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THE DAILY OBSERVER
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March 13,
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CONT R IBUTOR S

ENGLISH LANGUAGE MATHEMATICS SOCIAL STUDIES INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY


Shawnette Myers-Lawrence Kamau Karenga Charmaine Fuller-Wallace Shandeen Robinson-White

HUMAN & SOCIAL BIOLOGY PRINCIPLES OF BUSINESS PRINCIPLES OF ACCOUNTS INTEGRATED SCIENCE
Leroy Munroe Hilary Bassaragh Tedmore Clarke Marlene Grey-Tomlinson

ENGLISH LITERATURE COMMUNICATION STUDIES CARIBBEAN STUDIES CAREER TALK


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ENGLISH
LANGUAGE Lesson 22
with
Shawnett Myers-Lawrence

PERSUASIVE WRITING

Hello Readers.

In this week’s lesson we will focus on the last writing topic on


the syllabus which is persuasive writing. For this section of the
exam, you are no longer given a choice between two prompts.
There is only one topic to which all candidates must respond. You may overcome these weaknesses by
Many of you may be apprehensive about this lack of choice but understanding the various modes of persuasive
keep in mind that the kind of questions that you are given on discourse and taking a more systematic approach to
writing your response. A part of your preparation for
this exam are usually ones which require general knowledge. The
persuasive writing is to try to read widely including
word limit remains at 250 to 300 words but the number of marks
editorials in newspapers and magazines and listen to
is now 25. The suggested time in which you are to complete this
persuasive speeches and debates. Remember to pay
task is 30 minutes. To be successful in this part of the exam you
close attention to the strategies used by the speakers
are required to:
and writers to achieve their purposes.
• Form an opinion about an issue
• Support this opinion with different types of evidence
• Use persuasive and argumentative techniques
• Express your views in a logical manner
• Use Standard English to express your views
• Use the mode or form specified by the question

Persuasive writing often poses challenges for students. Reports


from CXC over the years have presented the same weaknesses Persuasive writing is any type of written or
found in candidates’ writing. Some of these include: spoken discourse which aims to convince an
audience to adopt the writer or speaker’s
• Misinterpretation of the prompt perspective or perform an action as a result.
• Insufficient knowledge about the topic Persuasive discourse may be divided into
• Failure to structure the argument in a logical way psychological persuasion and argument.
• Making unsupported claims Psychological persuasion seeks to convince
• Heavy reliance on emotional appeals through appeals to the emotions while
• Weak, repetitive and unconvincing arguments argument appeals to the intellect.
• Poor time management that makes the essay rushed or
incomplete
• Poor grammar JOL ENGLISH LANGUAGE continues on next page
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Additionally, they all serve the same purpose which is to


FORMS OF PERSUASIVE WRITING
convince an audience that the writer’s opinion is valid and
should be adopted. Despite these similarities there are basic
There are several modes which utilise the persuasive differences in each type and these will be dependent on:
discourse. Some of these include: • The audience • The genre
• The occasion • The mode of delivery

The audience will determine how you choose to persuade.


If you are speaking to strangers then you might keep your
language formal and select the techniques that indicate
that level of formality. An appropriate tone would also be
used so as not to appear overly familiar as this might
create offence. Certainly, an adult audience will require a
different diction from an audience of children. It would not
suit your purpose to use words that your audience is not
likely to comprehend.

The occasion or context in which the discourse will be


presented, will have an impact on the mode you chose. If
you are in a board meeting making a proposal you will
give a speech. To apply for a job you will write a letter of
application. If you need to share your views on an issue
then you may need to write a letter to the editor and of
course to boost the sales of products companies will need
to advertise. Depending on the context, appropriate
language, tone and strategies must be selected.

Different genres will require different organizational


patterns or stylistic features. Letters and essays were
meant to be read therefore they would be structured as
befits those genres. Most speeches are written before they
are delivered but the structure is different as it must take
into consideration the delivery, which is oral. Usually, the
audience to which the speech is addressed is
acknowledged and effort is made throughout the speech
to connect with the listeners.

The mode of delivery refers simply to how the writer will


choose to deliver content whether through speech, writing
or audio-visual means. A spoken or audio-visual medium
will require different techniques from a medium that is
written. A speaker can utilize repetition effectively but an
essay will not necessarily be as effective using this
strategy. Advertisements have the additional features of
In looking at the list above are you able to determine what graphics, pictures and music to create additional effects.
all these types of writing have in common? If you said
that they all express opinions then you would be correct. JOL ENGLISH LANGUAGE continues on next page
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Advertisement plays on our emotions to convince us to


THE LANGUAGE OF PERSUASION
consume these products. Let us look at the advertisement
below and see which human need is being targeted.

Writers and speakers in persuasive discourse use words to


evoke feelings in readers and listeners. You have to bealert
at all times to see what they are trying to do and you have
to express yourself in similar ways when you are writing
your essay. In this lesson, we will focus on psychological Wear Winchester watches. We’re a cut above the rest.
persuasion and use advertisement to examine how
language is used to persuade.
Consumers would be aware that the main purpose of a
watch is to tell the time and any watch regardless of the
ADVERTISEMENTS price serves this function. The makers of Winchester
watches also know this but they are also aware of the
Advertisements are created to get potential consumers to human need to feel superior to others. This brand of
buy a product or service. In any society you will have many watches has clearly been designed and priced for high end
similar products competing for the same market therefore clients and therefore the advertisers ensure that they
advertisers have to ensure that their advertisement captures indicate that these watches are not in the same league as
the attention of the public and present their product in such other watches but are superior. The implication is that the
a way that they will select it out of all that is available. To owner of such a watch will also be in a league that is
do this advertisers play on the emotions of the public in
above the average person. Intellectually we know that this
order to convince them to spend their money. Advertising
is not so, but such advertisements target our insecurities
that promotes specific features or makes claims about what
and sometimes get us to spend more than we can afford
a product or service can do for the potential customers
provides successful results by informing, educating and in order to feel better about ourselves. The technique used
developing expectations in the buyer. Claims can state facts in such ads is called snob appeal.
or simply use hype, such as calling one brand of orange juice
To make an advertisement memorable there are certain
“the best” when nutritionally it is identical to other brands.
Claims may mislead through omission or by using what language techniques that may be used. In this case the
some advertisers and political campaigners call “weasel advertiser uses alliteration and pun in the slogan so that
words.” These are subtle statement modifiers that render a reader will easily catch and remember it. The repetition
the claim meaningless if studied closely. Common weasel of the “w” sound in Wear Winchester watches is not
words include “helps,” “fights” and “virtually.” accidental. It would be difficult to say these three words
without spending the time to enunciate each word. Doing
We all want to be attractive popular, secure happy and so this may also make one feel bold and superior even before
on. These are strong human needs. Some of us want riches owning the watch. The punning on “wear” and “we’re” is
and to be superior to others. In advertising something on
also a clever way to make the slogan memorable.
a variety of media advertisers make people think that the
good or service being offered will help to satisfy that
strong human need. JOL ENGLISH LANGUAGE continues on next page
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EXAM CONNECTION

It is important to remember that an understanding of how others try to persuade you is necessary for you to develop
your own persuasive skills. Paper one of the exam requires you to identify persuasive techniques used, whether in an
advertisement of a prose extract. Whatever the case, you must be able to recognize the type of discourse, the writer’s
intention, the writer’s attitude or tone and any strategy used by the writer to achieve his/her purpose. On paper two
you will be required to write a persuasive piece, usually an essay or letter to the editor. You must however be familiar
with all other persuasive modes to be fully prepared to tackle Section D of the exam.

Shawnett Myers-Lawrence is on the staff of


St. Hugh’s High School
! Email: shawnomyl@yahoo.com

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MATHEMATICS Lesson 22
with Kamau Karenga

STATISTICS 2
7 8 9

+
This is our second lesson on STATISTICS. We shall examine
the CUMULATIVE FREQUENCY CURVE and the FREQUENCY
POLYGON. The Cumulative Frequency Curve can be used to 4 5 6 –
find percentiles, quartiles and other characteristics of a set
of ‘grouped data’. Our focus will be on finding the median
of a set of data, and that will be found at the middle
cumulative frequency. The First Quartile can be found in 1 2 3 –:
the same manner at the first quarter of the cumulative

= +
frequency and the Third Quartile can be found at the third
quarter of the cumulative frequency. We shall demonstrate
the procedure by finding the second quartile called the
0 •
MEDIAN. First, let us discuss the concept of PROBABILITY.

PROBABILITY

Probability is defined as a measure of how likely an event is to occur. The probability of an event must lie somewhere
between zero (0), meaning impossible and one (1), meaning a certainty. The probability of the sun rising in the east
tomorrow morning is 1 or 100% or a certainty. The probability that I could beat Usain Bolt in a foot race tomorrow is
very slim. This Theoretical Probability is defined as:

The number of favourable outcomes


The Probability of an event occurring = –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
The total number of possible outcomes

Example 1

A jar contains 75 marbles; 50 are blue marbles and the remainder are green marbles.

a) If a marble is drawn from the jar at random, what is the probability of drawing a green marble?

b) If a blue marble is drawn and not replaced, what is the probability of drawing a second blue marble?

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Solution 1 b) One blue marble was removed without replacement.


Therefore, 49 blues remain and a total of 74 marbles
a) Since there are 25 green marbles, the number of in the jar.
favourable outcomes is 25 marbles. The total possible 49
Prob (blue marbles) = ––––
is 75 marbles. 74
This is an acceptable answer because it cannot be
25 reduced further.
Prob (green marbles) = –––– This MUST be reduced to 1/3.
75 It could also be expressed as 0.662 or 66.2%

Example 2

The histogram below represents the weight of 100 adults taken at a shopping mall.

Histogram

Frequency

Weight (kg)
a) Use the histogram to create a frequency distribution table.

b) Add to the frequency distribution a column for Class midpoint, Upper Class boundary and Cumulative frequency.

c) Using the Class midpoints and the frequency, create a Frequency Polygon of the data

d) (i) Draw a “less-than” Cumulative Frequency Curve, using the Upper Class boundary and the Cumulative
frequencies.
(ii) From the Cumulative Frequency Curve, determine the median for this set of data.
(iii) Draw lines on the curve to indicate how the median is found.

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Solution 2

a) Examine the Histogram carefully. We can see that the class boundaries are: 49.5, 59.5, 69.5, 79.5, 89.5, 99.5 and
109.5 kg.

The classes are therefore: 50 - 59, 60 - 69, 70- 79, 80 - 89, 90 - 99, and 100 - 109 kg.

The Frequency for each class is represented by the height of the columns of the Histogram.

Examine the height of each bar and record it in the frequency column of the table.

b) The Class midpoint is found by taking the arithmetic mean of the Class Limits.

For the first class interval,


50+59
the midpoint = –––––– ! midpoint = 54.5 kg
2
The Upper Class boundary is usually a value of 0.5 above the upper class limit.

The Cumulative Frequency is found by the total frequencies up to that point.

The total frequency must correspond to the final cumulative frequency value.

Class Intervals (kg) Class Midpoint (kg) Frequency Upper Class Boundary Cumulative Frequency

50-59 54.5 5 59.5 5

60-69 64.5 9 69.5 9 + 5 = 14

70-79 74.5 28 79.5 28 + 14 = 42

80-89 84.5 33 89.5 33 + 42 = 75

90-99 94.5 17 99.5 17 + 75 = 92

100-109 104.5 8 109.5 8 + 92 = 100

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c) The Frequency polygon could be drawn by finding the midpoint of the top of each column of the Histogram and
connecting the points. The practice however, is to put them on separate graphs.

The Frequency Polygon is ‘closed’ by adding a class above and below the data with a frequency of zero.

Therefore we plot a point at (44.5, 0) and (114.5, 0) to bring the polygon down to the x - axis.

Thereby, the x-axis completes the polygon.

Frequency Polygon

Frequency

Weight (kg)

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d) Cumulative Frequency curve (OGIVE)

Cumulative
Frequency

Weight (kg)

The Cumulative Frequency curve (also called the OGIVE) is plotted as the weight (on the horizontal axis) vs. the cumulative
frequency on the vertical axis. This is called a “LESS THAN CUMULATIVE FREQUENCY CURVE” and requires us to use the upper
boundary of each class. The curve should be as smooth and neat as possible, but it MUST be drawn freehand.

The median is found at the midpoint of the frequency, which in this case is 50. The median is NOT 50, but is found at
a cumulative frequency of 50. By drawing lines, we can determine that the median weight is 81 kg.

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EVALUATION

A frequency table recording the heights of 50 students is shown below.

Height (cm) Frequency


130 - 134 2
135 - 139 6
140 - 144 19
145 - 149 14
150 - 154 4
155 - 159 3
160 - 164 2

a) State the modal class.

b) Construct a less than cumulative frequency curve of the given data.

c) Estimate the median by drawing appropriate lines on the curve.

d) What is the probability that a student chosen at random is at least 149.5 cm tall?

SOLUTION TO EVALUATION

a) The modal class is found in the table by examining the class with the highest frequency. The modal class is 140 –
144 cm.

Height (cm) Frequency Cumulative Frequency


130 - 134 2 2
135 - 139 6 8
140 - 144 19 27
145 - 149 14 41
150 - 154 4 45
155 - 159 3 48
160 - 164 2 50

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b) OGIVE

Cumulative
Frequency

Height (cm)

c) The median is found by locating the height when the cumulative frequency is half of the total (25).
The median is 144 cm.

b) There are 9 students who are at least 149.5 cm. This can be taken from the table (4 + 3 + 2).
9 or 18%.
The probability is therefore –––
50

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MAT 110 Basic Statistics Lesson 1 (video 1).mp4
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SOCIAL
STUDIES Lesson 22
with
Charmaine Fuller-Wallace

WATER AS A NATURAL RESOURCE

This week we will continue to look at Natural/Physical Resources, specifically Water.

Water is a chemical compound that is vital to life. Humans, plants, and animals are made up of mostly water. All living things
would die if it weren’t for water. Humankind uses water for a number of things including: drinking, washing, cleaning,
cooking, growing food, irrigation, generates electricity, manufacturing goods and transports people and goods.

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The following explains some uses of water:


CONSERVATION

PROVIDES FOOD: The water is filled with several fishes and


Conservation is the protection and wise use of a country’s
seaweed that is used for food for both locals and tourists. natural resources. Conservation of a country’s physical
resources is achieved through:
RECREATION: This is another way that we use and enjoy
this precious commodity. Many people enjoy fishing, • The implementation of strict laws
boating, sailing, canoeing, rafting, and swimming. People
• Citizens playing their part in conserving the
also enjoy going on cruise ships and sailing. countries resources

INDUSTRIAL PURPOSES: Industries uses the water as a • The efficient extraction and use of resources and
solvent, cooling agent, sewage treatment, chemical their by-products
processing, food processing and hydroelectricity (inland
water) and as wave power (sea water). WATER CONSERVATION METHODS

TRANSPORTATION: The oceans, rivers and lakes are all used It is important that governments in the region not only
by boats, ships, yachts, submarines and other modes of find ways to conserve water on a national level but that
citizens are encouraged to conserve water as well.
transportation that use the water to transport people and
goods from one place to the next. Years ago, Jamaicans CONSERVATION MEASURES: CONSUMERS
used to travel to Port Royal using ferries. Even though
this doesn’t happen in Jamaica, many people around the In order to conserve water at the local level, consumers
world still use boats and ferries to commute to and from can do the following:
work every day.
• Businesses including factories, educational
institutions and other institutions should recycle
RELIGION: Religious groups use the water in baptisms, water
burials as well as in communions.
• Conserving trees to protect the country’s watershed
HEALTH: In terms of health, water is used as a solvent and
• Using containers when bathing and washing dishes
base for medicine, general hygiene purposes as well as
steam for destroying bacteria. • Turning off pipes when not in use

AGRICULTURE: Farmers use water for irrigation purposes, • Catching water in a bucket when washing cars
to wash crops as well as a solvent for pesticides and
• Ensuring that all leakage are fixed in a timely
fertilizers. manner

DOMESTIC PURPOSES: Water is used in and around the • Using recycled water to water plants
home for domestic purposes such as cooking, bathing,
washing, drinking and general household cleaning. JOL SOCIAL STUDIES continues on next page
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CONSERVATION MEASURES: NATIONAL LEVEL


There are a number of ways by which water can be conserved at the national level. These include:
• Protecting the country’s watersheds
• Conserving trees
• Repairing broken mains and underground leaks in a prompt manner
• Storing water in dams and reservoirs
• Constructing desalination plants
• Educating businesses and households on the importance of recycling water. This can be done using the print
and electronic media as well as by hosting seminars in schools, businesses, churches and in the communities.
• The installation of water meters in homes instead of allowing households to pay a flat rate or a fixed rate. The
use of a water meter will help householders to implement conservation measures in their homes.

THE WATER CYCLE

The water cycle is the journey water takes as it circulates from the land to the sky and back again. The water cycle
describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth. It is also nature’s way of
purifying and redistributing the water over the earth’s surface.

The cycle starts when heat from the sun causes the air to become hot.

When this happens evaporation (water from lakes,


Water reaching the earth’s surface oceans and seas) and transpiration (water from
flows or runoff into rivers, streams, springs, oceans vegetation) or Evapotranspiration takes place
and lakes as well as underground artesian wells. whereby hot air absorbs the water in lakes,
Sometimes water is absorbed into the soil. oceans and seas as well as water droplets
on plants and turns it into vapour/gas/steam
which then goes into the atmosphere.

As the hot air cools, the clouds gives up In the atmosphere it is cooler so
its moisture and precipitation in the form condensation takes place, that is, the water
of rain, hail, sleet or snow occurs. changes back into liquid forming clouds.

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WATER TREATMENT PROCESS/ STAGES OF WATER PURIFICATION


In the Caribbean huge dams are built to store water when it rains because the countries in the region often experience
very long periods of dry season. Before consumers can use this water, it has to be treated to prevent any transfer of
disease etc. This is because the water that is stored in dams has a lot of impurities such as bacteria, sediments and
debris such as leaves and twigs.

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13. What does the word ‘desalination’ means?


ACTIVITY
14. Desalination can be done in TWO ways, name
them.
(A) Instruction: Answer True or False to the questions
below. 15. Give TWO other names for the water cycle.

1. ________ Recycling results in the reduction in the 16. The water cycle is powered by TWO things, name
use of raw materials. them.

2. _________Condensation is when water vapour in ANSWERS TO ACTIVITY


the air gets cold and changes back into liquid,
forming clouds. A. True/False Items

3. _________ Water collected in dams is safe for 1. True 2. True 3. False


drinking. 4. False 5. True 6. True

4. _________ Infiltration is when water is absorbed 7. True 8. True 9. True


into the soil.
B. Short Answer items
5. _________ Hydroelectric power is generated by the
10. Water comes in solid, liquid and gas.
utilization of energy of water from a pipe.
11. Fresh water can be obtained from: rainfall, streams,
6. _________ Evaporation takes place when the sun rivers, lakes, wells, dams and reservoirs
heats up water in rivers, lakes or the ocean and
12. The government and other stakeholders are finding
turns it into vapour or steam.
it difficult to obtain fresh water due to: population
increase, industrialization, wastage by humankind,
7. _________ Transportation is the process by which
destruction of the forest and pollution of the
plants lose water out of their leaves.
environment.
8. _________ Purification of water and redistribution 13. Desalination is the removal of salt from seawater
of water are functions of the water cycle process. and brackish underground and surface water.
14. Desalination can be done by distillation and reverse
9. _________ Approximately 75% of the earth’s
osmosis.
surface is made up of water.
15. The water cycle is also called the hydrologic cycle
(B) Instruction: Questions 10 – 16 are Short Answer or the H20 cycle.
Items, write the correct response.
16. The water cycle is powered by the sun’s energy and
10. What are the three forms that water come in? by gravity. The sun starts the whole cycle by
heating water on the Earth’s surface and making it
11. Name the ways by which fresh water can be evaporate while gravity causes the moisture to fall
obtained. back to Earth.

Charmaine Fuller-Wallace is on the staff of


12. Why is it that the government and other
St. Andrew Technical High School
stakeholders are finding it difficult to obtain
! Email: charmief2@yahoo.com
fresh water?
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INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY Lesson 22
with
Shandeen Robinson-White

EXAMINATION PREPARATION

In today’s lesson we will review a number of the topics in the syllabus. I want
to help you prepare for your mock examinations. Remember the use of the 3rd
Edition Jamaica Observer Information Technology booklet is a useful revision
tool as you prepare for your internal and external examinations. Luck is
opportunity meeting preparedness. So, be prepared!

Here are some tips from the Examiners:


1. Read the questions thoroughly before answering. For example: if the question asks for two advantages make
sure that is what you give.
2. If you don’t know the answer to a question… have a guess. Do not leave any questions blank.
3. Make sure you understand the difference between explain, describe and identify.
4. Revise, Revise, Revise!

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS
The following are examples of typical exam questions. Let us analyse them and discuss why the answers are the answers:
Question 1: Name the devices A, B, C and D using the words from the list.

A B C D

Word list:
Bar Code Reader CD Rom Drive Digital Camera DVD
Floppy Disk Joystick Keyboard Memory Stick
Modem Mouse Touchpad Trackerball

This question is testing your knowledge of devices. Select the answer from the list given.

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Question 2: Victoria bought a computer and needs help “This automated application interacts with a
in understanding the type of software that is installed. bank’s computer and issues money that the
customer is currently withdrawing from an
(a) Explain the difference between ‘application account.” Using this banking example, answer the
software’ and ‘system software’. [4 marks] following questions.

This question is testing your knowledge of software


1. (a)Identify ONE example of data that can be entered
which is in Section 1 of your syllabus.
into this application, and (b) a device used to enter
Question 3: Here is an example of a question asking you the data.
to apply your knowledge of information technology to
something that we do on a daily basis. Read the scenario 2. Identify ONE example of information output, and (b) an
carefully and then write your response. output device.

THIS SECTION REVISES PROBLEM SOLVING


QUESTION 4

(a) The following table shows lines of code from three types of programming languages.
Complete the table to indicate the type of programming language and the generation to which EACH sample of
code belongs.

CODE PROGRAM INSTRUCTION TYPE OF LANGUAGE GENERATION


A Add Y
B 89 F8 A9 01 00 75 06 6B C0
C X :=X+Y

QUESTION 5
One mark for each correct answer
(a) Complete the following trace table using X = 5, Y =
10 and Z = 3 for the following algorithm:
(b) Insert the numbers 1 to 4 to indicate the correct
steps that correspond to the following program Read X
implementation activities. Read Y
Read Z
TYPE OF LANGUAGE Activity
X= X+Y
Compiling
Y= X+Z
Creating source code
Z= X+Y+Z
Linking object code
Print X, Y, Z
Creating executable code
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(b) Consider the following program segment:

Readln(salary);
If salary <= 5000 then
tax := 0
else
tax := (salary - 5000) * 0.25;
Writeln (tax);

Complete the flowchart below by writing the appropriate program code from the segment above in the corresponding
symbols.

A question on flowchart cannot get any easier than this. The question was testing your ability
to identify the correct symbols. One mark for each correct statement and appropriate symbol.
(5 marks)

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QUESTION 6

(a) State the Pascal data type to store EACH of the following values:

34.276 - _______
-37 - _______
Mango - _______ (3 marks)

(b) What type of error would occur when EACH of the following lines of Pascal code, are executed?

(i) c = a +b; - _____________ (1 mark)


(ii) d := c/O; - _______________ (1 mark)

QUESTION 7

Write a program named SWAP to do the following:


• Prompt the user to enter two unequal integers separated by a space.
• Read the numbers entered and store them in two variables named num1 and num2 respectively.
• Check if num1 is greater than num2. If yes, swap num1 and num2, else print “num1 is less than num2”.
• Print the values of num1 and num2 separated by a space.

SUGGESTED RESPONSES TO QUESTIONS

Question 1 – A: Digital camera; B: Touchpad; C: Barcode reader; D: Modem

Question 2 - Application software - This software is for the user. It performs a specific set of tasks such as word
processing. It can be downloaded or installed. However, the computer does not need to have application
software to function.

System software – This software is for the computer. It performs basic maintenance tasks and interacts with
the user. An example of a system software is the operating system.

You do not need to write all of that information in order to gain the 4 marks. However it is
important to write that the system software is for the computer and the application software
is for the user.

Question 3 – 1. (a) Data includes customer PIN or amount to be withdrawn (b) A keypad or a touch screen.
2. Output includes the balance in account or a message, example insufficient funds. Please note that the actual money
is not output, and if you write that you will be penalised.

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Question 4a -

CODE PROGRAM INSTRUCTION TYPE OF LANGUAGE GENERATION

A Add Y Assembly Second

B 89 F8 A9 01 00 75 06 6B C0 Machine First

C X :=X+Y High level Third

Question 4b -

STEP NUMBER ACTIVITY

2 Compiling

1 Creating source code

3 Linking object code

4 Creating executable code

Question 5a -

LINE X Y Z

1 5 – –

2 5 10 –

3 5 10 3

4 15 10 3

5 15 18 3

6 15 18 36

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Question 5b –

Question 6 –

34.276 - Real
-37 - Integer
Mango - String

I can just see the expressions on your faces, surprised that it is that simple. Yes! It is that
simple. Review the lessons on Pascal programming syntax codes.

Question 6b –

(i) c = a +b; - This is a syntax error (1 mark)

(ii) d := c/O; - This is a run-time error (1 mark)

Execution error is also acceptable for part ii.

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Question 7 - Suggested response:

Program swap;
var num1, num2, temp : integer;

begin
writeln(‘Please enter 2 unequal integers separated by a space’);
Readln(num1,num2);

if num1 > num2 then

begin
temp := num1; This is where
num1 := num2; the swap
num2 := temp; takes place
end
else
writeln(‘num1 is less than num2’);
Writeln(num1,’ ‘, num2)
end.
Total 15 marks

This was a rather simple programming question. My reason for saying this is because I have seen
more difficult questions. This question also tests skills that you are expected to know. There were
no looping involved in the question.

Conclusion

I know there are many more topics to be reviewed, and I will go over as many of them as possible over the next couple
lessons as you prepare for your examination. While I may say ‘good luck’, you should know by now that it takes hard
work and discipline to get that one (1)! Aim high and keep practicing!

Word to the wise: You are the only one who can make it happen for you. Others can support and encourage you,
but you have to find the energy within in order to step into the center of your own life and
take charge.

JOL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY continues on next page


What Are Peripheral Devices of a Computer De nition, Examples & Types
THE DAILY OBSERVER Tuesday, March 13, 2017 Page 28

www.jamaicaobserver.com JOL LECTURE SERIES Jamaica Observer Limited


HUMAN & SOCIAL
BIOLOGY Lesson 22
with
Leroy Munroe

RESPIRATORY DISEASES

Objectives:

At the end of this lesson students should be able to:

1. Identify various respiratory diseases


2. State the cause of the disease, e.g. virus,
bacterium or other parasites
3. Explain how the diseases are transmitted
4. Tell signs and symptoms and treatment
5. Identify ways to prevent and control
the diseases

The disease can also be transmitted when an infected


INFLUENZA
person touches surfaces such as doorknobs, countertops,
computer keyboards, and telephones or just about
Influenza is a viral infection that attacks the respiratory anything and transfers them to the nose, mouth or eyes.
system, nose, throat and lungs, commonly called ‘flu’. It is The virus will be transmitted to the uninfected person
a highly infectious or contagious disease that can have when he/she touches his/her mouth, nose or eyes. The flu
severe effects on an individual. Influenza viruses are is mostly spread in crowded areas such as prisons, schools
constantly changing, with new strains appearing regularly. and offices. It is important to take influenza seriously
So, each time you become sick with the flu virus, it may because it can lead to pneumonia and other
be of a different strain. If you have had influenza in the life-threatening diseases, particularly in infants, senior
past, your body has already made antibodies to fight that citizens, and people with long-term health problems.
particular strain of the virus. If future influenza viruses are
similar to those you have encountered before, either by Signs and symptoms
having the disease or by vaccination, those antibodies may • headache
prevent infection or lessen its severity. • high fever above normal body temperature of 370C
• muscle aches and pain, especially in the neck, arms
Influenza virus can spread from person- to- person through
and legs
droplets from respiratory fluids that are sent through the
• fatigue and weakness
air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Flu virus
• nasal congestion
travels through the air in droplets when someone sneezes,
• runny nose
coughs or talks. The droplets can be inhaled directly, hence,
the reason it is important for an infected person to cover
their mouth or nose when coughing or sneezing. JOL HUMAN & SOCIAL BIOLOGY continues on next page
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• sneezing Other causes include irritants such tobacco smoke, air


• sore throat pollution and chemicals. Acute bronchitis is actually part
• shaking chills and sweat of the body’s immune response to fight against the
• loss of appetite infection because additional swelling occurs in the
• extreme exhaustion bronchial tubes as the immune system’s actions to
• dry cough and nausea generate mucus.
• vomiting and diarrhea may occur in children.
The most common cause of chronic bronchitis is smoking
Treatments include getting plenty of rest and drinking a cigarettes. Air pollution, dust and toxic gases in the
lot of fluids. Taking pain killers such as Tylenol and aspirin environment or workplace also contribute to the
are also effective. condition. Chronic bronchitis is inflammation or irritation
of the bronchial tubes in the lungs; thick mucus formed in
How influenza can be prevented and controlled them. It can also be a case of frequent attack from acute
• Avoid people who are sick - keep a distance from bronchitis. The mucus plugs up the airways and makes it
them. hard for air to get into the lungs. Bronchitis is caused
• Stay home if you are sick to avoid spreading the either by a virus, bacteria or other particles such as
virus. tobacco smoke, and exposure to pollutants or solvents that
• Cover mouth and nose with a tissue or rag when irritate the bronchial tubes. The disease is contagious only
coughing or sneezing. if it is caused by a virus or bacteria.
• Wash hands frequently and wash them well.
• Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth. Viruses Signs and symptoms
are often carried on your hands. • runny nose
• Get flu vaccine • nasal congestion
• Avoid crowded areas • sore throat
• Good ventilation • back and muscle pains
• cold, sneezing
• headache
BRONCHITIS • chill and low fever
• coughing
Bronchitis is an inflammation of the lining of the bronchial • production of mucus (sputum), which can be clear,
tubes, which carry air to and from the lungs. It is a white, yellowish- grey, or green in colour
respiratory disease that causes inflammation or swelling • shortness of breath
of the bronchial tubes (bronchi), the air passages between • wheezing
the nose and lungs that include the windpipe or trachea • chest pain
and air tubes of the lungs that bring air in from the • fatigue
trachea. People with bronchitis breathe less air and • inflammation or swelling of the bronchi and malaise
consequently less oxygen into their lungs. They also cough (not feeling well)
up thickened mucus which can be discoloured. Bronchitis
can either be acute (lasting for a short period of time) or Treatment may include getting plenty of rest, drinking
chronic (long lasting). The most common symptom of a lot of fluids, avoiding smoke and fumes, getting a
bronchitis is coughing. prescription for an inhaled bronchodilator and/or
cough syrup. In the case of chronic bronchitis, oral
The most common way by which a person can become steroids to reduce inflammation and/or supplemental
infected with acute bronchitis is either by a virus or a oxygen may be necessary.
bacterium that infects the bronchi. The same virus that
causes cold or flu may lead to bronchitis. JOL HUMAN & SOCIAL BIOLOGY continues on next page
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How to prevent and control bronchitis Treatment: The disease can be treated by taking antibiotics
• Avoid cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke increases if caused by a bacterium or fungus and antiviral drugs if
your risk of chronic bronchitis caused by a virus. Aspirin or ibuprofen can also be taken.
• Get vaccinated. Many cases of acute bronchitis result
from influenza, a virus. Getting a yearly flu vaccine How to prevent and control pneumonia
can help protect you from getting the flu. • Stop smoking. People who smoke are at high risk to
• Wash your hands. To reduce your risk of catching a get pneumonia.
viral infection, wash your hands frequently and get • Avoid people who have infections that sometimes
in the habit of using hand sanitizers. lead to pneumonia.
• Stay away from people who have common cold, flu,
or other respiratory infections.
PNEUMONIA • Wash hands often. This helps prevent the spread of
viruses and bacteria that may cause pneumonia.
Pneumonia is an infection of both or one lung. Many germs • Keep your immune system strong, by getting enough
can cause pneumonia but the most common cause is a sleep, exercise regularly and maintaining a healthy diet.
bacterium, virus or a fugus. When a person has
pneumonia, the air sacs of the lungs become filled with TUBERCULOSIS (TB)
pus and that may turn solid. It is characterized primarily
by inflammation of the alveoli in the lungs or by alveoli
that are filled with fluid. Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious or contagious bacterial
disease caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which
Pneumonia causes swelling to the inner parts of the lungs. most commonly affects the lungs. It may also affect other
Bacteria and viruses are the main cause of pneumonia. body organs such as the kidney, spine and brain. This highly
When a person breathes pneumonia-causing organisms contagious disease is transmitted from person to person
into his/her lungs and his/her body’s immune system through microscopic droplets released in the air. This may
cannot otherwise prevent entry, the organisms settle in happen when an infected person with active tuberculosis
small air sacs called alveoli and continue multiplying. As coughs, sneezes, speaks, spits, laughs or even sings and the
the body sends white blood cells to attack the infection, uninfected person inhales the droplets. The disease was once
the sacs become filed with fluid and pus-causing called “consumption”. In healthy people, infection with
pneumonia. Children two years and under and persons Mycobacterium tuberculosis often causes no symptoms, since
over the age of sixty-five are at a higher risk of getting the person’s immune system acts to “wall off” the bacteria.
pneumonia because their immune system is weak.
The bacteria may enter your body but your immune system
Signs and symptoms of pneumonia include: prevents you from becoming sick, hence a person can have
• cough which may produce phlegm or sputum latent (TB) or active (TB). With latent (TB), a person may
• fever have the infection, but the bacteria remain inactive in the
• shortness of breath body and cause no signs or symptoms. When the bacteria
• shaking chills are latent it is not contagious, but it can turn into active
• chest pain that usually gets worst when taking a (TB), so treatment is important for the person with latent
deep breath (TB) and to help control the spread of TB in general. Active
• fast heartbeat, fatigue and feeling weak TB is when a person is sick with the disease. When it is
• nausea and vomiting active it can spread to other persons through various ways.
• diarrhea It can occur in the first few weeks after infection with the
• sweating (TB) bacteria, or it might occur years later.
• delirium and purple skin colour from poorly
oxygenated blood JOL HUMAN & SOCIAL BIOLOGY continues on next page
Pneumonia - causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology
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www.jamaicaobserver.com JOL LECTURE SERIES Jamaica Observer Limited


PRINCIPLES OF
ACCOUNTS Lesson 22
with
Tedmore Clarke

CONCLUSION OF CONTROL ACCOUNTS

EXERCISES

1. From the following information, prepare the accounts receivable (sales ledger) control account of D. Fletcher for
the month of January 2017.

$
Sales ledger balances on 1 January 2,800
Credit sales for the month 10,500
Returns inward from customers during the month 550
Cheques received from customers during the month 7,800
Cash received from customers during the month 1,500
Bad debts written off for the month 300
Discounts allowed to customers during the month 150
Sales ledger debit balances on 31 January as extracted from the ledger 3,000

2. Prepare the accounts payable (purchases ledger) control account of S. Wade, for the month of March 2017, from
the following details.

$
Purchases ledger balances on 1 March 3,750
Credit purchases for the month 4,950
Cheques paid to suppliers during the month 4,500
Cash paid to suppliers during the month 500
Returns outward to suppliers during the month 200
Discounts received from suppliers 100
Purchases ledger credit balances at 31 March 3,400

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Tutorial Notes:

1. The control accounts are to be treated in the exact manner as the personal accounts of debtors and creditors. In
preparing control accounts, therefore, it may be quite helpful to ask, repeatedly, “What entry should be made in
‘their’ (the debtors and creditors) accounts?”

2. ‘Balance’ means Balance b/d unless otherwise stated. Thus, given a debit balance at the end of a period, the
Balance c/d should be inserted on the credit side of the account. Similarly, for a credit balance, the Balance c/d
should be placed on the debit side.

3. A cash discount allowed to a debtor should be credited to his account since this will reduce his balance. Similarly,
a cash discount received from a supplier should be debited to his account, since it helps to reduce what is owed
to him.

4. Where closing balances for the control accounts are not given, these should be calculated by simply balancing-off
the accounts.

SOLUTION TO EXERCISE 1

D. Fletcher
DR Sales Ledger (Debtors) Control Account CR

2017 $ 2017 $

Jan 1 Balance b/d 2,800 Jan 31 Returns Inward

31 Sales Journal 10,500 Journal 550

31 Bank 7,800

31 Cash 1,500

31 Bad Debts 300

31 Discounts Allowed 150

31 Balance c/d 3,000

13,300 13,300
===== =====
Feb 1 Balance b/d 3,000

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SOLUTION TO EXERCISE 2

S. Wade
DR Purchases Ledger (Creditors) Control Account CR
2017 $ 2017 $
Mar 31 Bank 4,500 Mar 1 Balance b/d 3,750
31 Cash 500 31 Purchases Journal 4,950
31 Returns Outward
Journal 200
31 Discounts Received 100
31 Balance c/d 3,400
8,700 8,700
===== =====
Apr 1 Balance b/d 3,400

ADDITIONAL EXERCISE

From the following balances, taken from the books of D. Morris, prepare the purchases and sales ledger control accounts
for the year 2017:

$
Purchases ledger credit balances at 1 January 2017 3,500
Purchases ledger debit balances at 1 January 2017 200
Sales ledger debit balances at 1 January 2017 4,800
Sales ledger credit balances at 1 January 2017 350
Totals for the year 2016:
Purchases journal 10,550
Sales journal 12,800
Sales returns journal 750
Purchases returns journal 500
Cheques paid to suppliers 8,000
Petty cash paid to supplier 100
Cheques and cash received from customers 10,050
Cash discounts allowed 550
Cash discounts received 410
Bad debts written off 300
Sales ledger balances set-off against purchases ledger 440
Customers’ cheques dishonoured 340
Interest charged on overdue debtors’ balances 280
Purchases ledger debit balances at 31 December 2017 270
Sales ledger credit balances at 31 December 2017 220

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JOL PRINCIPLES OF ACCOUNTS continued from previous page

REMINDERS:

1. Since the normal balance on the Sales Ledger Control Account is a debit, items that will increase the amount owing
by debtors should be debited in the control account; while those that will reduce their balances must be credited.

2. Since the normal balance on the Purchases Ledger Control Account is a credit, items that will increase the amount
owing to creditors should be credited in the control account; while those that will reduce the amount owed to
them must be debited.

3. The set-off should be entered in BOTH control accounts.

4. Where a credit balance is given at the end of a period for the sales ledger control account and it is necessary to
calculate the normal debit balance, this credit balance should be inserted before attempting to find the debit
balance.

5. Where a debit balance is given for the purchases ledger control at the end of a period and it is necessary to find
the normal credit balance, this debit balance should be inserted before the credit balance is calculated.

6. The Sales Ledger (debtors) Control Account is also called the Accounts Receivable Control Account, while the
Purchases Ledger (creditors)Control is also known as the Accounts Payable Control Account.

SOLUTION

D. Morris
DR Accounts Payable (Creditors) Control Account CR
2017 $ 2017 $
Jan 1 Balance b/f 200 Jan 1 Balance b/f 3,500
Dec 31 Purchases Returns Dec 31 Purchases Journal 10,550
Journal 500 31 Balance c/d 270
31 Bank 8,000
31 Petty Cash Book 100
31 Discounts Received 410
31 Set-off: Sales Ledger 440
31 Balance c/d 4,670
14,320 14,320
===== =====
2018 2018
Jan 1 Balance b/d 270 Jan 1 Balance b/d 4,670

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DR Accounts Receivable (Debtors) Control Account CR


2017 $ 2017 $
Jan 1 Balance b/f 4,800 Jan 1 Balance b/f 350
Dec 31 Sales Journal 12,800 Dec 31 Sales Returns Journal 750
31 Bank: Dishonoured 31 Cash Book 10,050
Cheques 340 31 Discounts Allowed 550
31 Interest 280 31 Bad Debts 300
31 Balance c/d 220 31 Set-off: Purchases
Ledger 440
31 Balance c/d 6,000
18,440 18,440
===== =====
2018 2018
Jan 1 Balance b/d 6,000 Jan 1 Balance b/d 220

Tedmore Clarke is on the staff of Quality Academics


! Email: tedmoreorless@hotmail.com

LECTURE SERIES (3rd Edition)


The most comprehensive collection
of CSEC study guides:
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T ODAY !
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INTEGRATED
SCIENCE Lesson 22
with
Marlene Grey-Tomlinson

CSEC PRACTISE QUESTIONS

Hello students, for this lesson there are some CSEC type
multiple choice questions from the first part of the
syllabus. Next week there will be more questions from the
second part of the syllabus.

Though the answers are provided at the end, try to complete


the questions before going to the answers. Good luck!

1. Which of the following gases is produced during


photosynthesis?
A. Carbon Dioxide
B. Nitrogen 5. In which part of the body does digestion begin?
C. Oxygen A. Mouth
D. Water Vapour B. Oesophagus
C. Rectum
2. In what form is the carbohydrate made during D. Stomach
photosynthesis stored in plants?
A. Cellulose 6. Which of the following shows how air passes from the
B. Glucose nose into the lungs?
c. Glycogen A. Alveolus –––► Bronchiole –––►
D. Starch Bronchus –––► Trachea
B. Bronchiole –––► Bronchus –––►
3. Which of the following is an example of osmosis Trachea –––► Alveolus
A. The movement of water vapour from the lungs c. Trachea –––► Bronchus –––►
into the air Bronchiole –––► Alveolus
B. The loss of water from the skin during sweating D. Bronchus –––► Trachea –––►
C. The take-up of water from the soil into root hairs Alveolus –––► Bronchiole
D. The storage of starch in the leaves of a plant

4. A small amount of chloroform was placed in a watch 7. Through which of the following parts of a plant is most
glass at the front of the laboratory. After a few minutes water absorbed?
all the students could smell it because the chloroform A. Flowers
vapours spread by B. Leaves
A. convection currents C. Roots
B. diffusion D. Stem
C. evaporation
D. osmosis JOL INTEGRATED SCIENCE continues on next page
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8. Which of the following is present in a plant cell but not 13. If a person suffers from anaemia they are deficient in
in an animal cell? A. Calcium
A. Cell wall B. Fibre
B. Cytoplasm C. Iron
C. Mitochondria D. Vitamin C
D. Nucleus

9. Which of the following is a correct description of what 14. The source of energy for photosynthesis is
happens across a selectively permeable membrane A. Chlorophyll
during osmosis? B. Minerals from the ground
A. Sugar molecules moves from a region where C. Rain
there are many of them to one where there are D. Sunlight
few of them
B. Sugar molecules move from a region where there 15. The adrenal glands are attached to which of the
are a few of them to one where there are many following organs?
of them A. Brain
C. Water molecules move from a region where there B. Kidneys
are many of them to one where there are few of C. Livers
them D. Stomach
D. Water molecules move from a region where there
are a few of them to one where there are many 16. Where in the body is the hormone insulin produced?
of them A. Brain
B. Kidney
10. Which is the organ of sexual reproduction in a plant? C. Pancreas
A. Flower
D. Testes or Ovaries
B. Leaf
C. Root
17. The process in which a sperm combines with an egg
D. Stem
is called
A. Fertilisation
11. How many different chambers are found in the heart?
B. Intercourse
A. 2
C. Pollination
B. 3
D. Reproduction
C. 4
D. 6
18. During the process of implantation
A. An egg passes down the oviduct
12. Which of the following statements about arteries
B. A fertilized egg begins cell division
is true
C. A fertilized egged becomes embedded in the
A. Arteries have walls which are only one cell thick
uterus lining
B. Arteries never carry deoxygenated blood
D. A sperm and egg fuse together
C. Arteries contain valves to prevent blood flowing
backwards
D. Arteries always carry blood away from the heart JOL INTEGRATED SCIENCE continues on next page
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JOL INTEGRATED SCIENCE continued from previous page

19. Which of the following statements about food chains 25. The outer layer of a tooth which is visible when you
is always true? open your mouth is made of
A. Food chains only contain animals A. Bone
B. Food chains start with a producer B. Cartilage
C. Food chains contain only herbivores C. Dentine
D. Food chains must contain at least four organisms D. Enamel

26. What is the role of the sepals on a flower bud?


20. Which of the following is an example of artificial A. Attract insects
sexual reproduction? B. Disperse seeds
A. Corms C. Protect the flower
B. Cuttings D. Store water
C. Rhizomes
D. Runners 27. A person passing glucose in their urine may be
suffering from
21. Which of these foods is the best source of A. Anorexia
B. Diabetes
carbohydrates?
C. Heartburn
A. Bread
D. Vitamin deficiency
B. Cheese
C. Lean meat 28. The male gametes of a plant are called
D. Mango A. Anthers
B. Petals
22. Diffusion occurs most rapidly in C. Pollen
A. Cold air D. Seeds
B. A liquid
29. In order to make bones and teeth the body needs
C. A solid
A. Calcium
D. Warm air
B. Iodine
C. Iron
23. Which antigens are found in the blood of a person D. Sodium
in group O?
A. Antigen A only 30. In which part of the alimentary canal is food mixed
B. Antigen B only with bile
C. Both antigen A and antigen B A. Large intestine
D. No antigens B. Oesophagus
C. Small intestine
24. Sherri’s menstrual cycle lasts 28 days. If she finished D. Stomach
passing blood on the 22nd of April when should she 31. To which blood group does a person belong if their
expect to start passing blood again? blood contains anti-A antibodies only?
A. 16 May
th
A. O
B. 18 May
th
B. AB
C. 20 May
th
C. A
D. 22 May
nd
D. B
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JOL INTEGRATED SCIENCE continued from previous page

32. Which of the following methods of birth control 38. Which of the following is a characteristic of a
depends on there being a ‘safe period’ during a sperm cell?
woman’s menstrual cycle? A. It contains a large amount of cytoplasm
A. Condom B. It does not contain chromosomes
B. Diaphragm C. It has a tail to push itself along
C. Rhythm method D. It has no nucleus
D. The pill
39. Which of the following are both parts of the stamen
33. Which of these foods is best for a new-born baby? of a flower?
A. Foods rich in protein A. Anther and filament
B. Mashed sweet potato B. Filament and stigma
C. Stigma and style
C. Mother’s Milk
D. Style an anther
D. Rusks and milk

40. Contour ploughing of land is used to


34. Here is a food chain:
A. Allow water to drain from soil more quickly
Leaves –––► caterpillar –––► chicken –––► hawk
B. Improve the fertility of the soil
Which of the following is true about the caterpillar?
C. Maximise the amount of crops that can be grown
A. Producer and herbivore
D. Reduce erosion of the soil
B. Producer and carnivore
C. Consumer and herbivore 41. Which of the following is a method of growing crops
D. Consumer and carnivore without using soil?
A. Chlorination
35. Oxygen enters a person’s bloodstream in the B. Eutrophication
A. Heart C. Hydroponics
B. Liver D. Trawling
C. Lungs
D. Nose 42. Which type of tooth is designed for biting into food
and chopping it into small pieces?
36. Which of the following is added to a food to extend its A. Premolars
shelf life? B. Molars
A. Colourings C. Incisors
B. Emulsifiers D. Canines
C. Preservatives
D. Sweeteners 43. Which component of food is only used by the body in
small amounts?
37. Which of the following connects a developing baby to A. Carbohydrates
its mother? B. Lipids
A. Fallopian tube C. Mineral Salts
B. Oesophagus D. Proteins
C. Spinal cord
D. Umbilical cord JOL INTEGRATED SCIENCE continues on next page
THE DAILY OBSERVER Tuesday, March 13, 2017 Page 41
JOL INTEGRATED SCIENCE continued from previous page

44. Which of the following is not an illness of the lungs


ANSWERS
A. Anaemia
B. Bronchitis
1. C 26. C
C. Emphysema
D. Pneumonia 2. B 27. B

45. In the presence of starch, iodine solution turns 3. C 28. C


A. Blue-black 4. B 29. A
B. Green
C. Purple 5. A 30. C
D. Red
6. C 31. B
46. Which of the following is part of the male reproductive 7. C 32. C
organ in a flowering plant?
A. Anther 8. A 33. C
B. Nectary 9. C 34. C
C. Stigma
D. Style 10. A 35. C

11. C 36. C
47. H o w m a n y te et h a re i n a com p l et e s e t of
per ma n en t teeth ? 12. D 37. D
A. 20
B. 28 13. C 38. C
C. 32 14. D 39. A
D. 36
15. B 40. D
48. The process by which water diffuses across a
16. C 41. C
selectively permeable membrane is called
A. Catalysis 17. A 42. C
B. Digestion
C. Evaporation 18. C 43. C
D. Osmosis
19. B 44. A

49. The food needed for repair and growth is 20. A 45. A
A. Carbohydrates
B. Lipids 21. A 46. A
C. Proteins 22. D 47. D
D. Vitamins
23. D 48. D
50. In what form do plant roots absorb nitrogen?
24. A 49. C
A. Ammonia
B. Gaseous 25. D 50. C
C. Nitrates
D. Nitrites JOL INTEGRATED SCIENCE continues on next page
Plant Organs: Structure and Function
THE DAILY OBSERVER Tuesday, March 13, 2017 Page 43

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ENGLISH
LITERATURE Lesson 22
with
Simone Gibbs

THE NOVEL:
BREATH, EYES, MEMORY – PART 2
Welcome! Thanks for joining me. This week like last week,
I will discuss Edwidge Danticat’s Breath, Eyes, Memory. Last
week I looked at some literary devices that Danticat uses
to convey certain messages to the reader. This week I will
do the same. I will also discuss themes that are present in
the novel.

SYMBOLISM

The Cane Fields

Even so they continue, year after year, to be engaged in


this activity. As such the cane fields in the novel can be
seen as a symbol of oppression and pain; a negative place
that squeezes the life and soul out of the villagers.

Sophie’s grandmother is a widow. It was the sugar cane


fields that made it so. Sophie recalls how he had died as
told to her by her aunt:

It is not hard to imagine that since the story is centred Whenever she was sad, Tante Atie would talk
around Haitian people, the main characters are poor. Later about the sugar cane fields, where she and my
when the setting changes to New York their condition mother practically lived when they were children.
improves. Still, it is evident that even though the setting They saw people die there from sunstroke every
has changed their lives are still marked by hard labour. In day. Tante Atie said that one day, while they were
fact that has been the history of Sophie, the main character all working together, her father – my grandfather
and the Haitian people in general. – stopped to wipe his forehead, leaned forward,
In Croix-de-Rosets, the poor village that the characters and died. My grandmother took the body in her
originate from, many of the villagers survive by working arms and tried to scream the life back into it.
in the surrounding sugar cane fields. On several occasions They all kept screaming and hollering, as my
the labourers are heard singing – to pass the time and to grandmother’s tears bathed the corpse’s face.
lift their spirits while they work. Nothing would bring my grandfather back. (p. 4)
Although the villagers work long hours in the sun at their
difficult task, their impoverished condition does not improve. JOL ENGLISH LITERATURE continues on next page
THE DAILY OBSERVER Tuesday, March 13, 2017 Page 44
JOL ENGLISH LITERATURE continued from previous page

As such it can be seen that the cane fields hold painful Sophie does get the opportunity, however, to go back to the
memories for Sophie and her family. spot. She and Marc take back Martine’s body to Haiti for
burial. As the men began shovelling dirt on Martine’s coffin,
The sugar cane fields were also the place where Martine, it became too much for Sophie to bear. She ran away from
Sophie’s mother was raped. While on her way home a man the procession and ran into the cane fields. Sophie reports:
had grabbed her off the road, dragged her into the cane
fields and raped her. In fact, Sophie is the product of that I ran through the cane fields, attacking the cane.
rape. Although when Martine tells Sophie the story of how I took off my shoes and began to beat a cane stalk.
she came to be, she does it in a matter-fact-way, it is I pounded it until it began to lean over. I pushed
evident that many years later (Sophie was a teenager over the cane stalk. It snapped back, striking my
when she heard the story), Martine was still being shoulder. I pulled at it, yanking it from the ground.
adversely affected by the incident as she had repeated My palm was bleeding. The cane cutters stared at
nightmares which Sophie had to rouse her from as she me as though I was possessed. The funeral crowd
thrashed about and screamed at nights. Additionally, was now standing between the stalks. Watching
Martine was only able to endure intercourse with her me beat and pound the cane ……my grandmother
boyfriend Marc. This traumatic experience had not only shouted …. “Ou librere?” Are you free? Tante Atie
robbed her of her precious virginity, but it seemed to have echoed her cry, her voice quivering with her sobs,
robbed her of the chance to have a normal relationship “Ou librere!” (p. 238)
with a man.
Finally, Sophie was able to vent her anger on the cane fields,
not only for herself, but also for the many generations of her
The oppressive power of the sugar cane fields can be seen
family who have suffered as a result of it.
during a counselling session with her therapist, Rena, as
Sophie is having her own issues about sexual relations Now that I have discussed various devices that can be seen
with her husband, Joseph. Sophie is one of three members in the novel, I will take a look at one of the themes which
in her sexual phobia group. Sophie tells Rena about runs throughout – Women in Society.
Martine’s struggle to make a decision as to whether or not
she should keep her unborn baby (she was pregnant with
Marc’s child) and the therapist advises Sophie that Martine WOMEN IN SOCIETY
needed help, she was in danger, since she was hearing
what she thought was the foetus speaking to her. Rena Breath, Eyes, Memory can be seen as a celebration of the
also asks Sophie if she and Martine had gone back to the strength of Haitian women who have endured over the
spot where her mother was raped while they were on a years despite many trials and tribulations. From the text
recent visit to Haiti. Sophie told the therapist that no, in it can be seen that the village of Croix-de-Rosets is a
fact, she had ran past the spot. The therapist advises: difficult one to live in. The people are very poor and many
of them live in conditions that are less than human. It is
You and your mother should both go there again even more difficult for the women in that society as they
and see that you can walk away from it. Even if are seen as secondary to the men.
you can never face the man who is your father,
there are things that you can say to the spot The distinction between men and women in that society
where it happened. I think you’ll be free once you is evident from birth. After Sophie runs away from Joseph
have your confrontation. There will be no more (because of her sexual phobia) and returns to Haiti, she is
ghosts. (p. 215) sitting with her grandmother in the yard one night when
she notices her grandmother watching a light moving to
Sadly, both women never get the opportunity to go and fro in the distant hills.
back to the spot together as Martine commits suicide
shortly after. JOL ENGLISH LITERATURE continues on next page
THE DAILY OBSERVER Tuesday, March 13, 2017 Page 45
JOL ENGLISH LITERATURE continued from previous page

Out of curiosity, Sophie asks her grandmother what the Instead she follows him around and holds on to the
moving lights meant. Her grandmother advises her that a memory of what they once had, although it causes her
baby is being born. According to her grandmother the great pain and makes her life miserable. Aunt Atie allows
lights were moving back and forth because the midwife is this sort of relationship in her life because she has
taking trips back and forth from the shack to the yard accepted society’s view that the needs of men are superior
where the pot is boiling. The midwife had a lantern in her to those of women.
hand. Soon they will know what sex the baby is. How is
Atie and Martine’s mother has also put her feelings aside
that possible? Sophie asks. Her grandmother responds by
out of respect for her husband. Although he had died many
telling Sophie that if the child is a boy, and the father is
years before, she has chosen to live a sad and lonely life.
present, he will stay awake all night and keep the lantern This is what the society expects a widow to do – wear
on. If it is a girl, according to her grandmother “the mother black and live a mournful life until she too is dead.
will be left in the darkness to hold her daughter. There will
be no lamps, no candles, no more light” (p. 145). This sentiment of the men being more important than
women is also echoed in the lives of Sophie and Martine.
Women’s feelings are also secondary to the men’s. This can Although both women do not enjoy sexual relations with
be seen in the past relationship between Aunt Atie and their partners, they do it anyway, because they believe
Monseiur Augustin. Aunt Atie expected that he would that if they don’t the men will leave them. On one occasion
marry her, but then he met someone else, discarded her Sophie tells Rena “I am his wife. There are certain things I
and married the other woman. He remained in the village need to do to keep him” (p. 215).
with his new wife while Aunt Atie continued to love and
I hope the above has been helpful to you. Please join me
pine after him. In fact, she rented the house across from
next week for another informative lesson.
his (and his wife) and the two of them maintained a
friendly relationship although he had jilted her.
Simone Gibbs is on the staff of Calabar High School
One would think that after Monsieur Augustin treated her ! Email: simonecgibbs@yahoo.com
so badly, Aunt Atie would have nothing to do with him.

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► Communication
Studies 47 – 51

► Caribbean
Studies 52 – 58

READY TO AIM
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COMMUNICATION
STUDIES Lesson 22
with
Peta-Gaye Perkins Bryan

REVISION

Hi everyone. For this week’s lesson, as promised, we will


be reviewing what we have covered thus far. Before we
have a look at some multiple choice items I want to go
over the last passage. Were you able to identify the types
of discourse and any possible techniques being utilised by
What is this passage saying? Firstly, we see that Mr. Brain
the writer? Let us look closely at the extract for a while.
is being described as incompetent as follows:

“…nor attest to the veracity of his competence in the


content”

We also see that he is unprofessional as shown below:


“…evidence of an absence of intellectual rigor and
commitment to the fundamental principles of this school”
and “persistent rumor that he had not always observed a
proper and appropriate social and professional distance
from the senior students”.

Mr. Brain is being described by different members of the


school community. The grade 13 students praise him,
“adulatory remarks made by the grade 13 students as to
The committee could not unanimously endorse Mr. Brain’s Mr. Brain’s competence”, however the committee in
teaching methods nor attest to the veracity of his question finds him unreliable. The committee is divided
competence in the content area. Further, reports from his because of the fact that there are conflicting reports from
department indicated evidence of an absence of his teachers and his students.
intellectual rigor and commitment to the fundamental
principles of this school. This assessment flies in the face Main Idea
of general adulatory remarks made by the grade 13
students as to Mr. Brain’s competence. The dean of the Having looked at some of the details in the passage let us
upper school, however, was quite emphatic in stating that now move to the main idea. A main idea that can be noted
Mr. Brain could not hope to qualify in even the top 50 is the fact that Mr. Brain is a mediocre teacher whose
percentile range of all the teachers she had supervised in professional conduct is under question (McDermott, 2008).
her 30 years of teaching. She further intimated her That would be the answer you give to the first part of the
disquiet at the persistent rumor that he had not always question you will be getting for number 1 on paper 2.
observed a proper and appropriate social and professional
distance from the senior students. JOL COMMUNICATION STUDIES continues on next page
THE DAILY OBSERVER Tuesday, March 13, 2017 Page 48
JOL COMMUNICATION STUDIES continued from previous page

Writer’s Purpose
HOW TO MONITOR YOUR CHILD’S ACTIVITIES
The second part will ask you to identify the
writer’s purpose as well as outline some
strategies used. The writer’s purpose could be to
highlight/show (use ‘to’ and then a verb) Mr. Brain’s
incompetence as well as his unprofessional behavior in the
workplace. Do not forget to use verbs when commenting
on the writer’s purpose. The intention is going to always
be a verb, unlike when you are stating the main idea.

Strategies

When you get to the third section of the question you are
now going to be asked to comment on the strategies used
in the passage. There are at least two strategies that we
can identify in the passage. There is the use of descriptive
words, however, we have to infer what is applicable to Mr.
Brain based on the descriptions given. We see him being
unprofessional, unreliable and unqualified. We could also
say that there exists a descriptive sequence. First we are
given details about his competence and commitment by LET’S face it: Facebook and all its other social media
the teachers. After that we are given details about from counterparts have replaced the outdoor playgrounds that
many parents used to appreciate. And while cuts and
the students’ perspective, about his abilities and lastly, we
are told about his lack of professionalism by the Dean. bruises were among the major fears expressed by
yesterday’s parents, today they dread the thought that
I know that you would have noticed that there is contrast their little ones will fall victim to various crimes such as
with what the students say versus what the teachers say cyberbullying and child molestation online.
but that would not make the passage expository. It can
also be argued that there may be a bit of sarcasm with the But how do parents protect their children from these
use of the name Mr. Brain even though he seems anything dangers? Clinical psychologist Dr Pearnel Bell said parents
like a ‘braniac’ but that does not make the passage may have to reinvent themselves as they strive to protect
persuasive. You must note the author’s intention as well their children against the numerous perils of social media,
as the number of techniques utilized to arrive at the type of which many are unaware.
of discourse you are expected to note. I am going to share
a longer passage and hope that by next week you would “There are so many ways that children can access the
have been able to identify the type of discourse based on Internet that it becomes increasingly difficult for parents
the strategies employed by the writer. to monitor their children. Even though young people are
Internet-savvy and know the intricacies of the technology,
Please find below an article from the Jamaica Observer what many do not know is the danger associated with it.
which speaks the use of the internet. I am going to use the Parents should take the time out to educate their children
same questions you would get in your external exams for on the advantages and disadvantages of Facebook and
you to get the practice. It must be noted that the passages other social media,” Dr Bell said.
in the exam will not be as long but I know you wouldn’t
want me to exclude any of the article. JOL COMMUNICATION STUDIES continues on next page
THE DAILY OBSERVER Tuesday, March 13, 2017 Page 49
JOL COMMUNICATION STUDIES continued from previous page

She pointed out that social media has created a major She said parents can avoid the associated consequences of
distraction for children, noting that while parents would improper, unguided or under-supervised social media use
love their children to have access to the Internet in their by educating their children on proper social media
personal space, many children are negatively influenced etiquette and responsible social media behaviour.
by their peers and end up being exposed to more harm
than good. So:

“It was once the wisest advice not to let children have • Parents should instill high moral values so that
access to computers in their rooms, but while that still children do not feel compelled to do what is wrong.
holds, the various other access points make it difficult for
parents to monitor children, so they need to know the • They also need to continue monitoring their
dangers of what could seem harmless,” Dr Bell said.
children’s use of the Internet — ask them to share
information with you and never stop restating the
Citing one of the most common trends among kids — the
guidelines for using the Internet.
use of fake names — Dr Bell said that children should be
helped to recognise that using fake names is a form of
• Parents also need to maintain access to children’s
dishonesty and should not be practised.
online accounts and let them know that using fake
“Not only is the use of fake names a form of dishonesty, names is ridiculous, as identifying information will
but more often than not children will invariably post come to the fore and expose them.
identifying information like their pictures to these
accounts, sometimes to hide from parents or to portray • Set limits/boundaries for the Internet and social
the person they sell to the crowd. This they do also media use. Again, explain to children why this is
because they have a false sense of anonymity. But parents necessary.
need to explain to them that a fake name on social media
does not make them anonymous,” Dr Bell said. • Parents should research and present the statistics to
children about the dangers of the Internet — the
Another of the social media horrors that Dr Bell said is on number of predators online and pornographic sites
the increase is catfishing, a practice that is common among that lure children to watch them.
predators wherein social media users often pretend to be
someone else, usually someone much younger, to gain the • Parents should make children feel that they are
trust of unsuspecting victims so that they can exploit them their allies and that they should use wisdom
in various ways, especially sexually. when navigating the Internet and social media.
Dr Bell said that while parents may not be able
“In my practice I have seen young girls who unwittingly get to control their use of social media all the time,
involved in pornography with strangers they meet on the the information they share coupled with
Internet. The perpetrator then exposes the unsuspecting child guidelines and related social media etiquette
by posting the pictures on herFacebook page. This can take a should make them smarter when navigating
huge psychological toll on the child. The embarrassment that social media spaces.
comes from such a situation has led some children to
depression and other self-harming behaviours,” Dr Bell
“Let them not only be technologically savvy, but smart or
warned. “Therefore, parents need to let children know that
wise to the dangers of using the various online media,”
what is placed onFacebook or other media can have long-term
she urged.
consequences, hindering them from entering college or
getting a job, as many employers now utilise social media to
do their background checks,” Dr Bell cautioned. JOL COMMUNICATION STUDIES continues on next page
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JOL COMMUNICATION STUDIES continued from previous page

“Doan back ansa me pickni.”

As she left the room reflected on the fact that Essi was
first in class this semester and how proud she was.
Maizie felt happy that her decision to raise her niece
for her deadbeat brother was not all going in vain.
QUESTIONS
Ezmerelda contorted her face in a scowl as she
A) In no more than 30 words state the main point of steuped at her aunt leaving the room.
the article
B) In an essay of no more than 500 words state the 1. What is Ezmerelda’s attitude to the language variety
writer’s purpose and discuss three language used by her aunt?
strategies and organizational strategies used to (A) Anger
achieve his purpose. (B) Admiration
(C) Acceptance
You must also evaluate the validity of the
information presented. (D) Indifference
Total 25 marks
2. Which of the following BEST explains why Ezmerelda
displays an attitude of disapproval in lines 3-4?
(A) Maizie always rushes Essie for school.
(B) Ezmerelda’s father does not want her.
(C) Ezmerelda’s aunt continues to speak English
Creole.
(D) Ezmerelda is proud of her academic
achievements

3. What is the language register used by Maizie in the


excerpt?
EXAMPLES OF MULTIPLE CHOICE ITEMS FOR PAPER 1
(A) Casual
(B Frozen
Items 1 - 4
(C) Formal
Instructions: (D) Consultative
Read the following passage carefully and
then answer Items 1 - 4
4. Which of the following is NOT an instance of the
“Urry hup Essi!” Maizie shouted to Ezmerelda. “You phonology of Caribbean English Creole?
see say me a go late fe work. Me nuh know why you (A) “urry hup” (line 1)
one tek so long fe hyan one likkle uniform.” (B) “pickni” (line 5)
(C) “doan back ansa” (line 5)
“Weh you a talk ‘bout Aunty Maizie? Is hurry and not (D) “weh you a talk ‘bout” (lines 3)
urry and iron and not hyan,’ Ezmerelda corrected her
aunt sternly. Maizie smiled as she turned to go
outside but not before a harsh retort. JOL COMMUNICATION STUDIES continues on next page
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JOL COMMUNICATION STUDIES continued from previous page

Items 5-7 (A) I only


(B) I and II only
Instructions: Read the following scenario carefully and (C) I and II only
then answer Items 5-7. (D) I, II and III

March 12 is World Glaucoma Day and the members of your 7. Which of the following would not be helpful to the
school’s Key Club are identifying ways in which young club in ensuring Youth participation?
people may be mobilized to act as volunteers in an (A) Staging a song competition in the school
upcoming community workshop on how to practice good (B) Bashing the work ethic of youth on IG
eye health. (C) Involving youth in a mentorship programme
(D) Encouraging members from other Key Clubs to
5. Which of the following mediums of verbal join in the effort for the day
communication would be MOST Suitable for
attracting a youthful audience? For next week’s lesson we will look at some more multiple
(A) public service announcement choice questions and share the final lessons on Types of
(B) sound cry Discourse. Until next week, take care and don’t forget to
(C) official document read and prepare.
(D) jingles
Reference:
6. Which of the following mediums could be used by the McDermott, Harold (2008). CAPE Communication Studies.
members of the Key Club to encourage their peers to La Romaine, Trinidad: Caribbean Educational Publishers.
volunteer?
I Case studies showing the work of the club
II Local celebrities endorsing volunteerism Peta-Gaye Perkins Bryan is on the staff of
III Appeals made through Salvation Army School for Queen’s High School for Girls
! Email: perkins.pg@gmail.com
the Blind

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Available at JAMAICA OBSERVER LIMITED:
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Also available at bookstores islandwide.
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CARIBBEAN
STUDIES Lesson 22
with
Debgeri Whitely

GLOBAL INTERACTIONS

Hello everyone, it’s good to have you back for today’s


lesson. We are on our final topic for Module 1: Caribbean
– Global Interactions. Once again, I ask of you to continue
doing your reading in order to comprehend the topic(s)
that are covered each week. See you next week and all the Caribbean Sea
best for the remainder of this week.

CARIBBEAN GLOBAL INTERACTIONS

A. Caribbean influences on extra-regional countries


i. Political issues created within countries of
Europe and North America by the presence of
large numbers of Caribbean people (for From varying researches done it is seen that Caribbean
example, the impact of the Haitians and immigrants have contributed significantly influencing and
Cubans living in Florida upon the politics of impacting policies on minority groups (eg. blacks) and
that State); aiding in leadership. They have made contributions in
" The impact of Caribbean Festivals, for Parliament, Organized conferences and advocated for
example, Notting Hill in the United humanities welfare and development. Our Caribbean
Kingdom, the West Indian Day parade
people have added a unique dimension to the countries
in Brooklyn, Carnival in Miami and
and areas they settle overseas. They are very vocal in terms
Caribana in Canada, on metropolitan
of race relations and immigration rights and have
countries.
challenged these thus causing many changes. These
" The impact of migrant labour on the
changes include but are not limited to the following:
metropolitan countries.
" increased social and political diversity
ii. The impact of Rastafari on countries " globalized domestic political policy
throughout the world. " increased and diversified the voting population
" influenced immigration policy and social reform
Caribbean people living all over the world, especially in
" increased the labour supply
the UK, US, and Canada have been and are making a
" influenced the flow of aid and grant packages to the
significant impact on those societies. These individuals (for
Caribbean region
example, Colin Powell - USA, Marcus Garvey - USA, Baroness
(Adopted from CAPE Caribbean Studies by Ottley, Gentles
Valarie Amos - UK and Margarett Best - Canada) of
and Dawson; page 168)
Caribbean heritage and background/parentage have been
visibly making history and contributing to the economic,
social and political landscape of those countries. JOL CARIBBEAN STUDIES continues on next page
THE DAILY OBSERVER Tuesday, March 13, 2017 Page 53
JOL CARIBBEAN STUDIES continued from previous page

Caribbean influences
on extra-regional countries

# Important political issues created within


countries of Europe and North America by
presence of large numbers of Caribbean
people (for example, impact of Haitians
and Cubans living in Florida upon the
politics of that State)

ACTIVITY #1

Develop a table to show the important contributions of Caribbean people and culture on political issues. The table should include
the name, ethnicity and credits/influence (see CAPE Caribbean Studies by Ottley, Gentles and Dawson; pages 166 - 167)

Please consult your textbooks (see references provided) along with the link below for additional information.
https://www.slideshare.net/Veeshalla100/the-impact-of-festivals-and-music-of-the-caribbean

JOL CARIBBEAN STUDIES continues on next page


THE DAILY OBSERVER Tuesday, March 13, 2017 Page 54
JOL CARIBBEAN STUDIES continued from previous page

ACTIVITY #2

Independent Research - Examine how Rastafari have


impacted countries throughout the world. You can use the
For instance, Notting Hill Carnival in the United diagram below to assist you in this venture. Please ensure
Kingdom, Labour Day celebrations in Brooklyn, that you outline its development.

THE IMPACT OF MIGRANT LABOUR ON THE


METROPOLITAN COUNTRIES
" Both seasonal temporary work and permanent settled
work have contributed significantly both to the
societies and the economies of their host countries.
Positive Impacts
• Seasonal migrants provide a labour force that the
host country cannot provide from its own
resources or at the rates that would allow any
profits to be made by the businesses that employ
that force. The work given to them are done
quickly and productively, thus providing a service
to their employers, the consumers and other
businesses who buy the products.
• Domestic and childcare services are highly valued
by those with whom they work. It is said that
these workers often enrich the lives of the
families they are in contact with.
• The UK National Health Service for example
would find it hard to function without the highly
skilled nurses who are employed there.
Negative Impact(s)
• Outsourcing labour to workers from less-developed
countries adversely affects the labour position of
workers in the host countries. Workers in developed
countries can see their wages fall and their
employment opportunities shrink.
See pages 191 - 192 of Caribbean Studies: for CAPE
Examinations – 2nd Ed by Jennifer Mohamed JOL CARIBBEAN STUDIES continues on next page
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B. Influences of extra-regional societies on the Caribbean:


i. Consumption patterns: remittances, goods and services;
ii. Art forms - impact of colonialism: music, threatre arts, visual arts;
iii. Education: impact of colonialism; the information age; language; curriculum reforms.
iv. Political influences:
• Westminster System, • electoral processes,
• rule of law • labour: the influence of migratory labour;
v. Sport - cricket, soccer, basketball, track and field;
vi. Religion - traditional and non-traditional religious practices.

Activity - Complete the missing options (education and sports) below.

INFLUENCES OF EXTRA-REGIONAL SOCIETIES ON THE CARIBBEAN:

Our consumption patterns within the Caribbean were fostered during colonial times.
The plantations were geared towards manufacturing for export, thus facilitating a
dependency syndrome, which still persists today even though there have been deliberate
attempts to correct this. Some Caribbean nationals are of the mindset/belief that:
➢ what is foreign is better (clothes technology etc.)
Consumption ➢ it is important to be modern (latest gadgets)
Patterns ➢ its good to build social capital (Brand names/designer labels)
➢ US is the centre of the world ('must-see' destination)
Remittances - Caribbean nationals who are employed oversees send money home for relatives
who reside back home. Remittances are a good source of foreign exchange for the home
country. However, it facilitates dependency and encourages laziness - receivers not willing to
seek employment. Most times persons 'splurge' and don't save for 'Mr. Rainy Day’.

Caribbean music stemmed from the oppressive history of colonialism, bonded labour
and social stratification. Caribbean music hails from the 'tenement yards', 'shanty towns'
and urban poor areas of the Caribbean countries.

Threatre Arts of the Caribbean modelled that of Britain and America. Local plays and
comedies reenacted historical events. Today, the Caribbean threatre companies still
produce plays, however these are more incline to the Caribbean aspects and culture.
Art Forms
Visual Arts are any works produced by drawing, painting, sculpting and related activities.
Caribbean Arts had its beginnings through western models. Training Caribbean artists
was the same as their western counterparts. These mediums have been used now-a-days
to express the happenings of the society to which they reside. They have moved away
from the traditional arts done by the western world and the instruments (wood, glass,
metal, paper, etc.) and methods used to produce such art work

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INFLUENCES OF EXTRA-REGIONAL SOCIETIES ON THE CARIBBEAN:

Education

Political Influences

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INFLUENCES OF EXTRA-REGIONAL SOCIETIES ON THE CARIBBEAN:

Political Influences

Sports

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INFLUENCES OF EXTRA-REGIONAL SOCIETIES ON THE CARIBBEAN:

The evidence of extra-regional influence on religion is strong, both in the imported


world religions of Christianity, Islam and Hinduism and in the prevalence of syncretic
religions showing both European (traditional) and African (non-traditional) influences.
Religion
Activity: Do a research on the formation and continuum of syncretic religions in Jamaica.
(See Fig.8.12 on page 214 in Jennifer Mohammed's text.)

References

1. CAPE Caribbean Studies for self-study and distance learning (distributed by Nelson-Thornes Ltd)

2. Caribbean Studies: for CAPE Examinations – 2nd Ed by Jennifer Mohamed (distributed by Macmillan Education)

3. CAPE Caribbean Studies: An Interdisciplinary approach by Jennifer Mohamed –1st Ed ( distributed by Macmillan
Education)

4. CAPE Caribbean Studies by Ottley, Gentles and Dawson (distributed by Pearson Education Ltd)

5. CAPE Revision Guide Caribbean Studies by Thompson, Lawson-Downer, St John and Thomas-Hunte(Distributed
by HarperCollins Publishers Ltd)

6. https://www.slideshare.net/Veeshalla100/political-influences-36843461

Debgeri Whitely is on the staff of St. Hugh’s High School


! Email: dwhitely@sthughshigh.org

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