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Quality management practice in highway construction
Mireille G. Battikha
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Geodetic Science, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA
Received February 2002 Revised August 2002 Keywords Construction industry, Quality management, Quality assurance, Quality control Accepted August 2002 Abstract This paper describes the quality management function as practiced in highway construction. This function is displayed as an interrelated system, which identiﬁes the main quality activities. Documents and records used in these activities are also reviewed. A model for multilevel quality management involvement is deﬁned, encompassing contractors, engineers, and managers. The model describes the quality management tasks and the roles assumed in a scheme relating construction quality control, quality assurance, and the interface between them. The scheme can be applied to any construction domain and quality management organizational structure. The study advances the understanding of how quality management is performed and engages participants at several management levels.
International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management Vol. 20 No. 5, 2003 pp. 532-550 q MCB UP Limited 0265-671X DOI 10.1108/02656710310476516
Introduction Construction quality is a critical factor in determining project acceptance and resultant contractual payment levels. Participants in the construction industry have become notably conscious of the role of quality as an essential means to achieve client satisfaction and gain a competitive advantage. Acceptable quality levels in construction have long been a problem to attain on time and within budget in a highly dynamic, complex, and competitive environment. With inefﬁcient or nonexistent quality management procedures, signiﬁcant expenditures of time, money, and resources are wasted on construction projects (Rounds and Chi, 1985). This lack of quality due to deﬁcient construction quality management is detected through nonconformance to established requirements. In construction, nonconformance occurs when the ﬁnished state of a project, and/or its components, deviates from established requirements, and requires decisions to be made regarding their acceptance and/or rectiﬁcation. Quality-related problems during construction can be projected on the operating life of the ﬁnished project. To the contractor, nonconformance can yield penalties, as well as cost and time burdens for rework, which can convert into productivity loss (Battikha, 2000a). It can also result in client dissatisfaction, which directly leads to loss of market share and potential proﬁt reductions of the construction ﬁrm. To the owner/user, nonconformance can translate into problems related to safety, service, and economy. With effective quality management, quality-related problems can be eliminated, and prevented at early stages, prior to nonconforming
.e. 1996). and its measurement and assessment quantiﬁable. design output). The study will advance the understanding of how quality management is performed and engages participants at several management levels. 1996). quality assurance. Other deﬁnitions are also available and include: “customer satisfaction”. in the execution and the design stages respectively. encompassing contractors. A model for multilevel quality management involvement is deﬁned. It illustrates. and the interface between them. Client needs/expectations are at the base for varying the quality of the product/service (i. and the documents used are also highlighted. Issues regarding the scope and intent of each of these deﬁnitions have been discussed elsewhere (Davis et al. as deﬁned by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). A general graphical interpretation of the foregoing deﬁnitions is depicted in Figure 1. Their satisfaction in the product/service is also a reﬂection of its quality.e. In construction. Juran’s deﬁnition pointed to quality as “ﬁtness for use” in terms of design. the American Society for Quality (ASQ). It provides a scheme. 1994). 1989. This reﬂects the quality of each of the product/service and the requirements (i. engineers. availability. Deﬁning quality Numerous expressions have been adopted to deﬁne quality in both the manufacturing and the construction industry. “conformance to predetermined requirements”. based on a quality level scale. quality). safety. These deﬁnitions are interdependent and the choice of one depends on the domain and the purpose of its use. conformance. deﬁning quality as “conformance to established requirements” (Construction Industry Institute. Parti.occurrences (Battikha. The advancement process can beneﬁt from the feedback provided by clients. the roles assumed. as indicated in Burati et al. This paper describes the quality management function as practiced in highway construction. and managers. The higher the standards levels to which the needs/expectations conform. Crosby (1979) deﬁned quality as “conformance to requirements”. (1991). and can apply to any construction domain and quality management organizational structure.e. and ﬁeld use (Omachonu and Ross. c). the conformance of the product/service to the design requirements and the conformance of these requirements to the client needs/expectations. and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) (as listed in Parti. Standards can improve in time with the advancement of technology and innovation.. The quality management tasks performed. 2002b. degree of goodness). which relates quality control. and “the totality of factors and characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability to satisfy given needs” as deﬁned by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). the higher the degree of goodness (i. 1989) renders its achievement or lack thereof detectable.
and encompasses prevention and appraisal (Burati et al. and quality improvement. 1994). cited in Weigel et al. formal quality management systems provide a vehicle for achieving quality (i. 1995. 1994).e. objectives. 1994). 1994). conformance to established requirements). This management approach is geared towards engaging the entire organization in a system. and integrating them at all levels (Omachonu and Ross. quality control. quality assurance. Interpreting quality deﬁnitions
Quality management systems Properly implemented. and resources for implementing quality management” (Arnold. for the purpose of satisfying customers through
... Quality control (QC) denotes the sum of activities performed by the contractor to make sure that the product or service meets established requirements (AASHTO. processes. They provide guidance on quality management. and responsibilities and implementing them through quality planning. and present models for quality assurance by fostering the structure through which to implement the total quality management (TQM) business philosophy (Arnold. 1995.5
Figure 1. 1979). within the quality system (ASQC. cited in Weigel et al. ISO 9000 series standards furnish conceptual guidelines with which to structure and implement the elements of a quality system (Arnold. a quality system is “the organizational structure.. 1996). process. Quality management refers to the set of quality activities involved in producing a product. procedures. 1996). TQM means thinking about quality as a system approach using all functions of the enterprise as a process. or service. 1992).IJQRM 20. Quality activities include the determination of the quality policy. 1997). Quality assurance (QA) refers to the activities performed to provide adequate conﬁdence that a product or service will meet established requirements (AASHTO. responsibilities. As deﬁned by ANSI. It is “a management discipline concerned with preventing problems from occurring by creating the attitudes and controls that make prevention possible” (Crosby.
in order to avoid similar situations during the remainder of the project and on future projects (Battikha and Russell. thus the system must be designed to guarantee that requirements will be met. The owner. to permit achievement of these requirements. System approach to quality management
. speciﬁes the required product using drawings and
Figure 2. and/or in-process characteristics may be detected.continuous improvement (Drummond. or deﬁned later by the contractor. construction methods and materials are speciﬁed by the owner’s agent. Quality is a product of the system. achieving conformance to established requirements consists of a series of quality management activities during the various phases of a project. and quality management procedures are developed to ensure compliance with the speciﬁcations. output products of activities (the states through which the end-product passes during its construction). Depending on whether the speciﬁcations are method-type. 1992). Appropriate actions must then be taken to rectify nonconforming situations and. if possible. 1995) is presented in Figure 3. quality requirements for the end products and/or their performance are speciﬁed to meet the user’s needs. In the design phase. diagnosis and elimination of the reasons causing nonconformance. The nomenclature of this management system in terms of quality assurance refers to the quality management system encompassing all quality activities. or highway agency. Figure 2 displays the system approach to quality management for achieving quality. In construction. the process is as follows. From the model shown in Figure 3. During construction. 1998). System approach in highway construction A model of the quality assurance system that the highway construction industry has been applying for the last 50 years (Chamberlin. end-result or performance-related. nonconformance in terms of end products (the ﬁnished state of the constructed product).
the trend has been to the contractor assuming responsibilities for controlling quality. quality levels and ranges of tolerances. Ideal quality assurance system
speciﬁcations. Model for multilevel quality management Despite the variations in procurement strategies for projects. and acceptance criteria. 1979). The contractor executes the product following established construction/manufacturing processes and quality control procedures. common characteristics remain apparent for conducting quality management activities. Whether the
. which contain quality characteristics. Three main levels of control/assurance are noted in most existing programs. In highway construction management. The contract considers a fair allocation of risk between the contractor’s expectation of compensation and the owner’s expectation of quality (Chamberlin.5
Figure 3. with respect to QA/QC organization and administration (Hester. 1995).IJQRM 20. acceptance sampling and testing plans. and the owner judging acceptance (Chamberlin. 1995).
issues a request for corrective action to the contractor/construction manager (MoTH. speciﬁcations.
. inspection and test plans. and pinpoints examples of some construction domains to which each approach is most suitable (Hester. the production group (foreman. who in turn. However. The interface of control and assurance for reporting deviations to the QA management (QA director) can take place through a QC/QA professional. 1979): (1) project designer.e. The QA department can be from either the contractor’s or the owner’s organization.quality control agent reports to the contractor’s organization or to the owner’s organization. quality manual referencing or containing quality management procedures. The organizational structures for managing quality include four approaches for developing and administering a quality assurance program (Hester. 1992). contractor) is the one that can control the quality at a high degree. and (4) special consultant (exclusive of project designers and contractors). 1992). Table I outlines how the multilevel management scheme applies to the four approaches. This is achieved by performing the tests and inspections formally required by the quality system. or asks the contractor for certiﬁcation in case the QA is limited to audits and surveillance (i. reﬂecting the QC and QA responsibilities. QA management starts at the interface level by inspecting the contractor’s work. nonconformance reports. These documents may vary with the quality system established by the organization. depicted in Figure 4. (3) contractor. Figure 4 presents a generic scheme of the various roles and responsibilities at the different levels of QA/QC. needs to be maintained. including the tasks normally undertaken and the documents/records involved. the segregation of the contractor from the management authority. and reporting recurring nonconformance to the QA director/manager. the QA does not perform inspection/test activities to verify the conformance of construction processes and products to requirements). This synthesis has been derived from quality management practice in highway construction (MoTH. A QC/QA engineer who reports to the QA director accomplishes this interface. (2) force account (managed by institutional owners). 1979). work instructions. usually an engineer. The applicability of the multilevel management scheme. etc. Documents and records Documents usually required in quality management include: ISO 9000 series standard guidelines. to the different organizational structures in quality management is illustrated in Figures 5-8. Elements of these documents are elaborated upon in the following subsections.
roles. tasks and documents
.IJQRM 20. Levels of construction QA/QC.5
Quality manual A quality manual translates the ISO requirements to the organization setting (Pekar. Management levels applied to project designer approach
Figure 6. 1994. A quality manual is set to contain or to reference procedures that
. and with respect to highway construction. 1995). 2000). Management levels applied to force account approach
ISO 9000 series standards ISO 9000 standards refer to the guidelines of the standard. this applies to ISO 9001 elements (International Organization for Standardization.Highway construction
Figure 7.IJQRM 20. Management levels applied to special consultant approach
. Management levels applied to contractor approach
g. laboratory and ﬁeld testing). and are independent of both the designer and the contractor
Production level Management level
Contractor Project designer develops and administers QA program and assigns a trained staff of ﬁeld personnel which provide administrative and surveillance services
Interface level The designer’s ﬁeld personnel either perform selected QA tasks (e. They are usually design professionals. concrete placements and ﬁeld welding
Projects using phased construction techniques. testing and engineering functions to outside testing laboratories and consulting engineers Mainly used on projects with complex or highly specialized QA requirements.Project designer Contractor Government agencies. and public and private owners where a series of projects having a repetitive type of construction is anticipated (e. construction management ﬁrms. corporate and institutional owners establish an internal QA program (e. Applications of this approach include contracts for soils and foundation inspections. power generating stations)
Military. corporate and Used for public works institutional organizations construction. and where a clear determination of liability is required. The project owner or designer may have limited administrative roles such as assuming ﬁnal audits. highways.g. and projects that require a lot of design interpretation or coordination during construction (e. or select and manage specialized consultants to perform these tasks
Personnel from the special The contractor usually subcontracts all or part of the consultants perform the tasks at this level inspection. or sophisticated testing laboratories employed by the owner. Model applicability in construction practice
.g. water and wastewater treatment facilities. The contractor may assign a superintendent or engineer as a nominal QA representative Contractor The special consultants are responsible for administering the QA program.g. and by require this type of approach contractors. industrial plants. bridges)
Table I. state highway departments) The owner may employ specialized consultants for unusual construction conditions or short duration work Trained and indoctrinated personnel from the parent organization with direct owner control during construction perform the tasks at this level Contractor Responsibility for QC and QA is placed on the contractor. projects that are technically complex.
form the quality system. method statement. and procedures for the contractor to follow (Chamberlin. They spell out the scope of work. 1995).
Speciﬁcations AASHTO (1968) (cited in Gendell and Masuda. while full pay can be granted as long as the contractor complies with the methods assigned. usually related to materials of construction. Variability in material property and construction techniques is not considered. inspection plans. were the earliest form used. equipment used during construction. 1996). and when of important quality activities (Hayden. ASQC. or performance of the ﬁnished product as well as its plans of acceptance and payment. known as method speciﬁcations or prescription (materials and methods) speciﬁcations. speciﬁcations for highway construction have been evolving with the development of improved performance predictors and methods of measuring compliance (Chamberlin. who. and objectives of the organization and its interfaces (ASQC. and forms to record results (Pekar. 1995).
Work instructions These contain instructional details on how to execute work. and shall be tested against devices certiﬁed and traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). goals. responsibilities. They translate the requirements of the quality manual into procedures needed for the department to comply with quality requirements (Pekar. Samples from quality management procedures on equipment calibration are presented as follows (Pekar. techniques of construction. 1995):
Test equipment will be certiﬁed in accordance with Quality Assurance Work Instructions. Given the change in size and complexity of the highway construction industry. They are speciﬁed by the highway agency and include exact materials. 1995). Test equipment determined to be accurate and reliable through examination by Metrology will be certiﬁed and the results of the examination recorded on the computer through application of the calibration software. 1988) deﬁned speciﬁcations as “the compilation of provisions and requirements for the performance of prescribed work”. A sample work instruction for a calibration procedure is provided below (Pekar. Quality management procedures Quality management procedures address the where. 1995):
Readings are taken in three random locations along the measurement range for inside and depth measurements using the calibration test stand. what. 1997). 1997). Traditional speciﬁcations. The major shortcoming of
. so that the requirements of the quality management procedures can be achieved. 1995. It should deﬁne policies.IJQRM 20. Speciﬁcations may contain elements of more than one speciﬁcation form. proportioning and mixing limits.
Endresult acceptance criteria have been combined with statistically-based sampling procedures and have been referred to as statistical end-result speciﬁcations (ERS). even under tight control (Chamberlin. the speciﬁcations may not always produce the desired end result” (Chamberlin.g.48C) and rising or shall be above 458F (7. These speciﬁcations are standardized with some variations between different places and are called end-result speciﬁcations (e. Statistical speciﬁcations for highway construction began in the 1960s and are usually part of a statistical quality control. while the QC is the contractor’s responsibility. soil density).28C) if falling..48C). 1995). The minimum roller weight shall be 15 tons (13Mg) and the tire pressure shall be at least 90psi (621kPa). and can be determined by controlling selected materials and construction (M&C) variables through the processes of design. by adjusting tolerances. 1996):
The air temperature at the time of placement shall be at least 408F (4. they do inhibit potential innovations in construction initiated by the contractor. however this amount does not relate to any loss of performance of the product/pavement
. This type of speciﬁcation holds the contractor responsible for production. Moreover. in order to determine whether the contractor complied with the speciﬁcation requirements (Roberts et al. and allows the use of innovative construction equipment and/or methods. All rollers shall be operated at a speed not to exceed 3 miles per hour (4. They sought a method to measure the attributes and their compliance. inspection. 1995). An example of typical statements included in a method speciﬁcation for compaction is as follows (Roberts et al. All rollers shall stay as close as practical behind the paver or roller in front of it. which accounts for the inherent variability in the M&C variables (i.traditional speciﬁcations is that “even when properly followed.. Method speciﬁcations require that an inspector be present on the site at all times. 1996).e.
In order to meet the complexity of construction. Setting quality levels and acceptance procedures remains with the accepting agency. speciﬁcations continue to evolve and reﬂect the development of highway technology in which the quality of the end product is assessed using “speciﬁc measurable attributes. However. Payment adjustments in these speciﬁcations reﬂect the amount of reduction and the optimized risk distributed between owner and contractor. 1995).8km/hour). and testing at the time of construction” (Chamberlin. and acknowledging the difﬁculty of obtaining 100 percent compliance) and which employs statistically-based acceptance sampling (Chamberlin. Sufﬁcient passes shall be made with the ﬁnal roller to remove all roller marks and other pavement irregularities. Intermediate rolling shall be performed with 6 coverages of a rubber-tired roller. Intermediate rolling shall be completed before the mixture cools below 1758F (79. This is because they are based on past conditions that may not be similar to the current situation. Initial rolling shall include at least 2 coverages with a 10-ton vibratory roller. The ﬁnal rolling shall be accomplished with a tandem steel-wheeled roller. variability and measuring compliance to speciﬁcations remains problematic given the difﬁculty of achieving 100 percent compliance to speciﬁcation limits. 1995).
etc. cited in O’Connell. the
. 1995). relationships between test results and expected performance were sought. and deﬁnes the characteristic(s) which forms the basis for acceptance. In response to the previously stated deﬁciencies. Typically. (1996). 1995): . response to load. Acceptance plans An acceptance plan is deﬁned as “an agreed-upon method of taking and making measurements on a sample for the purpose of determining the acceptability of a lot of material or construction” (AASHTO. or in terms of cumulative trafﬁc needed to drive the pavement into failure.IJQRM 20. (1996) and Schmitt et al. 1991). Therefore. These factors are amenable to acceptance testing during construction. performance-related speciﬁcations (PRS) for highway construction aim at improving speciﬁcations “to reﬂect the best understanding of what determines quality and to create a contractual framework that maximizes cost effectiveness” (Chamberlin.g. Performance-related speciﬁcation: deﬁnes required level of M&C factors that correlate with fundamental engineering properties. Performance speciﬁcation: deﬁnes how the end product should perform over time (e. These speciﬁcations are based on quantiﬁed relationships (models) between M&C characteristics measured at the time of construction and subsequent performance. These speciﬁcations are deﬁned as follows (Chamberlin.). PRS are “speciﬁcations for key M&C factors that have been demonstrated to correlate signiﬁcantly with longterm performance of the ﬁnished work. descriptions in terms of alterations in the physical condition of pavement surface. A distinction needs to be made between different speciﬁcations associated with the term performance. evidence of compliance cannot guarantee the ﬁnished product performance given that the relation between the end product characteristics and its performance remains unidentiﬁed. 1995). They include sampling and testing procedures. . 1986. Performance-based speciﬁcation: deﬁnes required levels of fundamental engineering properties: (e. . resilient modulus. Consequently. Recent advances in PRS development and research can be found in Chamberlin (1995). fatigue properties) which are predictors of performance and usually not amenable to acceptance testing during construction.g.5
(Chamberlin. research on speciﬁcations has focused on performance-related features since the early 1980s. and acceptance (or rejection) criteria. Trends in speciﬁcations reﬂecting warranty on pavement performance have also been reported in Shober et al. quality levels and tolerances. 1995). which predict performance. It is agreed upon by the contractor and the highway agency. Essentially. PRS also include payment schedules with positive and/or negative adjustments that are directly related through the performance models to changes anticipated in the worth of the ﬁnished work as a result of departure from the acceptable quality level” (Chamberlin.
payment terms were based on pass-fail with little consideration to variability (Chamberlin. cited in O’Connell. each individual test value obtained within an acceptance section or lot shall be at least 90 percent of the established voidless density and shall not exceed 98 percent of voidless density. 1989). The mean density obtained for the ﬁve tests in each acceptance section or lot shall be at least 93 percent of the established voidless density as determined by the Rice procedure.sample size (the part of work to be accepted at a time). 1995). It is a critical element in the acceptance plan. The adjustment will be applied on a lot by lot basis for each lift. the purpose of which is to deﬁne a way to handle the payment of a product that is neither clearly acceptable nor rejectable (O’Connell. the frequency of testing. 1991). An acceptance plan is usually part of a statistical ERS and can be of two types (AASHTO. In statistical ERS where variability was tolerated and compliance to speciﬁcation could be measured accurately. In addition. the method of testing. which relies on a statistical procedure based on measuring quantitatively the characteristics rather than counting them. 1986. 1991): (1) it is based on attributes to which statistical procedures are applied and the characteristics evaluated are checked as to whether they are present or absent. Price adjustment for roadway density]. 1995).
. It also includes the way in which the test results will be treated for the purpose of judging the acceptability of the portion tested (Erickson. The price adjustment will be applied only to the pay item for Plant Mix Bituminous Pavement. An example of an acceptance plan used by the New Mexico State Highway Department. The adjustment will be based on the average of ﬁve density tests. as cited in O’Connell (1991). (2) it is based on variables. it became convenient to incorporate adjustable payment schedules into construction speciﬁcation as an additional tool to support the contract agreement (Chamberlin. performed at randomly selected sites within the test section or by cut pavement samples in conformity with AASHTO T-166. In traditional speciﬁcations.
The payment schedule is as follows:
The payment of a unit price will be adjusted for roadway density as outlined in the following [Table II.500 tons each for the purpose of deﬁning areas represented by each series of acceptance tests. in conformity with ASTM D 2950. The density of each acceptance section or lot will be evaluated by a minimum of ﬁve tests with a portable nuclear density test device. and the adjusted payment schedule. hence reﬂecting acceptance or rejection. the sampling procedure.
Adjustable payment plans The purpose of the pay schedule is to deﬁne relationships between quality levels and payment levels. is presented below:
The bituminous pavement structure course shall be divided into acceptance sections or lots approximately 1. Defective work was either removed or accepted at full price or accepted at reduced price. Negotiations for price reductions were performed based on the case in question and reﬂected arbitrary and inconsistent judgments.
1976. 1995). and plans considering a rational relationship between quality and performance (Chamberlin. rather than on the variation in the performance itself (Chamberlin. An example of a stepped pay schedule has been shown in Table II. 1995).5
Average density % of maximum density
Percent of contract price to be paid
Table II.99 91 90 to 90. Inspection and test plan An inspection and test plan is a plan prepared by quality management personnel. “Judgment plans are not considered to be rational because they are not supported by a relationship that quantitatively links the payment schedule to the anticipated performance of the ﬁnished work” (Chamberlin.99 91 Between 93 and 96 100 92 to 92. and includes the acceptance criteria
. cited in O’Connell (1991)
There are two basic types of adjusted payment schedules namely: the stepped (tabular) and the continuous (O’Connell. since the 1980s. 1995). 1991). or the percent of work within tolerance determined from the mean and standard deviation of inspected results (NCHRP. in conjunction with contractors. 1991).g.IJQRM 20. cited in Chamberlin. In the stepped pay schedule the pay factor is assigned to different discrete ranges of quality. which is a function of the quality level of the inspected characteristic (O’Connell. Approaches to address adjustment payment schedules development rely on two main concepts: plans built on judgment. and be formulated in some mathematical algorithm relating them to pavement performance (Chamberlin. Judgment plans consider price reductions in accordance with either the average of the quality characteristic under investigation. Rational plans have been developed.99 85 a Less than 90 Note: a This lot shall be removed and replaced to meet speciﬁcation requirements as ordered by the project manager.99 85 96 to 96. the contractor and the project manager may agree in writing that for practical purposes. Price adjustment for roadway density
a Above 98 97 to 97. with a consideration to the predicted cost associated with decreased or improved performance (e.99 96 91 to 91. 1995). the frequency of deviations. In lieu thereof. The continuous pay schedule relies on the percent pay reduction or percent of contract price to be reimbursed in a form of an equation. need to be identiﬁed and segregated from variables which do not fall under the contractor’s control. life cycle costs). 1995). the lot shall not be removed and will be paid for at 50 percent of the contract price Souce: New Mexico State Highway Department. As such M&C variables correlating with performance and which fall under the contractor’s control.
Other inspection related reports are also used to keep a diary of activities (e. . “Do”: requires that the contractor will accomplish unachieved work. which is reported by the QA/QC engineer/inspector to the QA manager. Construction deﬁciency report Nonconforming items that do not exhibit a serious deﬁciency and can be remedied by regular work practice are not reported on a nonconformance report. frequency. 1992). Time allocated and veriﬁcation of completion is also reported. Inspection form and test report Inspection forms and test reports are used to document inspection and test results based on the agreement ﬁled in the inspection and test plans. A daily summary report also summarizes the results of all tests performed during the day and a list of all amounts of materials received and used. This document forms the basis of quality veriﬁcation. .g. and describes the inspection and tests to be undertaken in order to provide evidence of conformance to established requirements (MoTH. scope. routine weather comments. but on a construction deﬁciency report and may be discarded after completion of remedial work. inspection personnel. and unusual events affecting the activity are usually noted (The Asphalt Institute. “Rework”: requires that the deﬁcient item be repaired to make it conforming. timing. Corrective action request This document contains a description of the proposed corrective action and relevant completion and veriﬁcation dates as well as approval sources (Arnold. and the responsibility.of the product/process to be tested/inspected. In some cases the QA manager ﬁles a corrective action request to the contractor as a separate document. and method of inspection or testing. Dates. 1992): . “Use-as-is”: is ﬁled when work is accepted as-is with some nonconformance. The nonconformance is described and accordingly a disposition is prescribed for remedial action as being either (MoTH.
. Non-conformance report Nonconforming items are identiﬁed and reported on a nonconformance report. “Re-do”: requires that all deﬁcient work be removed and redone. 1994). daily diary report. . A corrective action is requested in case of repetitive nonconformances to eliminate the root cause of the problem and avoid its recurrence. daily summary report). 1989).
WI. ASQC (1997). phone) (MoTH. AASHTO (1995). Highway Deﬁnitions. The Asphalt Handbook.5
Defect notice In case a deﬁciency is noticed to be a safety hazard. YACHT Joint Construction/Materials Quality Assurance Task Force 6/21/95 ed. has been presented. pp. Lexington. which highlights the main quality activities. Vol. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Ofﬁcials. 128 No. 545-52. M. DC. Designer’s. 164-73. K. 4 (MS-4).L. Battikha. the contractor must be notiﬁed immediately through a fast communication medium (e. NY. Battikha. Milwaukee. CSCE. engineers. quality assurance. (2002c). pp. This study advances the understanding of how quality management is performed and engages participants at several management levels. and the interface between them. Interpretive Guidelines for the Application of ANSI/ISO/ASQC Q9001-1994 or Q9002-1994 for Owner’s. The model involves multilevel quality management participation. A model for managing quality has been deﬁned and shown to apply to any construction domain and organizational structure for developing and administering a quality assurance program. The Free Press. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Ofﬁcials. Standard Speciﬁcations for Transportation Materials and Methods of Sampling and Testing. Conclusions This paper has described the quality management function as practiced in highway construction. M. Washington. If corrective action is not performed within speciﬁed time limits. Documents and records used in these activities have also been reviewed. (1994). M. (2000a). Washington.
. 1992). a nonconformance report is ﬁled to the contractor. Manual Series No. Ontario.G. and Constructor’s Quality Management Systems. YACHT Quality Assurance Guide Speciﬁcation. ASCE. pp. 150-7.. Arnold. Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference. MA. Washington. and managers. ASQC Quality Press. American Association of Highway and Transportation Ofﬁcials. It describes the quality management tasks and the roles assumed in a scheme relating construction quality control. Following the verbal notiﬁcation a “defect notice” is ﬁled to conﬁrm it. (The) Asphalt Institute (1989). “QUALICON: computer-based system for construction quality management”. The Manager’s Guide to ISO 9000. “Integrating construction productivity and quality management”.
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