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Population – Summary Notes

 Population is the number of people in an area at a given time.

 The growth of population is actually measured as the difference between the birth rate and the
death rate.
 Birth rate or natality is the number of births in a year per thousand of the total population.
 Death rate or mortality is the number of deaths in a year per thousand of the total population.
 The difference between the birth and death rates is the rate of natural increase or growth of
 If the birth rate is more than the death rate, the growth rate becomes positive, means the
number of people are increasing in the population. If the birth rate is less than the death rate,
the growth rate becomes negative, means there is no increase in the population.
 The annual growth rate is measured in percentage. If the annual growth rate is 2%, the
population will double itself in every 35 years.
 Fertility rate is the annual number of births per thousand women in a given age-group.
 The reason for high fertility rate can be attributed to various negative, non-progressive, socio-
economic factors, while low fertility rate is attributed to positive and progressive socio-
economic factors.
 Mortality rate means the death rate or the death of the people per thousand in a year. The
increase in the mortality rate decreases the number of people living in that area. The general
causes of increasing mortality rate can be war, natural disasters such as famines and floods,
epidemics, earthquakes, etc.
 Population increases in geometric progression, i.e. multiplies at every step with existing
number, whereas the food production grows in arithmetical progression, i.e. it gets added with
rise in population (Given by T.R. Malthus, an Economist).
 Population explosion is the rapid increase in population.
 According to the studies, population had increased after every revolution due to better facilities
of food, medicines, education and immunisation schemes to control diseases.
 Consequences of population explosion
 Severe competition for food, clothing and shelter
 Environmental pollution
 Scarcity of energy
 Depletion of natural resources
 Problems of unemployment
 Problems of sanity
 Number of people per unit area at a time is known as population density.
D N – number of people
S – area in km2 1
Study Materials
NCERT Solutions for Class 6 to 12 (Math & Science)
Revision Notes for Class 6 to 12 (Math & Science)
RD Sharma Solutions for Class 6 to 12 Mathematics
RS Aggarwal Solutions for Class 6, 7 & 10 Mathematics
Important Questions for Class 6 to 12 (Math & Science)
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 9, 10 & 12 (Math &
Important Formula for Class 6 to 12 Math
CBSE Syllabus for Class 6 to 12
Lakhmir Singh Solutions for Class 9 & 10
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 A statistical study of human population is termed as demography. Demographers or population
experts study such characteristics as age, number, distribution and sex of people in an area.

 Factors Responsible for Over Population in India

 Illiteracy: India is a land of agriculture. A large majority of people live in rural areas. Rural
population, which is the bulk of our society, is still illiterate. They also do not know much
about family planning.
 Religious beliefs: Almost people of all religions live in India. They follow their religious
customs. Certain religions do not allow family planning.
 Child labour: India is a developing country. Due to poverty, families living in rural areas
do not send their children to the schools. The parents ask their children to earn for their
 Mortality rate: The mortality rate has fallen due to better medical facilities. Infant
mortality rate in India is still high.
 Traditional superstitions: Many traditional beliefs take children as the sign of prosperity.
As a result, they produce more and more children.
 Desire for a male child: In India, most people think that the male child is responsible for
continuing their generation and in their old age, he will help them. Desire for a male child
results in birth of several female children.
 Technological advancement: Industrialisation, better production, storage and distribution
of food along with more opportunities in urban areas have caused growth of more
 Medical facilities: Vaccinations and better medical facilities are also responsible for
overpopulation in India.
Lack of recreation: In rural areas, people indulge in sex due to lack of entertainment. They
consider children are the best source of recreation.
 Food: An increase in the population tends to decrease agricultural land to form new
residential areas, industrial townships, roads, railway lines, etc. The decrease in agricultural
land reduces food yields.
 Water: Increased demand for food, housing and transport tends to decrease forest land.
Excessive deforestation gives rise to soil erosion, less rainfall and decrease in water level.
 Sanitation: More and more people are shifting to cities for employment and better
education for their children. Therefore, the cities have become overcrowded. As a result, a
number of individuals are living in substandard houses such as slums, where facilities such
as sewage disposal, sanitation, medical, drinking water, etc. are under strain.
 Pollution: The constant pollution of air because of smoke from factories, automobiles, etc.
is not good for the health.
 Unemployment: Increase in population in India and abroad has led to the problems of
unemployment. 2
 Energy: The fossil fuels (coal and petroleum) are the major sources of energy. These are
non-renewable or exhaustible sources of energy and are depleting fast due to their
increasing demand by increased population.
 Forests: To meet the demand of growing population for timber, food, industries,
developments, roads, etc. large forest areas are cleared.
 Mineral resources: Due to the fast growing population more raw material for the
industries and factories is required which leads to depletion of mineral resources.

 Factors Responsible for Rise of Population in the World

 Better medical facilities: Number of primary health centres at village level and big
hospitals at district level and research centres at state level are providing better facilities at
all age levels through doctors and good medicines.
 Large scale immunisation: The diseases which spread very fast (epidemic) caused due to
viruses and bacteria can be prevented through mass immunisation e.g. polio, small pox and
 Food supply: The shortage of food is minimised due to revolution in agricultural field,
such as Green Revolution (wheat crop). To meet the growing demand of food, genetically
modified (genome) seeds are used in farms for better yield.
 Good nutrition: Due to awareness and availability of free and good nutrition for infants
and lactating mothers below poverty line, more children are reaching to reproductive age
and it has minimised the death of infants and pregnant mothers.
 Fewer deaths: Nowadays number of deaths of infants and older people has fallen down
because more people get timely treated and cured.

 Population Growth Curves

 A growth curve is obtained by plotting number of population (size) against the time line.
This curve is called population growth curve. When the birth rate is higher than the death
rate or immigration is more than the emigration, the curve grows upward.
 S-shaped population growth curve first shows slow growth and then more rapid growth
and finally slows down due to environmental factors. 3
 J-shaped growth curve shows sudden increase of population due to ideal condition or
grows exponentially that ceases abruptly with a sudden decrease in population number.
This may be caused due to environmental resistance or end of the life cycle.

Preventive Methods for Population Control

 Surgical methods
These methods prevent fertilisation of eggs which are very effective.

 Conception is the fertilisation of an egg by a sperm. Different methods of contraception

are in use today such as condoms, contraceptive sponges and diaphragms.

 Corrective methods
 Abortion is done after conception. Abortion is the termination of pregnancy before birth.
It results in death of the embryo or foetus. It may be spontaneous or induced. Note that
an abortion is an unjustified killing of an unborn child. It should only be allowed when
pregnancy threatens the mother’s life. 4
 The Indian Government has launched family planning and welfare programmes. The
message of small family, happy family is being spread and reinforced through every
channel of communication such as radio, television, newspaper, etc. The inverted Red
Triangle which is a popular sign of family planning programme is displayed at all public
places, hospitals and offices.
 Family planning is an attempt to control the number of births in a family so that a couple
may not have more than two children.
The methods of family planning prevent the fertilisation of an egg by the sperm. The
various methods of family planning are contraceptives, intrauterine devices, tubectomy and
vasectomy that are prevailing.
 The family welfare centre means a place where any help or advise about family planning
is available without any cost.
 The age restriction of marriage at least 18 years for girls and 21 years for boys by law, must
be followed strictly.

 Advantages of small family

 A small and planned family is always a happy family.
 The parents can fulfill all the basic needs of life.
 The age gap between the siblings encourages better health of the mother and the child.
 The parents can provide better education to their children.
 They can improve their living standards.
 They help in reducing the population and thus help the nation.
 It helps in conservation of natural resources.

 Drawbacks of a Large Family

 Health problem: The inadequate food and living in unhygienic surroundings greatly affect
the health of all the members of a large family.
 Economic pressure: Large families generally impose a major financial burden on the head
of the family. The parents cannot provide proper education, medical facilities, clothing,
shelter and even sufficient food for their children.
 Poor standard of living: Large families face the problems of sanitation, sewage,
environmental pollution and various socioeconomic problems related to crime, etc. 5
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