accept the ways. That has always been true, and
will upend entire industries and leave view that technology will increase people will continue to be displaced
millions unemployed. A 2013 paper by overall productivity (a point that from one economic sector to another.
two Oxford professors even suggested remains disputed given the low levels But while technological innovation
that machines could replace 47% of of productivity growth in OECD creates new opportunities, today’s gig
jobs in the United States within “a countries during the last decade), then economy, in particular, reflects how
decade or two.” workers and political leaders could it can also weaken employees’ rights
Conclusions like these sustain focus on advocating for a better work- and increase economic insecurity.
the narrative that the future will life balance. The fight for an eight- Workers’ fears are real, which is
inevitably be jobless. And yet this hour workday was waged more than why the labour movement has
view is favored primarily by the a century ago, and the spaces created been fighting to defend workers in
corporate sector and supported by the current discussion allow for vulnerable situations. Expanding the
by negative trends in the so-called negotiating a shorter working week. concept of Just Transition, currently
gig economy; workers and trade Some unions are already doing this; used in climate-related dislocations, to
unions have played little role in the more should follow. technology-related disruptions would
conversation. If that were to change, Finally, despite the hype, be a valuable innovation for ensuring
the future of work could look very automation is not the most pressing that automation leaves no one behind.
different. issue for labour. Technology can be But we should not accept the
Three common assumptions skew disruptive, but the biggest concerns anxious narrative of a workless
forecasts of automation’s impact on for workers today are the ones they world. Technology and economic
employment. Addressing each is feel most directly: underemployment, development are contested fields, and
essential to protect workers’ rights precarious employment, and stagnant unions should focus on improving
and change the fatalistic storyline of wages. According to the International workplace conditions, organizing
the prevailing narrative. Labour Organisation’s 2018 “World workers in new industries, and
The first assumption is that fully Employment Social Outlook,” 1.4 challenging the authoritarian business
automated jobs will displace workers billion people worldwide are in models that give employees little say
in the near future. This view is little “vulnerable forms of employment” in over how their companies function.
more than conjecture, and even Positive signs are emerging. Labor
those using the same data can draw organising is growing in the services
different conclusions. For example, sector. Employees are lobbying for
a 2017 McKinsey study, drawing on better pay in some of the world’s
similar datasets as the 2013 Oxford largest corporations. And workers in
research, found that only 5% of jobs in Employees the U.S. are demanding – and often
the US could be fully automated, but
that about 60% of American jobs could are lobbying receiving – a living wage. The next
step is to ensure that the effects of
be partly automated. In other words,
automation does not mean that human
for better automation feature more prominently
in union organising. The future of
work must disappear, only that it pay in work is not predetermined; the story is
could become more productive.
If anything, current trends some of still being written. The most important
question, as always, is who gets to
underscore why it is important to
democratise how technology is built
the world’s wield the pen.

into business processes. When major largest Bruno Dobrusin is coordinator of the One
corporations introduce innovations to
speed up production – like handsets corporations Million Climate Jobs campaign at the
Green Economy Network.
to time warehouse workers in
Amazon’s facilities – the unintended Copyright: Project Syndicate, 2019.
consequence can be a decline in
productivity. For many workers, the
way that technology is adopted may
be more relevant than the technology
itself.

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