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Danny Staub -1- IPT Notes

IPT notes

Data is raw facts with no inherent special meaning. Before data becomes useful, it
must first be processed into a useful format.

Data –> Process –> Information

Eg Sorting…formatting/editing/selecting/customising

To be useful in an electronic information system, data is stored in binary formal. (0,1)


This is because it is very easy to represent a 1 with a high voltage and a 0 with a low
voltage.

System- is a set of interrelated tasks which all wok together towards a common goal.
An information system is therefore any set of processes which takes raw facts and
presents it in a useful way.

Components on an information system


All info systems can be described in terms of 6 components:
Technology (hardware, software)
Information
Process
Participants
Purpose
Environment (Anything that is affected by the system

The seven processes


There are a number of processes required that takes data from its raw state and
presents it in a useful format as information.
Collect
Organise (Through software or design)
Analyse
Storage and retrieval
Process (Update data)
O Transmit and receive
Display

For large systems, the overall information system consists of a number of smaller
linked systems. In this case, the outputs of one system become the input to the next.

Data
In any information system, there are 5 main types of data:
 Text
 Numbers (percentages, currency, date, decimal points)
 Graphics

Danny Staub -1- IPT Notes


Danny Staub -2- IPT Notes

 Video
 Audio

The nature of data


All electronic data is stored in binary format.

Text
Text is stored using 8 bits for each symbol or letter. There is a standard code used
called ASCII (American standard code for information interchange). This is a 7 bit
code, which gives us 128 different combinations (27) allowing us to store 128
different symbols, letters, characters. Initially, the different combinations were mad up
and allocated to different symbols.

Letters were allocated as follows:


01000001= A
01000010= B
01000011= C
01000100= D
01000101= E
01000110= F
These start with 010 and are in upper case.

For lower care letters, the code in exactly the same but a little different:
01100001= a
01100010= b
01100011= c
01100100= d
01100101= e
01100110= f
These start with 011 and are in lower case.

A space is 00100000

Numeric digits
The equivalent binary for the decimal digit is used as the last 4 bits. The first 4 bits
are always 0011.
32 16 8 4 2 1
00110110
Eg using this code, show how we store the data inside a computer to represent your
first name a cottage.

00110001= 1
00110010= 2

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Hekta decimals
1-1
2-2
3-3
4-4
5-5
6-6
7-7
8-8
9-9
10-a
11-b
12-c
13-d
14-e
15-f
16-10

Numeric intages
All numeric intages up to 32767 can be stored as a combination of 16 bits Eg 92.
For intages larger than 39767, we use 32 bit numbers.

Graphics
Black and white bitmap
A pixel is the smallest dot from which a picture/image is composed. A bitmap
represents an image using 1 bit for each pixel. The number of bits and therefore the
size of the file depends on the resolution of the image.
Resolution- the number of pixels that fit on a screen. The closer together the pixels
are, the higher the resolution and the clearer the image. This means a larger file.

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