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GPRSSYS

Nokia GPRS Architecture


Training Document
GPRS System Course

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Nokia GPRS Architecture

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Contents

Contents

1 Objectives ...............................................................................................5

2 Nokia GPRS Release functionality .......................................................6


2.1 GPRS IP service ......................................................................................6
2.2 SGSN to MSC/VLR interface (Gs) ...........................................................6
2.3 Cell reselection.........................................................................................7
2.4 SMS through GPRS .................................................................................7
2.5 Charging...................................................................................................7
2.6 Roaming ...................................................................................................8
2.7 Quality of Service .....................................................................................9
2.8 Access to Internet ....................................................................................9
2.9 Corporate access solutions ....................................................................10

3 Nokia Base Station Subsystem (BSS)................................................12


3.1 BTS ........................................................................................................12
3.2 BSC ........................................................................................................13
3.3 Packet Control Unit (PCU) .....................................................................14
3.4 Gb interface............................................................................................15
3.5 GPRS cell identification..........................................................................16

4 Nokia Core Network Subsystem (CNS) ..............................................17


4.1 MSC/VLR ...............................................................................................17
4.2 HLR and EIR ..........................................................................................17

5 Nokia SGSN ..........................................................................................18


5.1 SGSN physical layout.............................................................................19
5.2 SGSN logical architecture ......................................................................21
5.3 Packet Processing Unit (PAPU) .............................................................22
5.4 Signalling and Mobility Management Unit (SMMU)................................23
5.5 Marker and Charging Unit (MCHU) ........................................................24
5.6 Operation and Maintenance Unit (OMU)................................................24
5.7 SGSN interfaces.....................................................................................25
5.8 SGSN capacity .......................................................................................26
5.9 SGSN configuration steps ......................................................................28
5.9.1 Release 1 SGSN configuration steps.....................................................28
5.9.2 Release 2 SGSN configuration steps.....................................................29
5.10 Charging in SGSN..................................................................................30

6 Nokia GGSN Release 1 and 2 ..............................................................31


6.1 Hardware platform..................................................................................31
6.1.1 GGSN interfaces ....................................................................................32
6.1.2 GGSN rack design .................................................................................32
6.2 Software platform ...................................................................................33
6.2.1 Operating system ...................................................................................33
6.2.2 Routing protocols ...................................................................................33

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6.2.3 Optional software modules .................................................................... 33


6.2.4 Filtering and routing process ................................................................. 33
6.2.5 GGSN interworking services ................................................................. 34
6.2.6 GGSN access points ............................................................................. 35
6.2.7 GGSN redundancy ................................................................................ 35
6.2.8 GGSN management .............................................................................. 35
6.3 GGSN capacity...................................................................................... 36
6.4 Charging in GGSN................................................................................. 36
6.5 Summary of Nokia GGSN features ....................................................... 37
6.5.1 Nokia GGSN Release 1 (GN2500)........................................................ 37
6.5.2 Nokia GGSN Release 2 (GN3500)........................................................ 38

7 Nokia Charging Gateway (CG) ........................................................... 39


7.1 CG and CDRs........................................................................................ 39
7.2 CG functionality ..................................................................................... 41
7.3 Nokia Charging Gateway Release 2 ..................................................... 43
7.4 CG and roaming .................................................................................... 44

8 Nokia Network Management System (NMS) ..................................... 45


8.1 GPRS NMS platform T11, T11.5 and T12............................................. 46
8.2 Nokia NMS T11.5 functionality .............................................................. 48
8.2.1 Topology sharing ................................................................................... 48
8.2.2 Fault monitoring..................................................................................... 49
8.2.3 GPRS BB management......................................................................... 50
8.2.4 Security management............................................................................ 52
8.3 Nokia NMS T12 features ....................................................................... 52

9 Service management........................................................................... 55

10 Key points ............................................................................................ 56

11 Summary questions ............................................................................ 57

Appendix A: Plug-in units in SGSN Release 1.................................. 59

Appendix B: CG output CDR information ......................................... 60

References ........................................................................................... 61

Abbreviations....................................................................................... 62

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Objectives

1 Objectives
At the end of this module, the participant will be able to:
• Describe the Nokia GPRS Release 1 and Release 2 functionality
• Name the components of the Nokia GPRS solution
• List the capacities of the Nokia SGSN
• Name the components in the Nokia GPRS backbone basic solution
• List the capacities and functions of the Nokia GGSN
• List the components of the GPRS NMS solution
• List the functions that the NMS performs over the IP network
• Explain the architecture and list the functions of the Nokia CG
• Name the advantages of the Nokia GPRS solution
without reference to notes.

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2 Nokia GPRS Release functionality

2.1 GPRS IP service


Nokia GPRS Release 1 supports Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) point-to-
point connections. Each user can activate up to two PDP contexts
simultaneously. Both static and dynamic IP addressing are supported (defined
per subscriber in the HLR). Nokia GPRS Release 1 does not include network-
initiated PDP context activation, anonymous access, point-to-multipoint
services, or X.25 network interface functions. These will be considered for later
releases.
Nokia Release 2 supports IPv4 and IPv6 on the user plane. Each user can
activate up to four PDP contexts simultaneously. In Release 2, the data
throughput capacity, number of subscribers, and number of PDP contexts per
user has been doubled compared to Release 1.
In both releases, capacity can be increased in steps of 25 %, 50 %, 75 %, and
100 % of maximum capacity. This will be discussed in detail later.

2.2 SGSN to MSC/VLR interface (Gs)


The Nokia solution includes the SGSN to MSC/VLR interface (Gs). For class-A
and class-B mobile terminals, an association is made in the VLR and SGSN to
indicate that they refer to the same physical mobile. This will give the following
functions:
• Class-B GPRS mobiles can receive paging for circuit switched calls via
GPRS channels. The GPRS is then suspended and the mobile moves to
circuit switched mode to start the call.
• Combined routing area and location area attaches and updates.
• Combined detaches from GPRS and circuit switched services.

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2.3 Cell reselection


There are no handovers as such in GPRS. Instead, there is cell reselection,
which is made autonomously by the mobile. The parameters used by the mobile
for cell reselection are sent from the network and can be different for each cell.
There is an option in the GPRS specifications to enable network controlled cell
reselection. This requires GPRS terminals to send measurement results to the
BSS. This is not implemented in Nokia GPRS Release 1. Sending measurement
reports could add a considerable extra load to the network especially the SGSN.

2.4 SMS through GPRS


Nokia GPRS Release 1 supports the sending of SMSs via the GPRS network.
This is more efficient for GPRS mobiles using SMS since it frees up the GSM
signalling channels for other purposes. SMS through GPRS is achieved by the
Gd interface (SGSN to Gateway MSC). For each subscriber, a parameter in the
HLR indicates if the SMS will be delivered via GPRS or via GSM channels.
The Nokia SMS implementation is still based on MAP v.2, so no changes to the
Gateway MSC (SMS-GMSC) should be needed. Release 2 supports SMS for
prepaid GPRS subscribers.

2.5 Charging
Charging information is collected by the SGSN and GGSN, and is then
delivered to the Nokia Charging Gateway, where it is processed and forwarded
to the billing system. Nokia GPRS Release 1 supports charging based on:
• Data volume transferred on the uplink and downlink direction
• Length of time for which with PDP context is active
• Access point used to external networks (for example, Internet vs.
corporate intranet).
Nokia Release 2 supports prepaid GPRS subscribers, for which new charging
mechanisms are needed:
• Charging based on location
• Duplicate CDR prevention mechanism. If a CDR is resent to a new CG, it
is labelled as 'possible duplicate'.
• GPRS Server Node based prepaid: SGSN receives subscriber's prepaid
status from the HLR and sends prepaid CDRs as soon as possible to
Charging Gateway. CG sends them to Charging Centre which controls

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subscriber's account state. Charging Centre sends information to the HLR


when the account limit has been reached. HLR in turn asks SGSN to
disconnect PDP context.
• IN-based prepaid based on Phase 3 CAMEL (Customised Applications
for Mobile Network Enhanced Logic), which is a network feature
providing a possibility to offer Operator Specific Services (OSS) for the
subscriber, such as Intelligent Network services. SGSN has interface to
SCP, which has information on the subscriber's account, and grants
permission to activate PDP context or sending short messages. SCP also
monitors the account limit and asks SGSN to deactivate PDP context
when the limit is reached.

2.6 Roaming
A Border Gateway (see Figure 1) enables users to use a secure GPRS-tunnelled
connection to their home network when roaming (via an inter-operator
backbone network), rather than connecting via the public Internet. Nokia
Release 1 does not support roaming between PLMN. Release 2 has multiple
PLMN support.

Operator A Operator B
(Home network)
GGSN Internet GGSN
GPRS GPRS
Backbone backbone
IP Network IP network
Inter PLMN
Border backbone Border
Gateway Gateway
network Roaming user
Secure GPRS Tunnelled Connection

Figure 1. Roaming via Border Gateway and Inter-PLMN network'

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2.7 Quality of Service


In each cell, the total circuit switched capacity is available for use by GPRS
dynamically. Circuit switched calls always have priority over GPRS traffic, so
implementing GPRS will not reduce the quality of service (QoS) given to
speech and circuit switched data subscribers.
If a guaranteed minimum quality of service for GPRS users is required, it is
possible to reserve a number of timeslots per cell that can only be used for
GPRS traffic.
The ETSI GPRS specifications define several QoS classes, which are associated
with each PDP context, covering priority, reliability, delay and throughput.
Nokia GPRS system Release 1 does not support this QoS functionality. The
GPRS QoS can be considered the 'best effort'.
Nokia GPRS system Release 2 supports the following QoS functionality:
• Priority-based QoS
• Interactive and background classes supported
• Diffserv applied for uplink packets towards the GPRS backbone
• Prioritisation for downlink packet towards BSS.

2.8 Access to Internet


Direct Internet Connection (transparent access) access is the simplest way to
connect to the Internet, because all services are provided by the GGSN itself, or
to be more exact, the access point (AP), which is associated with the physical
interface to the Internet. This is illustrated in Figure 2.

GPRS
backbone
AP
IP Network GGSN
Ethernet ISP
MS BTS BSC SGSN Backbone

Figure 2. Transparent access - Direct Internet connection

The address and netmask of the AP will be dictated by the network


configuration of the operator's ISP backbone. The Internet ISP backbone sees
the AP as a router, and the mobile stations (MSs) as nodes in the AP's subnet.

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2.9 Corporate access solutions


A key difference for an operator will be the ability to provide secure
connections to corporate networks (and hence capture the corporate's complete
mobile telecommunications business). The Nokia GPRS solution includes
features that allow offering of secure and reliable corporate access solutions.

Multiple access points


One Nokia GGSN can connect to many corporate intranets. For each GPRS
subscriber, the access point (AP) used (that is, which external network to
connect the user to), is defined in the subscriber data in the HLR.

DHCP and RADIUS server access


The Nokia solution supports both static IP address allocation (defined in the
HLR) and dynamic IP address allocation, either from:
• RADIUS/DHCP servers within the operators network, external ISP or
corporate network, or from
• The GGSN's internal address pool.
The RADIUS and DHCP clients included in the Nokia GGSN can retrieve IP
addresses from corresponding servers located, for example, in corporate
networks. This also allows the subscriber to be authenticated against the
corporate intranet server (non-transparent access). Small corporate intranets
may not have a RADIUS server. In this case, the GGSN internal pool can be
used to allocate IP addresses.

Secure connections: Non-transparent access


A dedicated and Virtual Private Network (VPN) connection or a non-
transparent access to an intranet covers both corporate nets and independent
ISPs. In this case, part of the service is provided outside the GPRS operator’s
network. The AP must provide secure access to that external part, and co-
operate with its infrastructure (for example authentication, address allocation,
and accounting).

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GPRS
backbone
GTP AP
IP Network GGSN
AP
MS BTS BSC SGSN

ISP
Backbone

Infra servers
- RADIUS Intranet
- DNS

Internet
Service

Figure 3. Non-transparent access - Dedicated and VPN connections

Whether the AP is connected to a VPN device or an intranet, it is regarded as a


router and the MSs are part of its subnet. When the GPRS and intranet operators
sign an interworking agreement, they should also define RADIUS addresses and
(if necessary) DHCP server addresses. In addition, netmask and the default
route can be exchanged when the agreement is made.
Nokia Release 2 also supports the following security features:
• Home subscriber trace based on IMSI/MSISDN
• Visiting subscriber trace based on IMSI/MSISDN
• Equipment trace (IMEI).

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3 Nokia Base Station Subsystem (BSS)


The functions performed by the Nokia BSS elements to support GPRS include:
• Communication with GPRS MS using CS 1-4 and MCS 1-9 (EGPRS)
• Separation of circuit switched (CS) and packet switched (PS) traffic and
sending of the PS traffic to SGSN
• Support of GPRS protocols such as RLC, MAC, BSSGP, and FR
• Allocation of channels and radio blocks to MS using the USF flag
• Multiplexing and demultiplexing of data transmission on a TS
• Controlled by the NMS (network management system).

Most operators will have an existing GSM network that may have to be
upgraded for GPRS. These changes are discussed in this section. The features
available in the Nokia GSM/EDGE BSS10 are:
• Adaptive Multirate Codec (AMR), which can significantly improve
speech quality and provide more capacity even in low C/I conditions.
• Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE), which should
increase the air interface throughput by a factor of 3. New EDGE-capable
TRX will be introduced for the UltraSite and MetroSite.
• Tri Band - Common BCCH for GSM 900 and GSM 1800 TRX in the
same cell
• GSM - WCDMA networking for inter-system handover and hence
seamless services to end-users
• MS location services, which will enable location-based services to be
offered.
• Automated radio network tuning with NetAct' OSS 3.1.

3.1 BTS
All Nokia 2nd-generation, Talk-family, Nokia PrimeSite and Nokia MetroSite
BTSs support GPRS without any hardware changes. Coding schemes CS1 and
CS2 are supported in all Nokia BTSs.
Coding schemes CS3 and CS4 are under consideration for future releases. CS3
and CS4 channel coding require more than one 16 kbit/s Abis traffic channel
and can be supported in the existing BTS products only with hardware
upgrades. Currently, Nokia plans to introduce new CS3- and CS4-capable
TRXs for the Talk-family and Nokia MetroSite base stations. CS3 and CS4 will
not be implemented in Nokia 2nd-generation BTS and Nokia PrimeSite.

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3.2 BSC
Implementing GPRS has no effect on the capacity of the Nokia BSC to handle
circuit switched calls. To support GPRS, new plug-in units are required in the
BSC. These units are stated below:
• One Packet Control Unit (PCU) must be installed into each BCSU
signalling unit of the BSC (one slot is vacant).
• One Switching Unit (SW64) must be installed into each Group Switch
(GSW), since there are new internal PCM links with GPRS, and their
numbering is fixed.
• If needed, new ET cartridges (ET5C) could also be installed. In a fully
configured BSC, these might already be installed.

Figure 4. New plug-in units in BSC for GPRS

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3.3 Packet Control Unit (PCU)


The PCU is a new plug-in unit of the BCSU. It takes care of switching GPRS
traffic between Abis interface (TRAU frames) and Gb interfaces (FR) using the
Group Switch (GSW). The PCU also supports the new protocols (RLC, MAC,
FR) required for GPRS operation and handles GPRS channel allocation and
radio resource management functions.

ET EETTs s
Gb A bis
ETs
ET ETs
SGSN
P a cke ts in BTSs
P ackets in F R T R A U fra m es

GSW B
F R : be arer cha nn el + 4 M internal
o ption al lo ad sh arin g p cm / 2 56 ch ann els
re du nda nt be are r

DDSSPP
11

DDSSPP
P ow e r internal
PC bu s
DSP
DSP

DSP
DSP
M a il B o x 88
PCU

D M C bus

Figure 5. PCU architecture

The following specifications apply to the PCU:


• BSC contains eight active and one redundant PCU in a n+1 configuration.
• One PCU can handle 256 GPRS channels, that is, TCHs of 32 TRXs.
• One PCU can be connected to a maximum of 64 BTSs and/or 64 cells.
• The data processing capacity of one PCU is 2 Mbit/s.
• A BSC must be fully (hardware) equipped, that is, each BCSU must have
one PCU, but the number of active PCUs is determined by software
licence.
• Each PCU has a separate frame relay interface to the SGSN (Gb
interface). This can be configured in 64 kbit/s steps, from two to 31 PCM
timeslots.

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3.4 Gb interface
Gb is the interface between the PCU BSC and the PAPU in the SGSN. It is
implemented using FR bearer at present.

Bearer Ch 1
ET ET

Bearer Ch 2
ET ET

Transmission
Network

GSW GSW

AS PC
7 U
PAPU BCSU

SGSN BSC

Figure 6. Gb interface between PAPU and PCU

The layers of the Gb interface are shown in Figure 7.

BSSGP BSSGP

NS Gb NS

FR FR

BSS SGSN

Figure 7. FR interface

Every BTS has a logical 'FR link' to a PCU. Radio network management
requires creation and deletion of the FR virtual circuits.

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3.5 GPRS cell identification


The cell identification shall be provided on PBCCH in order to uniquely
identify the cell. If PBCCH is not present in the cell, this information, except for
the RAC parameter, is provided on BCCH.

GPRS cell identification


Parameter Purpose / Description Size (number of bits)
MCC Mobile Country Code 12
MNC Mobile Network Code 8
LAC Location Area Code 16
RAC Routing Area Code 8
CI Cell Identity 16

RAI = MCC + MNC + LAC + RAC

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Nokia Core Network Subsystem (CNS)

4 Nokia Core Network Subsystem (CNS)

4.1 MSC/VLR
The MSC/VLR is not involved in GPRS data transfer, but supports signalling
for class-A and class-B mobiles as well as SMS delivery.
To allow support for terminals attached to both GSM and GPRS services (A and
B type), Nokia has implemented the Gs interface between the MSC/VLR and
the SGSN. This interface supports paging and combined LA and RA update
procedures for class-A and B mobiles.

4.2 HLR and EIR


The Nokia-combined Home Location Register (HLRi), Authentication Centre
(AC), and Equipment Identity Registry (EIR) is based on the DX200 switching
platform. It can be expanded from a capacity of 120 000 to 1 200 000
subscribers. The Nokia DX200 HLR supports up to 300 000 subscribers. The
EIR supports 200 000 entries in the white list and 4 million entries in the grey
and black lists.
As for circuit switched services, subscriber information for GPRS is stored in
the Home Location Register (HLR). The HLR supports procedures such as
GPRS attach/detach and authentication. Nokia has implemented interfaces
between the HLR and SGSN (Gr) and the Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
and SGSN (Gf). The interface is implemented using MAP v.3.
For SMS support, one new parameter per subscriber has been added in the HLR
to indicate whether short messages should be delivered via the MSC or the
SGSN.
The optional GGSN to HLR interface (Gc) is under study for inclusion in future
Nokia releases.

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5 Nokia SGSN
The Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) of a GPRS network is equivalent to
the MSC of a GSM network. It combines the functions of a digital switching
platform with the functions necessary for interfacing between the GSM Base
Station Subsystem (BSS) and IP backbone networks.

Figure 8. The Nokia SGSN Release 1

The SGSN is connected to one or several BSCs (Base Station Controllers) by


the Gb interface. The number of BSCs connected to a SGSN depends on the
amount of data traffic expected. One SGSN can support BSCs working under
several different MSCs. The SGSN can be physically located at the MSC or
BSC site. There must at least one SGSN in a GPRS network.
The SGSN is connected to the GPRS network via the GPRS backbone. The
GPRS backbone is a private network that provides IP connectivity between the
GPRS network elements in order to carry signalling, traffic and charging data.
This network is not directly accessible from the public Internet.
The primary function of the Nokia SGSN is to convert the IP network protocol
to the protocols used in the BSS and the mobile terminal. It then passes the data
to the relevant GGSN when a connection to an external data network is
required. Additional functions performed by the Nokia SGSN include mobile
terminal authentication and mobility management, as well as user data
compression to and from the terminal. Finally, it handles signalling interfaces
with the MSC/VLR and HLR, collects charging and statistical information, and
provides flexible network management interfaces.

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5.1 SGSN physical layout


The SGSN consists of advanced router units (Packet Processing Unit, PAPU),
common units for high-level mobility management (Signalling and Mobility
Management Unit, SMMU) and other units for operation and maintenance
(Operation and Maintenance Unit, OMU) and charging functions (Marker and
Charging Unit, MCHU). The rack layout of the Release 1 SGSN is shown in
Figure 9. One SGSN element always consists of two racks, labelled SGAC and
SGBC, whether it is fully or partly equipped.

SGAC SGBC

PDFU 0 PDFU 1 CPBP 0 PDFU 0 PDFU 1

CPEA 1
CLSU 0,1

CLBU 0,1

CLBU 2,3
PAPU GSW GSW SMMU SMMU
0 0 1 0 1
CPRS 2

CPRS 3
SD SD
SMMU SMMU SMMU
MCHU MCHU MCHU MCHU
CPETS/ 2 3 4
0 0 1 1 CPETC 4

CPETS/
SD SD CPETC 5
OMU OMU OMU OMU PAPU PAPU PAPU PAPU
CPETS/ 5 6 7 8
0 0 1 1 CPETC 6

CPETS/
CPETC 7
ET4C 0 ET4C 1 PAPU PAPU PAPU PAPU
(32 x ET2E/A) (28 x ET2E/A)
CPX25 8 9 10 11 12

CPLAN 9

PAPU PAPU PAPU PAPU PAPU PAPU PAPU PAPU


1 2 3 4 CPLAN 10 13 14 15 16

DN99253302 CARTRIDGE, SLOT OR SECTION


OF CONNECTOR
PANEL LEFT EMPTY

Figure 9. Physical layout of Nokia SGSN Release 1

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The SGSN Release 2 layout is similar to Release 1 with additional fans and
power supplies as shown below.

SGAC SGBC

PDFU-A PDFU-A PDFU-A PDFU-A PDFU-A PDFU-A PDFU-A PDFU-A


0 1 2 3 0 0 1 2 3

1
PAPU GSW GSW SMMU SMMU

CLSU

CLBU
CLBU
0 0 1 0 1
2

3
SD SD SMMU SMMU SMMU
MCHU MCHU MCHU MCHU
MCHU
2 3 4
0 0 1 1 4

FTRB FTRB FTRB FTRB


5
SD SD
PAPU PAPU PAPU PAPU
OMU OMU OMU OMU
5 6 7 8
0 0 1 1 6

ET4C 0 ET4C 1 PAPU PAPU PAPU PAPU


(32 x ET2E/A) (28 x ET2E/A) 9 10 11 12
8

FTRB FTRB FTRB FTRB


9

PAPU PAPU PAPU PAPU PAPU PAPU PAPU PAPU


1 2 3 4 10 13 14 15 16

Figure 10. Physical layout of Nokia SGSN Release 2

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5.2 SGSN logical architecture


The logical architecture of the SGSN is shown in Figure 11. The functional
units of the Nokia SGSN are:
• Packet Processing Unit (PAPU)
• Signalling and Mobility Management Unit (SMMU)
• Marker and Charging Unit (MCHU)
• Group Switch (GSW) used for semi-permanent connections between the
SGSN and the BSS, and the SGSN and the NSS
• Operation and Maintenance Unit (OMU)
• High-speed Message Bus (MB) for interconnecting computer units
• Exchange Terminals (ET) for connecting transmission systems to the
GSW.

Exchange Clock and


Exchange
Terminal Clock and
Sync. Unit
Terminal
(ET) Sync. Unit
(CLS)
(ET) (CLS)
Gb Gr,Gs, Gd
(to BSC) (to NSS) Group
Group
Switch
Switch
(GSW)
(GSWB)

N+1 N+1
2N 2N
Gn
(to GGSN) WDU WDU
Packet Signalling & Marker & Operation &
Processing Mobility Charging Maintain.
Unit Man. Unit Unit Charging Unit
(PAPU) (SMMU) (MCHU) (OMU)

Figure 11. Logical architecture of the Nokia SGSN

The main units supporting GPRS are PAPU and SMMU. Each of the functional
units is described in the following chapters. The SMMU and PAPU have N+1
redundancy, whereas the MCHU, OMU, MB, GSW and CLS have 2N
redundancy.

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5.3 Packet Processing Unit (PAPU)


The Nokia SGSN contains a maximum of 17 PAPUs in a N+1 configuration.
The main purpose of the PAPU is to process user data and protocol
conversion between the BSS and the GPRS backbone network and vice versa.
To do this and other functions, a PAPU must support a large set of protocols,
including Frame Relay (FR), Network Service (NS), Base Station Subsystem
GPRS Protocol (BSSGP), Logical Link Control (LLC), Subnetwork Dependent
Convergence Protocol (SNDCP), GPRS Tunnelling Protocol (GTP), User
Datagram Protocol (UDP), Internet Protocol (IP), and Ethernet.
PAPU handles the GPRS mobility management (GMM) procedures such as
GPRS attach, location management, and GPRS detach. It also relays the
combined GPRS/GSM MM procedure requests by MSs to the SMMU which in
turn sends it on the Gs interface (SGSN-MSC) to the MSC. The PAPU also
relays CS paging requests coming from SMMU to the BSS through the Gb
interface. Each PAPU serves a certain number of routing areas (RA). When a
subscriber moves from a RA served by one PAPU to another RA served by a
different PAPU, no location update is performed with the HLR, thus minimising
the load on the HLR.
The PAPU also handles session management (SM) for PDP context activation,
modification, and deactivation. SMS delivery, GPRS mobility management
(GMM), and session management (SM) use the services provided by the LLC
layer between the MS and SGSN.
PAPU takes care of ciphering (LLC Layer) and compression (SNDCP Layer)
between the MS and SGSN. The GPRS Encryption Algorithm (GEA and
GEA2) is used for ciphering if selected by the operator. The SGSN supports
header compression (Van Jacobsen) and user data compression (V.42 bis)
which is negotiated at PDP activation. User data compression requires a lot of
processing power and therefore you may choose to limit the use of data
compression to certain users. The impact on capacity will be significant, but
exact figures are not currently available.
Each PAPU has an IP address, an Ethernet interface to the Gn network, and a
maximum of 64 * 64 bits/sec FR bearer channels. In Release 1, each PAPU is
installed in a CC4C-A cartridge (see Appendix A: Plug-in units in SGSN
Release 1).

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5.4 Signalling and Mobility Management Unit (SMMU)


The main purpose of the SMMU is to support subscriber mobility
management using SS7-based interfaces: Gr (HLR – SGSN), Gd (SMS-GMSC
– SGSN), Gs (MSC/VLR – SGSN), and Gf (EIR – SGSN). SMMU supports the
MTP, SCCP, TCAP, BSSAP+, and MAP protocols version 2 and 3 that are used
on those SS7 interfaces.
SMMU has a temporary storage for GPRS subscriber data called visiting GPRS
subscriber database, similar to the VLR in a MSC. The subscriber data is
loaded from HLR when a subscriber makes a GPRS attach or inter-SGSN
routing area update. The subscriber data is deleted from the database when the
MS has GPRS detached or when the MS changes SGSN. The subscription
information includes parameters needed for subscriber authentication and
identification, MS's location in PAPU and location area, subscriber's HLR
CCS7 address, VLR CCS7 address, etc. The subscriber database is stored in
RAM because of its dynamic nature.
If Gs interface is implemented, the SMMU handles all the combined
GPRS/GSM mobility management for those GPRS and IMSI attached
subscribers that have class A or B capabilities.
SMMU takes part in subscriber authentication procedure providing storage
for subscribers' unused authentication triplets. There is room for 10 triplets per
each subscriber. When needed, the SMMU asks for new triplets from the AuC
through the Gr interface using MAP protocol.
SMMU also takes part in the equipment authentication procedure requesting
an IMEI check from the EIR when required through the Gf interface. The
SMMU also stores the MS's IMEI that has been asked from the MS within the
most recent IMEI check procedure.
The SMMU supports the SMS delivering procedure forwarding the short
messages either to SMS-GMSC through Gd interface or to the MS after
checking related subscriber information on the visiting GPRS subscriber
database.
The SGSN contains up to five SMMUs in a N+1 configuration. Each SMMU is
installed in a CC4C-A cartridge in Release 1 (see Appendix A: Plug-in units in
SGSN Release 1). In SG2, these plug-in units have different names.

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5.5 Marker and Charging Unit (MCHU)


The MCHU consists of two functional entities, Charging Unit (CHU) and
Marker (M). The Charging Unit collects and stores charging information from
PAPUs and SMMUs. It generates call detail records (CDRs) and transfers them
to Charging Gateway (CG) through the Ga interface using the GTP' protocol. If
CG is not present in the GPRS network, the CDRs are saved and transferred off-
line to Billing and Customer Care System (BCCS) with FTAM or FTP.
MCHU collects and stores statistical data about the whole system.
If SGSN and NMS are connected by analogue/digital X.25, the MCHU shall
implement the analogue/digital X.25 connection towards the NMS. In this case,
the MCHU receives alarms collected by OMU and sends statistics and alarms to
NMS. If SGSN and NMS are connected by LAN, the OMU implements this
connection and MCHU sends statistics to OMU. In this case, OMU shall send
statistics and alarms to NMS.
The Marker controls and supervises the group switch (GSW), hunts free
circuits, and is responsible for establishing and releasing all connections. These
semi-permanent connections are used internally to connect signalling terminals
and frame relay bearer channels to external PCM timeslots.
The MCHU also works as subscribers' database distributor for SMMU units
and performs the centralised PTMSI allocation for all mobiles managed by the
SGSN.
The SGSN features two MCHUs in a 2N-redundancy configuration. In Release
1, both MCHUs units are installed in a CC4C-A cartridge (see Appendix A:
Plug-in units in SGSN Release 1).

5.6 Operation and Maintenance Unit (OMU)


The OMU acts as an interface between the user and the exchange and takes
automatic recovery measures, as needed, based on its collected fault data. The
tasks of the Operation and Maintenance Unit are divided into four groups:
• Traffic control functions include subscriber administration, accounting
management, routing administration, routing state administration, and
traffic administration.
• Maintenance includes the maintenance of the exchange, subscriber
network and trunk circuits. These include supervision, alarm output,
recovery, and diagnostics.
• System configuration administration takes place by means of MML
programs used to manage exchange expansions and introduction of new
features in the exchange and network.

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• System management includes the functions closely related to the


operating system of the microcomputer in the OMU which serve the other
operation and maintenance functions. The system management functions
are divided into the following categories:
− Input and output system
− Input and output function management
− MMI system
− Data communications
− File management
− System support functions.
If SGSN and NMS are connected with LAN or VLAN, the OMU implements
TCP/IP application towards the NMS. In this case the MCHU sends to OMU
the statistics collected from the system.
The SGSN contains a duplicated OMU for 2N redundancy. The OMU
equipment is housed in CC4C-A cartridge (see Appendix A: Plug-in units in
SGSN Release 1).

5.7 SGSN interfaces


The external interfaces of a Nokia SGSN Release 1 are as follows:
• 16+1 times 100-BaseTX Ethernet connections to the GPRS backbone
(Gn) [1 per PAPU]
• Up to 1024 * 64 kbit/s frame relay links for Gb interface towards the
BSS [max. 64 x 64 kbit/s FR bearer channels per PAPU]
• Up to 96 SS7 signalling links (that is, Gs, Gr, Gf, Gd) [24 x 64 kbit/s
links per SMMU]
• Up to 120 physical E1 PCM lines which provide the physical layer link
for Gb, Gs, Gr, Gd, and Gf. The SS7-based interfaces (that is, Gs, Gr, Gf,
and Gd) and BSS interfaces (Gb) can be freely selected and multiplexed
to any of the PCM lines via a switching matrix, giving flexibility in
transmission solutions.
When extending the packet-processing capacity of the SGSN, additional
Gn and Gb interface capacity should be added.
The Nokia SGSN may have several connections to the IP backbone network, as
well as one SS#7 gateway address, which is shared by all the IP connections.
This decreases the signalling load on the HLR and MSC/VLR, allowing data
transfer capacity to be easily increased and offering flexibility in network
design.

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The SGSN supports 16 000 routing areas (1000 per PAPU) and 2000 location
areas. One routing area is always served by one PAPU. Location areas can
freely cross PAPU/SGSN boundaries.

5.8 SGSN capacity


The capacity of the Nokia SGSN can be expressed in terms of subscriber
capacity, packet switching capacity, buffering capacity, interface capacity and
the number of location and routing areas served. Table 1 compares SGSN
Releases 1 and 2.

Table 1. Comparison of SGSN Release 1 and 2

SGSN Release 1 SGSN Release 2


Standards Based on ETSI Rel 97 Based on ETSI/3GPP
IP connections IPv4 IPv4 and IPv6
QoS Best Effort Priority, Interactive & Background
classes, diffserv.
SGSN subscribers 120 000 (16 PAPUs + 4 SMMUs) 240 000 (16 PAPUs + 4 SMMUs)
SGSN data rates 48 Mbps (100 % capacity) 100 Mbps (100 % capacity)
Active PDP context 1-2 1-4
per subscriber
Maximum # of PDP 240 000 = 2 x 120 000 960 000 = 4 x 240 000
contexts per SGSN
CPU CP523-A Based on CP550-B
266 MHz 500 MHz
max. 512 MB SDRAM max. 1 GB SDRAM
66 MHz Memory Bus 100 MHz Memory Bus
PAPU 16 + 1 max 16 + 1 max
7500 subscribers per PAPU 15 000 subscribers per PAPU
256 MB memory 512 MB memory
3 Mbps per PAPU 6.25 Mbps per PAPU
(3 x 16 = 48 Mbps) (16 x 6.25 = 100 Mbps)
IOCP 512 MB 512 MB
SMMU 4 + 1 max 4 + 1 max
30 000 subscribers per SMMU 60 000 subscribers per SMMU
128 MB 128 MB
MCHU 256 MB 512 MB
OMU 128 MB 128 MB

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Subscriber capacity
The maximum GPRS-attached subscriber capacity and the number of PDP
contexts is tabulated above. Subscriber capacity is modularly added with steps
of 30 000 (Release 1) or 60 000 (Release 2) subscribers by adding new
functional units.

Packet switching capacity


The packet-processing capacity in Release 1 is 3 Mbps per PAPU unit. The
capacity can be modularly added in steps of 12 Mbps by adding new PAPUs
(four PAPUs per step) up to the maximum. When the packet-processing
capacity per SGSN element is extended, the interface capacities in Gn and Gb
interfaces are extended at the same time.
The packet-processing capacity depends on various factors, such as packet
length, whether data compression is used or not, and whether acknowledged or
unacknowledged mode of operation is used. Thus, the actual SGSN data rate
may vary depending on the factors mentioned above.
The packet-processing capacity per SGSN network element is 48 Mbps
(Release 1) or 100 Mbps (Release 2) with ciphered connections without use of
compression.

Buffering capacity
Nokia SGSN has buffering capacity for the following purposes:
• 15 MB for GTP payload (that is, N-PDU) buffering per PAPU, that is,
240 MB per SGSN
• 10 kB for LLC per attached MS per direction
• 15 MB for BSSGP buffering due to BSS flow control per PAPU, that is,
240 MB per SGSN.

Interface capacity
Different types of connections are provided as follows:
• A maximum of 120 E1-PCM connections towards the NSS and the BSS
(combined maximum)
• A maximum of 96 SS7 signalling links
• A maximum of 1024 * 64 kbps frame relay (FR) links for the Gb
interface
• A maximum of 16+1 10-BaseT or 100-BaseTX Ethernet connections
towards GPRS backbone for the Gn interface.
Each PAPU unit supports a maximum of 64 FR bearer channels, 64 kbps each.
Therefore, the SGSN can support a maximum of 16 * 64 = 1024 FR bearer
channels. The bearer channel bit rate is N * 64 kbps, where N is [1,31].

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The maximum number of supported NSEs per PAPU is 64, and therefore
16 * 64 = 1024 per SGSN. Each NSE can have a maximum of 4 NS-VCs
configured. This means that a maximum of 256 NS-VCs are supported per
PAPU, and therefore 16 * 256 = 4096 per SGSN.
The minimum supported Committed Information Rate (CIR) per NS-VC is
16 kbps. One FR bearer can thus have a maximum of 124 NS-VCs configured
((64 kbps/16kbps) * 31).
The maximum number of supported BVCs per PAPU is 3000.
Nokia SGSN supports connections to a maximum of 2500 HLRs and 100
MSC/VLRs.
Nokia SGSN supports connections to 2500 Access Point Names (APN) and to a
maximum of 2500 GGSNs. Each PAPU has its own 100BaseTX (or 10BaseT)
Ethernet connection to the backbone.

Routing areas and location areas


SGSN supports 16 000 routing areas with a maximum of 1000 per PAPU.
SGSN supports 2000 location areas. One routing area is always served by one
PAPU. Location areas can freely cross PAPU/SGSN boundaries.

5.9 SGSN configuration steps

5.9.1 Release 1 SGSN configuration steps

The standard DX200 Nokia Release 1 SGSN configuration steps are as follows:

30 000 subscribers / 12 Mbps (minimum configuration - 25 % capacity)


• Four active Packet Processing Units (PAPU)
• One active Signalling and Mobility Management Unit (SMMU).

60 000 subscribers / 24 Mbps (50 % capacity)


• Eight active Packet Processing Units (PAPU)
• Two active Signalling and Mobility Management Units (SMMU).

90 000 subscribers / 36 Mbps (75 % capacity)


• 12 active Packet Processing Units (PAPU)
• Three active Signalling and Mobility Management Units (SMMU).

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120 000 subscribers / 48 Mbps (max. configuration- 100 % capacity)


• 16 active Packet Processing Units (PAPU)
• Four active Signalling and Mobility Management Units (SMMU).

In each configuration step:


• A minimum of two PCM connections towards NSS and BSS (one ET2E).
• A maximum of 120 PCM connections towards NSS and BSS (combined
maximum, 60 ET2Es).
One SGSN element always has the same physical floor layout. When one SGSN
element is fully equipped and more capacity is needed, a new SGSN has to be
installed.

5.9.2 Release 2 SGSN configuration steps

In Release 2, the configuration steps are as follows:

60 000 subscribers / 25 Mbps (minimum configuration - 25 % capacity)


• Four active Packet Processing Units (PAPU)
• One active Signalling and Mobility Management Unit (SMMU).

120 000 subscribers / 50 Mbps (50 % capacity)


• Eight active Packet Processing Units (PAPU)
• Two active Signalling and Mobility Management Units (SMMU).

180 000 subscribers / 75 Mbps (75 % capacity)


• 12 active Packet Processing Units (PAPU)
• Three active Signalling and Mobility Management Units (SMMU).

240 000 subscribers / 100 Mbps (maximum configuration - 100% capacity)


• 16 active Packet Processing Units (PAPU)
• Four active Signalling and Mobility Management Units (SMMU).

Extensions can be implemented into SGSN online. Extensions do not require a


software update.

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5.10 Charging in SGSN


The SGSN collects charging information for every GPRS-attached subscriber.
The type of information gathered is as follows:
• Use of radio resources (amount of data, geographical location, number of
repetitions of packets, etc.)
• Use of packet data protocols (time)
• Use of general GPRS resources (signalling messages, GPRS backbone,
etc.)

Charging data is stored in the SGSN and Charging Detail Records (CDRs) are
produced at the time of PDP context deactivation, detach, or short message
(SMS) delivery. There are three types of CDRs (as seen previously in the
module GPRS Traffic Management):
• S-CDR (Session)
• M-CDR (Mobility)
• SMS-CDR (Short Message Service)
These CDRs can be handled in two ways. They can be sent to the Charging
Gateway or they can be saved to a file. These options can also be carried out
concurrently. The operator can control this process using a Man Machine
Interface (MMI).

The GPRS Tunnelling Protocol (GTP') is used when charging information is


transferred between the SGSN and the CG.
Release 2 supports additional charging for IN-based prepaid as discussed
earlier.

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6 Nokia GGSN Release 1 and 2


The Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) provides the interconnection
between the GPRS network and external packet data networks such as the
Internet. The main functions of the GGSN are:
• Interfacing the GPRS backbone to external data networks
• GTP tunnelling to the SGSN
• Gathering of charging and statistics information
• Network management interfaces
• Dynamic IP address allocation to mobile station (MS)
• Protecting the GPRS backbone from external attacks.
Nokia GGSN consists of three primary components: hardware, software, and
other modules such as firewalls. We shall look at each of these units. The
GGSN has not changed much when migrating from Release 1 to 2.

6.1 Hardware platform


Nokia GGSN Release 1 is called GN2500 (see Figure 12). GN2500 products
use Intel Pentium II 650 MHz processors, high-availability IP routing.

Figure 12. Nokia GGSN Release 1

GN2500 is provided with various network interface cards (NICs), and supports
the hot swapping of NICs, power supplies, and fans. GN2500 products are
managed using Voyager − a Nokia web-based management application. With
Voyager, you can manage, monitor, and configure GN2500 products from any
authorised location within the network using a standard web browser.
Nokia GGSN Release 2 is based on the Nokia IP 740 series of internet routers.
When configured as a GGSN, the IP 740 is called the GN3500. The processor is
an Intel Pentium III 866 MHz.

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6.1.1 GGSN interfaces

The GGSN Release 1 has six CPCI slots, one of which is used for the hard disk.
This leaves a maximum of five slots for the network interface cards. Different
network interfaces are supported by the Nokia GGSN:
• Quad port Ethernet 10/100 adapter is used when SGSN(s) and GGSN(s)
are located on the same site or connected to a LAN or VLAN.
• One port serial V.35/X.21 (up to 2048 kbit/s) interface for Wide Area
Network (WAN) connections
• One Synchronous Transport Module Level 1 (STM-1) interface for
connection to Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) transport or direct
connection to Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) trunk lines
• One port T1 with CSU/DSU (US markets)
• One port HSSI (mostly US markets).
Using five adapters with four port Ethernet adapters up to a maximum of 20
separate physical Ethernet connections are possible.
The Nokia GGSN Release 2 supports additional interfaces:
• E1 interface cards
• ISDN interface cards.

6.1.2 GGSN rack design

Both GGSN Release 1 and 2 can be rack mounted on a 6' by 19'' high-density
rack that contains 19 GGSNs. Each rack can provide a maximum of 380
(19 x 5 x 4) 10/100 Ethernet connections.

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6.2 Software platform

6.2.1 Operating system

The GN2500 and GN3500 run the Ipsilon Operating System (IPSO), which is a
modified version of the FreeBSD Unix operating system. Most modifications
have been made in the FreeBSD kernel to improve handling of fast I/O. IPSO
runs standard FreeBSD programs. All tools for node management, program
development, etc. are usual FreeBSD accessories.

6.2.2 Routing protocols

Distributing the routing tables is automated. The GN2500 series supports most
common routing protocols such as RIP (Routing Information Protocol), OSPF
(Open Shortest Path First), BGP (Border Gateway Protocol), and IGRP (Inter
Gateway Routing Protocol)
The GN3500 supports RIP v1 and v2, OSPFv2, BGP-4, IGRP, and DVMRP.

6.2.3 Optional software modules

The capabilities of the GN2500 routers can be extended by including software


modules from third parties. The most important module is FireWall-1 from the
CheckPoint. It is used to provide the network-controlled screening and security
function. FireWall-1 can include NAT, NAPT and VPN. In the first release,
only the proprietary VPN of CheckPoint is supported. Also other software, for
example for virus checks, is available. The NAT, NAPT and VPN concepts
were discussed in the Introduction to TCP/IP Module.

6.2.4 Filtering and routing process

The IP routing engine operates in several phases. First a packet can be filtered
and modified. The firewall first checks, using filtering rules, if the packet is
acceptable. If it is, the NAT/NAPT can rewrite the address part of the header
with a new IP address and port number. These operations also require an update
to the checksum. An encryption module can be used to encrypt or decrypt the
packet before routing it to the next destination.
The Firewall/NAT/VPN can be moved outside the GGSN, if performance
requires it.

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6.2.5 GGSN interworking services

The allocation of IP addresses can be carried out by one of the following:


• GGSN allocates the address from an internal pool.
• Internal DHCP client can be used to access a DHCP server in the intranet
or ISP network.
• Internal RADIUS client can be used to access a RADIUS server in the
intranet or ISP network.
The Nokia GGSN Release 1 and 2 provides direct Internet access in addition to
access to intranets and ISPs. Multiple access points are provided. The exact
functions provided by interconnecting networks depend on which of the
following three connection options is required (see Figure 13):
• Direct Internet connection to an existing ISP infrastructure owned by the
operator
• Dedicated connection to an intranet outside the operator's network.
• Indirect connection to an intranet employing a Virtual Private Network
(VPN). The virtual connections run between the VPN software in the
GGSN and the VPN software in the accessed intranet.

Figure 13. Various connections between GPRS and external networks

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6.2.6 GGSN access points

An access point (AP) provides access for the GGSN to external networks.
Nokia GGSN can support multiple access points. This means that a single
GGSN can connect to several different networks, such as the Internet or
corporate intranets. Each access point is mapped to a single physical interface.
The access points can even share the same physical interface if required. Access
point management can be performed through a web interface. For each GPRS
subscriber, the list of allowed access points is defined in the subscriber data in
the HLR.
GN2500 can support a maximum of 100 access points and GN3500 can support
250 access points.

6.2.7 GGSN redundancy

Operating two GGSNs in parallel can provide GGSN redundancy. The two
GGSNs are connected to the same services with each GGSN sharing the load.
This is referred to as load sharing. The DNS decides which traffic is passed
through which GGSN. If one of the GGSNs fails, the PDP contexts in that node
are lost. All traffic to the external network is then carried via the operating
GGSN while the other GGSN can be repaired, ensuring that services remain
accessible. This feature is available in Release 1 and 2.

6.2.8 GGSN management

Various options are available for network management:


• The WWW via HTTP is used for initial setup and configuration.
• The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is used for
delivering alarms, key performance indicators, configurations, etc.
• The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is used for software download and
configuration data backup / restoration functions.
• The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used for synchronising the real-
time clocks.

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6.3 GGSN capacity


The capacity of a Nokia GGSN GN2500 is given below:
• 30 to 80 Mbps GTP tunnel data throughput rate depending on the packet
size. Larger packet size implies higher throughput. Packet sizes of 300
bytes give a throughput of 32 Mbps.
• Support for 50 000 active PDP contexts, each requiring a GTP tunnel
• Support for 100 access points
• 256 MB RAM
• Redundancy should be configured as N+1.

6.4 Charging in GGSN


Charging Detail Records (CDRs) are transferred to the Charging Gateway (CG)
in real time using the ETSI defined GTP' protocol between the GGSN and the
Charging Gateway (CG). CDRs are not stored on the GGSN hard disks. In case
CDRs cannot be sent, they would be stored in a buffer (in the GGSNs memory)
until the transmission of CDRs is re-established.
Various charging information is provided, for example, data volume uplink or
downlink, PDP context active time, tariff change, and access point name. This
relates to the network or services used, static or dynamic IP address usage, PDP
IP address, and cause for record close.
Nokia GGSN Release 2 supports prepaid, hot billing, and flat rate users.

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6.5 Summary of Nokia GGSN features

6.5.1 Nokia GGSN Release 1 (GN2500)

The essential features of the Nokia GGSN Release 1 (GN2500) solution are:
• Compact stackable units for scalable solutions. Rack mount can have a
maximum of 19 units.
• Support of up to 100 access points per GGSN. For each user, the access
point to be used is defined in the HLR subscriber data. The access points
can even share the same physical interface if required.
• Easy field management of GGSN using the Voyager web-based
application which can be used for monitoring and configuring GGSN
products.
• Integrated GGSN / BG / Router / Firewall platform. Can run BG,
Firewall and VPN within the same GGSN hardware unit or run in
separate devices if required. Managed using Voyager.
• Five CPCI slots available to support interfaces using appropriate NIC:
Ethernet, Serial V35/X21, STM-1, T1 and HSS1
• Hot swapping of NIC, power supplies, and fans
• Each Ethernet adapter has four ports (Quad 10/100 Ethernet card) and
five such adapters can be inserted in a GGSN giving a total of 20 ports
per GGSN. In a rack containing 19 GGSNs, there is a maximum of 380
ports.
• Support of RIP, OSPF, BGP, and IGRP routing protocols
• GGSN can allocate IP address from a pool of IP addresses or using a
DHCP or RADIUS client.
• Redundancy and load sharing provided by operating in parallel and using
VRRP.
• Traffic management using packet filtering and access lists
• 50 000 GTP tunnels which can be encrypted using Firewall-1
• IP in IP and GRE tunnels can be set up to external intranets.
• Protocols supported include GTP, GTP', Ethernet, SNMP, NTP, FTP,
HTTP, NTP, UDP, TCP, IP, IP in IP, VRRP, DHCP, and RADIUS.
• GPRS interfaces supported are Gn (backbone), Gp (Inter PLMN), Ga
(CG), and Gi (External).

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6.5.2 Nokia GGSN Release 2 (GN3500)

The key features of the Nokia GGSN Release 2 (GN3500) are the following:
• Support for IPv4 and IPv6
• Up to one million active PDP contexts
• Multiple PDP contexts per IP using different tunnel end-point identifiers
• Support for 2G and 3G networks using Release 99 QoS
• Compact stackable units for scalable solutions
• Support for up to 250 access points per GGSN
• Easy field management of GGSN using the Voyager
• Integrated GGSN / BG / Router / Firewall platform
• Four CPCI slots available to support interfaces using appropriate NIC:
Ethernet, Serial V35/X21, STM-1, T1, E1, ISDN and HSS1
• Hot swapping of NIC, power supplies, and fans
• Support for RIP, OSPFv1 and 2, BGP, IGRP, and DVMRP routing
protocols.
• GGSN can allocate IP address by itself or using a DHCP/RADIUS.
• Redundancy and load sharing provided using VRRP
• Traffic management using packet filtering and access lists
• IP in IP and GRE tunnels can be set up to external intranets.
• Protocols supported include GTP, GTP', Ethernet, SNMP, NTP, FTP,
HTTP, NTP, UDP, TCP, IP, IP in IP, VRRP, DHCP, and RADIUS.
• GPRS interfaces supported are Gn, Gp, Ga, and Gi.

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Nokia Charging Gateway (CG)

7 Nokia Charging Gateway (CG)

7.1 CG and CDRs


In the GPRS standardisation, ETSI gives the following two possibilities to
implement the CG functionality:
• Stand-alone
• Integrated in GSNs (SGSN and GGSN).
In the Nokia GPRS solution, the CG (Release 1 and 2) is a stand-alone network
element, as shown in Figure 14. Why is that?
• Better service for the operator: A separate mediation device is not
needed. If CG is in GSNs, a mediation device is needed because GSNs
are not able to send Charging Detailed Records (CDRs) to the Customer
Care and Billing System (CCB). If GSNs send CDRs to the CCB, there
are as many access points to the CCB as there are GSNs. This means
more workload.
• Each CG has one access point to the CCB.
• An ETSI-specified real-time transfer protocol, GTP' (enhanced GPRS
Tunnel Protocol), is used to transfer CDRs to the CCB.
When a subscriber switches the terminal on, the PDP context is activated and
the GGSN starts to send CDRs to the CG. The GGSN informs SGSN to which
CG unit it sends CDRs.

GTP' Charging gateway


Billing System
SGSN

Operator
IP backbone GTP'

Border Gateway
GGSN

Inter operator
IP network Internet

Figure 14. Implementation of the Nokia CG in the GPRS backbone

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As shown in the previous module, GGSN has only one type of CDRs, that is the
G-CDR, which includes the following information:
• When the PDP context is started and ended
• How much data is transferred both uplink and downlink
• Quality of Service (QoS) in Release 1 is best effort. Release 2 supports
Rel 97/98 and Rel 99 QoS specifications
• Duration
• PDP context IP addresses. Internet IP addresses are not visible, because
of tunnelling protocol GTP'.

The SGSN sends four CDR types:


1. S-CDR – The content is like G-CDR plus some other fields.
2. M-CDR is for mobility management.
− The SGSN sends an M-CDR to the CG each time the subscriber
changes cell, location area or routing area.
− In M-CDR, for example, the home location PDP context could
have a lower charge rate than another location.
− Cell information is not available in GPRS Release 1 but available
in Release 2.
3&4. SMS-CDR
− SMSs can be sent through the traditional network or the GPRS
backbone.
− There are two SMS-CDR types: mobile originated and mobile
terminated.
The GPRS Charging Gateway receives CDRs from GGSNs and SGSNs using a
real-time transfer protocol (GTP’). The CG forms an intermediate storage for
the CDRs. Therefore, no long-term storing capabilities are required at GSNs.
In normal conditions all CDRs from the same PDP context are transferred to the
same CG. If one CG is down, a redundancy procedure built in the GTP' protocol
allows the transfer of CDRs from the GSNs towards other CGs.

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Nokia Charging Gateway (CG)

7.2 CG functionality
The Nokia Charging Gateway will consolidate and pre-process the CDRs before
passing them to the billing system. Standard billing system interfaces FTAM,
FTP over TCP/IP and NFS are implemented in CG. The CG implementation
enables the auditing and tracing of every phase of CDR processing. The CG
validates and consolidates CDRs, and produces them in a format suitable for the
Customer Care and Billing System (CCBS).
Nokia Charging Gateway Release 1 provides an access point to the billing
system from each Charging Gateway unit. Several GSNs can send the CDRs to
the same Charging Gateway. This reduces the amount of nodes from which the
billing system has to fetch the consolidated CDRs.
A functional view of the CG is illustrated in Figure 15.

Customer Care and


Billing System

Formatting

Consolidation

Validation
Validating

Collection

Figure 15. Functional view of the CG

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Nokia GPRS Architecture

Nokia CG benefits
CG offers the following major benefits:
• Reliable storage capability for CDRs, eliminating the need for costly and
failure risk storage capabilities at the GSNs
• Fast transfer of CDRs from the GSNs and CG hot billing internal
architecture are future-proof for hot billing and prepaid, enabling credit
control and fraud detection in an early phase.
• Greater security can be achieved while handling CDR data because of the
high degree of automation and because no tapes are needed in the CCBS.
• Centralised CDR processing reduces the number of configuration points
compared to a solution where charging has to be done at each node.
• Automated validation makes it easier to detect errors.
• Reduction of the CCB processing load by pre-processing and
consolidating
• The audit trail function enables tracing of CDR-processing phases and
CDR contents, for example, in case of customer complaints.
• The open architecture in the CG makes it easy to adapt to changing
standards and customer needs.
• Good expandability due to the modular structure of the system makes it
easy to meet the needs of the future growth both in terms of volume and
new services.
An overview of the CG functions and management is shown in Figure 16.

Charging Gateway Management

SGSN • Configuration management


• Receiving CDRs from GSNs • CDR transfer settings
• Real-time transfer protocol • backup/restore
• Fixed CDR format (Rel 1) • tariff changes
GGSN • Fault management
• current alarms
• alarm history
• Intermediate CDR storage • Performance management
• CDR consolidation
CG • KPIs
• Pre-processing
• Handling erroneous CDRs • Time management
• synchronising with
other NEs
• Security management
• Interfaces towards Billing
System / CCB • password settings
• Management methods
Billing • CDR transfer towards BS
System • SNMP

Figure 16. CG functions

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Nokia Charging Gateway (CG)

Scalability
Scalability is achieved by adding server capacity (D3 server, about 1 000 000
CDRs/day and K8 server, about 10 000 000 CDRs / day ) and by internally
distributing processes between computers (not in Release 1).
GSNs are configured to send CDRs to a regional CG. The minimum CG
configuration consists of two CG units that share the overall CDR load from the
GSNs.

Availability
CG availability is accomplished by using:
• Mirrored hard disks in each CG
• Dual-port interface cards in CGs
• UPS as ensured power feeding
• Configurable redundancy principle (load sharing, N+1, 2N)
Each GSN has a list of CGs that it uses and one marked as primary CG.
When one CG is out of operation or busy, CDR traffic is directed to another
CG.

7.3 Nokia Charging Gateway Release 2


The new features in CG Release 2 are the following:
• Improved charging architecture including new CDR creation triggers to
support new services
• Duplicate CDR prevention mechanism: if a CDR is resent to a new CG, it
is labelled as 'possible duplicate'.
• Cell ID in S-CDR
• Overload control: when a high-load situation is detected then appropriate
mechanisms are initiate including reduced CDR generation, etc.
• Improved capacity: can handle 240 000 attached subscribers.
• Support for SG1 and SG2
• Capacity increase
• Support for prepaid, hot billing, flat rate
• GPRS Server Node based prepaid: SGSN receives subscriber's prepaid
status from HLR and sends prepaid CDRs as soon as possible to
Charging Gateway that sends them to Charging Centre, which controls
subscriber's account state. Charging Centre sends information to the HLR

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Nokia GPRS Architecture

when account limit has been reached which in turn asks SGSN to
disconnect PDP context.
• IN-based prepaid based on Phase 3 CAMEL (Customised Applications
for Mobile Network Enhanced Logic), which is a network feature
providing a possibility to offer Operator Specific Services (OSS) for the
subscriber, such as Intelligent Network services. SGSN has interface to
SCP, which has information on subscriber's account and grants
permission to activate PDP context or sending short messages. SCP also
monitors account's limit and asks SGSN to deactivate PDP context when
limit is reached.

7.4 CG and roaming


Roaming CDRs are generated and collected by GSNs in both home and visitor
GPRS networks, as in the roaming example shown in Figure 17. The clearing
process is done between CCBCs. ETSI defined TAP3 format for the clearing
process.

Visitor

CLEARING

CCB CCB

SGSN CG CG
SGSN
Operator B
HOME Operator A
IP backbone IP backbone VISITING
NETWORK NETWORK
Border Gateway
GGSN
GGSN APN
APN

Internet

Figure 17. Roaming case

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Nokia Network Management System (NMS)

8 Nokia Network Management System


(NMS)
The Nokia NMS for GPRS builds on the Nokia NMS/2000 solution (based on
HP UNIX workstations and servers). Several new services have been added for
managing the GPRS-based BSS and NSS parameters. For management of the
GPRS backbone, a new separate SNMP application server is used (already
introduced for Nokia Artus network management).

Nokia NMS for GPRS

S
N Q
M 3
P
IP GSM

Figure 18. Nokia NMS for GPRS

The Nokia NMS for GPRS provides an integrated solution for GPRS
management. This means:
• Integrated access: all applications and tools can be seamlessly accessed
from the same terminal.
• Combined GSM and GPRS management, allowing seamless co-operation
between applications over organisational boundaries.
• Integrated fault management. Both SNMP traps from the GPRS network
and Q3 alarms from the GSM network are displayed and managed in the
same alarm applications.
• Integrated performance management, allowing the collection and
monitoring of both GSM and GPRS counters.
• Support for 3rd party element managers through the HP OpenView
Network Node Manager-based SNMP server.

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Nokia GPRS Architecture

8.1 GPRS NMS platform T11, T11.5 and T12


NMS/2000 T11.1 was used for GSM network management and it consisted of
1 - 3 NMS/2000 servers that interacted with the GSM elements through a set of
routers and switches and a data communication network (DCN) as shown in the
left-hand part of Figure 19.
NMS T11.5 was an enhancement to T11.1 with additional hardware for GPRS
management was added. This consisted of a communication and database server
and GPRS BB server on a workstation. These servers are connected through a
set of switches and routers to the GPRS backbone (BB) network.
In the NMS site concept of both T11.1 and T11.5 NMS platforms are
integrated. This is shown in Figure 19.

NMS-SYSTEM

NMS/2000 T11.1 NMS/2000 T11.5


Hub #1 Comm. GPRS
& DB BB
10M 10M 10M Server Server Switch #3
CS DS SS
Customer
10/100M Office LAN

Switch #1 Switch #2

LAN #0 Heartbeat
Router #1 Router #2 Router #3 LAN #1 Primary LAN
Firewall LAN #2 SecondaryLAN
LAN
LAN LAN HSRP (Hot Standby
LAN
Routing Protocol) LAN
NMS/2000 GPRS BB Connection to Office LAN
LAN/WAN
DCN
Network

Figure 19. T11.1 and T11.5 platforms at the NMS site

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Nokia Network Management System (NMS)

The management connections used in NMS/2000 T11.5 LAN connections are


illustrated in Error! Reference source not found.. The figure shows how the
NMS site is connected towards the GPRS and GSM network elements.

SMTP, WEB, DND


servers

Nokia NMS
Firewall
DMZ
Internet

DCN Switch
GGSN
IP650
GGSN
SGSN

GPRS Backbone
MSC
(TCP/IP and SNMP O&M) BG
SGSN

ISO IP (Q3) Network BG

Figure 20. Management connections in NMS/2000 T11.5

SGSN is a DX200 element including packet-processing units. Therefore, in


SGSN we can find both Q3 and SNMP interfaces, as shown in Figure 21.

NMS-SYSTEM

GPRS
NMS/2000 T11.5 BB
server

Switch

SGSN Router
Q3
LAN #1 Primary LAN
Firewall LAN #2 Secondary LAN
LAN

SNMP
GPRS BB

Figure 21. Management connections in SGSN

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Nokia GPRS Architecture

GPRS BB server software


The main 3rd party component is HP Open View NNM 6.0:
• Trap receiving
• SNMP connectivity
• PM.
Other 3rd party software include NameSurfer (DataFellows), Firewall-1
(Checkpoint), CiscoWorks2000, and Netscape.

8.2 Nokia NMS T11.5 functionality


The main functionality of the NMS/2000 T11.5:
• Topology sharing
• Fault monitoring
• GPRS BB management
• Security management (SM)

8.2.1 Topology sharing

With the topology sharing application we can modify existing GPRS topology
and download it into the network (see Figure 22). Both basic topology and
SNMP configuration information can be downloaded. The changes are verified
with the real network, and SNMP traps follow the changes.

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Nokia Network Management System (NMS)

NMS/2000

BB Server

Figure 22. Topology download

8.2.2 Fault monitoring

Fault monitoring (FM) in GPRS follows the same concept as in GSM. The
applications included in GPRS FM are Alarm Monitoring, Alarm Viewer,
Alarm History, Alarm Manual, Alarm Forwarder, FM Rule Editor and
Correlation Rule Editor.
The FM architecture is shown in Figure 23. It illustrates how SNMP traps are
sent by the network elements to the GPRS BB server and finally collected at the
communications and database server.

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Nokia GPRS Architecture

DB & comm.server GPRS BB server


rSS e r erv e
pll. GPRS BB alarm
information via
Nokia SNMP
mgmt solution-
interface
TCP/IP WAN or LAN

Q3
alarms
SNMP
alarm
traps DNS
Q3 DCN
SGSN Charging gateway

Operator A
IP backbone
Lawful Interception Gateway
GGSN
Point to
Multipoint
Service Border gateway
Center

Figure 23. FM architecture

8.2.3 GPRS BB management

All GPRS BB management is new in NMS/2000. The features include:


• Network Element time management: it consists of centralised time
management for IP network elements.
• Performance monitoring
• Configuration management
• Element management
• Name and address (DNS) management

Performance monitoring
In the GPRS backbone management, Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are
used. The idea is that there should only be a few measurements to describe each
of the following three areas:
• Traffic volume: How much traffic is there in the network element?
• Quality of service: How is the end user experiencing the service?
• Availability of service: How accessible is the service for users?

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Nokia Network Management System (NMS)

Configuration management
For GGSN, BG, FW and DNS: NE user management, configuration backup /
restore, SW management. The network elements or managed objects included in
the configuration management are illustrated in Figure 24.

BSC

Gb SMS-
WMSC/VLR SCP BC
GMSC

Gs Gd EIR CORBA CG

HLR/AC
Gn’
Gf
NMS Gr Gi

Firewall
NMS/2000 GGSN Ext. IPBackbone

SW Gn
NTP
GPRS BB SGSN
Management
Server
SW Gn
Gi
GGSN

Firewall
Ext. IPBackbone
Gp GPRS Backbone

NTP NTP
BG Gn
DNS GNS (=
Secondary
DNS) Subject to Conf Mgmt
SGSN operations
Firewall
NTP LIG

Inter-PLMN NTP
Backbone Subject to Conf&SW
Mgmt operations

Figure 24. NE/MO subject of NMS configuration management

Element management
For configuring parameters and integrating elements there are several options
how to access remotely the IP network elements, also available through NMS
user interface. The different interfaces depend on the network element. User
interfaces used are:
• Nokia Voyager for GGSN and BG
• CiscoWorks for Ethernet Switch
• SNMP MIB browser
• Telnet session from command line.

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Nokia GPRS Architecture

Name and address (DNS) management


Name and address management is based on a hierarchical and distributed
database system for storing resource records.
Keys used to fetch records have domain names (for example www.nokia.com)
and also record types.
Record types include IP addresses, pointers to other names, name servers, and
zone information. The most common are the IP addresses, and the ones used in
GPRS.
'Database servers' are called name servers (NS) or domain name servers (DNS).
The GPRS DNS in the Nokia implementation is placed in the NMS server.

8.2.4 Security management

Inside the GPRS backbone, security management includes the following issues:
• User management in configuration and SW management: Which users
are allowed to do configuration and SW management?
• NameSurfer for DNS IP addressing and hostnames
• CheckPoint for firewalls and Virtual Private Networks (VPN): Which
networks (source and destination), applications, messages, etc., are
allowed to go through the firewalls?

8.3 Nokia NMS T12 features


The Nokia NMS T12 supports the following GPRS network elements:
• BSC S8, S9, and S10 compatible
• MSC M8, M9, and M10-compatible
• SGSN SG1, SG 1.5 and SG2
• Nokia BTS InSite, UltraSite BTS
• GGSN GN2500
• BG IP440
• CG CG1
• DNS
• Firewall IP440
• Router IP400
• LIC IP650

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Nokia Network Management System (NMS)

The list of new features in T12 are itemised below:

1. NMS System Management


a. Capacity indication tool that can be used to graphically monitor the
load of the NMS/2000 system.
b. Capacity estimation tool that can be used to estimate the load of
NMS/2000 if a new configuration parameters such as a new
measurement plan or hardware upgrades. This tool will enable the
operator to estimate the effect of a change in the NMS.
c. NMS backup of IT systems running in the NMS LAN. It provides
centralised and homogenous backup and restore solution for all
Nokia network management systems.
d. Service Access Control feature implements a centralised network
element user register.

2. Multivendor Integration
a. CORBA Integration Kit is a new interface that can be used to
integrate Nokia NMS to multivendor systems. It facilitates alarm
collection and upload from external networks.
b. ASCII Alarm Forwarding feature allows the Nokia NMS to send
alarm information to a 3rd-party Network Management Centre in
ASCII format using TCP/IP.

3. Radio Network Management, which is includes routing area


management, SGSN configuration, Gb interface configuration and other
GPRS services. The T12 supports BSS S9, MSC M9, SGSN SG1 and full
support for Nokia InSite and UltraSite.
a. Automatic picocell planning scans events in the Network and
allocates frequency InSite groups.
b. Channel Finder copes with the changes in the office or outdoor
network and adapts the existing office frequency plan into the
surrounding environment so that interference can be minimised.
c. Site Configuration Tool provides web access to BTS and hub site
configuration data residing on the NMS/2000 database.

4. GPRS backbone management feature was introduced in T11.5 release.


The same functionality is provided in T12 with minor enhancements.
a. GPRS Backbone Configuration (optional) is very similar to T11.5,
except that the LIG can be configured in T12.
b. GPRS Backbone Firewall and VPN Management
c. GPRS Backbone Name and Address (DNS) Management.

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Nokia GPRS Architecture

5. GPRS Performance Management. T12 introduces full scale GPRS


support for performance management. Two new services are:
a. ASCII interface for GPRS Measurement Data
b. GPRS Basic Report Set (text and graphics), which can be used to
monitor the performance of Nokia BSS, SGSN, and backbone. The
reports cover:
− Quality of Network Service, e.g. discarded packet ratio
− Amount of GPRS traffic
− Number of GPRS service requests and successful packet
transmissions
− Load in Gb and other interfaces.
A typical SGSN report in T12 can contain:
a. Number of GTP packets and GTP data in bytes sent in UL and
DL direction
b. GTP data in bytes sent in UL and DL direction
c. Frame relay CIR parameters
d. Ratio of discarded DL GTP packets to GTP packets sent in DL
direction
e. Average number of attached subscribers at PAPU and SGSN
level
f. MO PDP context activation failure rate (Cell, PAPU, SGSN
level).

6. Routing area IP manager is used for IP routing area configuration.


Direct access to the DNS is used to read and update the routing area ID
information in the DNS database.

A comparison of T11, T12 and NetAct (OSS) is given below:

T11/K3/V1 T12 OSS 3.0 OSS 3.1


BSC S7,S8, S9 S8, S9,S10 X
MSC/HLR M8, M9 M8, M9, M10 X X
SGSN SG1 X
MetroSite TRE X X X
RNC X X
2G BTS X
3G BS X X
Media Gateway X X

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Service management

9 Service management
Nokia can also provide a complete GPRS Service management and Customer
Care and Billing Solution. This can be integrated with an existing GSM service
management system. A workflow management module is also available to
co-ordinate the various operational tasks, for example, site visits, to ensure
efficient rollout and operation of GPRS services.

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Nokia GPRS Architecture

10 Key points
• Nokia GPRS Release 1 supports: GPRS point-to-point IPv4 service, two
PDP contexts per user, SGSN to MSC/VLR interface (Gs), MS-initiated
cell reselection, SMS through GPRS, Charging based on transferred data,
length of time with PDP context active, location of MS and used access
point, Secure GPRS tunnelled connection when roaming, QoS - dynamic
capacity for GPRS in a cell, guaranteed minimum capacity for GPRS
traffic is a cell, 'best effort' QoS for individual PDP contexts, Multiple
access points per GGSN, DHCP and RADIUS server access, Secure
connections via the Internet.
• Nokia Release 2 supports all of the above and IPv6 connections, up to
four PDP context per user, IN prepaid, inter-PLMN support, QoS,
subscriber and equipment tracing, etc.
• The components of the Nokia GPRS solution are: the Nokia SGSN, the
Nokia GGSN, the Nokia LIG, Nokia Charging Gateway (CG), Nokia
BSC, the Nokia NMS for GPRS and the Nokia BTSs.
• The features available in the Nokia GSM/EDGE BSS10 are adaptive
multirate codec (AMR), Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution
(EDGE), Tri Band - Common BCCH, GSM-WCDMA networking, MS
location services, Automated radio network tuning.
• The capacity of the Nokia SGSN:
− Maximum attached subscriber capacity 120 000 (SG1)/ 240 000
(SG2)
− Up to 300 000 short messages in the busy hour
− Mean switching capacity of 48 Mbit/s (SG1) and 100 Mbit/sec
(SG2)
− Capacity can be configured in steps of 25% of maximum capacity.
• The Nokia CG is a stand-alone element, which collects CDRs from
GSNs. The CG validates and consolidated CDRs, and produces them in a
format suitable for the Customer Care and Billing System (CCBS).
• The new features in T12 are Capacity Indication Tool, Capacity
Estimation Tool, NMS backup, Service Access Control, Multivendor
Integration ( Corba Integration Kit, ASCII Alarm Forwarding feature),
Radio Network Management (Automatic Picocell Planning, Channel
Finder), GPRS backbone management (Configuration, Firewall and VPN
Management, Backbone Name and Address Management), GPRS
Performance Management (ASCII Interface for GPRS Measurement
Data, Basic Report Set) and Routing Area IP manager.

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Summary questions

11 Summary questions
1. What modifications need to be performed to Nokia BTS?

2. What are the important specifications for the Nokia PCU solution?

3. Compare Nokia SGSN Release 1 and 2.


SGSN Release 1 SGSN Release 2
Standards

IP Connections

QoS

SGSN Subscribers

SGSN Data Rates

Active PDP context per sub

Max # PDP contexts per SGSN

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Nokia GPRS Architecture

4. Compare Nokia GPRS Release 1 and 2.


Features GN2500 (GGSN Rel. 1) GN3500 (GGSN Rel. 2)

IP versions

# of AP per GGSN

# of active PDP context

Address Allocation

Networks

QoS supported

Multiple PDP per IP Address

Charging

5. Compare Nokia CG Release 1 and 2.


Features CG Release 1 CG Release. 2

Networks

CDR

Cell ID

Pre-paid support

Hot billing support

Flat Rate User support

Dup. CDR Prevention


Mech (DCPM)

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Appendix A: Plug-in units in SGSN Release 1

Appendix A: Plug-in units in SGSN Release 1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Plug-in units of PAPU Plug-in units of OMU Plug-in units of MCHU

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1 2

Plug-in units of SMMU Plug-in units of ET2 Plug-in units of CLS


SWSPS-S

1 2 3 4

1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Plug-in units of CLAB Plug-in units of GSW Plug-in units of SDU

Figure 25. Plug-in units per functional unit in the Nokia SGSN

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Nokia GPRS Architecture

Appendix B: CG output CDR information

Table 2. Information included in CG output CDRs

Record Types Length Description


Record Type M 2 Type of the record
ServedIMSI M 16 The IMSI of the served party
GgsnAddress M 12 The IP address of the GGSN used
ChargingID M 10 PDP context identifier used to identify this PDP context indifferent records created by GSNs
SgsnAddress M 12 The IP address of the current SGSN
PartialFlag A 2 Indicates if the combined CDR is not whole PDP context
AccessPointName M 126 The logical name of the connected access point to the external packet data network
PdpType M 4 PDP type is IP
ServedPDPAddress M 10 PDP address of the served IMSI
DynamicAddressFlag C 3 Indicates whether served PDP address is dynamic (allocated during PDP context activation)
QosNegotiated M 10 Indicates the applied QoS accepted by the network
DataVolumeGPRSUplink M 11 The data volumes reflect the applic. data as precisely as possible as delivered by the user.
DataVolumeGPRSDownlink M 11 The data volumes reflect the applic. data as precisely as possible as delivered by the user.
ChangeTime M 14 Time stamp when this record was closed
In case of a long call it is the time when last partial record was closed
RecordOpeningTime M 14 Time stamp when this record was opened
In case of a long call it is the time when first partial record was opened.
Duration M 8 Duration of this record in the GGSN
CauseForRecClosing M 2 The reason for the release of the connection
FirstSequenceNumber A 12 In case of a normal call value is 1
In case of a long call indicates first combined partial's RecordSequenceNumber
RecordSequenceNumber C 12 In case of a single call the value is 1.
In case of a long call indicates last combined partial's RecordSequenceNumber

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References

References
Nokia DX200 SGSN Product Description
Nokia GPRS Charging Gateway Product Description
Nokia GN2500 GGSN Product Description
Nokia GPRS Solution Description
Nokia GPRS System Description
GSM Specification 03.60 (GPRS Service Description R.97)
GSM Specification 03.64 (Overall Desc. GPRS Radio Interf. R.97)
GSM Specification 04.08
GSM Specification 04.11
GSM Specification 04.64
GSM Specification 04.65
GSM Specification 07.60
GSM Specification 07.70
GSM Specification 08.14
GSM Specification 08.16
GSM Specification 08.18
GSM Specification 09.02
GSM Specification 09.16
GSM Specification 09.18
GSM Specification 09.60
GSM Specification 12.15

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Issue 5.0 en
Nokia GPRS Architecture

Abbreviations
AoCC Advice of Charge - Charging
AoCI Advice of Charge - Information
AP Access Point
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
AuC Authentication Centre
BCCH Broadcast Control Channel
BG Border Gateway
BGIWP Barring of GPRS Interworking Profile(s)
BGP Border Gateway Protocol
BSC Base Station Controller
BSS Base Station Sub-System
BSSAP BSS Application Part
BSSGP BSS GPRS Protocol
BSSMAP BSS Management Application Process
BTS Base Transceiver Station
BTSM BTS Management
CC Call Control
CCBS Customer Care and Billing System
CCITT Comité Consultatif International Télégraphique et
Téléphonique
CDR Call Detail Record
CFNRc Call Forwarding on Mobile Subscriber Not Reachable
CFU Call Forwarding Unconditional
CG Charging Gateway
CG/AD CG/Alarm Dispatcher
CG/ARC CG/Accounting Record Collection
CG/ARM CG/Accounting Record Modification
CG/FTM CG/File Transfer Manager
CLNS Connectionless Network Service
CM Communication Management
CONS Connection-Oriented Network Service
CUG Closed User Group

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Abbreviations

DAMPS Digital Advanced Mobile Phone Service


DB Database
DCS Digital Cellular System
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DNS Domain Name System
DRX Discontinuous Reception
DTAP Direct Transfer Application Process
EDGE Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution
EIR Equipment Identity Register
ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute
ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute
FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access
FTAM File Transfer, Access and Management
FTMID Sequential number of method instance
FTP File Transfer Protocol
G-CDR Gateway GPRS Support Node-Call Detail Record
GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node
GMSC Gateway MSC
GPRS General Packet Radio Service
GSM Global System for Mobile Communications
GSN GPRS Support Node
GTP GPRS Tunnelling Protocol
GTP´ GPRS Tunnel Protocol (enhanced)
HLR Home Location Register
HPLMN Home Public Land Mobile Network
HSCSD High Speed Circuit Switched Data
HTML Hyper Text Markup Language
HTTP Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol
IGRP Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
IMEI International Mobile Equipment Identity
IMGI International Mobile Group Identity
IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identity

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Issue 5.0 en
Nokia GPRS Architecture

IETF Internet Engineering Task Force


IP Internet Protocol
IPv4 Internet Protocol version 4
IPv6 Internet Protocol version 6
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network
ITU International Telecommunication Union
ITU-T Telecommunication standardisation sector of ITU
LA Location Area
LAN Local Area Network
LAPD Link Access Protocol for the D channel
LAPDm Link Access Protocol for the Dm channel
LLC Logical Link Control
MAC Medium Access Control
MAP Mobile Application Part
M-CDR Mobility Management-Call Detail Record
ME Mobile Equipment
MIB-II Management Information Base II
MM Mobility Management
MoU Memorandum of Understanding
MS Mobile Station
MSC Mobile (services) Switching Centre
MT Mobile Termination
MTP Message Transfer Part
NFS Network File System
NMS Network Management Subsystem
NSAPI Network layer Service Access Point Identifier
NSS Network and Switching Subsystem
OMC Operations and Maintenance Centre
OSI Open System Interconnection
OSPF Open Shortest Path First
OSS Operation Sub-System
PACCH Packet Associated Control Channel
PAD Packet Assembly/Disassembly

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Abbreviations

PAGCH Packet Access Grant Channel


PBCCH Packet Broadcast Control Channel
PCCCH Packet Common Control Channel
PCN Personal Communications Network
PDC Packet Data Communication
PDCH Packet Data Channel
PDN Packet Data Network
PDP Packet Data Protocol
PDTCH Packet Data Traffic Channel
PDU Protocol Data Unit
PLMN Public Land Mobile Network
PNCH Packet Notification Channel
PPCH Packet Paging Channel
PPP Point to Point Protocol
PRACH Packet Random Access Channel
PSPDN Packet-Switched Public Data Network
PSTN Public-Switched Telephone Network
PTM Point-To-Multipoint
PTM-G PTM Group call
PTM-M PTM Multicast
PTM-SC PTM Service Centre
PTP Point-To-Point
QoS Quality of Service
RA Routing Area
RADIUS Remote Authentication Dial In User Service
RAS Remote Access Server
RDBMS Relational Database Management System
RIP Routing Information Protocol
RLC Radio Link Control
RR Radio Resource
SC Service Centre
SCCP Signalling Connection Control Part
S-CDR Serving GPRS Support Node-Call Detail Record

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Issue 5.0 en
Nokia GPRS Architecture

SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node


SIM Subscriber Identity Module
SM Short Message
SMG Special Mobile Group
SMS Short Message Service
SM-SC Short Message Service Centre
SMSCB Short Message Service Cell Broadcast
SMS-GMSC Short Message Service Gateway MSC
SMS-IWMSC Short Message Service Interworking MSC
SMS-MO/PP Mobile Originated Short Messages
SMS-MT/PP Mobile Terminated Short Messages
SMS-PP Point-to-Point Short Message Service
SMSS Switching and Management Sub-System
SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SNDCP Sub-Network Dependent Convergence Protocol
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol
SS Supplementary Services
SS7 Signalling System number 7
SVC Switched Virtual Circuit
TA Terminal Adapter
TAF Terminal Adaptation Function
TC Transcoder
TCAP Transaction Capabilities Application Part
TCP Transmission Control Protocol
TCP Transmission Control Protocol
TDMA Time Division Multiple Access
TE Terminal Equipment
TFI Temporary Flow Identity
TID Tunnel Identifier
TLLI Temporary Logical Link Identity
TMSI Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity
TRAU Transcoder/Rate Adapter Unit
TRX Transceiver / Receiver

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Abbreviations

UDP User Datagram Protocol


UMTS Universal Mobile Telephone System
UPS Uninterruptable Power Supply
VLR Visitor Location Register
VPLMN Visited Public Land Mobile Network
WAN Wide Area Network
WCDMA Wideband Code Division Multiple Access
3G Third Generation

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Issue 5.0 en