You are on page 1of 6

accounting ledger ~ registru contabil

across-the-board ~ general; la toate nivelurile!

adaptive test (adaptiv ok) – a test tailored to the ability level of the test taker

Administrative Tribunal: Special court that hears complaints from employees in the
secretariats of the International Labor Organization and other intergovernmental organizations

advice – consultanţă, nu consiliere

advisory bodies ~ organisme consultative ⇒

advisory council ~ consiliu consultativ

advisory jurisdiction: (1) The power, in general, of a court to say how it would rule on a
matter should the matter become contentious. Such opinions are advisory only and without
binding effect. (2) The power of the International Court of Justice to give opinions about
issues of international law at the request of the United Nations or one of its specialized

airspace: The space above a state and coming under its jurisdiction.

anticipatory avoidance: Remedy available to either party when it becomes clear that the
other party will commit a fundamental breach.

appropriateness ~ justeţe

arbitration: (From Latin arbitrari: "to give judgment.") The process by which parties to a
dispute submit their differences to the judgment of an impartial third person or group selected
by mutual consent.

armed conflict: See war.

artichoke - anghinare

ASP la Hewlett-Packard – authorized service provider

ASP - An application service provider (ASP) is a company that offers individuals or

enterprises access over the Internet to applications and related services that would otherwise
have to be located in their own personal or enterprise computers. Sometimes referred to as
"apps-on-tap," ASP services are expected to become an important alternative, not only for
smaller companies with low budgets for information technology, but also for larger
companies as a form of outsourcing and for many services for individuals as well.

asset management – oversight of the physical and intellectual property of an organization

authorising officer (fin.) – ordonator de credite

B2C – business to consumer

bank: Institution for receiving, lending, and safeguarding money. It may receive money on
deposit, cash checks or bills of exchange, make loans, discount commercial paper, and issue
bank notes (promissory notes payable to bearer).

central bank: The bank in a state which is responsible for issuing the state's
currency, regulating the quantity of its money in circulation, maintaining
currency reserves, and acting as a lender of last resort.

commercial bank: A business firm that maintains custody of money deposited

by its customers and pays on drafts written by its customers. It earns its profits
by investing the money it has on deposit.

confirming bank: A bank that makes an independent promise to pay, accept,

or negotiate a letter of credit issued by another bank when the documents
named in the credit are delivered to it.

correspondent bank: A bank which acts as an agent of another bank,

especially in carrying a deposit balance for the latter.

development bank: Bank which provides funds for the promotion of the
economy of an area, country, region, or the world.

bank deposit: Money held by a bank. The bank may freely use this money as it best sees fit.
A depositor only has a claim against the bank as a general creditor and not as a bailor of
specific property deposited with the bank.

Bank for International Settlements (BIS): Intergovernmental organization, headquartered

in Basel, that functions as a bank for the world's central banks.

basic act ~ act de fundamentare

bill of quantities – deviz estimativ

body shopping – import de personal (specializat)

"Body shoppers" is an inelegant term for companies that recruit a group of software engineers
and then peddle their resumes abroad. The buyers, typically large companies (some of TCS's
customers include Hewlett-Packard and U S West), scan the resumes, and pick ones they like.
These engineers are then flown to the customer's location.

But the practice of Indian body shopping may be waning, as more Indian companies keep
their employees at home, and instead import the projects. Ravi Shah, a vice president at TCS's
office in Chennai, India, says, "Now our strategy on body shopping is not to send more people
to the client's site abroad. [We're looking at] mostly getting the job done [in India]. We've
even [opened] dedicated centers [in India] for HP and U S West."

bonds: Certificates of debt issued by a company (or government) guaranteeing payment of an

original investment plus interest at a specified future date.

bottle-neck principle: Participants in an industry-wide patent pool must grant reasonable

access to the pool to any firm wishing to compete so that no firm will be disadvantaged.

bridging questions

An SLP’s mediation should include an intention to transcend any activity that is presented. For
example, if the task is to listen to an expository text passage and derive the main ideas, the clinician
should take time to explore what listening strategies the student will use and when those strategies
would need to be used in academic, social, and/or vocational settings. The clinician should plan on
using examples that respect the age and experience level of the students. Also, as indicated, invite
students to answer the question, “When else will you use this skill (or strategy)?” This process is
known as bridging, and it is critical to the student’s ability to transfer the use of new communication
behaviors and strategies across settings.
A note of caution: When first asking students bridging questions, you can anticipate silence. Rarely
have they been asked to think about where else they would use something learned in a structured
situation. Be prepared to assist a student to retrieve life experiences during which they would have to
use a specific communication skill or strategy.

Brussels sprouts – varză de Bruxelles

budget accuracy, principle of … - principiul realităţii bugetare

budget entry – post bugatar/în buget

business trust: In common law countries, a business arrangement in which the owners of a
property, known as beneficiaries, transfer legal title to that property to a trustee who then
manages it for them. The beneficiaries hold transferable trust certificates entitling them to the
income generated by the property and a residual equitable share at the time the trust is
terminated. The trustee has unlimited personal liability while the beneficiaries have limited
personal liability.

carry out – /a desfăşura

cartel: A combination of independent business firms organized to regulate the production,

pricing and marketing of goods by its members.

case law – 1. jurisprudenţă 2. precedente

certificate of deposit: A promissory note issued by a bank in which the bank promises to
repay money it has received, plus interest, at a time certain.

charged to the budget – suportat(e) de la buget

charter: A document outlining the principles, functions, and organization of a juridical entity.

chart of accounts – plan de conturi

Checks and Balances – The system of checks and balances is an important part of the
Constitution. With checks and balances, each of the three branches of government can limit
the powers of the others. This way, no one branch becomes too powerful. Each branch
“checks” the power of the other branches to make sure that the power is balanced between

CIC countries (community of independent countries) – comunitatea statelor independente

(CSI), foste sovietice (12 state – Armenia, Azerbaidjan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazahstan etc.)

civil law silent partnership: A secret relationship between two or more persons, one of
whom carries on a business in his name alone without revealing the participation of the other
who has limited liability.

client agents (IT) – agenţi de aplicaţii

clinker (TH.) - zgură

co-decision – codecizie(!!)

code of ethics ~ cod deontologic

collective redundancy – disponibilizări (colective) ale muncitorilor

common denominator – factor comun

complaint – plîngere; claim – reclamaţie

completion – (şi) întregire

conciliation: (From Latin conciliare: "to call or bring together.") The process by which an
impartial third party makes an independent investigation and suggests a solution to a dispute.

conclude negotiations – a închide negocierile

Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage by

Air (Warsaw Convention): A multilateral treaty adopted at Warsaw on October 12, 1929. It
establishes liability limits for air carriers. It has been amended several times. The
amendments currently in force are the Hague Protocol of 1955 and Montreal Protocol No. 4
of 1975.

corporation: A company of capital whose owners have limited liability. No liability

corporation: A corporation found in some common law countries whose share holders are not
obligated to pay any call for contributions made by the firm or to pay any of the firm's debts,
but who will not receive any dividends if a call is due and unpaid. Private corporation: In
common law countries, a corporation that may not ask the public to subscribe to its shares,
bonds, or other securities and which is subject to less stringent public disclosure laws than a
public corporation. Public corporation: In common law countries, a corporation that can raise
money in the public marketplace through the sale of freely transferable shares. Its financial
statements have to be disclosed to the public. Stock corporation: In civil law countries, a
corporation that can raise money in the public marketplace through the sale of freely
transferable shares. Its financial statements have to be disclosed to the public. Unlimited
liability company: A corporation in some common law countries whose members are liable in
the event that it is wound up and its assets are insufficient to cover its debts.

Corpus Juris Civilis: (Latin: "body of civil law.") Codification of Roman law completed
about 534 A.D. at the order of Emperor Justinian, that selected, arranged, and condensed the
ancient laws.

counterparts ~ omologi

Court of Cessation – Curte de Casaţie

c.q. (casu quo) = e.g./de exemplu

crimes against humanity: Murder, genocide, enslavement, deportation, and other acts
against a civilian population before or during a war.

crimes against international law: Serious violations of international law including crimes
against humanity, crimes against peace, and war crimes.

crimes against peace: (1) The planning, preparing, initiating, and/or waging a war of
aggression in violation of international law. (2) Participating in a conspiracy to commit crimes
against humanity or war crimes.

crimina juris gentium: (Latin: "crimes against the law of nations.") Crimes for which
international customary law imposes criminal responsibility on individuals and for which all
states may punish an offender. These include crimes against humanity and crimes against
peace. See the Draft Code of Crimes against the Peace and Security of Mankind. mdp mm

criminal law – drept penal

CSF (financing) – Community Support Framework

currencies - devize

customs union: A group of states that have reduced or eliminated trade barriers between
themselves and have established a common external tariff.