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SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF COMMERCIAL FATS AND OILS

AOCS Official Method Cd 8-53


Surplus 2003

Peroxide Value
Acetic Acid–Chloroform Method
DEFINITION
This method determines all substances, in terms of milliequivalents of peroxide per 1000 grams of
sample, that oxidize potassium iodide (KI) under the conditions of the test. The substances are gener-
ally assumed to be peroxides or other similar products of fat oxidation.
SCOPE
Applicable to all normal fats and oils, including margarine. This method is highly empirical, and any
variation in the test procedure may result in variation of results. Replaced by Cd 8b-90.

APPARATUS Allow to stand for 5 min and then add 100 mL of


1. Pipet—0.5 mL, or other suitable volumetric apparatus distilled water. Titrate with sodium thiosulfate
capable of dispensing 0.5 mL of saturated potassium solution, shaking continuously until yellow color
iodide (KI) solution. has almost disappeared. Add 1–2 mL of starch
2. Erlenmeyer flasks—with glass stoppers, 250 mL. indicator and continue the titration, adding the
3. Low actinic red or amber container, about 50 mL to 100 thiosulfate solution slowly until the blue color just
mL capacity. disappears. The strength of the sodium thiosulfate
4. Burette—with 25 mL or 50 mL, class A, graduated in solution is expressed in terms of its normality.
0.1 mL division. Normality of Na2S2O3 solution =
5. Timer.
6. Balance—top loading, 500-g capacity with ±0.01 gram 20.394 × mass of K2Cr2O7, g
sensitivity. mL of sodium thiosulfate

REAGENTS 4. Sodium thiosulfate solution, 0.01 N—accurately stan-


1. Acetic acid–chloroform solution (3:2, v/v)—prepared dardized. This solution may be prepared by accurately
by mixing 3 volumes of reagent-grade glacial acetic pipetting 100 mL of 0.1 N sodium thiosulfate into a
acid with 2 volumes of reagent-grade chloroform (see 1000-mL volumetric flask and accurately diluting to
Notes, 1 and Caution). volume with recently boiled distilled water.
2. Potassium iodide (KI) solution—saturated, prepared 5. Starch indicator solution—tested for sensitivity,
fresh each day analysis is performed by dissolving an prepared by making a paste with 1 g of starch (see
excess of KI in recently boiled distilled water (about Notes, 2) and a small amount of cold distilled water.
10.0 gram KI in 6.0 mL of water). Make certain the Add, while stirring, to 100 mL of boiling water and boil
solution remains saturated during use, as indicated by for a few seconds. Immediately remove from heat and
the presence of undissolved KI crystals. Store in the cool. Salicylic acid (1.25 g/L) may be added to preserve
dark when not in use. Test the saturated KI solution by the indicator. If long storage is required, the solution
adding 2 drops of starch solution to 0.5 mL of the KI must be kept in a refrigerator at 4–10°C. Fresh indicator
solution in 30 mL of the acetic acid–chloroform solu- must be prepared when the end point of the titration
tion. If a blue color is formed that requires more than 1 from blue to colorless fails to be sharp. If stored under
drop of 0.1 N sodium thiosulfate solution to discharge, refrigeration, the starch solution should be stable for
discard the KI solution and prepare a fresh solution. about 2–3 weeks.
3. Sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3 · 5H2O) solution—0.1 N, Test for sensitivity—Place 5 mL of starch solution
accurately standardized vs. potassium dichromate in 100 mL of water and add 0.05 mL of freshly pre-
primary standard as follows: pared 0.1 N KI solution and one drop of a 50-ppm
(a) Sodium thiosulfate solution 0.1 N, prepared by chlorine solution made by diluting 1 mL of a commer-
dissolving 24.9 g of sodium thiosulfate in distilled cial 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution to 1000
water and diluting to 1 L. mL. The deep blue color produced must be discharged
(b) The potassium dichromate primary standard by 0.05 mL of 0.1 N sodium thiosulfate.
should be finely ground, dried at 105°C for 2 hr
and cooled in a desiccator. Weigh 0.16–0.22 g of PROCEDURE FOR FATS AND OILS
potassium dichromate into a 500-mL flask or 1. Weigh 5.00 ± 0.05 g of sample into a 250-mL
bottle by difference from a weighing bottle. Erlenmeyer flask with glass stopper and add 30 mL of
Dissolve in 25 mL of water, add 5 mL of concen- the 3:2 acetic acid–chloroform solution. Swirl to
trated hydrochloric acid, 20 mL of potassium dissolve the sample. Add 0.5 mL of saturated KI solu-
iodide solution (Reagents, 2) and rotate to mix. tion using a suitable volumetric pipet.
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SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF COMMERCIAL FATS AND OILS
Cd 8-53 • Peroxide Value

2. Allow the solution to stand with occasional shaking for burn on prolonged exposure to flame or high temperature.
exactly 1 min, and then immediately add 30 mL of The TLV is 10 ppm in air. A fume hood should be used at
distilled water (see Notes, 3 and References, 1). all times when using chloroform.
3. Titrate with 0.1 N sodium thiosulfate, adding it gradu- Acetic acid in the pure state is moderately toxic by
ally and with constant agitation. Continue the titration ingestion and inhalation. It is a strong irritant to skin and
until the yellow iodine color has almost disappeared. tissue. The TLV in air is 10 ppm.
Add about 2.0 mL of starch indicator solution. Potassium dichromate is toxic by ingestion and inhala-
Continue the titration with constant agitation, especially tion. There is sufficient evidence in humans for the carcino-
near the end point, to liberate all of the iodine from the genicity of chromium [+6], in particular, lung cancer. It is a
solvent layer. Add the thiosulfate solution dropwise strong oxidizing agent and a dangerous fire risk when in
until the blue color just disappears (see Notes, 4). contact with organic chemicals.
4. Conduct a blank determination of the reagents daily.
The blank titration must not exceed 0.1 mL of the 0.1 N NUMBERED NOTES
sodium thiosulfate solution. 1. Isooctane has been proposed as a replacement for chlo-
roform in this method. The method using isooctane was
PROCEDURE FOR MARGARINE approved by the AOCS Uniform Methods Committee
1. Melt the sample by heating with constant stirring on a hot in 1990 as AOCS Official Method Cd 8b-90 and first
plate set at low heat, or by heating in an air oven at appeared in the second printing of the 4th edition of
60–70°C. Avoid excess heating and particularly prolonged Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the
exposure of the oil to temperatures above 40°C. American Oil Chemists’ Society. The isooctane method
2. When completely melted, remove the sample from the is preferred due to the elimination of chloroform. It is
hot plate or oven and allow to settle in a warm place the intention of the AOCS Uniform Methods
until the aqueous portion and most of the milk solids Committee to delete the acetic acid–chloroform version
have settled to the bottom. of the method (AOCS Official Method Cd 8-53) from
3. Decant the oil into a clean beaker and filter through a Official Methods within the next several years.
Whatman no. 4 paper (or equivalent) into another clean 2. “Potato Starch for Iodometry” is recommended,
beaker. Do not reheat for filtration unless absolutely because this starch produces a deep blue color in the
necessary. The sample must be clear and brilliant. presence of the iodonium ion. “Soluble Starch” is not
4. Proceed as directed in Procedure for Fats and Oils, recommended because a consistent deep blue color may
paragraphs 1–4. not be developed when some soluble starches interact
with the iodonium ion. The following are suitable
CALCULATIONS starches: Soluble Starch for Iodometry, Fisher S516-
1. Peroxide value (milliequivalents peroxide/1000 g 100; Soluble Potato Starch, Sigma S-2630; Soluble
sample) = Potato Starch for Iodometry, J.T. Baker 4006-04.
(S − B) × N × 1000 3. The test should be carried out in diffuse daylight or in
artificial light shielded from a direct light source. A
mass of sample, g
report on a coulometric method for the measurement of
Where— peroxide value (References, 2) indicates that the
B = volume of titrant, mL of blank iodide–peroxide reaction is complete at the end of 1
S = volume of titrant, mL of sample min, and that the liberation of iodine is affected by
N = normality of sodium thiosulfate solution light.
4. If the titration is less than 0.5 mL using 0.1 N sodium
NOTES thiosulfate, repeat the determination using 0.01 N
Caution sodium thiosulfate.
Chloroform is a known carcinogen. It is toxic by inhalation
and has anesthetic properties. Avoid contact with the skin. REFERENCES
Prolonged inhalation or ingestion can lead to liver and kid- 1. Oil and Soap 9:89 (1932).
ney damage and may be fatal. It is nonflammable, but will 2. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 75:507 (1992).

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