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JULY 2016


Commissioning and the

Rio Olympics
Analyzing Big Data for Buildings | Mission Critical BAS
Parking Garage Exhaust Systems | Sustainable Products Capabilities
CONTENTS VOL. 58, NO. 7, JULY 2016



“Sweep” Parking Garage
Exhaust Systems
By Steven T. Taylor, P.E.

No Good Deed Shall Go
56 14 Unpunished...
By Joseph W. Lstiburek, Ph.D., P.Eng.
14 Commissioning and Design No Excuses
For 2016 Olympics By Andy Pearson, Ph.D., C.Eng.
By Ross D. Montgomery, P.E.; Walter R. Lenzi
28 Sequence of Operation for Mission Performance Evaluation
For Indoor Passive Panels
Critical Building Automation Systems By Zuraimi Sultan, Ph.D.
By Edward L. Gutowski, P.E.
38 Big Data Analytics in the 4 Commentary
Building Industry 6
Industry News
By Michael A. Berger; Paul A. Mathew; Travis Walter
12 Meetings and Shows
137 People
138 Products
2016 ASHRAE TECHNOLOGY AWARDS 140 Special Products
143 Classified Advertising
20 Net Zero Energy for Pharmacy 144 Advertisers Index
By Jason Robbins, P.E.; Benjamin Skelton, P.E.; Steve Sovak, P.E.;
69 Sustainable Products Capabilities
46 Sensible Sustainability
By Tom Marseille, P.E.; Ben Gozart
this publication with care, but ASHRAE has not
any duty to investigate any product, service,
process, procedure, design or the like which
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Fax: 404-321-5478 | Jay Scott

W. Stephen Comstock ASHRAE Principles Find Home in Rio
EDITORIAL If you’ve seen the news in advance of well ASHRAE’s Commissioning Process
Jay Scott the Rio Olympics, the headlines have Management Professional (CPMP)
been filled with reports of difficulties in certification tied together such an
Managing Editor
Sarah Foster getting ready for the Games. approach, the authors write. All those challenges and uncertain- Commissioning issues were found
Associate Editor ties stand in stark contrast to projects and resolved, including improving col-
Rebecca Matyasovski in which ASHRAE engineers and vol- laboration and coordination between
Associate Editor unteers helped provide commission- subcontractors.
Christopher Weems ing and HVAC&R design services. A
Associate Editor technical feature this issue describes BRAZILIAN STANDARDS WERE
Jeri Alger their work at major buildings for the used for HVAC and health. Each of the
Assistant Editor Summer Olympic Games Aug. 5-21. major buildings stands alone with its
Tani Palefski Most events will occur in the own chilled-water HVAC&R control sys-
Olympic Park at Barra da Tijuca, 21 tem. The IT rooms are conditioned and
Publishing Services Manager miles (34 km) south of Copacabana protected using stand-alone variable
David Soltis
Beach. The authors were involved in refrigerant flow systems.
Jayne Jackson designing and commissioning Arenas In general, the largest variable
ADVERTISING 1, 2 and 3; the Handball Arena; the cooling load for the buildings is people
Associate Publisher,
ASHRAE Media Advertising
Velodrome; the Central Hotel and the load, except for the International
Greg Martin International Broadcast Center (the Broadcast Center with its major loads
home for on-site media coverage). for lighting and equipment used in the
Advertising Production Coordinator
Vanessa Johnson TV and broadcast studios. With mas- THE COMMISSIONING sive loads that can ramp up quickly,
Circulation Specialist PRINCIPLES used in the project are the AC and control system must be
David Soltis contained in the ASHRAE 2014 report prepared to react.
“Strategic Guide to Commissioning” The authors are quick to point out
President and ASHRAE/IES Standard 202-2013, that the incorporation of ASHRAE prin-
T. David Underwood, P.Eng.
Commissioning Process for Buildings and ciples into many Brazilian standards
Timothy G. Wentz, P.E. Systems. Sustainability practices follow did not happen in a vacuum. Support
Treasurer the LEED v3 guidelines, and its energy- came from ongoing efforts and collabo-
Bjarne W. Olesen, Ph.D. efficiency strategies are based upon ration of ASHRAE chapters, regional
Vice Presidents
Walid Chakroun, Ph.D. ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2007, which representatives or “ambassadors,” and
Patricia Graef, P.E. was translated into Portuguese by the ASHRAE presidents working with gov-
Charles E. Gulledge III, P.E.
James K. Vallort ASHRAE Brazil Chapter. ernment entities.
Secretary & Executive Vice President The authors point out that Standard ASHRAE has left its own stamp for
Jeff H. Littleton
202-2013 was created to be a process sustainability as the world gathers in
2015 – 16 Chair standard so it can be used in a multi- August for the Rio Olympics.
Publications Committee disciplinary approach for projects such Enjoy the issue.
Tim Dwyer, C.Eng.
Washington Office
as this one. The process showed how —Jay Scott

Mission Statement: ASHRAE Journal reviews current HVAC&R technology of broad interest through publica-
tion of application-oriented articles. ASHRAE Journal’s editorial content ranges from back-to-basics features
to reviews of emerging technologies, covering the entire spectrum of professional interest from design and
construction practices to commissioning and the service life of HVAC&R environmental systems.


Latest CBECS Tables, Microdata Released be announced upon current, high-efficiency

completion, but will be refrigerant R-123 or the
WASHINGTON, D.C.—The U.S. lighting, etc.).
“a notch” taller than Burj next-generation R-514A.
Energy Information The 2012 CBECS
Khalifa. He added that R-514A is a low-global
Administration (EIA) has microdata files now con-
his company would like to warming potential (GWP)
released the most recent tain additional variables
present the tower as a “gift refrigerant from Chemours
Commercial Buildings for energy consumption
to the city before 2020.” (Opteon™ XP30).
Energy Consumption and expenditures, in
The new structure will be Starting now, Trane offers
Survey (CBECS) con- total, by energy source,
bedecked with rotating large tonnage CenTraVac
sumption and expendi- and by end use. The files
chillers for applications
tures detailed tables and contain untabulated
such as industrial build-
public use microdata. records for 6,720 com-
ings, data centers, and
The 2012 CBECS con- mercial buildings, so
higher education facilities
sumption and expen- data users can create
with the low-GWP refriger-
ditures detailed tables custom tables not avail-
ant R-1233zd (Honeywell
cover overall electricity, able through the pretab-
Solstice® zd).
natural gas, fuel oil and ulated detailed tables.
Trane CenTraVac chill-
district heat consump- They represent commer- Source: MARWAN NAAMANI/AFP
ers are part of the Ingersoll
tion, and disaggregate the cial buildings from all
Rand EcoWise™ portfolio of
same energy sources by 50 states and the District
products designed to lower
end use (heating, cooling, of Columbia.
environmental impact with
next-generation, low-GWP
and development facil- refrigerants and high-effi-
ity, which is scheduled Mohamed Alabbar (center), chair of ciency operation.
Dubai Emaar Properties, displays a
to be operational by the scale model of the new tower that Emaar “We are pleased to
plans to build.
end of 2018. The tower is bring our customers new
designed with a flexible balconies and elevated choices for achieving their

configuration to easily landscaping inspired by building, business, and

adapt to test new compo- the mythical hanging gar- sustainability goals without
nents and systems as they dens of Babylon. compromising safety, per-
evolve. The company has The tower will have obser- formance, or efficiency,”
Rendering of Otis test tower and global
research and development center in provided elevators for vation decks and 18 to 20 said Dave Regnery, presi-
Shanghai, China, scheduled for comple-
tion in 2018. some of the world's most mixed-use floors that will dent of Ingersoll Rand’s
famous high-rise build- house restaurants and a Commercial HVAC busi-
Tallest Elevator ings, such as the world's boutique hotel. ness for North America,
Testing Tower to be tallest building, the Burj Europe, Middle East and
Built in China Khalifa in Dubai. Africa. “We paired our
SHANGHAI, China—Elevator Trane Expands technical and applications
manufacturer Otis plans Chiller Portfolio expertise with new refrig-
to build the world's tall-
Dubai Plans DAVIDSON, N.C.—Trane is erant and service offerings
est elevator testing tower Skyscraper Taller expanding its CenTraVac™ to deliver efficiency and
in Shanghai, China. Than Burj Khalifa centrifugal chiller portfo- reliability that customers
The elevator test tower DUBAI, United Arab Emirates—The lio for large buildings and expect.”
will be 270 m (886 ft) developer of Burj Khalifa, industrial applications “We’re on a journey,”
tall upon completion, the world’s tallest building, in the United States and Regnery said in an inter-
which the company says is planning to build an even Canada, the company said. view after the company
will make it the tallest taller tower in Dubai. Burj In 2017, Trane will offer announcement. The com-
aboveground test tower Khalifa is 828 m (2,700 ft). small-tonnage CenTraVac pany “is pushing the enve-
in the world. The test Mohamed Alabbar, chair- chillers for markets like lope” in providing options
tower will be part of man of Emaar Properties, office and municipal that he said are in high
Otis' new global research said the final height would buildings with a choice of demand with customers.



Advances in 3-D Printing

Prototype 3-D Printed, 150 lb Turbine


Could Replace Machines Weighing Tons


ALBANY, N.Y.—GE Global Research is testing a desk-size
turbine that could potentially provide power to about
10,000 homes. The unit is driven by supercritical carbon
dioxide, which is in a state that at very high pressure
and up to 700°C (13,000°F) exists as neither a liquid nor The one-story, arc-shaped 3-D-printed office building opened last month.
a gas. After the carbon
dioxide passes through
Dubai Opens ‘World’s First Functioning
the turbine, it's cooled and 3-D-Printed Office Building’
then repressurized before DUBAI, United Arab Emirates—What is being touted as the "world's
returning for another pass. Source: GE GLOBAL RESEARCH
first functioning 3-D-printed office building" opened in
The unit’s compact size Dubai. The 2,700 ft2 (251 m2), single-story building was
and ability to turn on and built in only 17 days using a 20 ft (6 m) tall, 120 ft (37 m)
off rapidly could make it long and 40 ft (12 m) wide 3-D printer. The "printing"
useful in grid storage. It’s material was a mix of concrete, fiber-reinforced plastic
about one-tenth the size of GE Global Research engineers have devel- and glass-fiber-reinforced gypsum. The printer only
a steam turbine of compa- oped a small turbine, which runs on super- required one staffer to make sure it was functioning prop-
heated carbon dioxide and could generate
rable output, and has the enough power for 10,000 homes. Shown is erly. The rest of the 18-person construction crew consisted
potential to be 50% efficient a 3-D printed prototype. of installers, electricians and mechanical engineers.
at turning heat into elec- The arc-shaped office, which cost about $140,000,
tricity. Steam-based systems are typically in the mid-40% will be the temporary headquarters of Dubai Future
range; the improvement is achieved because of the better Foundation, the company behind the project. Mohamed
heat-transfer properties and reduced need for compres- Al Gergawi, the United Arab Emirates Minister of Cabinet
sion in a system that uses supercritical carbon dioxide Affairs, says the technique could cut building time by 50%
compared to one that uses steam. The GE prototype is 10 to 70% and labor costs by 50% to 80%. He added that Dubai
MW, but the company hopes to scale it to 33 MW. plans to have 25% of its buildings be 3-D printed by 2030.

Award-Winning Design for 3-D-Printed House Set for Construction

CHATTANOOGA, Tenn.—A U.S. architecture firm has designed According to the design
a house made of 3-D-printed plastic and carbon-fiber team, “The initial design
panels wrapped around glazed walls. The design surfaces of the house
earned WATG's Urban Architecture Studio first prize will be broken down and
in the Freeform Home Design Challenge, which optimized for printing
invited architects, designers, engineers and artists to the 3-D cellular matrix.
propose a 3-D-printed dwelling. These portions will be
Source: WATG

The project—called Curve Appeal—consists of a cur- aggregated together to

vaceous, arching structure made up of panels that form a singular cohesive
create an exterior skin and an interior core. These are structure.” Expanding Rendering of the winning design, Curve
combined to form the roof and large portions of the spray foam and concrete Appeal, in Branch Technology’s contest to
build the world’s first 3-D-printed freeform
façade. Competition organizer Branch Technology, will then be added for house in the Chattanooga, Tenn., area.
a U.S.-based construction company, has developed strength. The design is
a mix of plastic and carbon fiber that can be 3-D for a single-family home between 600 ft2 and 800 ft2
printed into a “self-supporting cellular matrix.” (56 m2 and 74 m2). Construction will begin in 2017.



Wealth, Warm indirect evaporative free goals ahead of schedule.

Climates Driving cooling to lower its electric- Partners in the Challenge
ity consumption. According follow strategies and solu-
Worldwide AC Boom to manufacturer ZTE, it tions recommended by the
WASHINGTON, D.C.—In many is a first for an enterprise program.


countries, air condition- data center in China. ZTE
ing is still a relative rarity. and partner Tencent say PG&E Proposes Pay-
However, as these coun- the data center has a power
tries boom in wealth and usage effectiveness (PUE)
population, more coun-
Ayyoub Momen, Ph.D., Member ASHRAE,
demonstrates the concept by placing trans- rating of only 1.0665.
ducers directly into water, which turns
tries will become similar into steam via ultrasonic vibrations rather According to ZTE, the SAN FRANCISCO—West Coast
to the United States in than heat. majority of China’s data utility Pacific Gas & Electric
their dependence on AC. to create, but much less centers have a PUE rating (PG&E) recently submitted
According to a recent than conventional heat- higher than 2.2, and the plans for a residential pay-
report by the University of ing. “You’re drying it as it’s global average is around 1.7. for-performance program
California, Berkeley, 700 cold,” said lead researcher The facility combines that some observers say
million air conditioners Ayyoub Momen, Ph.D., high-voltage direct cur- has the potential to shape
will be installed by 2030, Member ASHRAE. rent and grid electricity the way energy efficiency is
and 1.6 billion of them by Momen’s invention was for power supply, and monetized and delivered to
2050. inspired by an ultrasonic in-row cooling (instead of market.
In terms of electricity humidifier. “I saw how raised-floor cooling) along In its proposal to the
use and greenhouse gas much cold mist it can gen- with cold-aisle contain- California Public Utilities
emissions, it is the equiva- erate with just a little bit of ment to achieve its low Commission (CPUC), PG&E
lent of adding several new energy, and that rang a bell PUE despite being in a describes a residential
countries to the world. for me,” he said. The pro- subtropical climate. pay-for-performance pilot
That trend is already totype technology is esti- that uses newly available
under way. China now aver- mated to be three to five and standardized energy
ages more than one room times more efficient than a Challenge Results and project data, combined
air conditioner per urban typical dryer, and take only In Energy Use with open-source standard
household. Also, air-condi- half as long to dry a load of Reductions methods, to calculate sav-
tioner sales are now increas- clothes. WASHINGTON, D.C.—Partner com- ings. Therefore, energy
ing in India, Indonesia and panies and municipalities conservation incentives
Brazil by between 10% and involved with the U.S. would be awarded based
15% per year. Department of Energy’s on actual measurements
Source: ZTE CORP.

Better Buildings Challenge from individual meters

have achieved energy cost rather than upfront esti-
Prototype Clothes savings that exceed $1.3 mates or models.
Dryer Uses Sound, Tencent West Lab, a fully mobile contain-
erized data center.
billion, and have avoided
Not Heat 10 million tons of harmful
OAK RIDGE, Tenn.—The U.S. Companies Build carbon emissions, accord- Danfoss Unveils
Department of Energy’s Mobile Modular ing to DOE. Components for Low-
Oak Ridge National Data Center There are now 310 Better GWP Refrigerants
Laboratory has developed SHENZHEN, China—Two Chinese Buildings Challenge part- SAN FRANCISCO— Danfoss
a new type of clothes dryer technology conglomerates ners, representing 34,000 announced its commit-
that uses sound waves to have partnered to create buildings and facilities ment in June to help speed
vibrate clothes dry rather an energy-efficient data and 4.2 billion ft2 (390 the adoption of energy-
than heating them. center that benefits from million m2) of building efficient HVAC&R equip-
Evaporating the water in solar power. space. DOE says that 35 ment by providing a com-
clothes is energy-intensive The mobile container- partners have achieved prehensive portfolio of
and expensive. The vibra- ized data center known as their 2016 Challenge components for low-GWP
tions still require energy the Tencent West Lab uses energy or water savings (global warming potential)



refrigerants. Seventh Clean Energy federal government, manu- alternatives,” said EPA
This includes deploying Ministerial (CEM7) facturers, non-government Administrator Gina
ejector technology, which and inaugural Mission organizations, universities McCarthy. Under the pro-
the company said can Innovation (MI) Ministerial and the media attended. posal, propane and HFO-
improve the efficiency of in San Francisco. The AC 1234yf are listed as accept-
CO2 systems by as much Campaign challenges gov- EPA Proposes able “in specific end uses
as 20% over traditional ernments and industry to Restrictions on in the refrigeration and
refrigerants in warm develop and deploy at scale air-conditioning sector.”
climates. super-efficient, smart,
HFCs Alternatives Also, flammable hydro-
They also announced climate-friendly, and WASHINGTON, D.C.—The U.S. carbon (HC) refrigerants
investing in a new affordable cooling technol- Environmental Protection and HC blends are listed
Application Development ogies critical for prosper- Agency (EPA) recently pro- as unacceptable “for retro-
Center in Tallahassee, Fla., ous and healthy societies, posed additional reduc- fitting existing residential
to help equipment manu- furthering the goals of the tions in the use of hydro- central air-conditioning
facturers redesign tradi- Montreal Protocol. fluorocarbons (HFCs). equipment that was
tional systems for energy The commitment came The “new proposal would designed for nonflam-
efficiency and low-GWP shortly after Danfoss held reduce the use and emis- mable refrigerants.” In
refrigerants. its 26th EnVisioneering sions of some of the most addition, propylene and
The commitment was Symposium, “Tomorrow’s harmful HFCs, which are the HC blend R-443A are
made as part of the White Buildings: New Driving thousands of times more listed as unacceptable “in
House’s Advanced Cooling Forces,” featuring over 40 potent than carbon diox- specific end uses in the
(AC) Campaign, and was participants in Washington. ide, and approves safer, refrigeration and air-con-
announced during the Representatives from the more climate-friendly ditioning sector.”


This article was published in ASHRAE Journal, July 2016. Copyright 2016 ASHRAE. Posted at This article may not be copied and/or distributed
electronically or in paper form without permission of ASHRAE. For more information about ASHRAE Journal, visit

zone types increases the first cost The CBECS data summarized
even further. These system additions in Figure 3 of our article indicate
could make the elimination of BAS that VAV, chilled water, and energy
very difficult since it coordinates management/control systems do
the interaction of the terminal and not economize compared to unitary
DOASs. equipment. Providing ventilation
The VAV system has the ability to via the VAV system may not require
ventilate and economize without additional equipment, but the nec-
additional equipment. Additionally, essary controls to minimize overven-
fan coil and VAV systems allow tilation, over cooling, and reheat in
downsizing of central equipment noncritical zones are elaborate and
due to diversity, yet in this example, expensive.
those systems have higher installed Maintaining or retrocommission-
capacity. Finally, VAV systems com- ing these controls go well beyond the
monly have cooling-only or reheat capability of the maintenance staff
boxes in the core, and fan-powered of most resource-limited building
Simple Approach to boxes only on the perimeter. Again,
the article does not take advantage
owners such as K – 12 schools. Thus,
they will be required to maintain
Affordable GSHPs of this practice. service contracts they can ill afford.
The April article, “A Simple Brian Fiegen, Member ASHRAE, La Crosse, Wis. Until a substantial sample of inde-
Approach to Affordable GSHPs,” pendently measured field data
provides some valuable insight on The Authors Respond suggest ventilation via VAV systems
the installed cost of a GSHP system Thank you for taking the time does improve ventilation, economy
vs. a four-pipe fan coil system vs. a to read the article and provide and cost effectiveness, DOAS is a fair
four-pipe VAV system. The high cost feedback. common denominator for system
of separate heating and cooling pip- In response to your comment “The comparisons.
Steve Kavanaugh, Ph.D., Fellow ASHRAE, Northport, Ala.;
ing networks as well as a central BAS VAV system has the ability to venti- Chris Gray, Ph.D., P.E., Member ASHRAE, Columbus, Ga.
system is eye opening. late and economize without addi-
The cost comparison did not tional equipment,” a reference is New Method for
include a BAS or energy recovery provided from Presidential Member
ventilators (ERV) in the GSHP sys- Bill Coad’s June 1996 ASHRAE Journal Testing Air Filters
tem. Removing the BAS makes some article, “Indoor Air Quality: A Design Notwithstanding the authors’ pro-
sense because addressing a simple Parameter.” motion of the standard in May’s “Air
GSHP system was the article’s point. His solution for supplying venti- Filter Performance: New Method for
Many dedicated outdoor air lation air was: (1) An environmen- Testing,” I do not believe the stan-
systems (DOAS) are required by tal comfort system to condition dard is ready for prime time. It has
Standard 90.1 to include energy the space and (2) a ventilation air several substantial shortcomings:
recovery, so not including the ERV is distribution system (aka, DOAS). 1. Without references or detailed
more problematic for both the GSHP The attempt to provide ventilation discussions, I find it too simplistic
and fan coil systems. An ERV and/or air via space condition systems cre- an assumption for the standard to
DOAS is a significant first-cost item ates (to quote Mr. Coad) “A Hydra rely on just two empirical atmo-
and requires significant control Phenomenon… one tends to solve spheric size distributions. Besides,
elements to properly coordinate a problem by adding a fix, which the typical atmospheric aerosol is
its operation with a terminal unit in turn causes additional prob- trimodal, not bimodal. Combustion
system. lems; then a fix for each of those aerosol is usually prevalent in a
Demand-control ventilation com- is added, and now there are four nuclei mode far smaller in size than
monly required by code for some problems.” that attributed in the paper.

10 A S H R A E J O U R N A L   a s h r a e . o r g   J U LY 2 0 1 6

2. It is more than a stretch to sug- The Authors Respond impactors or cyclones that removed
gest that the optical particle counter Dr. Vijayakumar’s concerns about essentially all particles above speci-
(OPC) measurements in the stan- our article result from his attention fied particle sizes from the sampled
dard can be equated to statutory PM. to its details. Our intent in writ- air. The only relation between ISO
The two measurement techniques ing the article was to introduce this 16890 and those measurements is
are so different that equivalents, if complex ISO test standard to readers that both involve aerosol mass, and
any, are unique to each aerosol mea- of ASHRAE Journal, who might very the ePMx calculations use the same
sured, and will depend on the prop- reasonably take issue with the meth- upper size limits.
erties of the aerosol. Without more odology incorporated in it. Incidentally, many current gov-
extensive discussions, the authors’ ernmental PM sites now use opti-
recommendations for using the cal particle counters to simulate
PM filter classification data for IAQ gravimetric measurements. Why
purposes seem more wishful than should the OPC-simulation used in
scientific. the ISO standard be “more than a
3. Despite the claims of the authors stretch”?
to the contrary, the test methodology In addition, we did not suggest
is the same as in current standards. that ePMx classification numbers—
The ISO only reconciles the two aero- ratings—can be used to calculate
sols in current methods by using one IAQ. The complete size-efficiency
or the other for different particle size curve from ISO 16890 must be com-
ranges. Further, in doing so, the ISO bined with simulated local ambient
has not followed best practices. aerosol distributions to estimate
Usually, when two different mea- filter impact on IAQ. The article sug-
surement schemes are used, best gests that such calculations “offer
practice requires that the meth- possibilities.”
ods overlap over part of the range 3. One could develop algorithms
of the independent variable, and 1. Laboratory tests cannot dupli- permitting overlap of DEHS and
that the results be normalized for cate the performance of a filtration KCl efficiency data in ePMx calcu-
the differences between the two device in every location or applica- lations. The combination would
methods, if any, in the overlapping tion. Hence, test standards create involve arbitrary apportionment
portion of the range. Hence the repeatable procedures, which only of the contribution to mass from
data shown in Figure 3 is really dis- approximate real ambient aero- each aerosol, just as is done in ISO
continuous and not continuous as sols. Some ambient distributions 16890.
Richard Rivers, Fellow ASHRAE, Louisville, Ky., and
presented. [Editor’s Note: The y-axis have two significant modes, some Paolo Tronville, Member ASHRAE, Turin, Italy
of Figure 3 should have been labeled three, some more. The choice of two
“Efficiency, Percent.” The editing modes in ISO 16890 was based on
error is corrected in the online ver- respected field studies (Seinfeld and
sion of the article.] Pandis. 2006. Atmospheric Chemistry ASHRAE Journal welcomes
For reasons noted, in my opinion, and Physics: From Pollution to Climate letters to the editor. The let-
the standard is not ready for univer- Change.” Hoboken:Wiley) and the ters should be no more than
sal acceptance. Further, I strongly fact that ambient aerosol mass below 250 words and must relate
believe it is in our Society’s best 0.3 μm is very small. to an article published in
interests to develop the next-gen- 2. We do not think we implied that ASHRAE Journal.
eration test methods, and present it “measurements in the standard can Please send your letters to
to ISO for consideration as the basis be equated to statutory PM.” PM10
for their next revision of ISO 16890. and PM2.5 data were originally gravi-
R. Vijayakumar, Ph.D., Member ASHRAE, Liverpool, N.Y. metric, using samplers with inlet



AMCA Annual Meeting, Oct. 18 – 23, Washington,

2016 D.C. Contact the Air Movement and Control Asso- CALLS FOR PAPERS
JULY ciation at 847-394-0150, communications@amca. ASHRAE JOURNAL
2016 Purdue Compressor/Refrigeration and org, or
ASHRAE Journal seeks applications arti-
Air Conditioning and High Performance Build-
ings Conferences and Short Courses, July 11 – 14, NOVEMBER cles of 3,000 or fewer words. Submissions
West Lafayette, Ind. Endorsed by ASHRAE. Con- AHRI Annual Meeting, Nov. 13 – 15, Scottsdale, are subject to peer reviews and cannot
tact Kim Stockment at 765-494-6078, kstockme@ Ariz. Contact 703-524-8800,, or have been published previously. Submit, or abstracts before sending articles to Jay
HerrickConf. Scott, Editor, at
AUGUST HARDI Annual Conference, Dec. 3 – 6, Colorado SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
ASHRAE and IBPSA-USA SimBuild 2016: Building Springs, Colo. Contact the Heating, Air-condition- FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT
Performance Modeling Conference, Aug. 10 – 12, ing & Refrigeration Distributors International at ASHRAE’s Science and Technology for the Built
2016, Salt Lake City. Contact ASHRAE at 800-527- 617-345-4328,, or www.
Environment seeks papers on original, com-
4723,, or
pleted research not previously published.
simbuild2016. Buildings XIII—Thermal Performance of the Ex- Papers must discuss how the research con-
ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in terior Envelope of Whole Buildings Conference,
Dec. 4 – 8, Clearwater Beach. Fla. Endorsed by tributes to technology. Papers should be
Buildings, Aug. 21 – 26, Pacific Grove, Calif. Con-
tact the American Council for an Energy Efficient ASHRAE. Contact Andre Desjarlais, conference di- about 6,000 words. Abstracts and papers
Economy at 202-507-4000 or rector, at 865-574-0022,, or should be submitted on Manuscript Cen-
conferences/2016/ssb. tral at
HRAI Annual Meeting & Conference, Aug. 24 – 26, Contact Reinhard Radermacher, Ph.D.,
Calgary, AB, Canada. Contact the Heating, Refrig- 2017 Editor, at
eration and Air Conditioning Institute of Canada at ASHRAE CONFERENCE PAPERS
905-602-4700,, or
Building Innovation 2017, Jan. 9 – 13, Washing- For the 2017 Annual Conference in Long
ton, D.C. Contact the National Institute of Buildings Beach, Conference Paper abstracts, full
(NIBS) at 202-289-7800,, or www.
SEPTEMBER Technical Papers and paper session re-
ASHRAE IEQ 2016 Conference — Defining Indoor quests are due September 6, 2016. For
Air Quality: Policy, Standards and Best Practic- ASHRAE Winter Conference, Jan. 28 – Feb. 1,
more information, contact 678-539-1137
es, Sept. 12 – 14, Alexandria, Va. Contact ASHRAE Las Vegas. Contact ASHRAE at 800-527-4723 or
at 800-527-4723,, or www. or International Air-Conditioning, Heating, Re-
IEA EBC Annex 61 Deep Energy Retrofit Forum, frigerating Exposition (AHR Expo), Jan. 30 – Feb. Contact ASHRAE at 800-527-4723, meetings@
Sept. 15 – 16, Washington, D.C. Sponsored by 1, Las Vegas. Contact the International Exposition, or
ASHRAE. Contact the International Energy Agen- Company at 203-221-9232 or ISCCBRAZIL2016, Sept. 20 – 23, São Paulo, Bra-
cy in Buildings and Communities at http:// IAQA 20th Annual Meeting, Jan, 30 – Feb 1, Las zil. Contact the Contamination Control Brazil- Vegas. Contact the Indoor Air Quality Association ian Society at 55 11 2645-9105, fax 55 11 2645-9205,
AHR Expo-Mexico, Sept. 20 – 22, Monter- at 844-802-4103,, or, or www.isccbrazil2016.
rey, Mexico. Endorsed by ASHRAE. Con- iaqa2017. com.
tact the International Exposition Company at
203-221-9232,, or OCTOBER
OUTSIDE NORTH AMERICA FILTECH 2016, Oct. 11 – 13, Cologne, Germany.
(From July 2016 Forward) Contact 49 (0)2132 935760 or
I2SL Annual Conference, Sept. 25 – 28, Kansas City,
Mo. Contact the International Institute for Sustain- Indoor Air 2016, July 3 – 8, Ghent, Belgium. En- CTBUH 2016, Oct. 16 – 21, Shenzhen, Guangzhou,
able Laboratories at 703-841-5484,, or dorsed by ASHRAE. Contact organizers at IA2016@ and Hong Kong, China. Contact the Council on Tall or Buildings and Urban Habitat at 86-21-23123582,, or www.ctbuh2016.
EEBA Excellence in Building Conference & Expo, AUGUST com.
Sept. 27 – 29, Dallas. Contact the Energy & Environ- Gustav Lorentzen Natural Working Fluids Con-
mental Building Alliance at 952-881-1098 or www. ference, Aug. 21 – 24, Edinburgh, Scotland. Contact SAIE 2016, Oct. 19 – 22, Bologna, Italy. Contact 39 the Institute of Refrigeration at 44 (0)20 86477033 051 282111,, or http://tinyurl.
or com/SAIE2016.
OCTOBER IAQVEC 2016, Oct. 23 – 26, Seoul. Endorsed by
Greenbuild International Confer- SEPTEMBER ASHRAE. Contact organizers at info@iaqvec2016.
ence & Expo, Oct. 5 – 7, Los Angeles. Con- 2016 JSRAE Annual Conference, Sept. 6 – 9. Kobe, org or
tact the U.S. Green Building Council at 866- Japan. Endorsed by ASHRAE. Contact the Japan So-
815-9824,, or ciety of Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engi- NOVEMBER neers at or Valve World Expo, Nov. 29 – Dec. 1, Düsseldorf,
IFMA World Workplace, Oct. 5 – 7, San Diego. Con- hyzc9vb. Germany. Contact 49 (0)211 / 4560-7601 or www.
tact the International Facility Management Associa- Mostra Convegno Expocomfort Asia, Sept. 7 – 9,
tion at 713-623-4362,, or http:// Singapore. Contact Reed Exhibitions Singapore at 65 6780 4658,, or 2017
SMACNA Annual Convention, Oct. 16 – 19, Phoe- FEBRUARY
nix. Contact the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning 2nd International Conference on Efficient ACREX 2017, Feb. 23 – 25. Delhi, India. Con-
Contractors’ National Association at 703-803-2980, Building Design — Materials and HVAC Equip- tact organizers at 91 11 47168831, mansi.chawla@, or ment Technologies, Sept. 22 – 23, Beirut, Lebanon., or

Olympic Park: Cariocas Arenas 1, 2, and 3

Commissioning and
Design for 2016 Olympics

Beginning in 1994, the International Olympic Committee began to require environ-

mental awareness as part of all Olympic Games. Over the years, the emphasis on
sustainability grew, and the Rio 2016 Olympic Games in August is the latest example of
the benefits gained by using these strategies. ASHRAE members and student members
are a part of this high-profile project, as they provided commissioning and HVAC&R
design services, especially at the Olympic Park. This venue is where most events will
occur in Barra da Tijuca, located 21 miles (34 km) south of Copacabana beach.
The major buildings designed and commissioned Sustainability
at the Olympic Park (above) are: Arena 1 (basketball Several areas of sustainable and environmen-
and wheelchair sporting events); Arena 2 (judo and tally aware transportation practices were used,
taekwondo); Arena 3 (Greco-Roman wrestling); the including:
Velodrome (cycling); the Handball Arena; the Central • Restoration of 80 ft (25 m) wide strips of adjoining
Hotel and the International Broadcast Center (on-site area limits of the lagoon surrounding the Olympic Park,
media coverage). The commissioning concepts and prin- with the replanting of 25,000 mangroves grown on the
ciples used in this project are contained in the ASHRAE premises (facing page, top), among thousands of other
2014 report “Strategic Guide to Commissioning” and species of coastal vegetation;
ASHRAE/IES Standard 202-2013, Commissioning Process for • Installation of filtration stations at the runoff output
Buildings and Systems. Sustainability practices follow the locations into the surrounding site lagoon (facing page
LEED v3 guidelines, and its energy-efficiency strategies bottom);
are based on ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2007, which • Rainwater collection and reuse on site in selected
was translated into Portuguese by the ASHRAE Brazil areas;
Chapter. • Plumbing reduced water use fixtures;

Ross Montgomery, P.E., is president of QST Commissioning, Inc., in Parrish, Fla. Walter R. Lenzi is president of W&R Lenzi, Ltda, in Sao Paulo, Brazil.



• Solar water heating for domestic hot

water backed up with gas water heaters;
• Solar tubes installed in roof membranes
to absorb heat from envelope;
• Enhanced daylighting design;
• Lighting control using daylighting, mo-
tion detectors and light sensors/dimmers in
select areas;
• Semi-pervious pavement areas for
walking and parking areas to allow natural
• Seventy-two percent of the waste gener-
ated at the job site was sent for recycling and
• One hundred percent of soil residues
and/or construction waste was used for construction
embankment at other locations and diverted from waste
Mangrove planting strips (top) and sustainable filtration of runoff from the site into the
landfill sites; and lagoon (bottom). PHOTO BY CONCESSIONÁRIA RIO MAIS / DHANI BORGES
• A direct line of uninterruptable “limited stops”
public transportation has been installed, called Bus Reporting on so many aspects of the building com-
Rapid Transportation (BRT) to get from the international missioning parts, all at one time, rigorously exercises
airport to the Olympic Park. the process of issue identification and resolution in the
commissioning authorities’ toolkit and is a good mea-
Total Building Commissioning sure of the qualitative process that the ASHRAE standard
The commissioning process is defined in Standard can provide to a project. There were weekly coordina-
202-2013 as a “quality-focused process for enhancing the tion meetings at the site, and commissioning played
delivery of a project. The process focuses upon verifying an important role in coordinating efforts, helping the
and documenting that all of the commissioned systems contractor achieve milestone completion goals and
and assemblies are planned, designed, installed, tested, objectives.
operated, and maintained to meet the Owner’s Project Commissioning facilitates that the installations are
Requirements (OPR).” complete by observations, generation of issues and reso-
In terms of building performance, the commissioning lutions, and checklists. Then, functional performance
process helps owner and project teams achieve quality testing confirms that equipment and systems are work-
performance in buildings. As an added benefit during ing properly.
post-occupancy, ongoing commissioning can also con- Some notable total commissioning issues found and
tribute to sustaining optimal performance over time, resolved were:
delivering energy efficiency and operational savings. • Civil construction such as floors, doors, walls,
This project uses the owner’s prescribed methodology, fenestrations, etc., initially installed differently from the
as well as Standard 202, which outlines and describes plans; record drawings were then updated;
the steps and levels of requirements needed to meet the • Poor civil finishing qualities in the areas of the stu-
owner’s goals and objectives. Standard 202-2013 was dios and bathrooms;
specifically created to be a process standard so it can be • Damage to walls and doors from other trades’ work;
used in a multi-disciplinary approach such as for this • Protective coatings on metallic columns misapplied;
project. This is a good example of how well ASHRAE’s • Power supplies not working and low voltage wiring
Commissioning Process Management Professional problems;
(CPMP) certification ties together a multidisciplinary • Concrete water tank leaking;
commissioning approach. • Hydraulic problems and a water leak detected in the



Electrical Panels


FIGURE 1 Design diagram; chillers and pumps for arenas.

main water distribution system;

• Drywall mold detected; and Commissioning Within the Olympic Park
• Coordination and collabo-
ration between civil, electrical, HVAC and refrigeration Audio/video
plumbing, and HVAC subcon- Electrical and lighting Lighting control
tractors. IT and communication Systems Doors
In addition to conforming to
Telecommunication Walls
the minimum levels of Standard
202-2013, the commission- Plumbing Windows
ing firm provided enhanced HVAC controls, automation, and BAS Envelope
required monthly reporting Security and access Drainage
and updates to the commission- Fire alarm Elevators
ing plan, the Owner’s Project
Security Stairways
Requirements (OPR), Basis of Commissioning checklist reports (top) and
Design (BOD), submittal review, CCTV Floors electrical cabling test devices (bottom).
scheduling review, checklists,
functional performance testing,
O&M record document review, training document The ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals states that
review, and preparation of the final commissioning the design conditions for Rio de Janeiro at 1% design
report. temperatures are a dry-bulb temperature of 91.1°F
(32.8°C), dew-point temperature of 76.9°F (24.9°C),
HVAC&R Design and 4,135 cooling degree days (65°F) (2,297 cooling
The HVAC&R design of the major buildings are degree days relative to °C). Brazil prohibits smoking
based on chilled water systems with air-cooled inside buildings, so these buildings are designed to be
chillers and primary pumping (Figure 1) to large air- environmental tobacco smoking-free. Brazilian stan-
handling units with modulating mixed-air plenum dards for HVAC and health are used for the basis of
box damper-operated ventilation. The information design standards, namely Brasil Technical Standards
technologies (IT) rooms are conditioned and pro- Association NBR-16401, Central and Individual Air
tected using stand-alone variable refrigerant flow Conditioning Systems Installations. The project used LEED
(VRF) systems. Each building stands alone with its v3 target objectives in its design.
own chilled-water HVAC&R and control system. In general, the largest variable cooling load is the
Equipment used on this project was all manufac- people load, with the exception of the International
tured in Brazil. Broadcast Center (Page 18, bottom left photo) which





Top Left and Right: 3-D image of Olympic Park site; Bottom Left: International Broadcast Center; Bottom Right: Arena during commissioning.

is discussed more later. The ventilation airflow rates demand-control ventilation (DCV) system to regulate
being supplied are calculated as described herein to its variable airflows during low contaminant load (CO2)
deliver the required fresh air to meet or exceed Brazilian conditions. The control system uses 1,000 ppm CO2 as its
requirements. DCV setpoint.
The design cooling tons for Arena 1 is 1,800 tons In the Central Hotel, outdoor air ventilation rates of
(6330 kW) (including 425 tons [1494 kW] of VRF units 16 cfm per person (12.74 L/s) for the guest rooms were
for the stand-alone IT rooms); Arena 2 is 825 tons adopted, which exceeds the requirements of NBR 16.401,
(2900 kW); Arena 3 is 825 tons (2900 kW); Velodrome with other convention and reception areas at the pre-
is 825 tons (2900 kW); the Handball Arena is 1,100 tons scribed 16 cfm per person (7.55 L/s). Bathroom areas
(3867 kW); Central Hotel is 700 tons (2460 kW); and the were ventilated with 15 air changes per hour and corri-
International Broadcast Center is 7,140 tons (25 101 kW). dors at two air changes per hour (Table 1).
Outdoor air ventilation rates for the sports arenas were In Arenas 1, 2, and 3, Handball Arena, and the
adopted at 10 cfm per person (4.72 L/s) (using guidance Velodrome, effective supply air distribution is delivered
from the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency ANVISA). from high-velocity grilles located high in the arena’s walk-
By comparison, using ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010, Table way ramps, returning to grilles located lower in the arena.
6-1, for Arenas 1, 2, and 3, respectively, approximately 12 Arena 1’s total airflow is 587,640 cfm (277 366 L/s), and its
cfm per person (5.66 L/s) of ventilation was calculated to outdoor airflow is 185,103 cfm (87 368 L/s) with a maxi-
be required. Consideration was given to high spectator mum estimated people load of 16,000 persons. Arena 2’s
turnover rates, continuous movement of people in their total airflow is 340,959 cfm (160 932 L/s), and its outdoor
seats to get food and drink and go to the restroom, emo- airflow is 104,411 cfm (49 281 L/s), with a maximum
tional outbursts, etc. (Page 18, bottom right photo). estimated people load of 10,000 persons. Arena 3’s total
The ventilation rate calculation allows for posi- airflow is 343,480 cfm (162 122 L/s), and its outside airflow
tive pressurization of the building and also uses a is 105,385 cfm (49 741 L/s), with a maximum estimated



people load of 10,000 persons.

TABLE 1 Design data summary.
The Velodrome’s total airflow
is 181,328 cfm (85 586 L/s), and MAXIMUM TONS/KW TOTAL OUTSIDE
its outdoor airflow is 62,752 cfm
(29 618 L/s), with a maximum esti- Arena 1 Judo/Taekwondo 16,000 1,800 587,640 185,103
mated people load of 5,000 persons. Arena 2 Chair Events 10,000 825 340,959 104,411
The Handball Arena total airflow is Greco-Roman
336,895 cfm (159 014 L/s) and its out- Arena 3 Wrestling 10,000 825 343,480 105,385
door airflow is 127,301 (60 086 L/s), Velodrome Cycling 5,000 825 181,328 62,752
Handball Arena Handball 12,000 1,100 336,895 127,301
with a maximum estimated people
Central Hotel Hotel Variable 700 127,107 39,352
load of 12,000 persons.
At the Central Hotel, which Broadcast Center Media 10,000 7,140 2,782,192 205,927
includes the convention center,
reception, common areas, and social areas, total air-
flow is 127,107 cfm (59 994 L/s), and its outdoor airflow
including allowance for guest rooms is 39,352 cfm (18
574 L/s).
In the International Broadcast Center (IBC), the air
distribution is primarily delivered from traditional
overhead high ceiling grilles. The IBC total airflow is
2,782,192 cfm (1,313,194 L/s), and its outdoor airflow is
205,927 cfm (97 197 L/s), with a maximum estimated
people load of 10,080 persons. The major loads are
lighting and equipment produced by the television and
broadcast studios within. The lighting load is 7.5 W/ft2
(80 W/m2), and the equipment load is 20.5 W/ft2
(220 W/m2). As imagined, these massive loads can ramp ASHRAE 2015 – 2016 President David Underwood meets with Brazilian ABNT
Government National Standards Institute to “Make Connections.”
up quickly, so the AC and control system must react
equally as fast. There is also a humidity control routine
enabled for the IBC system. ensure the Olympic Park project buildings in Brazil were
In addition to a complete HVAC&R control and delivered at the highest possible quality. ASHRAE design
building automation system, there is an integrated principles are incorporated into many Brazilian standards
single-vendor access and security, closed-circuit tele- due to ongoing efforts and collaboration of local ASHRAE
vision (CCTV), fire alarm, audio/video, and lighting chapters, regional representatives or “ambassadors,” and
control system that exists on the campus wide area ASHRAE presidents working with government entities.
network (WAN). Total building commissioning exemplifies the due
diligence by performing the site observations, functional
Refrigerants performance tests, and documentation to measure
The refrigerants used in the HVAC&R equipment onsite and verify that the outstanding design and profes-
for Arenas 1, 2, and 3, the Velodrome, and the IBC is sional installation of this project scope was provided to
R-410A; the Central Hotel and the Handball Arena uses meet the Basis of Design (BOD) and the Owner’s Project
R-134a. Refrigerant management, containment, safety, Requirements (OPR).
and conservation is a top priority for this project design.
Summary The authors would like to thank design engineer
ASHRAE members with help from student members Danilo Werneck and students Arthur Lorenzon and Yuri
were privileged to provide their expertise and skills to Barbosa for their work on this project.


2016 ASHRAE TECHNOLOGY AWARD CASE STUDIES This Walgreens is designed to
achieve net zero energy use by the
NREL’s most stringent definition:
“renewable energy generated
within the building footprint.” The
owner’s vision is to create a store
in which products, materials, sys-
tems, and equipment can be tested
for incorporation into prototype
designs and retrofits in existing


Net Zero Energy

For Pharmacy

In support of its Corporate Social Responsibility efforts,
Walgreens Net Walgreens, the largest pharmaceutical retail chain in the
Zero Store U.S., was determined to be the first to build and oper-
ate a net zero energy retail pharmacy store. Its reasons
Location: Evanston, Ill.
to pursue this goal were more than solely promotional
value. Walgreens wanted to learn from the store design
Owner: Walgreen Co.
and provide data and guidance to the architecture,
Principal Use: Retail pharmacy
engineering and retail communities. The project’s
Includes: Pharmacy, beauty, grocery
design and operation are chronicled on the Walgreens
Employees/Occupants: 15 Employees/
30 Customers Peak
Net Zero Community Facebook page (
Gross Square Footage: 14,500

Conditioned Space Square Footage: 14,500

Substantial Completion/Occupancy: Nov. 2013

Occupancy: 100%
National Distinctions/Awards: EPA Green Chill
Platinum, LEED Platinum; Green
Globes Jason Robbins, P.E., is an engineer for Walgreen Co. in Deerfield, Ill. Benjamin Skelton, P.E., is president of Cyclone
Energy Group, Chicago. Steve Sovak is an executive vice president for WMA Consulting Engineers, Ltd. in Chicago. Rob
Olden, P.E., is a principal for Element Engineering in Chicago.



ABOVE High-efficiency glass and integrated

daylighting control were two of the features

used to reduce energy.

LEFT Standard store layout, but with a much
higher ceiling. The store features LED lighting
and operable windows between roof tiers.

Since Walgreens has an broad national presence, Designing for Net Zero Energy
with nearly two-thirds of the U.S. population living Designing net zero energy buildings requires planning
within three miles (4.8 km) of a retail store, it was and evaluation. With only a three months to design the
able to consider many sites around the country for building, time was limited for detailed planning and
the net zero store, but ultimately chose Evanston, evaluation. Therefore, Walgreens chose an integrated
Ill. The site is ten miles (16.1 km) from downtown project delivery approach with the owner, architects,
Chicago, a region not known for net zero buildings. engineers, energy consultants, commissioning agents,
This is largely because the region has the extreme and contractors all participating from the first day.
ambient conditions of a summer design tempera- Often, when designing net zero buildings, designers
ture of 91°F DB/74°F WB (33°C DB/23°C WB) and a will first optimize passive opportunities and hyper-
winter design temperature of –2°F (–19°C). It was insulate the building to reduce loads as much as possible
also advantageous that the Evanston location is before applying renewable energy. The net zero store
only 15 miles (24 km) from the Walgreens corpo- had to take a different approach due to the limitations of
rate headquarters in Deerfield, Ill. This appealed the location, building size and store layout.
to Walgreens’ engineers and to its corporate leader- Walgreens has a portfolio-level agreement for solar
ship, who could easily access the site during con- panel installations with a provider that set the bar for
struction and operation. how to design the net zero energy store. The building
Adding to the project’s complexity, the design and orientation was fixed at nine degrees off the north-south
construction teams were given only 18 months to axis due to the site layout. This presented a challenge
deliver the never-before-done project. From the in maximizing the solar energy. The project architects
project’s inception, the executives, architects and designed a tiered roof that was rotated to a true north-
engineers of Walgreens instructed the design team south orientation to maximize solar exposure. The rota-
to be highly creative and to push the boundaries of tion provided a cantilevered roof over the all-glass west
design. façade, providing much-needed solar shading.
There were also operational limitations. The store
layout, size, and location had to remain within Renewable Energy
Walgreens’ standard prototype store design. It was Photovoltaic panels were mounted directly to the
also necessary to keep this store’s operational proce- standing seam roof. The low angle of the roof, 3° versus
dures as similar as possible to that of a typical store, the preferred 7.5°, reduced the solar collection effi-
so any technology that proved successful in the net ciency, but provided a clean look and more surface area
zero store could be replicated in future projects or for the panels. A total of 840 panels were installed with a
retrofitted into some of Walgreens’ existing 8,200 connected capacity of 250 kW. The array collects approx-
stores in the U.S. Simply, the net zero store was built imately 256,000 kWh of solar energy per year. The pro-
to be an innovation and technology research project totypical store footprint did not provide enough room
for the brand and the retail design community at for electrical inverter equipment and batteries to sup-
large. port photovoltaic production. To minimize equipment



inside the building and to ensure occupant safety, the

decision was made for renewable energy to be stored on
the grid versus using a battery system. Micro-inverters
on the photovoltaic panels eliminated the need for a
large electrical room. The micro-inverter design also
gave Walgreens real-time visibility of each panel’s effi-
ciency, helping with maintenance and reducing the risk
of compromising solar generation common with central
inverter systems with panels wired in series. Using a
standing seam roofing system, panels directly clipped to
the roof, allowed for ease of installation and removal as
well as future maintenance.
During design, special consideration was given to the
panel design to allow firefighters access on the roof
in the event of a fire. At first review, the fire inspector


requested walk aisles on the roof, which would have
eliminated so many panels that it would have deci-
mated the project goal of net zero. The design team
was able to work with the fire department to provide The store has a tier roof with cantilevers that give solar photovoltaics a true
an emergency electrical shutoff for safe means of roof north-south orientation. Two vertical wind turbines in the parking lot proved to be
beneficial for aesthetics, but were never factored into the net zero equation.
Two 2.5 kW vertical wind turbines were installed in
the parking lot. The turbines were never factored into less than R-1, adding load to the building and increasing
the net zero equation. Walgreens’ goal was to achieve the engineering challenge.
net zero energy using only building-attached renew- A revolving door was added to the project during con-
able energy. The wind turbines proved to be beneficial struction, replacing the designed air lock. The revolving
for aesthetics, but did not provide any useful renewable door was thought to be an energy-saving measure, but
energy. turned out not to perform as well as intended. The door
had a thermal performance of R-1 and was leaky. It also
Enclosure System Design acts as a barrier to entry. If retail stores could get away
Because of the target solar production of without having a door, they would do it. Many custom-
256,000 kWh/year of renewable energy from solar ers use the side Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
photovoltaic panels, the design team had a lofty goal door rather than the revolving door. The ADA door was
to shoot for. The average Chicago-area store consumes not installed with an air lock, and the nonheated air
approximately 425,000 kWh/year. Therefore, for the curtain above does little to prevent a rush of air into the
store to achieve net zero energy performance, it needed building.
to be designed to perform more than 60% better than
the prototype. Dimmable LED Lighting
To reach the goal, the roof and walls were designed to Lighting was identified as the largest energy end use
achieve R-30 and R-20, respectively. A prototype store in the store, approximately 30% of total consumption.
normally has very little glass, often ideal for a net zero The net zero store was designed with an all-LED light-
design. However, the net zero store was designed with a ing package to minimize load and energy consump-
pitched roof to allow for solar panels, which resulted in a tion. The aisles were designed with 8 ft (2.4 m) linear
roof peak more than twice the height of a standard store. dimmable LEDs. The design connected lighting power
So, the designers incorporated a large curtainwall façade density was 0.89 W/ft2 (9.6 W/m2) compared to the
on the west orientation (street view) for aesthetics. The ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 value for retail occupancies
curtainwall took a normally R-20 wall and turned it into of 1.4 W/ft2 (15.1 W/m2). The lighting package worked


so well that new stores are being designed with similar

With no east-facing fenestration, the design team was
concerned that lighting energy was not being mini-
mized, as it was a significant distance from the west glass
perimeter. South-facing clerestory glass between the
roof tiers helped introduce some light, but a daylight-
ing simulation concluded that dimming was not being


reduced as low as in the perimeter lighting zones.
Exterior lightshelves were designed to reflect light
deeper into the space and also minimize glare in the
occupied zones. However, exterior lightshelves were View from the mechanical mezzanine. The transcritical CO2 heat pump was
thought to be a future maintenance issue and detracted displayed to the store through glass and all piping was jacketed and color coded
from the aesthetic of the building. Late in the design for educational tours.
stage, the lightshelves were replaced with a light-redi-
recting film on the western high glass that helped intro-
duce daylight into the building. water and air. Most commercial HVAC applications have
The film redirects up to 80% of daylight upward into used refrigerants such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs),
the space. The film helped reduce glare, load, and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), and synthetic
proved to be successful at introducing daylight to the hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). These refrigerants have
interior lighting zones. Additionally, the lower 14 ft ozone depletion and high global warming potentials,
(4.2 m) of glass had automated shades that followed an while natural refrigerants do not.
astronomical clock with sensors that raised the shades A Walgreens store is a scaled-down grocery store with
when there was cloud cover. large refrigerated cooler and freezer cabinets. The
During commissioning, the dimming system was Deerfield net zero store has nearly 50 linear ft (15.2 m)
set up and the upper limit lighting level was further of refrigerated cases. While lights and other equipment
reduced to a maximum output of 0.65 W/ft2 (7 W/m2). loads can be turned off at night, refrigeration must be
The selected LED fixtures provided the same light available all hours or product can spoil. Refrigeration
output between 90% to 100% power, which allowed an comprises approximately 25% of the total annual energy
instant reduction of 10% of power output with no visual consumption for a store, and is the second-largest
impact. energy use. When reviewing design options, what to do
The design team also identified unnecessary plug with the waste heat from the refrigeration cabinets was
loads and attempted to eliminate as many as possible. a big question. Typical store refrigeration cabinets have
One such load was 4 kW of undershelf lighting used to HFC evaporators with an exterior air-cooled gas-cooler.
illuminate products. Shelves were required to maintain In parallel to this effort, the engineers were working
specific lighting levels, so the linear LED fixtures were to determine the most energy-efficient HVAC system for
mocked up during construction and light levels were the store, and many options were evaluated, including
measured. The linear fixtures provided a perfect light variable refrigerant flow (VRF), distributed water-to-air
pattern that lit shelves to acceptable levels and allowed heat pumps, and a central chiller/heater water-cooled
for the undershelf lighting to be eliminated. heat pump. All designs used a ground-coupled geo-
exchange system consisting of eight 500 ft (152.4 m)
Refrigeration System Design vertical wells installed under the parking lot. The geoex-
While the engineers for Walgreens emphasized push- change system ended up being the key to a truly innova-
ing the boundaries of design, they also added a difficult tive, low-energy system design.
secondary goal of creating a store with all-natural refrig- With geoexchange at the heart of the HVAC&R design,
erants. Natural refrigerants include hydrocarbons such the refrigeration system was coupled to the well field
as propane and isobutane, carbon dioxide, ammonia, where the ground acts as a battery, storing the rejected



heat energy for use in the winter to satisfy HVAC loads. to the retail area when occupancy was low, and the
A single packaged transcritical CO2 water-source heat makeup air handler could modulate speed in response.
pump system was designed that can simultaneously No energy recovery was installed in the makeup air unit
maintain a – 11°F (– 24°C) freezer and a 32°F (0°C) cooler, because energy modeling indicated the effectiveness
as well as create 32°F (0°C) chiller water, 167°F (75°C) would be negligible due to the variable-speed operation.
heating hot water and provide service hot water pre- Operable windows were designed between roof tiers to
heating. The heat pump also includes an air-cooled provide natural ventilation. The windows allow natural
gas cooler to allow for temperature optimization of the ventilation in the space based on ambient dry-bulb tem-
geoexchange system as modeling indicated that the perature, outdoor enthalpy, and wind speed. When nat-
well field soil temperatures could drift over time due to ural ventilation is in operation, mechanical ventilation
unbalanced heat rejection. to the retail space is stopped, and the three air-handling
units are shut down. In operation, natural ventilation
The Challenge operates significantly more than anticipated and has
Refrigeration equipment using carbon dioxide refrig- resulted in significant savings.
erant (R-744) was not difficult to find. However, systems The store opened in November 2013, and the following
that could do HVAC and refrigeration with CO2 were winter was unseasonably cold. Temperatures dropped
extraordinarily difficult to find, and no manufacturer to record-setting lows for multiple consecutive days. In
in the United States designs this type of equipment. The the first three months of 2014, temperatures dropped
system used in the store was designed and manufac- to as low as – 24°F (–31.1ºC), and the mean temperature
tured in Europe. The manufacturer had never coupled a was almost 10°F (5.6°C) below the average temperature
package like this to a geoexchange system, so all design from a typical metrological year. Calibrating the design
efficiency performance values were hand-calculated energy model to actual 2014 weather conditions, heat-
estimates. Having the package manufactured in Europe ing loads were 8% higher than predicted. The store had
also proved to be a challenge in providing U.S.-required difficulty maintaining comfortable conditions, and the
certifications. The package had to receive a custom design team feared they had undersized equipment. It
Underwriters Laboratory certification to meet local was determined that the heat pump system had ade-
code requirements. This, and customs requirements, quate load capacity to satisfy temperatures. However,
strained the very tight project schedule. heating coil flow needed to increase to make space tem-
perature. With pressure-independent control valves on
HVAC Design all the coils, the flow could not be adjusted without mod-
With chilled water and hot water available at all times, ifying or potentially replacing the valve. Fortunately, the
HVAC system design moved toward four-pipe equip- cartridges in the valves could be replaced to match the
ment. The original design included radiant heating, but new desired flow condition, and the heating issues were
that was removed during a value-engineering exercise. eliminated. Efficiency of the heat pump was sacrificed
The final design included three indoor air handlers in as a result of the higher flow, and this hurt the net zero
the store space and fan coil units for each back-of-house energy goal, but was necessary for occupant comfort.
zone. A dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) provides
minimum ventilation requirements. All air-handling Controls and Energy Monitoring
equipment has variable speed drives. Chilled and Walgreens invested in an extensive building automa-
heating hot water are distributed using variable speed tion and energy management system that provides
pumps. Chilled water and heating hot water distribu- detailed end-use measurement and remote monitoring
tion loops modulate based on pressure control. and control of systems. End-use branch level meter-
The store has a very repeatable occupancy pattern: ing and an on-site weather station are being used to
high daily peaks and sparse occupancy between. The compare actual building performance to the expected
high variation in occupancy meant CO2 demand control performance of the energy model. This building energy
ventilation would be a highly effective energy reduc- model has been helpful to the project team in iden-
tion measure. Modulating dampers reduced ventilation tify the parts of the design that are not performing as



expected and serves as an evaluation tool for prob- design and retail communities. While not all of the tech-
able solutions to improve the building’s overall energy nologies will be used in future stores, there have been
performance. many lessons learned:
• It is possible to achieve a LEED Platinum and net
Building Performance zero energy retail store without sacrificing the aesthetics
In the first calendar year of operation (2014), the and branding of the facility.
building missed its net zero goal by approximately 36%. • Pressure-independent control valves can be an
This was for a variety of reasons, including extreme win- issue in an environment that requires adjustment for
ter weather conditions, thermal elements of the build- performance.
ing performing worse than design intent, and initial • Natural ventilation performs well, even in an envi-
building setup. Over 2014 and 2015, the team continued ronment with high enthalpy conditions.
to tune the building for net zero energy performance. • Real-time monitoring and transparency are vital.
With each tuning step, the building came closer. In 2015, • The measurement and verification systems need to
the building achieved net zero energy performance in be commissioned prior to commissioning all the build-
eight of twelve months. ing systems. The energy trending is valuable for ensur-
ing performance.
Lessons Learned • Responsibility for measurement and verification
The first cost of the store was kept confidential. (M&V) systems gets lost between contractor trades. The
However, it was not the intent of Walgreens to build a designer of the M&V plan needs to witness the construc-
store that had a return on investment. This was a show- tion, calibration and commissioning of the system to
case store designed to be a learning laboratory for the ensure it works as planned.
• Incorporating HVAC into refrigeration racks breaks
down historic barriers to innovation.
• Natural refrigerants can be used successfully in
small-scale applications with moderate effort and plan-
• Natural refrigerant systems can be just as, or more
efficient than HFC-based systems.
• Natural refrigerants and high-efficiency designs
need to work together for the lowest possible environ-
mental impact.
• Aluminum piping is a no-brainer for refrigerant
piping; gasketed couplings have worked better than
• UL Certification requires a pressure rating of five
times the normal working pressure, which is chal-
lenging for systems that operate at 80 bar (8000 kPa).
• U.S. refrigeration equipment suppliers lack suffi-
cient stock of 80 bar (8000 kPa)-rated components.
• Geoexchange adds redundancy and increases op-
erational flexibility.
Walgreens is not planning to build all new stores to
achieve net zero energy. However, all the lessons learned
from this flagship store have been valuable to the brand
and to the retail design community.


Sequence of Operation for

Mission Critical Building
Automation Systems

The reliability of a mission critical facility is dependent on the quality of its build-
ing automation control system. At the heart of the control system is a set of program
instructions referred to as the Sequence of Operations. Its primary function is to
communicate a set of directions written by the design engineer to the building auto-
mation programmer.
Hundreds of interrelated control functions make up with control logic jargon. The primary audience for this
these sequences, and the task of documenting them document is made up of:
in a coherent format is a challenge. Having a defined • The programmer implementing the sequences into
structure to follow for writing the sequence can help the automation software program;
the author focus on technical content, rather than writ- • Commissioning agents testing control sequences;
ten mechanics. This guideline will provide the building • Facility operators running the plant after the initial
blocks for writing a clearer building automation system construction is complete; and
(BAS) sequence of operations (SOO) using a systematic • Future engineers updating or renovating the facil-
method of distinct writing components. The attributes ity.
of these components make them quickly recognizable The primary function of the document is to provide
and easy to place in a pattern, which makes the technical specific direction from a design engineer to a program-
document more consistent and understandable by the mer who will interpret the written statements and
reader. convert them into machine language. Once that work is
complete, the commissioning agent needs to know what
Know Your Audience must be tested and how the components are supposed
The technical expertise of each reader who needs to to work together as a system. The agent can work more
use the SOO may vary. Therefore, it has to be written in a effectively when given a clear and complete road map to
way that can be understood by all, not just those familiar follow.

Edward L. Gutowski, P.E., is a mission critical infrastructure engineer at IBM in Southbury, Conn.



After the construction team is gone, the facility operator should flow in a pattern that sets a predictable structure
will need to know how the automation system functions. for both the author and the reader. Using the elements
A clearly written sequence put together with the operator described here will make it easier to write smaller, dis-
in mind helps explain why the system behaves the way it tinct control loops and interconnect them with clearly
does. The operator must have confidence in the system, defined shared variables.
and there should be no mystery in what the automation
system is doing. Often in the life of a building automation Overall System Description
system, it will be expanded, or the code may need to be Each sequence should begin with an overall system
updated, or moved to a new upgraded platform. This pro- description that paints a picture of all the major equip-
cess can add risk to the reliability of the data center if the ment being controlled and the areas being served. This
control functions are not documented accurately. section should be an executive summary written in
plain English without a great deal of technical jargon or
Specific and Thorough Directions acronyms. Assume the reader does not have the benefit
Because of the critical nature of data center control, of a set of control drawings or schematics. There should
there must be no uncertainty in the set of written direc- be no control logic written here since those details will
tions provided by the engineer, and no hidden functions be explained in the subsystem control loops that follow.
inserted by the programmer. A detailed and thorough By providing an overall description up front, it will allow
sequence may take more time to prepare, but it saves the author to stay focused on describing the control logic
time overall by reducing the time spent troubleshoot- later on without having to backtrack and explain the big
ing during the programming and commissioning pro- picture in the middle of the sequences.
cess. When the system goes live, every intended control
behavior must be documented and tested. You should Subsystems and Control Loops
expect that the people involved in the initial construc- Break up the SOO into smaller distinct subsystems.
tion project will no longer be available to explain any of Identify subsystems that can stand alone and can
the unique quirks in the system after the project is com- be enabled or disabled with a command to trigger
plete. Depending on undocumented “tribal knowledge” the action of the subsystem. Organize subsystems in
held by a few individuals makes the facility vulnerable to order of dependency as much as possible, or in a logi-
failure. cal order that the reader will understand. Join the
If the engineer leaves out details because they are subsystem control loops by clearly defined shared
assumed to be understood, or if the engineer hasn’t variables. For example, if the control sequence to turn
anticipated a particular function, the programmer may on a single chiller is dependent on the enable/disable
simply try to fill in the blanks or make assumptions to status of a group of pumps, you should describe the
keep the project on schedule. Although the project may pump control loop first, then the chiller control loop,
get done on time, this practice introduces risk to the sys- and define a variable that will be shared by both loops
tem. It also creates trouble for everyone else who needs to connect them.
to use the Sequence of Operation to test or operate the Within each subsystem, list and describe the following
facility. elements as a group:
Control sequences are often part of a larger set of • Control loop description;
drawings and specifications used as construction docu- • Input devices;
ments for a new building or renovation project. These • Output devices;
documents become part of the legal contract between • Device variables;
the building owner and the contractors. Vagueness can • Soft variables;
often lead to cost overruns. • User input variables;
• Logic statements;
Elements of a Sequence of Operations (SOO) Document • Alarms;
The SOO document is made up of several key elements • Display points; and
that are essential to a control sequence. These elements • Trended points.



Keeping these elements together under the heading of be used to implement the function as part of the subsys-
a single subsystem will minimize the need for the reader tem. Inputs and outputs are always described from the
to flip pages or jump to other areas of the document reference point of the controller. Inputs are sent to the
while reading the sequence. These elements should be controller from a component or device. Outputs are sent
called out by their name at the beginning of each sen- from the controller to a component or device.
tence starting on a new line. Examples of input devices are temperature sensors,
humidity sensors, differential pressure sensors, end
Paragraph Headings and Element Identification switches, hydrogen gas detectors, cooling tower level
Start each subsystem with a major heading and use a sensors, freeze stats, chiller controller status signal, VFD
table of contents at the beginning of the document to status signal, and user controlled switches. The control-
list major headings. In the body of the paragraph, iden- ler receives information from these physical devices.
tify each of the writing elements at the start of a new Examples of output devices are control valves, motor
line followed by a colon. A subsystem may not use all starter switches, damper actuators, humidifier enable
the elements. For example, there may be no User Input signal, humidifier modulation signal, chiller start com-
Variable, or there may not be a need to Trend Points for a mand, VFD speed command and custom status indicator
particular subsystem. lights. The controller sends information to these physi-
An example of an element identified at the beginning cal devices.
of the line would be as follows:
Input Device: Pressure differential sensor
Variables are given distinct names so they can be used
Device Variable: PRESSURE_DP
in conditional Logic Statements that will be written in
User Input Variable: PRESSURE_SETPOINT the format of an algebraic equation within a sentence
Logic Statement: If PRESSURE_DP < PRESSURE_ structure. To make it easier to understand the specific
SETPOINT then PUMP1 = ON purpose of a variable, they are categorized as one of
three types:
Control Loop Description • Device Variable;
The Control Loop Description is similar to the Overall • Soft Variable; or
System Description at the beginning of the document. • User Input Variable.
However, this element expands on details of the subsys- Spell out the unique name of the variable in all capital
tem immediately following. The reader should be able letters so it is clearly distinguishable from all other text
to develop an understanding of the control loop that in the sequence. The variable name should give some
follows without needing diagrams or schematics. This indication of its function. However, if its function is not
section will have a similarity to a SOO that is written as clear, you should provide a brief description immedi-
a performance-based sequence, without the greater ately following the given name. Expanding the length
level of detail called out in the methods described here. of the variable name can help the reader understand its
Although the Control Loop Description provides some function. Examples will follow below.
detail, it should only set the stage for the associated Use an underscore instead of a space or hyphen
Logic Statements that will follow. Take care not to give between words when creating a variable name such as
direction as part of the Control Loop Description that CHILLER_1, or no space at all such as CHILLER1. This
will be repeated or contradict the Logic Statement later may give the programmer the ability to use your exact
on. text from the SOO in his/her code if desired and if the
program language syntax permits. As the programmer
Input Device and Output Device transfers your descriptions into the code, the SOO vari-
Input and output devices, often referred to as I/O able name may be adjusted as needed to suit the lan-
devices, are the physical hardware components that guage used; however, this necessity to make adjustments
will be associated with the Device Variables used in the in the code does not degrade the effectiveness of the SOO
Logic Statement. List each device in the group that will document to communicate ideas to the reader. Hyphens


between characters such as CHILLER-1, or periods such • Digital, Discrete, or Binary Input (DI or BI), i.e., float
as CHILLER.1, can have specific functions within certain switch, current switch, end switch; and
programming languages and are best avoided in the • Digital, Discrete, or Binary Output (DO or BO), i.e.,
SOO variable names. two-position valve command, motor start or stop com-
Furthermore, avoiding using a hyphen in the variable mand.
name prevents confusion in the SOO Logic Statement Within the Sequence of Operations it is not neces-
when the “–” (minus) sign is used to define subtraction sary to make the distinction of AI, AO, DI, BI, DO or BO
between variables. as part of the Device Variable description, since this
Using an underscore in place of a hyphen or space is information will be provided on construction drawing
an allowable variation of the best practice that requires control diagrams or the controls shop drawing points
consistent equipment names throughout all construc- list. It is poor practice to duplicate the same informa-
tion drawings and specifications. A chiller called out tion within construction documents because it opens
as CHILLER-1 on the drawings can take on the slight the possibility of conflicting information. The point
variation CHILLER_1 in the SOO when it is used to distinction should be evident from the Device Variable
represent a related variable. For this discussion, an description.
underscore will be used where appropriate to maintain Examples of Device Variables as they would be written
consistency. in the control sequence:
The practice of listing variables within the body of a Device Variable: CHWS_SECONDARY_TEMP_1 is the
SOO is a deviation from the practice of specifying them temperature measured in the chilled water supply pipe
separately in a points list or table format, which is typi- secondary distribution in units of degrees Fahrenheit.
cally presented as a mix of hardware device related
Device Variable: AHU1_SPEED_COMMAND is the com-
points and soft variable points together. Variables’ attri-
manded speed to the VFD serving AHU-1 in units of per-
butes require greater detail than a points list or table can
cent speed.
provide, particularly for soft variable points. The ben-
Variable Range: 0% to 100% speed
efit of consolidating a group of specific variables used
Device Variable: AHU1_SPEED_FEEDBACK is the actual
together in a control loop to communicate an idea is
speed of the VFD driving AHU-1 in units of percent
diminished if the variables are separated from the loop
and placed elsewhere in a table. Furthermore, it is the
role of the BAS contractor, not the author of the SOO, to Device Variable: CHLR1_CW_FLOW is the flow switch
do an accurate “take off” of the hardware device-related for Chiller-1 condenser water.
points after thoroughly reading the SOO and the control Variable Range: FLOW, NO_FLOW
drawings. The Variable Range is used to define the controller
output. For example, a valve command output can be
Device Variable two or more distinct states such as OPEN, CLOSED. Or,
Variables created from physical input or output devices it may set the boundaries of modulation between two
are called out as Device Variables. Generally speaking, inclusive start and stop positions, such as 0% open to
if an end device is wired to or from a set of contacts on a 100% open. A Variable Range is not necessary for input
BAS controller, it has a Device Variable associated with it. device definitions, although the units of the input
The new category of wireless sensors also falls into this value should be specified. For example, in the case of
category because they are physical devices. Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) feedback (received
Device Variables are related to Control Points that are as an input signal from the VFD), the controller may
typically found on a project BAS Control Diagram and receive an input anywhere between 0% to 100% speed
are typically labeled as one of the following: and thus there is no need to restrict the input values
• Analog Input (AI), i.e., temperature sensor, pres- into a narrow range as part of the sequences. However,
sure sensor, VFD speed feedback; the units of Percent Speed (%) vs. Hertz (Hz) should be
• Analog Output (AO), i.e., VFD speed command, labeled for clarity.
modulating valve command; Note that in the examples shown above, a long



variable name is used to help the reader understand User Input Variables
its representative function when it is defined, and, User Input Variables are a form of Soft Variables.
more importantly, when it will be referenced in a Aside from the most common user-adjustable set-
Logic Statement later in the sequence. A shortened points of temperature and pressure, there are many
version of variable CHWS_SECONDARY_TEMP_1 could more variables that an operator should have the abil-
have simply been written as T1. However, in a con- ity to adjust. For example, the engineer may take a
trol sequence with dozens of different variables, a first guess at a time delay or other variable; however,
name like “T1” is non-descriptive and may require the first guess may need refinement after the system
a reader to go back and look up the definition of T1 is observed in operation. Also, identify the select vari-
to understand the equation. Conversely, a longer able that should be made available for tuning at the
variable name, although clumsier to write, is more user interface terminal and make them User Input
descriptive and makes the body of a Logic Statement Variables in the SOO. This is necessary because there
easier to understand by allowing the reader to focus are many simultaneous transitions occurring within a
on the meaning of the logic and reducing the likeli- mechanical HVAC system that are difficult to predict
hood that the reader will be distracted with searching before the system is built. These changing dynamics
for the variable definition. Regardless of the length include heat transferring between fluids, refrigerants
of the variable name, it is imperative that each one is that are vaporizing and condensing, pressures rising
unique. and falling, and valve actuators that take time to fully
Soft Variable By incorporating relevant user-adjustable variables
Variables that have no direct hardware interface are into the sequence, you can minimize the need to call
called Soft Variables. These variables take on intermedi-
ate values within the program logic.
Examples of Soft Variables as they would be written in
a sequence:
Description: The sum of the calculated tonnage for all
plant chillers and plate and frame heat exchangers in
units of tons
Soft Variable: CHILLER1
Description: Chiller that will take on a position value
in the sequencing of chillers
Soft Variable: CHILLER_LEAD
Description: The position value for the first chiller
enabled in the plant
Soft Variable: CHILLER_LAG1
Description: The position value for the next chiller
enabled after CHILLER_LEAD
Soft Variable: PUMP_RUN_HOUR_TIMER used for cal-
culating the lead pump in units of hours
Soft Variable: CHILLER_DELAY_TIMER used for stag-
ing off chillers in units of minutes



back a programmer to change the code for tuning after Setpoint: 30%
the system is in operation. To keep the operator from Range: 20% to 99%
making unintentional mistakes, all user inputs for User Input Variable: LOW_SUMP_LEVEL
adjustable variables should be bounded between a mini- Setpoint: 55 in. (1397 mm)
mum and maximum value as determined by the system Range: 50 in. to 56 in. (1270 mm to 1422 mm)
designer. User Input Variable: CRITICAL_LOW_SUMP_LEVEL
The ability to change user inputs must be controlled Setpoint: 47 in. (1194 mm)
through access levels and can be specified as part of Range: 40 in. to 49 in. (1016 mm to 1245 mm)
the SOO for each input variable. Each user should be
assigned a unique ID to log into the BAS and should be Logic Statement
given a user privilege level. User privilege levels are typi- Logic Statements are the heart of a Sequence of
cally Full Access, Limited Access, or View Only Access. Operation. Other elements described in the docu-
Full Access privilege is for the experienced facility ment are developed in preparation for writing the
operator who is aware of the implications that setpoint control logic. The Control Loop Description provided
changes will have on critical system operations. Limited at the beginning of the loop is a layman’s version of
Access privileges are for operators who need to reset the precisely worded Logic Statement written in a
simple maintenance timers on equipment that may form that is closer to the programmer’s code. All vari-
need a filter change or to perform an inspection at a ables must be defined before they are referenced in
measured time interval tracked on the BAS. View Only the Logic Statement. The Logic Statement is a mix of
Access does not allow the user to make any operational mathematical operations and descriptive text, taking
changes, but instead allows him/her to log on and see on the form of an algebraic equation within a sen-
equipment run status or review trend data and alarms. tence structure.
Every setpoint and timer value must be specified before Although it must be clear, concise, and complete, there
the system is put into operation. As part of the initial SOO, are no strict rules of programming language syntax
user input variables must be initialized to a value, and followed in the statement. Nor does it need to follow
then refined after the system goes live. Some user inputs, strict rules of grammar. The statement must be a bal-
such as minimum speed and sump dimension, may not ance between providing information to the program-
be known until the equipment is purchased. User input mer, converting concepts to code language, and relay
setpoints and ranges must be adjusted as information is information to the layman not familiar with machine
obtained during the construction process. language.
Examples of User Input Variables as they would be The algebraic sentence structure often uses simple
written in a sequence: Boolean conditional expressions such as IF, THEN,
User Input Variable: AND, OR; along with common inequality relation sym-
CHILLED_WATER_SUPPLY_SETPOINT bols such as less than (<), less than or equal (≤), greater
Description: The setpoint that all chillers will receive than (>), greater than or equal (≥), equal (=); and simple
from the controller and that will be used for alarm mathematical operations such as plus (+), minus (-),
reference. multiply (×), divide (/); and when necessary brief writ-
Setpoint: 45°F (7.2°C) ten descriptions. When complex operations will be used
Range: 40°F to 55°F (4.4°C to 12.8°C) (such as a PID loop), they can simply be referenced along
User Input Variable: MINIMUM_CHILLER_RUNTIME with the associated control variables.
Description: To avoid short cycling, the chiller will run When a variable can be switched between two or more
for a specified amount of time after it is commanded on. states, a separate Logic Statement needs to be written to
Setpoint: 30 minutes clearly describe what conditions will make the variable
Range: 2 to 120 minutes switch back to the initial state. For example:

User Input Variable: Logic Statement: If (ROOM_TEMPERATURE >




Logic Statement: If [ROOM_TEMPERATURE < verify the equipment is free of ice before releasing the
(TEMPERATURE_SETPOINT - 2°F)] for 1 minute then FAN latch at the user interface screen.
= OFF Unlatching is specified by inserting an AND require-
ment in the Logic Statement to call out the user
Building automation programs often have functions that
acknowledgment at the interface terminal. Latching
can be called upon in a sequence; the most common one is
should not be added to every alarm needlessly, particu-
the PID loop. When appropriate, define one as follows:
larly where it might cause multiple major components
Logic Statement: Modulate cooling coil control valve to lock out of operation, which could result in plant cool-
to reach LEAVING_AIR_TEMPERATURE_SETPOINT using ing capacity reduction below the critical load.
PID loop Alarm severity can vary widely between the highest
level alert that warns of a total data center outage to the
Alarms lowest level that may alert staff of a dirty filter on an air
Alarms are described near the end of the group of ele- handler. Each alarm described in the SOO must be cat-
ments. First you describe how the system is controlled, egorized at the appropriate level. For a mission critical
and then you describe the conditions under which facility, the severity distinction is important because the
things go wrong. The alarm function in a particular con- response level and method of dispatching the alarm is
trol loop uses the same input hardware and variables as dictated by the alarm severity. The term Fatal is used in
its associated loop. the alarm level to describe an Event or Warning that has
Alarms are a special category of a Soft Variable with an effect on the entire data center. The term Critical is
their own Logic Statement describing the conditions used in the alarm level to describe an Event or Warning
that cause the variable to change from a SAFE state to a that has an effect on a part of the data center, down to
TROUBLE state. The state names are used to minimize
the risk of misinterpretation, particularly if they are to
be displayed on the user interface screen. A separate
Logic Statement must be written to describe the condi-
tions that switch the variable back from the TROUBLE to
SAFE state.
Alarms often have several User Input Variables that
become part of the associated Logic Statement, such as
an adjustable delay period before the alarm changes to
the trouble state, or an adjustable offset temperature or
pressure that references an earlier defined setpoint.
One of the advantages of configuring an alarm as a
variable is that it can be used for more than just alerting
the facility’s operator. The alarm variable state can be
used in other Logic Statements as a condition to initiate
actions, such as stopping a condenser pump when there
is a critical low-level sump alarm or turning on addi-
tional chillers when a high-temperature alarm is in the
TROUBLE state.
A latching alarm is one with additional conditions
added to the Logic Statement that switches it back to
SAFE. In a latching alarm, the operator must acknowl-
edge that the trouble is clear before the state can switch
back. An example where latching may be used is for an
alarm from a cooling tower fan vibration switch trig-
gered by a winter icing situation. The operator must

any single server or IT process. The following six alarm mode; or

levels are recommended: • Temperature in data center is warm.
Fatal Event Alarm: Complete data center failure is Advisory Alarm: Attention required in the data center.
imminent or has already occurred. Immediate correc- Examples:
tive action required. • Dirty filter on air handler;
Examples: • Equipment run hours exceeded for scheduled
• Condenser water makeup source unavailable; maintenance; or
• Generator fuel oil supply level at all bulk storage • Cold temperature in data center.
tanks at lowest level; or One example of an alarm as it would be written in a
• Chiller plant supply water temperature above criti- sequence is below. Note that variables used in previous
cal setpoint for set time duration. Logic Statements for control can be used again for Alarm
Critical Event Alarm: Partial data center failure is Logic Statements:
imminent or has already occurred. Immediate correc- Chilled-Water Supply Temperature Alarm
tive action required. Input device: Temperature sensor in Chiller-1 supply
Examples: pipe
• One room of a data center is above critical tempera-
ture that causes servers to shut down;
Variable Range: SAFE, TROUBLE
• Gaseous suppression system discharged in one
User Input Variable: HIGH_CHWS_TEMP_OFFSET
room of the data center; or
Variable Range: 1°F to 5°F (– 17.2°C to – 15°C)
• Multiple DX CRAC failures in one area of the data
Setpoint: 3°F (– 16°C)
User Input Variable: HIGH_CHWS_TEMP_DELAY
Fatal Warning Alarm: Risk of complete data center
Variable Range: 1 minute to 30 minutes
failure. An additional warning could result in a com-
Setpoint: 5 minutes
plete data center shutdown. Immediate diagnosis and
planned corrective action required. Alarm Trouble Statement: If [CHILLED_WATER_
• Redundant BAS controller failure; + HIGH_CHWS_TEMP_OFFSET)] for duration HIGH_
• Redundant chiller failure. No reserve chillers avail- CHWS_TEMP_DELAY then CHILLER1_SUPPLY_WARM_
able in cooling plant; or ALARM = TROUBLE
• Redundant generator failure. No reserve generators Alarm Safe Statement: If CHILLED_WATER_SUPPLY_
available in the emergency power plant. TEMP1 = CHILLED_WATER_SUPPLY SETPOINT then
Critical Warning Alarm: Risk of a partial data center CHILLER1_SUPPLY_WARM_ALARM = SAFE
failure. An additional warning could result in a par- Alarm Severity: Warning Alarm
tial data center shutdown. Immediate diagnosis and
planned corrective action required. Trending
Examples: Trending is an invaluable tool to help the operator
• Redundant CRAC failure in one room of the data understand how the system is reacting to user-adjust-
center; able setpoints and timers. When a component in the
• Pipe leak detected in one area of the data center; or system malfunctions, the history that is pulled from the
• One of multiple UPS battery rooms overheating. trend data log is an important forensic troubleshooting
Warning Alarm: Risk to the data center if condition tool. As valuable as trending data is, it is just as impor-
is left unattended. Diagnosis and planned corrective tant not to ask for more than is needed.
action required. Some (but not all) variables will be useful to trend. The
Examples: author of the sequence must specifically state which vari-
• Low condenser water level in cooling tower; ables will be trended. Calling for all the variables to be
• Pump switched from automatic mode to hand trended is not productive, since many variables will provide



little benefit, and tracking everything possible will need- are used when referring to the equipment in the Overall
lessly drive up the time spent on programming and testing System Description or the Control Loop Description.
and will increase the need for data storage hardware. At the A variable name that uses a portion of the equipment
end of each control loop, evaluate the variable used and list name should follow a similar convention. Hyphens
only the ones you need to have trended. used in equipment names should be omitted when
The trending interval has an effect on the amount of data used as part of a variable name. Examples of equipment
stored. The author must specify how often a value is recorded names are CH-1 for a chiller, CT-1 for a cooling tower, or
and how many data points should be kept. Typically, 15 min- CHWP-1 for a chilled water pump. Variable names based
ute sampling intervals are sufficient, which could be stated at on these equipment names should follow the same basic
the beginning of the sequence or as part of the trending para- convention such as CH1_SUPPLY_TEMP for the chiller
graph for each loop. If more frequent data points are needed CH-1 supply temperature or CHWP1_SPEED_COMMAND
for any one particular point, call out that increased inter- for pump CHWP-1 speed command. As stated earlier,
val after the variable in the trend section. If data storage the use of hyphens within a variable name can lead to
space is an issue, the average, maximum and minimum confusion in the SOO Logic Statement where the “-”
of a longer sample period can be called for. (minus) sign represents subtraction between variables.
Maintain consistency of equipment names in the SOO
Display descriptions and follow a similar convention as part of
Choosing what information will be graphically dis- the equipment-related variables.
played on the user interface starts in the written control
sequence. Some variables are critical to display; oth- Conclusion
ers can exist in the program code and never need to be Complex control problems become easier to understand
brought forward. To avoid ambiguity, the author should when they are broken down into smaller, more manage-
specifically call out the variables to be displayed on the able parts. An organized writing structure with distinct
user interface screens. If the decision is left up to the elements will help avoid the complexity created by a lack of
programmer and values are omitted that either the clear and complete direction. Using a consistent method of
owner or engineer thought should have been displayed, written instructions for the benefit of the programmer, the
then all parties become dissatisfied. commissioning agent, and the facility operator will ensure
One key piece of information that should be available that everyone who needs to use the SOO document has a
at the user interface is the final SOO document with greater chance at achieving success in building, testing, and
all as-built edits incorporated. This could be brought operating the mission critical control system.
forward as a link to the document or as text on a user The building owner who requires an engineering firm
screen. As the system is modified or expanded, this to adopt this more detailed method should expect the
document must be updated accordingly. firm will spend more time articulating each control
The exact customized user interface screens can be dif- attribute. For a mission critical facility, the reduced
ficult to specify, and the programmer should be given lib- uncertainty after the system goes live outweighs the ini-
erty in this area. The author can call for dynamic graphic tial costs in design and implementation.
representation of components such as fans, pumps and Using this prescriptive method, rather than a per-
chillers. However, it is difficult to know how many display formance-based method, may require a higher level
fields for points can fit on a screen before it is created. of controls expertise and attention to detail on the
Providing the programmer with a list of what is important part of the engineering firm providing the direction.
to show is a good start. Specifying for at least two iterative Furthermore, this method may restrict the integra-
reviews of the initial screen layout may be the best way to tor’s freedom to copy code from previous work or use
ensure the owner is satisfied when the job is complete. generic pre-engineered routines. All stakeholders
involved need to understand what is gained and be
Equipment Naming Conventions realistic about the costs as they move toward improving
Equipment is given an identity when it is named on the detail and clarity of their mission critical sequence
the construction documents. Ensure these same names of operation document.



Big Data Analytics

In the Building Industry

Catalyzed by recent market, technology, and policy trends, energy data collection
in the building industry is becoming more widespread. This wealth of information
allows more data-driven decision-making by designers, commissioning agents, facili-
ties staff, and energy service providers during the course of building design, opera-
tion and retrofit.
There is increased interest among the energy-effi- real estate owners and managers, policy makers, and
ciency practitioner community in using real-world energy consultants make decisions about energy effi-
data for “data-driven” analysis. Some tools focus on ciency and retrofit projects.3 To date, the BPD has more
using detailed data for a given building,1 while oth- than 10,000 users, the majority of them designers and
ers use empirical data on many buildings, most nota- energy service providers. The BPD’s web interface4 is
bly the Energy Star Portfolio Manager tool.2 The U.S. free-to-use and allows extensive dataset management
Department of Energy’s Building Performance Database and customization.
(BPD) is the largest publicly available data source for This article examines some of the promises and perils
energy-related characteristics of commercial and resi- of having large amounts of building data at the user’s
dential buildings in the United States, collected from fingertips and how to use such data and statistical
federal, state, and local governments, utilities, and pri- analysis tools effectively to support decision-making by
vate companies. energy professionals.
With over 870,000 records from commercial and resi-
dential buildings across the country, the BPD provides Promise: Benchmarking and Sanity Checking
anonymized building energy use and asset data with The BPD offers a set of tools designed to assist energy
analytical capabilities to help energy service providers, professionals by supporting building benchmarking and
Michael A. Berger is a scientific engineering associate, Paul A. Mathew is a staff scientist and department head of whole building systems, and Travis Walter is a scientific engineer-
ing associate at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, Calif.



sanity checking building model out-

puts.5 Users can explore the avail-
able data across geographic regions, A
and compare physical and opera-
tional characteristics to gain a better
understanding of market conditions
and trends in energy performance.
The interface allows users to define
datasets, which are sets of buildings
that share similar characteristics,
through the selection of filters such
as climate zone, facility type, floor
area, and various building system B
characteristics such as lighting type,
HVAC type, etc.
ASHRAE’s Procedures for Commercial
Building Energy Audits6 and the emerg-
ing ASHRAE Standard 211 P, Standard
for Commercial Building Audits, call for
energy benchmarking to be done
FIGURE 1 Histograms of source EUI for A) office buildings in Washington state; and B) large ( >100k ft2) office
as one of the very first steps in an buildings in Seattle.
audit. Consider the use case of an
energy auditor evaluating an office TABLE 1 Sample table of source EUI for large offices in Seattle, grouped by vintage.
building in Seattle. The auditor can
benchmarking process by selecting a
dataset that includes all office build- 1960 to 1970 12 224.958 106.907 134.855 157.399
ings in the state of Washington, and 1970 to 1980 17 236.248 79.137 135.497 185.885
then selectively refine the dataset 1980 to 1990 28 193.612 100.711 85.288 133.085
based on building characteristics 1990 to 2000 18 232.763 103.138 117.185 179.863
and available data. 2000 to 2010 33 201.96 76.255 99.093 151.53
The BPD’s Explore Histogram Note that additional data is available on the website, such as 50th Percentile, 75th
tool can be used to visually explore Percentile and Maximum.
a range of important building
characteristics, from floor area to Energy Star Rating to buildings with floor areas greater than 100,000 ft2
energy use intensity (EUI). The user can explore these (9290 m2) in Seattle. Figure 1b shows the histogram
histograms using the dashed vertical quartiles markers, as of source EUI for this more targeted dataset, which
well as the hover-over feature, which gives more specific contains 242 buildings, and has a median EUI of
data for each histogram bar when selected. In Figure 1a, the 171 kBtu/ft2·yr (1942 MJ/m2·yr) and an interquartile
user can see that the median EUI for offices in Washington range of 163 to 213 kBtu/ft2·yr (1851 to 2419 MJ/m2·yr).
is 163 kBtu/ft2·yr (1851 MJ/m2·yr), with an interquartile Additionally, the auditor may want to document how
2 2
range of 125 to 213 kBtu/ft ·yr (1420 to 2419 MJ/m ·yr). * EUI varies by vintage. The BPD’s Explore Table tool allows
The user can then further customize their dataset users to generate a table that groups the active dataset by
to enable more targeted comparisons. For example, one characteristic, and provides statistics on another vari-
the user can specify a dataset that includes only office able for each resulting subgroup. Table 1 shows a sample of
* Note that new data are continually being added to the BPD. The numbers given in this article reflect the data in the BPD at the
time the article was written.



Dataset Comparison Methods input datasets have high statistical variability, the calculated
distribution of differences will be more uncertain. This means
The BPD provides three methods to compare datasets: (1) a small dataset with a large number of outliers can skew the
visual comparison of histograms; (2) actuarial analysis; and resulting distribution. Additionally, this method does not
(3) regression analysis. These methods are available on the account for underlying differences in each pairwise com-
Compare tab of the BPD web interface. parison; therefore, if a user is looking for the difference in
Visual Comparison of Histograms source EUI when switching from a furnace to a heat pump,
The most basic form of comparative analysis is to present the method does not automatically normalize for a building’s
histograms of two datasets of interest overlaid together. climate zone. This means results are more reliable when the
This allows users to compare the spread and shape of the datasets being compared have fewer parameters that vary,
datasets in question, as well as quantify the difference in making an understanding of the underlying datasets crucial.
quartile values. Regression Analysis Method
Actuarial Analysis Method The regression method provides a powerful comparison
The actuarial approach used by the BPD is a method that tool, using a selective multiple regression model to predict
represents the difference in a numerical characteristic the distribution of differences between two datasets. This
between two datasets as a probability distribution. It does method accounts for differences in physical and operational
this by repeatedly and randomly sampling pairs of points characteristics, such as climate zone and facility type, and
from the two datasets and calculating the difference between building equipment, such as cooling system and airflow
the two.9 These differences populate the resulting differ- controller, to predict energy savings due to building ret-
ence histogram. To improve computational efficiency, the rofits.9 However, the stringent requirements of the model
sampling continues until the resulting distribution is identi- mean some datasets cannot be compared. For instance,
fied as stable, which typically occurs after fewer than 20,000 when comparing differences in EUI due to a building system
pairwise comparisons. (e.g., lighting), if one of the two system types in question
(e.g., LEDs vs. fluorescent T8s) composes less than 5% of
This method was designed to be capable of comparing the dataset, too little data exists for the regression model to
numerical values across any two datasets; therefore, its results accurately attribute the effect of that system type on EUI,
are very sensitive to the underlying data. For example, if the and the regression analysis will return an error.

the exported table for large offices in Seattle, grouped by Peril: Potentially Nonrepresentative Data
year built and analyzed by source EUI. The BPD team collects, cleanses,† and combines
A similar investigation can be made for other fac- data from disparate sources from all over the coun-
tors that one would expect to impact energy use, try, essentially “crowdsourcing” data, without regard
including air control type and operating hours. The to representivity. Therefore, the BPD is not statisti-
table tool can help flush out high-level differences cally representative of the national building stock.
in energy use across a dataset, highlight build- Additionally, the database is constantly growing,
ing systems that warrant further analysis, and be with new data sources added regularly, and old data
exported for inclusion in an audit’s benchmarking sources updated when possible. Past work has inves-
documentation. tigated the representativeness of the BPD by com-
These data visualization tools, combined with paring the database to the nationally representative
the high level of dataset customization, give users Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey
unprecedented capabilities for benchmarking build- (CBECS) and Residential Energy Consumption Survey
ings against their peers and checking that building (RECS), both of which are included in the BPD,‡ and
simulation estimates of performance fall within found some regions and building types to be over-
believable ranges, all based on real-world empirical represented in the BPD.7 This, and the unprecedented
data. level of granularity the BPD enables, means some
† Each dataset collected by the BPD team is analyzed and cleansed, which includes removing spurious numerical values and duplicate
buildings across datasets. For more information on the BPD’s data preparation, quality control, site-source EUI conversion factors and
more, see Custodio, et al.8
‡ Additional public datasets in the BPD include benchmarking ordinance data from cities including New York, Boston, San Francisco,
and others.



peer comparison groups will be

data rich, while others may have
no buildings at all. Some peer A
groups may have large quantities
of data about building systems,
while others may only have energy
data. There is also the possibility
of selection bias in the underly-
ing data, as those organizations
that collect and contribute build-
ing energy data to the BPD may be
more likely to have pursued energy
efficiency and benchmarking. B
Users should keep this in mind
when exploring the database, as
benchmarking a building against
its peers in the BPD does not neces-
sarily represent the exact standing
of that building against the national
population of buildings. As such, the
BPD is not appropriate for analyses
that are critically dependent on a
statistical sample, e.g., national or
regional estimates of total energy

Promise: Leveraging Big Data to

Analyze Technology Impacts
In addition to peer group bench-
marking, large datasets such as the FIGURE 2 Comparisons of Datasets 1a and 1b, by electric EUI. A) Overlaid histograms of Datasets 1a (purple)
BPD enable data-based analysis and 1b (yellow). B) Difference histogram calculated with the actuarial analysis method. C) Difference
histogram calculated with the regression analysis method.
of the energy impacts of chang-
ing building characteristics or
systems. The BPD offers three methods of compara- better market their services to customers. The user
tive analysis (see “Dataset Comparison Methods” for can create two datasets and directly compare the
more details). The following sections will present electricity use of customers from Dataset 1 with air
examples of such analysis on both residential and conditioning to those without it. Dataset 1a contains
commercial datasets. only buildings from Dataset 1 that have “No Cooling”
as their cooling type; this dataset has 309 homes in it.
Example 1: Single Family Homes in Ohio Similarly, Dataset 1b only has homes with “Central Air
Our first example dataset contains single-family Conditioning” (CAC) as their cooling type; this dataset
homes in Ohio. This dataset has 2,245 buildings in the has 1,287 homes in it.
BPD, and will be called Dataset 1. Figure 2a shows that the median electric EUI for
Comparing No Cooling to Central Air homes without cooling is 10 kBtu/ft2·yr (114 MJ/
Conditioning. Let us explore the use case of an energy m2·yr) and the median for homes with CAC is 17
service provider who seeks to understand the impact kBtu/ft 2·yr (193 MJ/m2·yr), which represents an
of central air conditioning on home electricity use to increase of 70%. This is consistent with the results



from the actuarial analysis,

which shows CAC to increase EUI
by 63%; however, the regression
analysis results suggest a smaller
increase in EUI of only 43%. The
regression analysis attempts to
account for other building char-
acteristics, including heating
type, number of occupants, win-
dow types, etc., and would sug-
gest that underlying factors are
causing the actuarial and median
differences to overestimate the B
impact of CAC.
Comparing Single-Pane to
Double-Pane Windows.
Similarly, consider an energy
service professional who is
interested in empirical evidence
of the impact of double-pane
windows on source EUI. To do
this, the user could create two
datasets. Dataset 1c contains only C
buildings from Dataset 1 that
have “Single-Pane” window glass
layers; this dataset has 79 homes
in it. Dataset 1d only has homes
with “Double-Pane” window
glass layers; this dataset has 433
homes in it.
Figure 3a shows that the median FIGURE 3 Comparisons of datasets 1c and 1d, by source EUI. A) Overlaid histograms of Datasets 1c (purple)
EUI for homes with single- and 1d (yellow). B) Difference histogram calculated with the actuarial analysis method. C) Difference
histogram calculated with the regression analysis method.
pane windows is 90 kBtu/ft2·yr
(1022 MJ/m2·yr), and the median
for homes with double-pane windows is 89 kBtu/ Example 2: California Offices
2 2
ft ·yr (1011 MJ/m ·yr), which represents a decrease of Similar analyses can be done for commercial build-
1%. The result from the actuarial analysis, shown in ings. Let us use a dataset for office buildings in
Figure 3b, estimates double-pane windows to increase California, which we will call Dataset 2. Dataset 2 has
EUI by 3%. Lastly, as shown in Figure 3c, the regression 3,448 buildings in it.
analysis calculates a 2% decrease in EUI when switch- Comparing CAV to VAV Systems. Consider a facili-
ing from single-pane to double-pane windows. These ties portfolio manager that wants to better understand
results demonstrate the uncertainty, or “noise,” that the impact of a retrofit from constant air volume (CAV)
can arise from empirical data analysis. The energy HVAC control systems to more efficient variable air vol-
service professional should interpret these results as ume (VAV) controls. The user can define Datasets 2a and
inconclusive of whether or not double-pane windows 2b to include only buildings with CAV and VAV airflow
significantly reduce energy use in Ohio homes at the control, respectively. Dataset 2a has 71 buildings, and
portfolio level. Dataset 2b has 104 buildings.


Figure 4 shows consistent and

intuitive results, with both the visual
comparison and actuarial method A
showing a 22% decrease in source
EUI when switching from CAV to
VAV, and the regression method
showing a 27% decrease in source

Peril: Misinterpretation of Comparison

Tools such as the BPD put power-
ful analytical methods and large B
amounts of building data in the
hands of the user; however, the
complexity and depth of these tools
can lead the user astray. The key to
enabling users to craft representa-
tive datasets that produce robust
and reliable results is an under-
standing of building physics prin-
ciples and basic data science. This is
particularly true when comparing C
Take the example of a user who
wishes to understand the impact
of switching their retail buildings,
all of which are in Climate Zone
3B, from old T12 fluorescent light-
ing to newer, more efficient T8s.
The user can quickly make two peer FIGURE 4 Comparisons of dataset 2a and 2b, by source EUI. A) Overlaid histograms of Datasets 2a (purple) and
2b (yellow). B) Difference histogram calculated with the actuarial analysis method. C) Difference his-
groups, the first comprised of all togram calculated with the regression analysis method.
retail buildings in Climate Zone 3B
with T12 lighting, and the second
identical except with T8 lighting. Comparing each buildings’ systems and characteristics, which makes it
dataset’s histogram medians for source EUI shows that crucial to understand exactly what data is being used to
buildings with T8s use 58% more energy than buildings estimate differences.
with T12s. The actuarial method of comparison returns For retail buildings, data fields worth investigating
a similar value of 60% more energy. Finally, the regres- include operating hours, floor area, and number of peo-
sion method returns a value of 16% more energy when ple, as major differences in these datasets may explain
switching to T8s, which is still counterintuitive, but the nonintuitive results. Figure 5 shows how the under-
much closer to what one expects. lying data for retail buildings with T8 lighting has, on
To understand, and avoid, issues such as these, the average, 4.7 times the square footage, 54% more people,
user should always explore the similarities and differ- and 44% longer operating hours than retail buildings
ences between their two datasets to gain an understand- with T12 lighting. These major differences between
ing of what amount and quality of data comprises each datasets are, to some degree, being accounted for by
dataset. The BPD does not have complete data on all the regression model, but not by visual comparison of

44 A S H R A E J O U R N A L   a s h r a e . o r g   J U LY 2 0 1 6

histograms or the actuarial compari-

son method.
While the BPD is the largest pub-
licly available dataset of its kind and
leverages powerful statistical analy-
sis methods, a sound understanding
of the underlying data and building
science is necessary to avoid misin-
terpreting results. A general caution
for empirical data analysis is that
underlying differences in datasets, B
as well as missing data, can mislead
the unaware user. These pitfalls can
be overcome with careful investi-
gation of the available data and a
foundational understanding of the
principles of building energy use.
The Building Performance
Database gives users a set of tools for
performing real-world, data-based
exploration and analyses on highly C
granular, and highly customizable,
datasets. These tools can be used
by building energy practitioners
to benchmark buildings, check the
validity of simulations and model
outputs against real world data, and
compare datasets using statistical
methods to better understand tech- FIGURE 5 Overlaid histograms of T12 (purple) and T8 (yellow) lighting for retail buildings in California for A)
nology impacts on building energy floor area, B) number of people, and C) operating hours per week.

Acknowledgments U.S. Department of Energy.

4. LBNL. “Building Performance Database.” Lawrence Berkeley
The authors gratefully acknowledge the many data National Laboratory.
contributors to the BPD, and energy professionals who 5. Brown, R.E., et al. 2014. “Getting real with energy data:
shared how they use the tool. The BPD is sponsored by using the buildings performance database to support data-
driven analyses and decision-making.” ACEEE Summer Study on
the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Technologies Energy Efficiency in Buildings.
Office. 6. ASHRAE. 2011. Procedures for Commercial Building Energy Audits,
Second Edition. Atlanta: ASHRAE.
7. Mathew, P.A., et al. 2015. “Big-data for building energy perfor-
References mance: Lessons from assembling a very large national database of
1. Granderson, J., M.A. Piette, G. Ghatikar. 2011. “Building building energy use.” Applied Energy 140:85 – 93.
energy information systems: user case studies.” Energy Efficiency 8. Custodio, C.Y., et al. 2015. “Data Preparation Process for the
4(1):17 – 30. Buildings Performance Database.” LBNL-6724E. Lawrence Berkeley
2. Energy Star. “Portfolio Manager.” National Laboratory.
3. U.S. DOE. 2015. “It’s All About the Data: How the Building Per- 9. LBNL. “BPD API Documentation.” Lawrence Berkeley National
formance Database is Informing Decisions on Energy Efficiency.” Laboratory.


2016 ASHRAE TECHNOLOGY AWARD CASE STUDIES The project’s guiding principle
initially was to choose sensible,
sustainable design strategies
rather than set specific perfor-
mance targets. But, the project
achieved measured annual EUIs
below 2030 Challenge energy
baselines. The office floors,
including parking garage, were
87% less than the 2030 Challenge





The Greenfire Campus is comprised of a six-story apart-
The Greenfire ment building (23,400 ft2 [2536 m2]) and four-story
Campus office/retail building (27,300 ft2 [2174 m2]), a large green
“commons” between them, and structured parking
Location: Seattle
below each building. The project addresses the challenge
of reducing carbon emissions with an integrated design
Owner: Wilberforce Foundation
for two buildings that use dramatically less energy than
Principal Use: Commercial
typical buildings in Seattle.
Includes: Office, apartments, retail
The principle of “sensible sustainability” provided a
Gross Square Footage: 27,300 office/retail
building, 23,400 apartment building
guiding hand for setting high performance strategies.
For Greenfire Campus, this meant seeking a practi-
Substantial Completion/Occupancy: January 2014
cal balance between green construction strategies and
Occupancy: 100%
life-cycle cost-effectiveness. This project was completed
using an integrated, highly collaborative effort through-
out design and construction. Both buildings received
LEED v3 Gold certification.
Tom Marseille, P.E., is a mechanical engineer and the managing director of the Seattle office for WSP | Parsons Brinkerhoff,
and U.S. director of sustainability. Ben Gozart is a mechanical engineer for WSP | Parsons Brinkerhoff in Seattle.




ABOVE Interior conference room at top of


office building.
LEFT Daylit interior of office building.

The heart of the central plant in both buildings EPA Target Finder for the office building indicated an
consists of ground source heat pumps that connect to appropriate baseline median annual energy use inten-
a shared geoexchange loop consisting of 20 wells or sity (EUI) of 110 kBtu/ft2·yr (1249 MJ/m2·yr). The 2030
boreholes sized to provide approximately 18,500 Btu/h Challenge Regional Residential baseline published by
(5422 kW) capacity each, or a total of 370,000 Btu/h Architecture 2030 indicated an EUI of 40 kBtu/ft2·yr
(108 436 kW) overall system capacity. Both central plants (453 MJ/m2·yr).
produce heating water. In the apartment building, heat- The project team conducted energy and thermal simu-
ing water is distributed to a radiant floor that provides a lations to help determine the most effective solutions.
high degree of comfort and energy efficiency by enabling Strategies used in the project included a high efficiency
lower thermostat settings than more traditional heat- lighting system, emphasis on maximizing daylighting,
ing systems. The office building heat pump serves active passive cooling in the office building, radiant floors in
chilled beams, and provides both heating water and the apartments, exterior shades to manage peak solar
“high temperature” chilled water if determined neces- loads, air-to-air heat recovery between ventilation
sary on hot summer days. Supplemental heat for both and exhaust air, the geoexchange loop, solar thermal
buildings is provided by electric boilers. domestic hot water in the apartment building, and
Ventilation in the apartment building is provided by photovoltaic (PV) solar energy for the office building.
individual heat recovery ventilators serving each resi- The design energy model for the apartment build-
dential unit. A centralized heat recovery ventilator is ing anticipated it would use 42% less energy than
used to meet ventilation requirements for the office the comparable 2030 Challenge baseline building.
building and to provide primary air to active chilled Measured annual EUI was found to be 21.2 kBtu/ft2·yr
beams. (240.8 MJ/m2·yr), a 47% reduction relative to the 2030
Domestic hot water demand in the apartment build- Challenge baseline. Energy for heating and domestic hot
ings is met by a combination of a solar thermal array water production was found to use only about 30% of
located on the roof and gas-fired water heaters. Heat the total energy consumed in the building. 44.0 MMBTU
generated by the solar thermal array on the sunniest (46.6 GJ) of excess heat generated by the solar thermal
summer days in excess of building demand is redirected array during the summer was used to recharge the
to the geoexchange loop via a heat exchanger, recharg- ground via the geoexchange loop.
ing the ground. The energy model for the office portions of the office/
retail building anticipated a 70% reduction in energy use
Energy Efficiency compared to a typical building, which would exceed the
While the guiding principle initially for the project interim carbon reduction target set by the Architecture
was to choose sensible sustainable design strategies 2030 Challenge at the time, and a 43% reduction relative
rather than setting specific performance targets, 2030 to the LEED v3 (ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007) baseline.
Challenge energy baselines were examined and refer- Actual measured EUI for the office floors, including
enced as part of the early design process to help inform energy use from the parking garage, was found to be
the design. only 14.4 kBtu/ft2·yr (163.5 MJ/m2·yr), an 87% reduction





Solar Thermal Loop
Ground Source Heat Loop
G Photovoltaic Feed

Energy Flow Diagram

A Super-Insulated Envelope F Photovoltaic Panels • The Ground as a Heating & Cooling Bank
B Solar Thermal Panels G Daytime Ground Heat Recharge • Solar Thermal & PV
C Hot Water Storage H Active Chilled Beams • Super Insulated & Energy Efficient
D Ground Source Wells I Reduced Glazing Percentage
E Electric Car Park

FIGURE 1 Energy flow diagram of Greenfire Campus buildings.

relative to the 2030 Challenge baseline. This even- LEED v3 baseline. Occupancy sensors are used in the
better-than-anticipated EUI for the office spaces is due garages, private offices, meeting rooms, communal
to a high level of occupant engagement with regard to areas and stairs to further mitigate energy consumption.
minimizing mechanical systems through maximizing The PV array further improves the overall office/retail
passive strategies, managing lighting and equipment building performance, producing a total of 10,700 kWh
(plug) loads, and a lower than modeled occupant density during the year, about 14% of the total office floor energy
on the third and fourth floors. use.
The first floor is occupied by a popular restaurant with
a full commercial kitchen. Not surprisingly, the mea- Environmental Impact
sured EUI of 148 kBtu/ft2·yr (1681 MJ/m2·yr) for this por- As a starting point in the design process, the team rec-
tion of the building was much higher than on the office ognized that the most energy-efficient HVAC strategy is
floors, though it falls below the 2030 Challenge median one that focuses on decreasing the amount of heating
typical EUI value of 203 kBtu/ft2·yr (2305 MJ/m2·yr). and cooling required by the building. In Seattle many
The project design made effective use of daylight to buildings require some heat almost year-round. For the
help illuminate office spaces, reducing dramatically Greenfire Campus, super-insulation over and above
the use of artificial lighting. The lighting system was energy code and a continuous air barrier as part of the
designed to beat the stringent local energy code by 25% building envelope were used as a fundamental heating
to 35% and was modeled at 28% savings relative to the load reduction strategy.



16 Electricity 120 Electricity

6 10
14 Natural Gas Natural Gas
100 9
12 5 8
Electricity (MWh)

Electricity (MWh)
Gas (Therms)
80 7

Gas (Therms)
10 4
8 6
60 3 5
6 4
40 2
4 3
2 20 1 2
0 0 0 0

FIGURE 2 Greenfire—Apartment Building: Measured monthly energy use. FIGURE 3 Greenfire—Office Building: Measured monthly energy use.

The project takes advantage of the mild Pacific residential and office building feature indoor gardens
Northwest climate by providing operable windows con- that help enhance the beauty of the environment.
figured to effectively use natural ventilation and passive
cooling. Indoor Air Quality
A system of red/green indicator lights is used in the While occupant-managed natural ventilation strate-
office building to notify occupants when to close or open gies provide a healthy and comfortable indoor environ-
windows to maintain comfort and to provide people ment for much of the office/retail spaces, mechanical
with control of their indoor air quality. At night, temper- ventilation systems are still required for efficient ven-
atures drop down to where fresh air entering through tilation on cold and hot days for occupied spaces and
windows can be used to precool the building, signifi- to meet ASHRAE Standard 62 requirements for areas
cantly reducing mechanical cooling systems operation, such as restrooms, janitor’s closets and copy rooms. To
resulting in energy savings. To further extend the range address this, a 100% dedicated outdoor air system was
of conditions where passive cooling is effective, both provided, which includes 75% effective air-to-air recov-
fixed and adjustable exterior window shading was stra- ery of heat from exhaust heat to temper incoming fresh
tegically incorporated to minimize direct sunlight from outdoor air. Additional kitchen exhaust systems were
overheating spaces during the summer while preserv- provided by the retail tenant in accordance with local
ing views and daylight. A thermal bulk-airflow model code, separate from the primary mechanical ventilation
was used to optimize the extent and location of operable system serving the rest of the building.
windows and type of shading. The apartment building residential units also have
The use of a geo-loop connected to heat pumps is operable windows. However, to ensure ASHRAE
recognized by the EPA as an effective way to reduce Standard 62 compliance, and to save energy and ensure
greenhouse gas emissions. By using this system for good air quality year-round, they are each provided with
cooling, no cooling tower and accompanying water a dedicated air-to-air heat recovery unit. This approach
treatment was required, eliminating the use of is more efficient than the traditional local approach of
accompanying chemicals potentially being intro- providing trickle vents and mechanical whole-house
duced to the environment through sanitary or storm- exhaust.
water systems.
The Greenfire Campus overall was designed to “sit Operation & Maintenance
lightly” on the land. Contrary to virtually all other recent The building was outfitted with advanced metering
projects in the area, over 50% of this urban site is green and reporting tools to enable monitoring of water and
space dedicated to urban habitat and gardens. Both the energy consumption, energy production and Btu use



for heating and cooling. The energy dashboard platform Cost Effectiveness
that was specified gives the building operators a robust The heating water generated by heat pumps located
chance to see how much energy and water is used on a in both buildings is three to four times the efficiency of
weekly, monthly, and yearly basis—and respond quickly a conventional boiler. The heat pumps are connected to
when things are not operating within expected param- a common ground loop heat exchanger located on the
eters. The meter data proved beneficial particularly site. The number of boreholes and their depth dictate
after initial occupancy as a commissioning tool to help the heating capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger.
optimize energy efficiency. To provide enough boreholes to meet the peak heat-
Occupants and the owner representative operating the ing needs during the coldest day of the year would have
building have been very satisfied with the project. The meant very high drilling costs. So, a choice was made
office building has been able to effectively use passive to dramatically reduce the size of the ground loop heat
cooling to provide comfortable conditions in occupied exchanger, and to provide supplemental electric boil-
spaces the majority of hours during the cooling season, ers that also provide backup capacity to operate for the
confirming findings of the thermal comfort model. This relatively few heating hours a year when the heat pump
reduces the number of hours heat pumps, chilled beam system is not enough.
and hydronic distribution systems need to operate, which
will ultimately extend the service life of these systems. Innovation
The solar thermal system adds some operational com- To efficiently meet apartment building hot water
plexity (pumps and controls), but reduces the load on the demand, a solar thermal system was designed to gener-
gas-fired water heaters, extending their service life. ate approximately 70% of the domestic hot water. On



FIGURE 4 Greenfire office building natural ventilation mode flow diagram.

warmer sunny days when excess solar heat is created, it

Hours Outside Ideal Comfort

is routed to the common geoexchange loop, seasonally

Range (Greater Than 10%)

10% to 20% of Occupants

storing heat in the ground for the following winter. The 400 Dissatisfied (Slightly Warm)
excess heat further enabled the geoexchange loop size to 20%+ of Occupants
be minimized. 300 Dissatisfied (Warm)

The project has two cisterns—one for each building—to 200

collect rainwater off the rooftops for irrigation of pea 119
100 96 82
patches and “edible landscape.” The remainder of the 55 51
planted area uses native and/or drought-tolerant plants 61 63 50 47 64
that require no irrigation. Low-flow plumbing fixtures Corner West North East Corridor
Offices Offices Offices Offices
were used throughout the project to further reduce
potable water needs within the buildings. Overall, the FIGURE 5 Results of bulk-airflow comfort analysis.
office building water savings were estimated at 28%, and
the apartment building at 51.8% relative to the LEED
baseline. sustainability. Residents and neighbors have been
enthusiastic in their response and the owner’s goals
Conclusion have been met or exceeded in this new small-scale com-
The vision of the Greenfire Campus was to create a munity, built with both people and the environment in
community that demonstrates both sensible and social mind.



Steven T. Taylor

“Sweep” Parking Garage

Exhaust Systems

It is common to see enclosed and underground parking garage exhaust systems

consisting of extensive duct distribution systems with multiple exhaust inlets often
ducted to near the floor. The California Mechanical Code (CMC),1 for instance,
includes this requirement:*
Exhaust Inlet Distribution. To ensure proper exhaust of con- FIGURE 1 CFD analysis of exhaust grille; velocity vectors. (Courtesy of Price
taminated air and fumes from parking garages, exhaust systems Industries.)
utilizing multiple exhaust inlets shall be designed so that exhaust
400 fpm
inlets are distributed in such a manner that no portion of the park-
ing garage is more than 50 ft (15 240 mm) from an exhaust inlet. 300
Such exhaust inlets shall be installed so that the highest elevation
of the exhaust inlet is no greater than 12 in. (305 mm) below the
lowest ceiling level. 100
Exception: Garage exhaust systems designed without distributed
exhaust inlets may have their exhaust inlets designed based on
the principles of engineering and mechanics and shall provide the
minimum required exhaust rate in Table 4-4.
The goal of this requirement is clear, but the extensive means that automobile exhaust emissions, which will
exhaust distribution system required is not necessary to almost always be more than 2 ft (0.6 m) from exhaust
meet this goal. It misses two key ventilation fundamen- inlets, will not be captured by ducted exhaust inlets.
tal concepts: Hence, the location of the inlets has essentially no
1. “You cannot suck out a match.” This is one of my impact on the source strength of the emissions into the
favorite expressions because it makes this fundamental space.
principle clear even to non-engineers. The idea is that 2. Pollutants are diluted by supply air, not exhaust
exhaust inlets cannot capture pollutants unless they air. It is the makeup air induced into the garage by the
are generated right next to the exhaust inlet. Figure exhaust air that is diluting auto emissions.† So it is the
1 (previously published in my February 2014 column makeup air distribution we need to pay attention to, not
“Restroom Exhaust Systems”) shows a computational the exhaust distribution. In fact, the distributed exhaust
fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of a typical exhaust inlets as mandated by the CMC can actually reduce
grille. Note the velocity vectors are only high right near ventilation efficiency and increase average pollutant
the grille; more than 2 ft (0.6 m) or so away from the concentrations depending on the location of the makeup
grille face, the velocity vectors are close to zero. This air inlets relative to the exhaust inlets.

* This section was required in the 2010 CMC, forcing the use of the exception if alternative exhaust system layouts were to be used. The
exception was interpreted by many code officials to mean that computational fluid dynamics had to be performed, such as that discussed
in this article, to show alternative designs performed similarly. The 2013 version of the CMC includes this section as an alternative, so
CFD is no longer required to justify alternative designs.
† From the perspective of garage air quality, ventilation systems could directly supply outdoor air instead of inducing makeup air with ex-
haust systems. However, the garage would then be positively pressurized, possibly pushing pollutants into adjacent occupiable spaces.
Most codes, therefore, do not allow garages to be ventilated with supply air systems.



FIGURE 2 Multiple inlet garage exhaust system. FIGURE 3 Sweep garage exhaust system.

Exhaust Fan Exhaust Fan

Garage Garage
Entry Entry

CO 0.00 4.55 9.09 13.64 18.18 22.73 27.27 31.82 36.36 40.91 45.45 50.00 ppm CO 0.00 4.55 9.09 13.64 18.18 22.73 27.27 31.82 36.36 40.91 45.45 50.00 ppm

For instance Figure 2 and Figure 3 show CFD predictions ASHRAE Standard 62.1-20132) is 0.75 cfm/ft2 (3.7 L/s·m2)
of carbon monoxide (CO) concentration from a simple for a total exhaust rate of 105,000 cfm (52,000 L/s).
garage with a center drive aisle with a continuous queue The air speed through single garage entry would have
of automobiles. The garage entry on the left side is the been ~2,000 fpm (10 m/s), which would be very notice-
source of makeup air. Figure 2 shows CO concentration able to people walking through and generate a higher
assuming multiple ducted exhaust inlets per the CMC, than desirable pressure drop. High velocity makeup
while Figure 3 shows an unducted design with a single air also results in more stagnant areas caused by eddies
exhaust inlet on the side opposite the entry. The exhaust (discussed in the next example). Our experience has
air draws makeup air from the entry across the garage been that the Standard 62.1-2013 garage exhaust rate
in a sweeping fashion; hence the name “sweep” exhaust is extremely conservative; with fan speed controlled by
system. carbon monoxide (CO) concentration, as required by
The figures show that the sweep design has lower over- ASHRAE Standard 90.1-20133 and California’s 2013 Title
all CO concentrations with maximum concentration 24 Energy Standards4 for most garages, we find exhaust
(~25 ppm) only at the very right side. The reason is that rates seldom exceed half of the design rate and even
the exhaust inlets on the left side of Figure 2 are extract- then only for short periods in the evening rush hour
ing air that has a low concentration of pollutants, wast- (due to cold engine starts).
ing this air and leaving less makeup air to dilute pol- As hybrid, electric, and other low-emission vehicles
lutants generated on the right side of the garage. So the become more popular, the current Standard 62.1 garage
sweep design in Figure 3 can provide better ventilation exhaust rate will become even more conservative. But
than a fully ducted exhaust system, and it clearly will be even half the 2,000 fpm (10 m/s) design air speed at
less expensive. the entry seemed too high. So we decided we needed to
convert some of the exhaust points into additional sup-
Example 1: One-Level Garage ply air points. This increased first costs because the 0.75
Many commercial and residential complexes have a cfm/ft2 (3.7 L/s·m2) exhaust rate still had to be main-
one-level underground garage below. Here is an exam- tained; the air that was previously exhausted at points
ple of how we implemented a sweep garage exhaust now used for supply had to shift to other exhaust points.
design on a 140,000 ft2 (13,000 m2) garage. • The fact that we needed more supply air points
The garage entries will always be a source of makeup worked out well because two of our exhaust points, EA1
outdoor air. So our first approach is to locate exhaust and EA2 in Figure 4, could not be made to work due to
points (tagged EA1, EA2, etc.) on the opposite side of architectural constraints. EA1 would have discharged air
the garage so they can draw makeup air from the entry into the ramp running down into the garage entry, caus-
down the drive aisles to the exhaust inlet, as shown in ing exhaust air to recirculate. Converting it to a supply
Figure 4. This is the least expensive design. However, we air point solved that problem. EA2 was located near the
encountered some problems: Steven T. Taylor, P.E., is a principal of Taylor Engineering in Alameda, Calif. He is a mem-
• The exhaust rate prescribed by the CMC (based on ber of SSPC 90.1 and chair of TC 4.3, Ventilation Requirements and Infiltration.



FIGURE 4 One-level garage—initial concept. FIGURE 5 One-level garage—final concept.

main entry to the campus, and we could not find an ex- • Five transfer fans, each 24,000 cfm (12,000 L/s)
haust design that met code (e.g., 10 ft [3 m] above grade drawing air from the upper level and discharging to the
and from building openings) and that was also archi- lower level (shown as yellow squares in Figure 6).
tecturally acceptable. Converting this exhaust point to The split in exhaust rate between the upper and lower
a supply point solved that problem due to less stringent level was determined by experimenting with the CFD
code limitations on air intakes. model.
It also improved ventilation on the left drive aisle All fans are propeller fans with low-noise blades. Even
between EA2 and EA3, circled in green in Figure 4, where with the special blades, the fans are not very quiet at
a stagnant‡ spot would occur with the original concept. full speed (35 sones), but they never get to full speed
The final design concept is shown in Figure 5. when controlled off CO concentration (as noted earlier)
and garages are not acoustically sensitive spaces. Where
Example 2: Two-Level Garage noise is a concern, e.g., if the area where the fans dis-
My second example is a 510,000 ft2 (47,000 m2) two- charge is acoustically sensitive, mixed flow fans can be
level garage. The sweep design with two-level garages used; they are much quieter and somewhat more effi-
can be made to work using transfer fans that can elimi- cient, but also much more expensive.
nate stagnant spots on both levels without using any A CFD analysis was performed to justify the design
ductwork. The garage is shown in Figure 6. The exhaust using the CMC code exception shown earlier. Both the
fans are all located on one corner of the garage in a loca- proposed sweep design shown in Figure 6 and a fully
tion that is not architecturally sensitive. There are two ducted system compliant with the CMC were modeled.
entries on the upper level through which all makeup air The results, shown in Figure 7 for both upper and lower
is drawn. levels, indicate that both designs work acceptably—they
The design consists of the following: both result in predicted CO concentrations well below
• Four exhaust fans totaling 110,000 cfm (55,000 L/s) the 50 ppm CMC limit—but the sweep design results in
on upper level (shown as red squares in Figure 6); fewer stagnant areas caused by eddies with CO concen-
• Ten exhaust fans totaling 275,000 cfm (140,000 L/s) trations above 30 ppm.
exhaust on lower level (shown as red squares in Figure 6); Advantages of the sweep design over a fully ducted
and CMC design include:
‡ We used to call these “dead” spots but this did not go over well • Much lower mechanical costs, about $1.2 million
with clients concerned about CO poisoning. savings in this case, from $3.75/ft2 ($40.36/m2) down



FIGURE 6 Two-level garage exhaust design. (Courtesy of CPP, Inc.) FIGURE 7 CFD CO concentration sweep vs. CMC design. (Courtesy of CPP, Inc.)

Transfer 50.00
Transfer Fan Entry 46.43
Entry Transfer Fan 42.86
Fan 39.29
Transfer 35.71
Fan UL 32.14
Transfer 25.00
Fan 21.43
LL 3.571
Sweep Design CMC Design ppm
Exhaust Fans

to $1.25/ft2 ($13.45 m2), one-third the cost. On other to-floor height. Exhaust discharge locations are difficult
projects, we have seen mechanical cost savings as high as to coordinate architecturally due to code minimum
$4/ft2 ($43.06/m2). separation distances (e.g., 10 ft [3 m] above grade and
• Lower floor-to-floor height due to the elimination from openings into the building) and architectural resis-
of ductwork. The cost savings of reduced floor-to-floor tance to exhaust stacks, louvers, etc., which can be very
height can exceed the mechanical savings. large for large underground garages.
• Generally, lower fan energy costs. The connected
power for the sweep design with propeller fans in this Conclusions
example was ~100 kW vs. 125 kW for a CMC ducted ex- Code requirements and standard practice in many
haust system with mixed flow fans, 25% lower despite areas include fully ducted garage exhaust systems with
the less efficient propeller fans and the added fan multiple intakes distributed around the garage. These
energy of the transfer fans. This is due to the much designs are unnecessary for minimum garage air qual-
lower pressure drop of unducted systems. The energy ity and can even result in reduced air quality while
savings, however, can degrade if there is a large vari- increasing first costs 300% or more and increasing
ance in emissions throughout the garage; the speed energy costs 25% or more compared to sweep garage
of all fans must be controlled based on the highest exhaust system designs. Sweep designs can be made
CO reading, which can cause overventilation in other to work for almost any garage architectural layout,
areas. A ducted system, if provided with multiple fans including multi-level garages with transfer fans used
serving discrete areas, may be able to be controlled at to prevent stagnant areas by moving air from one level
different speeds depending on local CO readings. But to the next. In most cases, the sweep system can be
our experience has been that, for office buildings at designed without modeling the system using computa-
least, fans usually run at minimum speed (20% or 0.15 tional fluid dynamics, as in Example 1, but CFD can be
cfm/ft2 [0.74 L/s·m2] per California’s Title 24 Energy a valuable design tool for more complex garage layouts,
Standards) almost all the time with fairly uniform such as Example 2.
increases in CO concentrations during evening rush
hour. References
• Improved architectural appearance due to the 1. California Code of Regulations, Title 24, Part 4 California Me-
chanical Code, California Building Standards Commission.
elimination of ductwork. 2. ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2013, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air
• Fewer exhaust discharge locations. For most sweep Quality.
designs, garage exhaust fans can be located in one or two 3. ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013, Energy Standard for Buildings Except
Low-Rise Residential Buildings.
locations. Ducted systems usually require many more 4. 2013 Building Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential and
discharge locations to limit duct sizes to minimize floor- Nonresidential Buildings, Title 24, Part 6 CEC-400-2012-004-CMF.



Joseph W. Lstiburek

No Good Deed Shall Go


Moving air handlers from attics is a good idea. Even better, add more attic insulation at the same time. What could go wrong?
The worst thing you could do is install furnaces and air-conditioning systems in
vented attics—even worse than installing them in vented crawlspaces.* The attics are
way hotter than the outside in the summer and cold and miserable in the winter—
and in hot, humid climates it gets ugly (Photo 1). You can’t get at them easily to service
them. They don’t last very long. They need to be in a better place.
What about putting them in garages? Ahhhh man. In
Michigan they call that the Kevorkian option.† They need to
be inside, and while you are moving them inside, increase
attic insulation levels. Should be easy, eh? Nope. There is no
such thing as a free thermodynamic lunch.

“There is no such thing as a free thermodynamic lunch.”

Let’s look at this in stages and in the most difficult climate

zone. Most difficult climate zone? Not where you think. Hot,
humid climates are way more difficult than the rest. It ain’t
a picnic building stuff on a sandbar or in a swamp in the
PHOTO 1 Air Handler in Attic. The worst thing you could do is install
middle of the Gulf of Mexico. The view to Cuba is pretty nice furnaces and air-conditioning systems in vented attics. The attics are way
from both,‡ but that is about it if you are in the conditioning hotter than the outside in the summer and cold and miserable in the win-
business. Give me snow any day; that is easy to deal with by ter—and in hot, humid climates it gets ugly. You can’t get at them easily to
service them. They don’t last very long. They need to be in a better place.
* This could be an interesting debate over spirits or hoppy fermented liquids. Attics are way hotter, so if Arrhenius is right, they are a more
miserable place. But, crawlspaces are way wetter. But, sometimes attics are both hot and wet and cold and wet. I don’t know. Crawl-
spaces see groundwater and soil gas and weird living things.
† Air handlers leak air and unlike ductwork, which you can actually “seal” with mastic, you are not “allowed” to air seal the air handler
itself, as it voids the warranty. The typical air handler leaks about 50 cfm (24 L/s) of air. When this is on the supply side, what the heck.
Supplying air to the garage from the house, not so bad—an energy penalty for sure, but not horribly bad. More air change, mostly a
problem in humid climates because of the part-load humidity thing, but not horribly bad. When this is on the return side—bad, very bad.
Just for fun go to your local building department and tell the Chief Building Official that you are going to put a 50 cfm (24 L/s) return in a
garage and watch for the reaction. Then go online and search Jack Kevorkian. Enjoy the moment.
‡ Galveston, Texas, and Miami.
§ OK, not true, but go with the rant here. Not everything has to be true. It just has to sound good for your argument. Pretend you are a
journalist. However, for a serious discussion, go check out “Dam Ice Dam,” ASHRAE Journal, June 2010.



PHOTO 2 (LEFT) Air Handler in Garages. There are complications. See Kevorkian. The air in an attic and garage comes
from the same place—outside. Same dew point, but higher relative humidity. It gets worse—wait for it—in a hot attic.
The box that makes air cold is actually warmer. Not so much in a garage. Air handlers themselves are colder, as are
the supply plenums that are attached to them. So stuff sweats more—way more. We actually increased moisture
problems with equipment and ductwork when we moved air handlers from attics into garages. PHOTO 3 (CENTER) Air
Handler in Closet in Garage. Easy peasy, right? Not if they are also gas furnaces. What about combustion air? PHOTO 4
(RIGHT) Gas Water Heater and Gas Furnace In Closet. Standard gas water heaters and gas furnaces need combustion
air—basically a big hole connecting the closet to the garage. Defeats the purpose, which was to stop the sweating.

We collectively have beat up south

Texas and south Florida folks pretty
well; so much so they started to take
the air handlers out of attics and put
them in garages. Trouble was, just
putting them in the garage was not
enough (Photo 2). There are compli-
cations. See Kevorkian above. Also,
garages from a temperature and
humidity perspective are not much
better than attics. Or are they better?
It depends on how you define better. PHOTO 5 Sealed Combustion. If the gas furnaces PHOTO 6 Lonely Water Heater. Leaving the stan-
are sealed combustion and the water heaters are dard gas water heater outside the closet solves
Better usually means cooler. Garages sealed combustion, then transfer air from the the combustion air problem for the gas water
don’t have as much of a thermal load garage is not necessary. Great approach, except heater in the closet, as does changing the gas
the closet gets cold. water heater for an electric water heater.
as an attic. Yes, garages are cooler,
but that is actually worser.# Cooler
temperatures mean higher relative problems with equipment and duc- garage. Defeats the purpose, which
humidities. The air in an attic and twork when we moved air handlers was to stop the sweating. Unless the
garage comes from the same place— from attics into garages. gas furnaces are sealed combustion
outside. Same dew point, but higher Now what? Not going to move them and the water heaters are sealed
relative humidity. It gets worse—wait back into the attic. Next approach combustion. I like sealed combustion
for it—in a hot attic. The box that was put them in a closet in the garage stuff (Photo 5), but it’s expensive. Did I
makes air cold is actually warmer. (Photo 3). Easy peasy, right? Not if they mention I like sealed combustion?
Not so much in a garage. Air handlers are also gas furnaces. And, if you have Folks ended up doing a bunch of
themselves are colder, as are the a gas water heater beside them, it things to avoid the sealed combus-
supply plenums that are attached gets complicated (Photo 4). You have tion approach. They would leave
to them. So stuff sweats more—way to provide combustion air, basically a the gas water heater outside the
more. We actually increased moisture big hole connecting the closet to the closet (Photo 6) or they would change

# Millennialism. Apparently Gen Y gets to ignore rules and make stuff up. I want in on Joseph W. Lstiburek, Ph.D., P.Eng., is a principal of Building Science
that. Today I “feel” that “worser” is a real word, and if I feel it—it must be true. Corporation in Westford, Mass. Visit



Return Grille
10 in. Diameter Flex
Duct (Typical)


Ceiling Ceiling
Grille Grille

Wall Cavity

FIGURE 1 (LEFT) Return-In-Closet. Have to make the closet warmer. Where does the makeup air come from? Take it from the house. Couple the closet to the house. FIGURE 2
(RIGHT) “Jump Duct.” Flex duct providing transfer air from house to closet.

the gas water heater for an electric a jump duct (Figure 2) or transfer
water heater. And then get rid of grille (Figure 3), so warm air from
the gas furnace and go with a heat the house is pulled into the closet,
pump. Now the big combustion air warming the closet. This air is also Cavity is Sealed
hole issue goes away. Apply weather drier than air from the garage— Tight, Drywall
Glued to Studs
stripping to the closet door and we much drier. This works. You have to and Plates on
Both Sides
are good right? Nope. Ah man, now be careful not to depressurize the
what? closet too much—no more than 2 or
That box that makes air cold is cold, 3 Pa.II
and being in a closet makes it even How do you size the return and
colder. Not only is the box colder but the jump ducts and transfer grilles?
the closet the box is in is also colder. You guess and measure and watch.
There is almost no load in the closet. A 6 in. by 6 in. (152 mm by 152 mm)
Surface temperatures go down, and grille on the return plenum and a
relative humidity adjacent these sur- 12 in. by 16 in. (305 mm by 406 mm)
FIGURE 3 Transfer Grille. Warm air from the house
faces go up. Yup, the “M word.” Mold. transfer grille to the house works. is pulled into the closet, warming the closet.
Cold closet with cold equipment in How do I know? See the “measure- Grilles are offset high and low to reduce noise
a garage in south Florida and south- ment and watch” the sentence transfer.
east Texas? Fun, eh? above. That’s an awfully big hole to
We have to make the closet the house. Yup. Not easy to make things. Two things. Not just one.
warmer. Have to heat the closet? Get that work with a closet in the garage. First, the air handler closet is going
out of town. Yup, but we have to be Yup. Now what? to be even colder than when it was
clever about it. Put a return in the Put the air handler inside the in the garage. Second, the moisture
closet (Figure 1). Yup. That is insane. house. Where it belongs. It is much levels in the closet are higher at the
Nope. Where does the makeup air easier to make all of this stuff work top of the closet than at the bottom.
come from? Take it from the house. inside. But now you have to pay I will defend this crazy statement
Couple the closet to the house. Use attention to two really important later. But for now, just go with it.
IIWhere does this number come from? I guessed. I get to do this. I am an engineer. Old school. Don’t like the word “guess”? OK, use
the words “experience” and “judgment.” Those latter words are basically “educated guesses” made by old engineers. Feel better now?


PHOTO 7 Mold at Ceiling of Mechanical Closet. If

all you do is put the air handler inside the house
in a closet, inside the house you will get mold. Not
a lot. But some. It typically ends up at the ceiling PHOTO 8 (LEFT) Flex Duct. The mechanical closet is going to be slightly negative. The ductwork penetrating the
of the closet where the supply plenum penetrates ceiling needs to be sealed in an airtight manner if the ceiling is at the underside of a vented attic. You do not
the ceiling. This problem goes away with a want to pull hot, humid air down into the mechanical closet from the attic. The supply and return ductwork
grille on the return plenum (see Figure 1 again), should not be flex duct, as it is extremely difficult to seal. PHOTO 9 (RIGHT) Rigid Duct. Go with rigid duct, as it
coupled with a jump duct or transfer grille. is much easier to seal where it penetrates ceilings.

If all you do is put the air handler ceiling or through the ceiling (see Boys and girls, you can do this
inside the house in a closet inside the “second thing” above). You get experiment at home. First, find a
the house, you will get mold. Not a a warm closet, warm air handler, friend who likes you, but believes
lot. But some. It typically ends up at warm supply plenum surfaces and you are wrong and brings his own
the ceiling of the closet where the quiet. Are we done yet? Ah, no. dew-point meter to demonstrate
supply plenum penetrates the ceil- Couple of important things. The that you are clearly wrong (Photo 10).
ing (Photo 7). This problem goes away mechanical closet is going to be Have a camera ready to record for
with a grille on the return plenum slightly negative. The ductwork posterity his proof of just how wrong
(see Figure 1 again), coupled with a penetrating the ceiling needs to you are (Photo 11). Oops. Not wrong.
jump duct or transfer grille. What be sealed in an airtight manner if Meter must be wrong. Actually,
about a louvered door? Works, but the ceiling is at the underside of no. We have been recording this
folks don’t always like the air han- a vented attic. You do not want to in unvented attics for quite some
dler noise. pull hot, humid air down into the time. (Check out “BA-1511: Field
I know some of you will be shocked mechanical closet from the attic. Testing of an Unvented Roof with
at this, but it is quite common to The supply and return ductwork Fibrous Insulation, Tiles, and Vapor
insulate the mechanical closet walls should not be flex duct (Photo 8), as it Diffusion Venting” on the Building
for acoustical purposes—which, yup, is extremely difficult to seal—go with Science website:
you guessed it, makes the closet even rigid duct (Photo 9). jawb9hy.)
colder. The quietest arrangement Done yet? No. Remember the So why should we care? Remember
seems to be a jump duct with acous- moisture levels being higher up high way back when at the beginning of
tically insulated walls. The makeup thing mentioned earlier? Not sup- this discussion when I pointed out
air from the main part of the house posed to happen according to typical that attic insulation levels are also
should come into the closet near the theory. Except it does.** going up? What happens when you
** When I wrote about this in “Cool Hand Luke Meets Attics,” ASHRAE Journal, April 2014, I got beat up by all kinds of folks. Smart
folks. Friends. Told me stuff like “you clearly do not understand diffusion theory” and “The Second Law of Thermodynamics does not
allow this.” Except observation, measurement and experiment shows that it happens. What’s a guy supposed to believe? Theory or
observation? If you have trouble with the answer to this question, see Feynman—the bongo-playing physicist—my generation’s Einstein,
Newton and Galileo. Guess we need a better theory or a better application of the existing theory. If someone emails me a computer simu-
lation trying to prove me wrong, I will find them and hurt them.


PHOTO 10 Friend With Meter. Boys and girls, you can do this experiment at home. First, find a friend who likes PHOTO 12 Closets Need Returns. What spaces
you, but believes you are wrong and brings his own dew-point meter to demonstrate that you are clearly wrong. have the least load? Closets. Closets need “active”
Sensor at floor and near ceiling. PHOTO 11 Meter Reading. Have a camera ready to record for posterity his returns at the ceilings and undercut doors. Closets
proof of just how wrong you are. Oops. Not wrong. Meter must be wrong. Actually, no. Difference in dew-point are now getting colder.
temperatures between floor and ceiling.

increase attic insulation from R-30

to R-38? Wait for it—your ceiling
gets colder. Don’t you just love this?
Yup, the attic insulation does its job.
The load from the attic is reduced.
Couple this with higher dew-point
temperatures at the underside of the
ceiling and what do you get? Ah, the
“M word” again. What spaces have
the least load? Closets. Closets need
“active” returns at the ceilings (Photo
12) and undercut doors. Closets are
now getting colder.
No good deed goes unpunished.
Yes, move the air handlers inside.
Yes, increase attic insulation levels.
But, you have to compensate for the
changes in relative humidity. You
think this is fun yet? Wait until you
provide high levels of whole house
ventilation—and good windows.
Sounds like the 2015 IECC and
ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Probably
should invest in a dehumidification
company and find yourself a really
good HVAC contractor.

Andy Pearson

No Excuses

Water chillers come in all shapes and sizes. You can choose between air-cooled, water-
cooled or remote condenser, depending on your circumstances and personal bias. Plant
size ranges from a few kilowatts of chilling capacity in a unit the size of a small filing
cabinet up to packages the size of a bus whose cooling capability is measured in tons.
When I was a kid, “tons” was just a way of expressing a values and recording them built into our refrigeration
large number, as in: systems, including chillers. With most refrigeration
“How many people were at the match?” systems, it is rather difficult to measure efficiency in
“Tons.” thermodynamic terms, but with chillers everything you
“What did you get for your birthday?” need to know is handed to you on a plate. Inlet and out-
let temperatures are there. Flow rate can be estimated
“Tons of stuff.”
quite accurately by measuring pressure drop in and out
“How much sugar would you like in your tea?” of the chiller, weather conditions can be measured or
“Tons, please.” downloaded from the web, and of course electrical use
The only things not measured in tons were time is easily captured. So why are we so shy about chiller
and distance, both conveniently expressed in “miles.” efficiency?
Unfortunately, the practice of measuring chiller capac- We have transitioned from the era when plant readings
ity in tons seems to encourage the same vagueness about were laboriously handwritten in a logbook every day, but
actual quantity. A ton of cooling there was never enough instrumen-
A three-ton chiller.
is actually a very precise amount tation to enable a true evaluation of
of heat transfer, equivalent to the performance to the point where we
removal of 3,517 Joules per second. I have too much information and too
use a conversion factor of 3.5 kW for little time to do anything with it. As
quick mental arithmetic (hint: mul- a result, on many chiller systems,
tiply by seven then divide by two). even those doing hundreds of tons
If the chiller’s cooling capacity is of cooling, we are now recording

being measured in tons, with all less than was being logged a hun-
the implicit fuzziness that brings dred years ago. More information
(at least in my head), then there seems little point in is not the answer; the key lies in what you do with what
being any more precise about the electrical use. That you have already.
would be like bothering about the price of pizza but not Every chiller should be shipped with software that
caring what size you got. measures key parameters, calculates cooling capac-
“Ten inch, sixteen inch or just a slice?” ity and COP, compares it with what would be expected
“I don’t care so long as it only costs me five bucks.” for the load and weather conditions, and presents
I remember as a student in the 1980s being told that the answer in terms of opportunity for cost savings.
there was, at that time, more computing power in a This should be made available in a variety of formats,
digital wristwatch than there had been on the Apollo 11 including wirelessly to smartphones, with the facility
moon shot. Now, with a handheld phone, I can listen to for comparing current and historic values so the effect
music, watch movies, play video games, read emails. I of improvement initiatives can be quantified, again in
just discovered recently that I can even phone people terms of cost savings.
with mine. We also have huge capacities for measuring Andy Pearson, Ph.D., C.Eng., is group managing director at Star Refrigeration in Glasgow, UK.


Zuraimi Sultan

Performance Evaluation
For Indoor Passive Panels

Currently, there are many building materials and coating products available in the
market with claims of enhancing indoor air quality (IAQ) through removal of indoor
air pollutants. This technology, often referred to as indoor passive panel technology
(IPPT), aims to reduce indoor concentrations of chemical and biological contaminants
via physical and/or chemical removal processes.
Typical materials are modified gypsum board, include activated charcoal and other materials such as
acoustic ceiling tiles, ceramic tiles, wallpaper and silica gel, activated alumina, zeolites, porous clay min-
other coated products relying on photocatalytic oxi- erals, and molecular sieves. PCO-based IPPTs rely on
dation (PCO). Depending on product and environ- the use of photocatalysts on building materials, illumi-
mental details, IPPTs capture indoor pollutants with nated with either ultraviolet or visible light. In theory,
varying efficiency, retention strength and capacity. the photocatalyst absorbs photons of ultraviolet or vis-
Manufacturers of IPPT products sometimes promote ible light to cause oxidation and reduction reactions
them with statements such as: “protects interior sur- on the catalyst’s surface. Highly reactive species (e.g.,
faces; enhances air quality powered by light, works hydroxyl radicals, ozone and superoxide ions) formed
with UV, natural and fluorescent light; improves the during these reactions have the potential to oxidize
indoor climate and removes up to 98% of VOCs, espe- pollutants to mostly benign products such as carbon
cially formaldehyde; takes VOCs out of the air and con- dioxide and water.
verts them into safe inert compounds.” However, some Despite the promising potential of IPPT, several
of these claims have not been validated. issues may be associated with its use. First, some
The advantage of using IPPT is that it is not associated sorptive-based IPPTs may effectively adsorb certain
with increased ventilation, which can increase energy gaseous indoor air pollutants (e.g., VOCs), but will not
consumption. In addition, there are no mechanical efficiently adsorb very volatile organic compounds
forces involved in the uptake of pollutants onto the IPPT (VVOCs) and low molecular weight gases such as
surfaces. As an alternative to conventional active “flow formaldehyde.2
through” pollutant removal systems relying on HVAC Second, certain sorptive-based IPPT may re-emit cap-
fans, IPPT can remove indoor pollutants relying on nor- tured VOCs upon saturation and subsequently become
mal airflow characteristics in ventilated rooms1 through a source of indoor pollution themselves.3 Surface treat-
contact on surfaces in occupied spaces. Thus, IPPT has ment (e.g., paint, primer and wallpaper) or particles
the potential to improve indoor air quality with little or contaminating IPPT surfaces may adversely affect
no impact on energy consumption, making it a poten- pollutant-removal performance by hindering the con-
tially attractive IAQ solution. tact between indoor pollutants and IPPT materials.2
IPPTs use primarily two processes to remove indoor Traditionally, PCO technology relies on photocatalysts
pollutants, sorption and PCO. Sorptive-based IPPTs such as titanium dioxide (TiO2), which require UV light
rely on physical adsorption and chemisorption pro- Zuraimi Sultan is a research officer at the Construction Portfolio, National Research
cesses. Solid adsorbents used in sorptive-based IPPT Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.



for activation, making them appealing for outdoor PHOTO 1 Chamber set-up to evaluate performance of IPPT samples using the new
applications. However, the band edges of the active pho- NRC protocol.
tocatalyst lie in the UV region, which makes them inac-
tive under visible light irradiation.4
Additionally, films on building windows are typically
laminated with special layers modified with material
that absorb, scatter, or reflect UV light. New catalytic
technologies using modifications on the surface to
reduce band gap or improve semiconductor coupling
can use visible light to make indoor applications pos-
sible. However, it is unclear how effective these new
technologies will be in removing indoor pollutants.4
Last, PCO-based IPPT may not just produce active
agents to attack indoor pollutants, but they may Formaldehyde was chosen because it produces adverse
also produce harmful ozone and formaldehyde as health effects (classified as a carcinogen, eye and skin
by-products.2,4 irritant, association with asthma and allergic-type
Within the Government of Canada’s Clean Air symptoms), is emitted by many building materials and
Regulatory Agenda (CARA), researchers from the is found in indoor settings sometimes at concentrations
National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have recog- that exceed Health Canada’s guideline.10 The VOC tolu-
nized a critical standardization gap, as sound evaluation ene was chosen to represent emissions from numerous
protocols and test methods were limited to comprehen- indoor sources (e.g., from solvents and paints), as well
sively and fairly validate IPPT manufacturers’ claims. as to reflect its relative abundance and prevalence in
While available standards address important aspects indoor air.11 The protocol evaluates the potential forma-
of indoor pollutant removal performance,5 – 8 none deal tion of harmful by-products through determining emis-
with other specific performance issues for indoor appli- sions of ozone and formaldehyde.10,12
cations such as: harmful by-product formation to pro- To be able to validate this protocol, NRC research-
tect human health; re-emission of captured VOC; and ers developed a 400 L (106 gallon) stainless steel
IPPT testing in chambers that can simulate air velocity chamber with accurate control of environmental
and turbulence levels typically found in indoor environ- conditions (e.g., temperature, relative humidity,
ments,9 as well as simulate visible light illumination airflow, air velocity and turbulence) according to
using a conventional indoor lighting source (instead of a specifications described by Zhang, et al.,9 and a VOC
UV source). injection system to introduce the VOCs.13 In addi-
NRC researchers focused on three priority areas tion, fluorescent light is used, as opposed to UV,7,8 as
to develop a protocol to assess IPPT performance, a source of illumination to better represent indoor
specifically: applications (Photo 1).
1. Performance of sorptive and PCO-based IPPTs in Two commercial samples were successfully used to
removing formaldehyde and toluene; evaluate the protocol. The protocol was used to dif-
2. Formation of by-products from the IPPT; and ferentiate the formaldehyde removal performance of
3. Re-emission of captured VOC. a conventional gypsum board with that of a sorptive-
In December 2015, NRC researchers published a based IPPT gypsum board. Figures 1 and 2 illustrate
protocol titled “Indoor Passive Panel Technologies: the concentration versus time profile for the two test
Test Methods to Evaluate Toluene and Formaldehyde samples challenged with formaldehyde over 96 hours.
Removal and Re-Emission, and By-Product Formation.”2 It can be observed that between 48 and 96 hours the
This protocol provides a method to determine the per- inlet-outlet concentration differences were an aver-
formance of IPPT in terms of their capacity to remove age of 15.7 mg/m3 and 59.3 mg/m3 for the conventional
two important indoor air pollutants in Canadian indoor and IPPT samples, respectively. These values corre-
environments, formaldehyde and toluene. spond to average area specific removal rates (RRA) of


FIGURE 1 Testing of normal gypsum board against formaldehyde using the new FIGURE 2 Testing of sorptive-based IPPT gypsum board against formaldehyde using
protocol. the new protocol.
120 120
Measured Inlet Measured Inlet
100 Theoretical Outlet 100 Theoretical Outlet
Formaldehyde Concentration (mg/m3)

Formaldehyde Concentration (mg/m3)

Measured Outlet Measured Outlet
80 80

60 60

40 40

20 20

0 0
0 24 48 72 96 120 144 168 0 24 48 72 96 120 144 168
Elapsed Time (Hour) Elapsed Time (Hour)

35.2 mg/hr•m2 and 133.2 mg/hr•m2, indicating that the 2. Sultan, Z, R., et al. 2015. “Indoor Passive Panel Technologies:
Test Methods to Evaluate Toluene and Formaldehyde Removal
removal rate of the IPPT gypsum board was 3.8 times and Re-Emission, and By-Product Formation.” National Research
higher than the conventional board. Council Canada.
After the formaldehyde injection was stopped at 96 3. Ataka, Y, et al. 2004. “Study of effect of adsorptive building
material on formaldehyde concentrations: development of measur-
hours, we observed that the conventional gypsum board ing methods and modeling of adsorption phenomena.” Indoor Air
began to release formaldehyde up to 168 hours when the 2004. 14(Suppl 8):51 – 64.
test was terminated. Re-emission of formaldehyde (Re) 4. Ifang, S, et al. 2014. “Standardization methods for testing
as measured at 168 hours, recommended by the proto- photo-catalytic air remediation materials: Problems and solution.”
Atmospheric Environment 91(7):154 – 161.
col, was calculated to be 39.7% for the conventional gyp- 5. ISO. 2009. ISO 16000-23:2009, Performance Test for Evaluating the
sum board. In contrast, the sorptive-based IPPT gypsum Reduction of Formaldehyde Concentrations by Sorptive Building Materials.
board has an Re value of only 0.9%, indicating minimal International Organization for Standardization.
re-emissions. 6. ISO. 2009. ISO 16000-24:2009, Performance Test for Evaluating the
Reduction of Volatile Organic Compounds Concentrations (Except Formal-
In summary, NRC researchers have developed a pro- dehyde) by Sorptive Building Materials. International Organization for
tocol to evaluate the performance of IPPT in their ability Standardization.
to remove formaldehyde and toluene and to determine 7. ISO. 2011. ISO Standard 22197-3:2011, Fine Ceramics (Advanced
Ceramics, Advanced Technical Ceramics)—Test Method for Air-Purification
re-emissions of captured pollutants and by-product Performance of Semiconducting Photocatalytic Materials—Part 3: Removal Of
formation. Through this novel protocol and NRC’s new Toluene. International Organization for Standardization.
IPPT chamber testing capabilities, NRC is now in the 8. ISO. 2013. ISO Standard 22197-4:2013, Fine Ceramics (Advanced
position to test IPPT products to enable manufacturers Ceramics, Advanced Technical Ceramics)—Test Method for Air-Purification
Performance of Semiconducting Photocatalytic Materials—Part 4: Removal of
to validate their claims, and even improve their prod- Formaldehyde. International Organization for Standardization.
uct performance. The development of the protocol was 9. Zhang, J.S., et al. 1996. “Study of air velocity and turbulence
conducted under the guidance of the Technical Advisory effects on organic compound emissions from building materials/
furnishings using a new small test chamber.” ASTM Symposium
Committee. The committee members included partici- on Methods for Characterizing Indoor Sources and Sinks. Page
pants from federal and provincial agencies, industry 184 – 199.
associations, non-governmental organizations, munici- 10. Health Canada. 2006. “Residential Indoor Air Quality Guide-
pal governments, and standards associations from line—Formaldehyde.”
11. Health Canada. 2011. “Residential Indoor Air Quality Guide-
Canada. line—Toluene.”
12. Health Canada. 2010. “Residential Indoor Air Quality Guide-
References line—Ozone.”
1. Zhang, J.S., et al. 1995. “Field measurement of boundary-layer 13. Deore B., et al. 2011. “An electronic nose for the detection of
flows in ventilated rooms.” ASHRAE Transactions 101(2):1 – 9. carbonyl species.” ECS Transactions 35(7):83 – 88.



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A special section in the

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S U P P L I E R S ’ P R O D U C T C A P A B I L I T I E S
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Mitsubishi Electric Cooling & Heating Improves HVAC Efficiency
with Next Generation VRF Systems

Mitsubishi Electric Cooling & Heating, North America’s leading marketer of advanced cooling and
heating systems for commercial applications, introduces the latest innovation in Variable Refrigerant
Flow (VRF) technology, the CITY MULTI®L-Generation air source outdoor units.

The L-Generation has achieved significant improvements in efficiency ratings across all rated categories
- up to 20 percent higher EER, 36 percent IEER, 16 percent COP and 54 percent SCHE.

At the heart of the efficiency improvements is Mitsubishi Electric’s proprietary HexiCoil™ technology.
The zinc-aluminum flat tube heat exchanger, with turbulated walls and an optimized cross section,
maximizes heat transfer and is particularly efficient at part-load conditions. The capillary tube system
ensures even fluid distribution, further contributing to superior heat transfer ability.

Other enhancements include:

L-Generation Efficiency Improvements (vs. Prior Generation)
• Superior water shedding capability and
R2-Series Y-Series corrosion resistance due to HexiCoil’s
(heat recovery) (heat pump) design and zinc outer coating, prolonging
EER (Energy Average (all models) +7% +12% the unit’s lifespan.
Efficiency Ratio Select models (up to) +20% +19% • Up to 50 percent reduction in system
IEER (Energy Average (all models) +24% +29% refrigerant charge with an optimized circuit
Efficiency Ratio design for improved flow distribution.
Select models (up to) +31% +36%
• 30 percent smaller footprint than previous
COP (Coefficient Average (all models) +9% +4% models, making the system ideal for
of Performance) Select models (up to) +16% +9% projects with tight mechanical spaces.
SCHE (Simultaneous Average (all models) +33% n/a • Improved high-ambient cooling operating
Cooling and Heating range; guaranteed outdoor operation up
Efficiency Select models (up to) +54% n/a to 126 degrees Fahrenheit.
• Improved vertical separation between
indoor units within the same heat
recovery system - a distance of up to
98 feet - expanding design options.

Increased efficiencies across all categories

make this outdoor unit ideal for any commer-
cial project, especially those with efficiency
goals such as LEED®certification or net-zero

L-Generation Air Source units range from 6 to

30 tons, with single modules up to 14 tons.
As with all Mitsubishi Electric VRF systems,
the outdoor units are designed for the quietest
possible operation – from 58 to 65 dB(A).
All L-Generation units now include a
bellmouth grill with a DC fan motor to reduce
static pressure while minimizing power input.

Next up for Mitsubishi Electric’s next genera-

tion VRF will be L-Generation water-source
Caption: Traditional copper tube design (left); Mitsubishi Electric HexiCoil flat tube design units, coming later this year.

For more information, visit
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energy, greenhouse gas emissions and
F or decades, mechanical insulation
has been overlooked as one of the
premier energy savers in the construc-
their portion of the work. So, in an effort
to reduce the cost of the mechanical
insulation, the insulation contractor is
costs associated with proper installation
of mechanical insulation. 3ePlus has been
tion industry. There are few building either told to or gets creative and either embraced by the Department of Energy
components that offer the timely payback eliminates mechanical insulation from to help establish a benchmark standard
of mechanical insulation yet mechanical systems or reduces the thickness of for energy consumption and costs.
insulation is one of the first things to the material. This has been going on The global implications of mechani-
be reduced or eliminated from projects for years. Both material reduction and cal insulation became apparent during
that are over budget. The elimination or elimination will cost the owner in the the National Insulation Associations
reduction of insulation from mechani- long term. The budget goal may be (NIA) annual convention this past April.
cal systems does not just cost in fuel achieved but somebody will pay for the The convention was held in conjunction
consumption, it costs in other ways too. lost energy for decades. True “value engi- with the World Insulation and Acoustic
The lack of proper mechanical insula- neering” would increase the mechanical Congress Organization (WIACO) in
tion shortens the life of the mechanical insulation so the owner would have Florida. During the convention, CEO’s
components. Pumps, fans, chillers and lower energy costs in the future. Another of some of the world insulation manufac-
most other equipment have a shorter life factor is that the systems will run with turers discussed the global implications
span because they have to work harder or without mechanical insulation. It just of properly installed mechanical insula-
to get the same results. Reducing or costs more for the energy. The US DOE tion. They talked about how the world
eliminating mechanical insulation has estimates that between 10% and 30% of looks at greenhouse gas emissions,
global implications as well. Greenhouse mechanical insulation that should be on energy consumption and the markets of
gas emissions increase when mechanical mechanical systems, in existing facili- the world. Because the world is getting
insulation is eliminated or reduced. ties, is either missing or damaged to the smaller we must do our part in reducing
So how does it happen that something point that it is ineffectual. energy consumption, thereby reducing
so beneficial to the building and society Mechanical insulation, on average, greenhouse gas emissions.
both short and long term is reduced or has some of the best paybacks in build- The ISAVE Team was created to
eliminated from the scope? It is mostly ing technology. Steam system insulation promote the proper use of mechani-
due to budget restraints on new construc- can pay for itself in six to ten months. cal insulation in the United States and
tion and building renovation. When Heating hot water (180 deg. F) paybacks Canada. Our contractors and installers
the building comes in over budget all can be between eighteen and twenty-four are the best in the industry and are shovel
contractors are asked to “value engineer” months, and even domestic hot water ready to save you money and energy.
(120 deg. F) pays for The ISAVE Team can be seen at shows
itself in twenty-four of The American Society of Health-
to thirty-six months. care Engineers (ASHE), The Canadian
Obviously conditions Healthcare Engineering Society (CHES),
and fuel costs can National Facilities Maintenance and Tech-
alter these numbers nology (NFMT), Congressional Energy
but generally speak- Caucus, The World Energy Engineer-
ing the savings are ing Congress (WEEC) and many other.
incredible. The North The objective is to help your members
American Insulation in securing a quality and professional
Manufacturers Associ- mechanical insulation contractor. Visit
ation (NAIMA) created to contact us today!

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Dream Big, Think: Small. This Innovative System Has It All.

W hen mechanical engineers and

installers, architects and building
owners have the rare luxury of designing
a new facility specifically to meet or
exceed energy efficiency and indoor
comfort needs, big dreams become a
The key to this imaginative plan:
smaller, smarter mechanical systems that
wrench every last BTU from super-
efficient ground-source heating and
cooling systems. “Injection mixing provides the perfect
“I don’t know that you’ll find a more balance of everything designers, install-
efficient mechanical system than the one ers and building owners most want,” he
now installed at the new Penn Foundation added. “Their master list of essential
facility,” said Glenn Snyder, PE, a VP needs included performance, efficiency,
with architect and engineering firm, compact size, quiet operation, comfort
Lederach Associates. He’s referring to and IAQ – especially important for a
mechanical components that were health facility.” The facility’s fresh air is supplied
recently brought together at Penn Foun- through the chilled beams, via the DOAS,
dation, then connected by a modular From underground to overhead which in turn increases the capacity of
control network to serve as the building’s Circulation for Penn Foundation’s the active chilled beams.
central nervous system. geoexchange system is possible with the “Coupling the LOFlo distribution
The new 36,000 square foot, two story use of Taco’s KS series vertical in-line system with iWorX controls and geother-
addition to the mental health facility not pumps. The water-to-water geothermal mal equipment provides the most energy
far from Allentown, PA puts geothermal system feeds a total of 176 chilled beams efficient HVAC system available today,”
systems to good use. “But the real unique- and a few other terminal units. A single- said Cunniff.
ness of this job is the way BTUs are pipe distribution system tied to the
removed from or delivered to enclosed LOFlo blocks saves space, installation Challenges: solved
spaces,” explained Greg Cunniff, applica- time, initial cost and operating expense.
tion engineering manager for Taco, Inc. “Because of tight space restrictions,
Taco’s iWorX® control system moni- we offered the single-pipe, LOFlo system
“Different water temperatures are tors room temperature, supply water as an alternative to ducted air or a four-
readily available for a variety of terminal temperature, dew point, and circulators pipe, fan coil system,” said Cunniff.
units from a single-pipe system because connected to the stainless steel mixing “This reduced the number of pipes to two
they used Taco’s LOFlo injection mixing blocks. The new BAS also controls circu- – one for heating, and one for cooling
blocks to blend supply and return water lation in the geoexchange f ield, – and because of its low flow we can use
temperatures from the main,” continued water-to-water units, DOAS and remote a very large delta-T which shrinks the
Cunniff. heat pumps. size of the pipes needed.”
The iWorX, chilled beam and geother-
mal combination is estimated to provide
a $12,000 yearly energy savings over a
standard water source heat pump system.
System designers used Taco’s HSS
(Hydronic System Solutions®) to design
the majority of the system piping and
cascading temperatures.
“The project is a great example of what
can be accomplished when manufactur-
ers, engineers and contractors all work
together for a common goal,” concluded

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C limaCool Corp., a leading manu-
facturer of packaged rooftop sys-
tems and modular chillers, takes pride
Ultimate Modular Chiller Solutions
Expandable from 15 to 1,000 Tons
• Flexible configurations with air and
in providing innovative and flexible water cooled, heat recovery, geother-
product designs, quality components, mal heat pump and patent pending
manufacturing excellence with quality simultaneous heating and cooling –
built-in and superior customer service. heat pump and heat recovery
A company driven to deliver ultimate • Modular design allows incremental
climate solutions with products config- growth to meet future load demands
ured to match specific requirements from
design through completion. • True N+1 redundancy
• Compact and maneuverable, ideal for
“The expansion of both our modular retrofits of small mechanical rooms
chiller and packaged rooftop lines un- Ultimate Rooftop Solutions
derscores ClimaCool’s commitment to from 6 to 90 Tons
engineering solutions that meet a broad • Flexible configurations with air and
scope of commercial HVAC application • 100% outdoor air treatment designed
water cooled, geothermal and water
parameters in new and dynamic ways. from inception by optimizing refriger-
source heat pump and chilled water
Our goal is to deliver innovation, flex- ant management ensure ideal dehu-
air handler
ibility and reliability through all of our midification at all ambient conditions
products and to provide solutions that of- • Optimum efficiency and quiet opera-
fer redundancy, efficiency, air quality and tion with high efficiency scroll com-
performance exceeding our customers’ pressors, optimized heat transfer, and U LT I M AT E C L I M AT E S O L U T I O N S
expectations.” Ross Miglio, President of variable speed acoustical blade EC
ClimaCool Corp. condenser fans


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Advertising Section

T he Whalen Company, a pioneering manufacturer of HVAC

vertical stack riser heat-exchanger fan coil units and water-
source heat pumps, launches the WRX Vertical Stack Fan Coil,
the first fan coil on the market with a slide-out chassis.
The Whalen Company has developed a vertical stack fan coil
with a slide-out chassis, which is the first of its kind in the fan
coil market. “Slide-out chassis have been available for years
in heat pumps,” said Tony Landers, VP of Sales and Marketing
at The Whalen Company. “Whalen has changed the way fan
coils are serviced and installed by making the slide-out chassis
available. When the WRX is opened, there are no additional
fasteners to remove in order to slide the chassis out of the unit,
making replacement effortless.”
By using a fan coil with a slide-out chassis, the time associ-
ated with maintenance and repair in occupied spaces is greatly
minimized. Having the ability to slide out a chassis and not
have to remove multiple fasteners and replace it with a spare
allows maintenance personnel to get a unit up and running
within minutes. The removed chassis is then repaired in the
maintenance shop where time is not critical.
During the construction phase, the
chassis can be kept boxed and clean
from construction dirt and debris. After
construction is finished and the space
is cleaned, the chassis easily slides
into place and is connected to the ris-
ers. During maintenance, the chassis
slides out of the unit for cleaning, or is
exchanged with another chassis if more
extensive repair is required.
Other features and benefits of the
WRX are the reduced commissioning
time, easier access to the drain pan and
components, and ease of maintenance
with minimal tenant disruption. With
one of the smallest footprints in the
industry and customization capabili-
ties that include cabinet height, riser
locations, handling and discharge ar-
rangements and sizes, these units
can be installed and operating in
significantly less time.
Suppliers’ Product Capabilities Advertising Section Standard

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Suppliers’ Product Capabilities Advertising Section

Suppliers’ Product Capabilities Advertising Section


For non-structural building components and equipment
Seismic Wire Rope/Cable™ Bracing
Our patented, UL listed, color-coded Seismic Wire Rope/Cable™
product line is the fast, easy way to brace mechanical, electrical,
plumbing and fire sprinkler systems.
Vibration Isolation Products
For floor mounted, rooftop or suspended HVAC/R equipment,
VST offers a complete line of seismic and vibration isolators, spring
hangers, snubbers, isolation pads and more.
Complete Seismic Engineering Services
We provide seismic calculations, bracing layouts, stamped drawings
and technical support. Plus, our SCoPe™ software lets you perform
seismic calculations based on GPS coordinates. | | toll free 844-734-7642



Suppliers’ Product Capabilities Advertising Section


Suppliers’ Product Capabilities Advertising Section

AJ Manufacturing Introduces Custom Ceiling

Grid Systems for Critical Environments
AJ Manufacturing, an industry leader polyethylene gaskets. Each grid system
in stainless steel air distribution is engineered to meet all applicable
products for critical environments, has building codes and standards, includ-
introduced a new line of ceiling grid ing ASHRAE 170 and the Facility
systems ideal for hospital operating Guidelines Institute (FGI) Guidelines
rooms, laboratories and cleanroom for Design and Construction of
applications. The grids are custom Hospitals and Outpatient Facilities.
engineered, designed and manufac-
tured to meet the needs of each Combined with the company’s
individual project. extensive line of critical environment
air distribution and filtration products,
The new systems feature 1.5" the ceiling grids allow AJ Manufactur-
welded grids, either gasketed or gel They can also be integrated ing to be a one-stop source for
channel, which are available in with LED lighting, fire suppression complete clean room or operating
aluminum, steel or stainless steel. systems, gas lines and other room ceiling packages.
They can be welded in the factory or components.
field assembled. These heavy-duty For more information or a project
grids are walkable and can support the The grids feature antimicrobial quote, contact Rob Haake at
weight of rolling robotic equipment. powder coat finishes and closed-cell 800-247-5746.

Suppliers’ Product Capabilities Advertising Section
Schreiber Foods, a global enterprise,
has partnered with Chil-Pak in an indus-
try leading packaged central plant (PCP)
in Silao Guanajuato, Mexico. Schreiber
and Chil-Pak are moving beyond decades
of food processing plant design experi-
ence. Schreiber Foods is dedicated to
worker safety and they are not afraid to
use new technology when needed.
The project team for the new cheese
processing plant in Silao Guanajuato,
MX had several goals for the PCP. First,
the plant had to be robust, dependable,
and easily maintained. Second, it had to
be energy efficient, and third, it had to be
delivered in 16 weeks!

Chil-Pak came up with an innovative

first in the industry design using five
York high efficiency screw chillers in a
PCP that showcases Chil-Pak’s design
and production expertise. The system
provides two distinct low temperature
chilled water loops (one at 24° F and one
at 34° F). The Chil-Pak has one chiller
dedicated to each temperature and the
remaining three chillers are switched in/
out of each loop as necessary to meet the
current process cooling load. The system
also utilizes R-134a instead of ammonia
in support of Schreiber Foods’ commit-
ment to employee and partner safety. This
approach provides the required chilled
water at efficiencies comparable to am-
monia while minimizing the number of
chillers required. This results in a very
robust system.
Chil-Pak coordinated closely with all
their suppliers and it was “All Hands on
Deck!!” in the production facility in or-
der to deliver the PCP right on schedule.
When you have a project that requires
something new, or you simply want to
work with the best, contact Chil-Pak.


Suppliers’ New Product Preview
Advertising Section

70 Years Experience
Alexander Hamilton once said, “Experience is the oracle of
truth.” It is true that experience matters, and Metal Industries
Inc. boasts an infallible record of 70 years of experience de-
livering the highest quality products, shortest lead times and
outstanding customer service to the HVAC industry.
From the time J.T. (Tokey) Walker founded Metal Industries
in 1947, the company has been focused on providing the high-
est quality products to the HVAC industry and doing so with
respect for its customers, employees and the environment. As
an American owned company built on a tradition of integrity
and respect, Metal Industries strives to meet the needs of the
HVAC market with a relentless focus on the customer.

Shortest Lead Time

Metal Industries has three state-of-the art facilities across
North America for quick and timely delivery. Commitment to
delivery is unmatched
in the industry with a
best in segment lead
time and 99% on time
delivery rate …for over
a decade. Quality and
delivery is backed by a
tireless support team of
industry professionals.


Suppliers’ Product Capabilities Advertising Section

Think population rather than CO2 when

implementing a DCV strategy

emand Control Ventilation As a result, CO2 is an indirect indicator
(DCV) can reduce outdoor air of the outdoor air ventilation rate per
from design levels on variable person and not a direct proxy for IAQ
occupancy spaces. DCV is often as many are lead to believe.
misunderstood and many believe
DCV requires that CO2 levels are CO2-based DCV is often implemented
controlled. as an energy saving strategy. However,
the fixed CO2 level which is generally
DCV is very well defined in the maintained can only represent a single
Ventilation Rate Procedure (VRP) ventilation rate (ex. 1,000 ppm ≈ 18
of ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2013, cfm/person for adult office workers)
Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air and will not meet the requirements of
Quality. The VRP clearly states that 62.1 at multiple population levels
the ventilation rate required for DCV (Figure 1).
is based on the current occupancy of
the ventilation zone. There are no the required outdoor air can be easily
specific references to CO2 levels in calculated (Figure 2). On multi-zone
the VRP. systems, the ventilation efficiency
must be considered and the resulting
CO2 Levels and DCV calculations are more complicated.
CO2/ Airflow-DCV minimizes the
Although there is evidence that lower over- and under-ventilation of tradi-
CO2 levels are associated with higher tional fixed point CO2 DCV. An
cognitive processing and improved air understanding of occupant CO2
quality, it can be argued that the lower production rates and implementation
CO2 levels simply represent higher per of a dynamic, rather than steady-state,
person outdoor air ventilation rates model can improve population
which for decades have been associ- estimation.
ated with improved occupant produc-
tivity and health. An improved CO2 method was Think Population!
introduced by EBTRON in the mid
The relationship between CO2 and 2000’s that uses the space or return Recognizing that DCV is based on
ventilation is described in the air CO2 level and the outdoor airflow the population and not the CO2 level
Informative Appendix C of ASHRAE rate to estimate the population of the permits designers to take advantage
Standard 62.1-2013. The steady-state entire ventilation zone. The population of other means to reduce outdoor
analysis of a two-chamber model is estimated by modifying the mass airflow rates. Methods include any
comprised of an outdoor air ventilation balance equation as follows: means for estimating the population,
source and CO2 producing occupants including the use of direct occupancy
results in the mass balance equation: P = Votmeas/Vo counting devices such as EBTRON’s
CENSus® over-door counter. Multi-
Where zone applications may require the
P = population addition of total supply and critical
Where Votmeas= measured outdoor airflow rate zone airflow measurement.
Vo = outdoor airflow rate per person
N = CO2 production rate per person Once the population is estimated,
Cs = CO2 level of the space the total outdoor air required can be
Co = CO2 level of the outdoor air estimated. On single zone systems
Suppliers’ Product Capabilities Advertising Section

Suppliers’ Product Capabilities Advertising Section J U LY 2 0 16 ASHRAE JOURNAL 12 7

Suppliers’ Product Capabilities Advertising Section

W ater from cooling towers attracts

and absorbs airborne contaminants
on a continuous basis. Typically, 85% of
suspended solids in chilled water and hot
water loops are smaller than 5 microns.
Studies have shown that these small
particles (5 microns and less) are the
adherent contaminants fouling cooling
tower and heat exchangers reducing the
performance of the cooling system.
Bacteria, such as Legionella, also contrib-
ute to this phenomenon.
Neptune Benson’s Vortisand filters
generate cross-flow patterns that sweep particles without clogging rapidly. Thus, Vortisand typically requires 3-5% of
the surface of the media. This sweeping contaminants are trapped above the sand the cooling tower flow or a turnover rate
motion helps prevent premature foul- and are easily removed using an automatic of 7-12 depending on the tower location.
ing and causes a portion of the water to backwash cycle. The Vortisand backwash Standard sand filters and centrifugal
flow parallel to the top layer, producing requires less water and a shorter back- separators will require 10-30% of the
a sustained cleaning action. Suspended wash sequence than traditional sand or cooling tower flow.
particles are then either captured in the multi-media filters. The result is a tech-
media (depth filtration) or maintained nology that removes particles down to
in suspension. Due to the advanced submicron levels at 4 to 5 times the flow
cross-flow technology of the Vortisand, rate of other media filters, while requiring
microsand can be used to filter out the fine 80% less water for backwash.
Suppliers’ Product Capabilities Advertising Section


Suppliers’ Product Capabilities Advertising Section

C arlisle HVAC Products’ high-perfor-

mance Exterior Line Set Protection
products can be used in a wide variety
posite. The TPO Line Set Wrap is applied
by peeling off the release liner while
covering the pipe wrap insulation. Since
of applications to provide a professional this membrane is 100% solid, there is no
finished look that meets code require- shrinkage or additional coats required
ments. Our TPO-2265 provides excellent due to absorption by the insulation. This
protection from UV rays, moisture, wind, gives the product superior protection
and landscaping operations, while our against damage from moisture, landscap-
SEAL-TACK™ coats foam insulation ing operations, equipment maintenance,
and protects against mold, mildew, and and wind. quality support, making them the perfect
severe weather. Other benefits include: partner for any project. Carlisle HVAC
Carlisle’s TPO Line Set Wrap provides • Excellent UV Protection Products encompasses Hardcast Duct
excellent protection from UV rays, mois- • Superior protection against Sealants and Adhesives, DynAir Airflow
ture, wind, and landscaping operations. moisture and weather Hardware, and the Nexus 4 Bolt Flange
High-performance, dimensionally stable • Meets code requirements Closure System. We supply superior
TPO Line Set Wrap also offers a quick, products and engineered solutions to
About Carlisle HVAC Products: As
labor-saving application: simply apply to ensure the sustainability of your HVAC
a leading pioneer in the HVAC sealant
the exterior of the pipe wrap insulation system. Our products and solutions de-
industry, Carlisle HVAC understands the
and peel off the release liner for an aes- liver maximum efficiency, unparalleled
importance of indoor air quality. From
thetically pleasing, professional finished quality, and unmatched savings.
their original two-part system to their
look that meets code requirements. groundbreaking spray applied, roboti-
Why choose TPO Line Set Wrap? cally applied and rolled sealant products,
The TPO rolled mastic sealant is a 6.5 Carlisle HVAC continues to provide new
mil TPO membrane laminated to a butyl construction and remediation indoor air Call 888-654-7439 for more information.
adhesive sealant to form a 22 mil com-

Suppliers’ Product Capabilities Advertising Section

Suppliers’ Product Capabilities Advertising Section


C limateMaster Water-Source Heat

Pumps are ideal for a wide range
of commercial buildings including office
campuses, apartments, hotels, condo-
miniums, mixed use developments and
much more.
“Water Source Heat Pumps can trans-
port thermal energy over long distances.
They operate at very high efficiency,
perform energy recovery, and can sat-
isfy simultaneous heating and cooling
demand with a common water loop - all
while operating with a limited amount
of refrigerant charge. A Water Source
Heat Pump not only extracts the thermal
energy in the water loop but also uses the
heat of compression of the refrigeration
circuit as a source of heat. Due to this Energy Savings
unique capability, these systems can pro- Water is the most efficient way to move The water loop can move energy
vide 5 to 7 units of heating for every unit thermal energy. A 2 inch (51 mm) rejected from one area of the building
of electrical power consumed. Clearly, water pipe can carry the same amount of and use it in another area where it is
this is a much more efficient system.” – cooling as a 24 inch (610 mm) air duct. being demanded. This reduces overall
Naveen Halbhavi, Director of Marketing, Water is also a safer medium to move building energy consumption.
ClimateMaster, Inc. energy than using refrigerants.


Suppliers’ Product Capabilities Advertising Section

Selkirk Grease Duct: Solving Problems

The urban North Market in tors) installed hundreds of feet
Columbus, OH had a residual RIWKHIDFWRU\EXLOW¿UHUDWHG
smell problem that remained zero clearance, double wall
on the patrons after leaving it. grease duct with inner diam-
Despite the culinary aromas eters ranging from 14" to 36".
EHLQJDVLJQL¿FDQWSDUWRI With a UL listed minimal slope
the experience there, many requirement (1/16" per foot),
patrons wanting to do lunch very low surface tempera-
didn’t like smelling like the ture and overall aesthetics,
market afterwards. Selkirk’s factory-built system
Open since the mid-90’s at was the obvious choice for
its current location, the North this open ceiling market place.
Market indoor air quality (IAQ) Compared to traditional, ugly,
carbon steel duct, Selkirk
After some HVAC design provided the perfect solution.
consultants and contractors
put their expertise to the test, Since the market’s ventila-
a myriad of equipment and tion upgrade, patrons are back
duct solutions were approved enjoying the diverse culinary
and the ventilation upgrades lunch choices and thankfully,
were set in motion. Selkirk’s not wearing them the remain-
grease duct, Zero Clear, was der of the day.
a part of that solution.
General Temperature Con-
trol (GTC mechanical contrac-

Hampton Sauer Stuckey Handzel Watson Kimble

Hampton Elected brand manager for the company. C. William Hall Award. The Society for
Biomaterials is a network of academ-
Volkert Inc. announced chief operations of-
AIRAH’s First ficer Jerry Stump has been named president
ic, healthcare, governmental and busi-
ness professionals dedicated to promoting
of the company. He has served as Volkert’s
Female President chief operations officer since 2013 and was
advancements in all aspect of biomaterial
recently named president and chief execu-
Ania Hampton, Member ASHRAE, was tive officer of Volkert Global, the interna- Ashley Martin has been promoted from
elected the first female president of the Aus- tional affiliate of Volkert, Inc. NIBCO general manager, PEX to NIBCO vice
tralian Institute of Refrigeration, Air Condi- president wholesale sales.
tioning and Heating (AIRAH). She succeeds The Builders Hardware Manufacturers As-
Nathan Groenhout, Member ASHRAE, who sociation presented Dave Borgmeier, vice Jocelyn Millette will represent Hydro-Qué-
served three years in the national leader- president of Schiller Architectural Hardware bec on the Continental Automated Buildings
ship role. and Door Systems, with the 2016 Award of Association board of directors. She replaces
Excellence for his service and commitment Michel Dostie, who recently retired.
Dieter Sauer is now regional managing di- to the building construction industry.
rector for Grundfos Americas in Downers Amy Givan is now western sales manager-–
Grove, Ill., heading up business in North and DeLancey Davis, Franklin Electric vice pres- Boiler Group for Mestek.
South America. He was formerly president of ident and president of North America Water
JiQiu Yuan, Ph.D, P.E., is now a project
Grundfos Water Utility. Systems, has been appointed to the Hydrau-
manager for the National Institute of Build-
lic Institute’s 2016 – 2019 board of directors.
Erdman Anthony promoted senior associ- ing Sciences. He will be supporting activities
ate Rachel Stuckey, P.E., Member ASHRAE, Members of the American Subcontractors of both the Building Seismic Safety Council
to department manager of building perfor- Association elected Robert Abney of F.L. and Multihazard Mitigation Council.
mance engineering, a newly created depart- Crane & Sons, Inc., to serve as the 2016 – 2017
ment in the Rochester, N.Y., office’s Facili-
ties Engineering and Design Services core
president of ASA, a national trade associa-
tion representing subcontractors, special-
IAQA Names Three
business. Timothy Robinson, P.E., was pro-
moted to retail department manager in the
ty trade contractors and suppliers in the
construction industry. He succeeds Letitia
Directors to Board
“Tish” Haley Barker, Haley-Greer, Inc., Dal- The Indoor Air Quality Association (IAQA)
Rochester office’s same core business.
las, Texas. named three new members to its board of
Juergen Goeller of UTC Carrier was reelect- directors for 2016 – 2019:
ed as chair of the European Partnership for Duncan Griffin joined HDR in Seattle as a
• Eva King, Ph.D., Member ASHRAE,
Energy and the Environment. Members also sustainable principal.
director of scientific services, INDOOR
elected Julien Soulet of Honeywell as vice
Lisa Bianchi-Fossati joined the staff of Biotechnologies Inc., Charlottesville, Va.
chair and Rainer Grosse-Kracht, Mem-
Southface in Atlanta, Ga., as director of She serves as first vice president on the
ber ASHRAE, of Bitzer as treasurer of the
policy. board and chair of the Convention Com-
Sue Calvin, Heating, Air-conditioning and
Gregory Handzel will manage Danfoss’ new • S. Todd Stevens, President/CEO,
Refrigeration Distributors International’s
Engineering Tomorrow Application Devel- Landmark Property Services Inc., serving
member services supervisor, retired June 30.
opment Center in Tallahassee, Fla. The cen- the mid-Atlantic region. He has served on
ter, an expansion of its existing facility, is a Gelest, Inc., promoted Edward Kimble to the IAQA Government Affairs Commit-
22,000 ft2 (2044 m2) laboratory for testing vice president of product management. tee and is chartering the National Capitol
HVAC&R equipment, and will also facilitate Kimble now leads the product management Chapter; and
training and serve as an R&D center. The team for the silane, silicone, and metal-or-
first tests are expected to begin at the center ganic product lines. • Michael Bowdoin, an attorney, King-
in fall 2016. wood, Texas. He has served on the IAQA
Jim Curtis, senior AETS specialist for Dow Government Affairs Committee.
Taco Comfort Solutions has hired Ken Wat- Corning’s Healthcare business, has won
son to the new position of marketing and the Society for Biomaterials’ esteemed



PRODUCT SHOWPLACE Infrared Tube Heater

To receive FREE info on the
The SRP Modulus adaptive modulating in-
products in this section, visit frared tube heater from Superior Radiant Prod-
the Web address listed below ucts, Stoney Creek, ON, Canada, is designed
each item or go to to provide thermal efficiencies in excess of
80% at rates from 80,000 Btu/h (23 446 W) to 200,000 Btu/h (58 614 W) with a 40% modu-
A Touch-Screen Thermostat lating differential.
The new touch-screen residential thermo- A
stat from the Coleman brand of Johnson Con- Touch-Screen Thermostat
Condensing System By Coleman/Johnson Controls
trols, Milwaukee, is designed to be easy to in-
Mitsubishi Electric U.S., Cypress, Calif., intro-
stall and compatible with any conventionally
duces the CITY MULTI L-Generation water-
wired HVAC system. It features settings that
source condensing system. The system fea-
are preconfigurable via short-range wireless
tures the HexiCoil zinc-aluminum, flat-tube
connectivity or near field communication,
heat exchanger technology to increase effi-
and a dedicated Android app that also en-
ciency and reduce space requirements and
ables ongoing remote support.
required refrigerant charge.
B Variable Frequency Drives
Minneapolis-based Aerovent introduces the
Multistage Pumps
Wilo, Rosemont, Ill., introduces the Helix
GridSmart line of variable frequency drives.
EXCEL line of high-efficiency multistage
The drives are designed to eliminate the
pumps, designed to provide high efficiency
need for dampers, inlet vanes and soft start-
in water supply, pressure boosting and pro-
ers, as well as to match system capacity to ac- B
tual load to improve efficiency. cess water applications. Multiple control
modules are available for integration with Variable Frequency Drive By Aerovent
building management systems.
C Boilers
Thermal Solutions, Lancaster, Pa., offers the
Arctic line of condensing boilers that fea- Gas Furnace
tures nonwelded heat exchangers in fully St. Louis-based Nortek Global HVAC offers the
packed or knock-down configurations. The M7RL gas furnace in models with and with-
boilers accommodate variable primary and out an integrated coil cabinet for applica-
primary-secondary piping designs due to tions where space is at a premium. The fur-
minimal waterside pressure drops and low nace is designed to operate at 95% efficiency
minimum flows. in a range of heating capacities.

Vacuum Gauge Balance Valve

Uniweld Products, Fort Lauderdale, Fla., has Griswold Controls, Irvine, Calif., announces C
Tall buildings present unique and formidable challenges to architects and
because of their size, location in major urban areas, and the
they often contain. ASHRAE
released the SmarTech UVG digital vacuum the QuickDisc manual balance valve. The is a unique reference for owners; architects; and mechanical, structural,

valve combines a traditional venturi for flow Boiler engineers as

gauge. The compact device can provide mea- By Thermal Solutions Expanded since ASHRAE’s previous guide on the topic in 2004, this

surements in microns, Pa, mBar, and mmHg measurement with a ceramic disc, which covers not only tall buildings (taller than 300 ft [91m]) but now also addresses
(taller than 984 ft [300 m]) and megatall (taller than 1968 ft

with accuracy of 5% of reading at ±5 microns. acts as a replacement for a traditional HVAC curb features a laser-cut design to provide
This guide not only focuses on the efforts of designers of the HVAC systems but
addresses the importance of the design team and their collective efforts and concerns ball valve for smooth flow control. tight tolerances and precise alignment toare the critical elements in determining the ultimate solutions to the project needs of a
building. roof seams.

often mixed use, with low-level retail, office floors, residential floors, and hotel floors.

Panel Meters

Major sections cover the following subjects:
• Architectural design

The OM-SGD Series of panel meters from Clamp Meters • Façade systems
• Climate data
• Indoor air quality (IAQ) and thermal comfort
• HVAC systems
OMEGA Engineering, Stamford, Conn., fea- The new SC460 and SC660 clamp meters Wall Heater • Electrical system interfaces
• Intelligent buildings and controls

tures bright TFT smart graphics displays in from Fieldpiece Instruments, Anaheim, Calif., • Water distribution
The Berko brand of Weil-McLain/Marley Engi-
• Plumbing systems
• Energy modeling and authentication

three screen sizes. transmit test and measurement data via the • Vertical transportation
neered Products, Bennettsville, S.C., offers the
• Life safety
• Needs of residential occupancies company’s JobLink mobile app. COS-E fan-forced wall heater, which pro- Also representative climates, energy analysis examples, and HVAC design criteria and
description for a multiple-tenant office building.

Leak Sealer vides supplemental heat for residential and


Roof Curb commercial applications. It features the by online content, which can be found at
Cool Seal A/C Leak Sealer from Spectroline,
Westbury, N.Y., is designed to seal refriger- The Retro-Curb insulated roof curb from company’s Clip-n-Fit technology, which al- 1791 Tullie Circle
Atlanta, GA 30329-2305

ant leaks in compressors, condensers, evap- Thybar, Addison, Ill., is designed to allow un- lows the installer to change the wattage of Telephone: 404-636-8400 (worldwide)

orators, O-rings and hoses. The product is restricted positioning on standing-seam roof the heater to a lower output to accommodate
Tall, Supertall, Megatall Buildings Hard cover.indd 1

available in three delivery methods. systems, and is customized to accommodate any application or space. any roof slope for rooftop equipment. The


The Guide to Meeting
the Challenges of
Tall Buildings
RP-1673 Tall buildings present unique and formidable challenges to
ASHRAE Design Guide for Tall, Supertall, and Megatall Building Systems

architects and engineers because of their size, location in

ASHRAE Design Guide for
major urban areas, and the multiple, complex occupancies
Tall, they often contain. ASHRAE Design Guide for Tall, Supertall,
Supertall, and Megatall Building Systems is a unique reference
and Megatall for owners; architects; and mechanical, structural, and
Building Systems electrical engineers as well as other specialized consultants
involved in designing systems for these buildings.
Peter Simmonds

Expanded since ASHRAE’s previous guide on the topic in

2004, this new design guide covers not only tall buildings

(taller than 300 ft [91m]) but now also addresses super tall
(taller than 984 ft [300 m]) and megatall (taller than 1968 ft
[600 m]) buildings, with a broadened scope and updated
content that reflects current standards and industry practices.
6/4/2015 11:18:38 AM

$120 ($98 ASHRAE Member)

To receive FREE info on the prod- Gas-Fired Humidifier
Nortec Humidity, Ottowa, ON, Canada, intro-
ucts in this section, visit the Web duces the GS Series (HE) gas-fired humidifi-
address listed below each item or er, which uses condensing technology to op-
go to erate with high efficiency. It features a sec-
ondary heat exchanger that preheats water and cools combustion exhaust gases.
A DOAS Dehumidifier
Decatur, Ga.-based Seresco introduces the Humidifier
Outdoor Air (OA) Series indoor split DOAS Minneapolis-based Honeywell offers the Elec-
dehumidifier, designed to provide low re- trode Humidifier. It features the compa- A
frigerant charge and easy installation. Its ny’s HumidiPRO digital humidity control, DOAS Dehumidifier
Protocol Technology substitutes HFC refrig- which makes automatic adjustments when By Seresco
erant with environment-friendly glycol for the weather changes to reduce excess con-
heat rejection to outdoor dry coolers. densation and frost on windows. It also can be manually adjusted to add moisture when
B Adiabatic Humidifier
The SKH from Neptronic, Montreal, is a high-
pressure atomizing adiabatic humidifier that Data Logger
uses water through a high-pressure system Rotronic, Hauppauge, N.Y., offers the HL1D
to produce a fine mist, which is evaporated data logger for applications where both tem-
by the heat from the surrounding air. Dis- perature and humidity need to be measured.
tributed in-duct or in-space while providing It provides accuracy of ±3.0% RH.
up to 21°F (12°C) of free cooling, the SKH can
independently humidify up to 32 zones with
Dehumidifier B
up to four pump stations.
The Titan XG60 dehumidifier from Hori- Adiabatic Humidifier
zon Dehumidifiers, Broadway, N.C., weighs By Neptronic
C Packaged Rooftop Ventilation System only 40 lb (18 kg) and is only 12 in. (305 mm)
Greenheck, Schofield, Wis., offers the Model tall. However, it has a 60 pint (28 L) per day
RVE-120 pre-engineered packaged rooftop capacity and can maintain an area up to
ventilation system for larger dedicated out- 8,000 ft3 (227 m3).
door air systems, as well as multizone and
single-zone VAV systems for dehumidifica- Indoor Pool Dehumidifier
tion, ventilation, cooling and heating ap- The DX air-cooled indoor pool dehumidifi-
plications. It features low-sound condenser er from Dectron International, Roswell, Ga., re-
fans, as well as dual supply and exhaust fans. quires no remote condenser. It features in- creased energy efficiency; a 65% reduction of
Indoor Pool Dehumidification System refrigerant valves/piping/welds compared to C
The MPK Series indoor pool dehumidifica- conventional units; lower refrigerant charge; Packaged Rooftop Ventilation System
tion system from PoolPak, York, Pa., is de- a simplified user-friendly refrigerant circuit; By Greenheck
signed with critical components in protected a head pressure control; and indoor and out-
door installation capability. single skid mount with a single power sup-
portions of the system to improve the reli- ply and user interface controller.
ability of the system. It features a control sys-
tem with cold-wall sensing technology. Dehumidifiers GeneralAire, Novi, Mich., offers the
Wine Cellar Monitor
HealthyAire DH70 and DH95 dehumidifiers.
Outdoor Air Damper Actuator Controllers The Wine Storage Temperature and Humid-
They feature a filter drier that traps excess
OAC/EMOAC controllers from Greentrol Auto- ity Monitor Kit from Vinotemp/Wine Mate, Ir-
moisture to protect the system.
mation, Loris, S.C., provide modulating con- vine, Calif., protects wine from dangerous
trol of the outdoor air damper actuator dur- temperatures and humidity. Using the on-
ing minimum outdoor air mode for dehu- Steam Humidification System line control panel, users can remotely moni-
midification. The controllers feature integral DriSteem, Eden Prairie, Minn., offers an all- tor their wine collection, as well as receive
thermal dispersion airflow measurement in-one steam humidification system that custom text and e-mail alerts that notify
probes, advanced alarming capabilities and integrates two of the company’s products— when humidity or temperature exceeds de-
fault-detection logic. the Vapormist electric humidifier and the sired ranges. 200 Series reverse-osmosis system—on a



Classified line advertisements

Everything Your Reps Need…
are inserted in 7-point type at the
rate of $4.00 per word. This includes increase sales
heading and address. Maximum inser-
tion 15 lines. Prices are net. Classified For All HVAC Products
line insertions for members are $2.00
per word.
Pricing / Configuration
Classified Column Inch Submittals
Border Advertisements Parts
are inserted in 8-point bold heading Customer Support
and address type of 7-point body
type at the rate of $125.00 per More...
column inch, includes heading and
address. Maximum length 5 inches.
Maximum width 2-1/8”. Prices are net.
Border classified insertions for
members are $65.00 per column inch.

Classifieds are accepted in the

categories of Job Opportunities, mep
Rentals, Business Opportunities, and
The power of BIM for MEP design
Closing date: •Calculations directly from the BIM model
Copy must be received by the •Automatic generation of all the case study
classified department by the 3rd of the results •Automatic generation of the final set of
drawings (plan views, vertical diagrams,
month preceding date of issue. axonometric diagrams, Piping/Ducting Networks
in 2D and 3D and others) •Complete documen-
tation of results (detailed calculation sheets,
Technical Reports, Bill of Materials and many
more) •IFC import/export to ensure collabora-
tion with other BIM applications.
FineHVAC - HVAC Design
HVAC ENGINEERS HVAC Loads (Ashrae 2013), Chilled and Hot
All levels. JR Walters Resources, Inc., specializing in Water piping, Airduct Sizing, Psychrometric
the placement of technical professionals in the E & A Analysis (includes also design for Merchant
field. Openings nationwide. Address: P. O. Box 617, St. and Naval Surface Ships - Ashrae ch. 13.1 & 13.3).
Joseph, MI 49085-0617. Phone 269-925-3940. E-mail: Visit our web site at www.
FineFIRE - Fire Fighting Design
NFPA 13 fully calculated systems for tree,
gridded or looped systems (includes also EN
12845, BS 9251, FM, CEA 4001 & AS 2118
FineSANI - Plumbing Design
FOR RENT Water supply and Sewerage design
FineELEC - Electrical Design
FineGAS - Gas Network Design
FineLIFT - Elevator Design,,


Contact Vanessa Johnson, Ad Productions & Operations Coordinator at 678-539-1166 for a quote.


Advertisers Index/Reader Service Information ASHRAE JOURNAL
Two fast and easy ways to get additional information on 1791 Tullie Circle NE | Atlanta, GA 30329
(404) 636-8400 | Fax: (678) 539-2174
products & services in this issue:
Greg Martin |

1. Visit the Web address below the advertiser’s name for the ad in this issue. Associate Publisher, ASHRAE Media Advertising
Vanessa Johnson |
Advertising Production Coordinator
2. Go to to search for products by category or NORTHEAST U.S.
company name. Plus, link directly to advertisers’ Web sites or request Nelson & Miller Associates –
Denis O’Malley
5 Hillandale Ave., Suite 101
information by e-mail, fax or mail. Stamford, CT 06902
(203) 356-9694 | Fax (203) 356-9695

Company Page Company Page Company Page
Millennium Media, Inc. –
Web Address Web Address Web Address
590 Hickory Flat Road
AAON Inc ..........................................................17 Ebtron ............................................................. 124 Nortek Global HVAC ................................96 – 97 Alpharetta, GA 30004 Doug Fix (770) 740-2078 | Fax (678) 405-3327
Lori Gernand (281) 855-0470 | Fax (281) 855-4219
AAON Inc ....................................................... 119 Electro Static Technology ........................... 111 Panasonic Eco Solutions of N.A. ....................9;
Accurex, LLC ............................................82 – 83 Evapco Inc ..................................................... 127 Parker Boiler ....................................................35 OHIO VALLEY U.S. LaRich & Associates – Tom Lasch
Aerco International Inc ..........................72 – 73 Genesis International Inc ........................... 133 512 East Washington St.
Petra Engineering .............................................2 Chagrin Falls, OH 44022
AHR Expo-Las Vegas 2017 .............................13 Goodway Technologies Corp..........................62 (440) 247-1060 | Fax (440) 247-1068
Pittsburgh Corning Corp ............................. 117
Air Filters Inc ................................................ 113 Greenheck Fan Corp .......................................31 MIDWEST U.S.
Pottorff ........................................................... 115 Kingwill Company – Baird Kingwill; Jim Kingwill
A-J Manufacturing Co., Inc ........................ 120 664 Milwaukee Avenue, Suite 201
*Greenheck Fan Corp .................................. 131 Pottorff ........................................................... 141 Prospect Heights, IL 60070 (847) 537-9196 | Fax (847) 537-6519
AQC Industries .........................................90 – 91;
*Greenheck Fan Corp .................................. 131 REHAU.......................................................94 – 95
ASHRAE Tall Building .................................. 139
Greentrol Automation Inc ..............................43 Reliable Controls ................................ 104 – 105
SOUTHWEST U.S. Lindenberger & Associates, Inc. –
BadgerMeter Co ......................................84 – 85 Gary Lindenberger; Lori Gernand Heat Pipe Technology .....................................50 RenewAire, LLC................................... 102 – 103 7007 Winding Walk Drive, Suite 100 Houston, TX 77095
Belimo Aircontrols USA..........................98 – 99
International Copper Association.... 106 – 107 (281) 855-0470 | Fax (281) 855-4219 RuppAir .............................................................65;
Cambridge Engineering............................... 129 iSave Team ...............................................88 – 89
Samsung HVAC ................................... 108 – 109 CANADA & WESTERN U.S.
Captiveaire .......................................................27 LaRich & Associates – Nick LaRich, Tom Lasch Johnson Controls Inc................................76-77 512 East Washington St.
Selkirk ............................................................ 136 Chagrin Falls, OH 44022
Carlisle HVAC Products............................... 130 MacroAir Technologies...........................78 – 79
Shortridge Instruments Inc...........................26
Carrier Corp......................................................61 (440) 247-1060 | Fax (440) 247-1068 Metalaire ....................................................... 123 Soler & Palau USA, Inc ............................... 125
Carrier Corp..............................................70 – 71 KOREA Metraflex ....................................................... 135 YJP & Valued Media Co., Ltd – YongJin Park Taco Inc .....................................................92 – 93
Chil-Pak ......................................................... 122
Kwang-il Building #905, Dadong-gil 5 Jung-gu, Seoul 04521, Korea
Mitsubishi Electric & Electronics USA,
Inc ...................................................86 – 87 Tekleen Automatic Filters Inc .......................33 +82-2 3789-6888 | Fax: +82-2 3789-8988
ClimaCool Corp ............................................. 110
*Mitsubishi Electric Sales Canada Inc. ......59 Thybar Corp ................................................... 118
Climatemaster Inc ....................................... 134 CHINA, HONG KONG & TAIWAN
China Business Media –
Munters Corp ..........................................4th Cvr Titus...................................................... 100 – 101 Sean Xiao
Cofely.................................................................63 6-310 Xinchao No.162 Liaoyuan Road
*Trane ................................................................59 Fuzhou, Fujian, China
Component Hardware .............................74 – 75 Munters Corp ...................................................23 86 186 5099 7133
Daikin North America LLC ............... 2nd Cvr-1 Munters Corp ................................................ 126 Unilux Advanced Mfg, LLC.......................... 114
Daikin North America LLC .......................... 132 Neptune Benson Inc .................................... 128 Vibration & Seismic Technologies............. 116 Steve Comstock (404) 636-8400 |

Delta Products Corp .................................... 121 Nexus Valve ........................................................5 Whalen Company, The ................................. 112 RECRUITMENT ADVERTISING AND REPRINTS
ASHRAE – Greg Martin
Ebtron .......................................................3rd Cvr Nexus Valve ................................................... 142 Yaskawa America Inc. ............................80 – 81 (678) 539-1174 |