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PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION Estimate has atvays been regarded as a valuation based on pinion oF roughly made ftom imperect or incomplete det: @ Calculation net professedy exact an sppraisement, algo a slate ent, a bya builder, in opard tothe cot of certain work. “This book s Intended forthe lst defnilon. As the scence of {technology advances andthe demand for echnologists nero. educators, architects, engineore, conractore, carpets and ‘other worker in ald felis are bocoming more cognizant ofthe Importance and value of near accuracy even in estimates, ‘tis atti juncture thatthe author, in his desire to be of some. help, prepared this odton as an intodctory text to faite the ‘studies of beginning students and other Introsted persons who Wish an instant answer to thar problems involving cost of cone sicton material, This book ic, by design, an outine whose purpose is to guide those persons concamed on mats of estimation, Tables and formula have been prepared wth ths hope ‘hat readers or users of the book wil fri! easy to Yomulate olufons to their cost problems, IMustrave exampos were in ‘lade to serve as visual as for more peplexing problems, ‘Since this is anil stem on the pat ofthe euthor slong this ne of endeavor, he doos not claim that ths works nee Perfect In fact he would weicomo suggestions from those who ‘are better knowledgeable that may further eric the contents of this book For the present ection, the author wishes to express grateful ‘acknowledgment for the valuable suggestions of Dean Francisca ‘Guevara of UNEP, ga Gy and Egar Tuy who read the prim: ary ofthe entre manuscript. The author Bkevise, wishes 10 ‘express his indebtedness to the countles persons ete Une ‘named, who have contibuted tothe scenic and experiment bbackoround fom which ths book has ‘CHAPTER- 1 CONCRETE. 44 4-2. The Pancpes of Concrete Mong 43 The Untof Measure 4 19. 410 ar 2 u (CHAPTER -2 MASONRY 24 22 23 24 25 26 ar 23 20 2-40 Concrte Retaining Wall 2.1% Gabions and Matiess (CHAPTER-3 METAL REINFORCEMENT a 22 33 4 a5 36 ‘TABLE OF CONTENTS Plain and Reinforced Concrete Concrete Poparton ab {Siang Concrete Sib By The Ave Mead Squne Concrete Colarn hg Sears Conte Cure By Linear ‘etorthos gosta Fann Redanaua cotinn Fectrgulr Beam and Gor Crest couna conte low Bost Estraing Comer Mortar oment era For Plaserog crete Hotow lok Foe Sitortypesor Conaete Books Decorae Boss baie sone fetaring Wal pray ana Grose Ri-Rap ‘teat Bars Identification of Steet Bars Bar Splice, Hook and Bend Reinforcement of Cnerete Hollow Blocks ‘ie Wire or CHB Reinforcement Independent Footing Relsforcerent ‘TABLE CONTENTS 37 Post and Column Reinforcement (CHAPTER-5 FORM, SCAFFOLDING AND STAGING 23 5:1 Fos os ‘52 Plywood as Construction Fon, 53. Foms for Square and Rectangular Column 54 Fosfor Clear Column 5:5. FomsforBeams and Giver 5:6 Scaffolding and Staging $2 7. Exiting Sataldng and Staging He St Seeley samen a IHAPTER-6 ROOFING MATERIALS 38 Beamand Gitder Reinforcement 112 39. Lateral Nes Bis 61 Gahanized ron Sheet 203 310 Sis Beam ana cer 123 62 Estimating Gl. Root and its Accessories 208 land Column Tes 125 3. Gutter, Flashing, Rigo, Hipped and Vale Roll 217 $412 One Way Reinforced Concrete Slab 180 84 Asbesios Rooting 222 3-13 Two Way Relnfoees Concrete Sab 135 5. Colored Kip-Lok 3-14 Concrete Pipe Reitoroement 138 8 Ganane Horizontal Metal Te 7 Marcelo Rooting System (CHAPTER- 4 LUMBER 8 Colorbond Custom orb {9 hllano Long Span Stott eneks 44 Wood 449 8:10. Colerbond temdex Hi-Ten F 42 Detition of Tems te 6-11 Asphalt Roof Shingle f 43. Clasiaton of Wood 14 {6:12 Upve Roofing Sheet 44 Methods of Log Sing “8 EIS ‘Shean: 45 Detox in Wood i 6-14 Bick Tue Rooting 43 Seasoning of Lumber 148 47 The Unt Measure of Lumber 49 CHAPTER-7 TILEWORK 43° Wood Post 182 49 Gree i 744 Ceramic Ties 410. Floor Joist and Wood Flooring 185 12, Martie Ties 4-11 Siding Wood Board 180 753 Vinyland Rubber Ties 412 Root Framing ie 7-4 Granite Foor 413 Sh 82 18 Cement Ties 414 Clg Joist 188 7 Wood Tie 418. Celing Board 68 77 Pebbles and Washout Fnsh 418. Door Frame im 417 Window Frame im (CHAPTER-5 HARDWARE (CHAPTER - 9 STAIRCASE. ‘TABLE OF CONTENTS. Bons ‘zo and Length of Bots ‘Screw Nall Introduction Derition of Terms Slaiease Layout ‘The stinger ‘TABLE OF CONTENTS (CHAPTER-10 PAINTING 104 102 103 104 105 108, 107 108. 109) Pain Ingredient ot Pant sect and Specie Properties of ‘ually Pat Eoments of @ Good Palting Job Surface Preparation ‘Kinds of Pat, Uses an Area Coverage Estmating Your Pant Paint Fares and Remedy Wal Peperg| CHAPTER 11 AUXILIARY TOPICS a1 412 13 14 et 118, 17 1 ‘Aceoetion Door Cover Gass Jalouse Water Tank Wood Pies Buminous Surface Treatment Filing Materials ‘Nia Shingle Rooting ‘Arahaw Roofing CHAPTER CONCRETE 1-1 PLAIN AND REINFORCED CONCRETE Cconczete is ether Plain or Reinforced, By defntion, Pain. ‘Concrete is an afta stone asa result of mixing cement fogregates, coarse aggregates and water. The congo of these materials proding a solid mass is called plain crete. Reinforced Conerete on the ather hand, is a coneste reinforcement propery embedded In such a manner that {ha materials act together In resisting forces. ‘The Different Types of Concrete Used in Construction are: ‘The Orsinary Portand cement “The Rapid Hardening Portland Cement which fs \when high eal strength concrete is desire. ‘The Blast Furnace or Sulfate Cement used on structures designed to resist chemical attack ‘The Low Heat Potiand Cement used for m tions designed to reduce the heat of hydration. ‘The Pond Pozzolan Cement with & low characteristic conerete ‘The High Alumina Cement. ‘The High Alumina Cement is sometimes cal ment or coment fund. Rs chemical com that of Portland coment for having fe content of atleast 32% by weight. The: the limi of 0.85% to 1.9%,