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BD2 Machines Safety 1 chadsantos@gmail.



1. An assemblage of
parts that transmit
forces, motion and
energy in a
SAFE OPERATION OF 2. Can be simple or
MACHINES compound

Where Mechanical Hazard Occurs Where Mechanical Hazard Occurs

Point of Operation Other Moving Parts
That point where work is performed on the
material, such as cutting, shaping, boring, or Rotating - turning around on an axis or
forming. center.
• Can grip hair or clothing
Other Moving Parts • Can force the body into a dangerous position
All parts of the machine which move while • Projecting pieces increase risk
the machine is working.

Reciprocating Parts
• Risk of being struck between stationary and moving
Power Transmission part
All components of
the mechanical
system that transmit Transverse Motion
energy to the part of
the machine • Continuous straight line motion. Worker struck or
performing the work. caught in pinch or shear point

Where Mechanical Hazard Occurs Where Mechanical Hazard Occurs

Mechanical Motions
Types of Running Nip Points
Punching Action
• Ram stamps materials
• Danger at point of operation
Parallel axes - Parts can rotate in
opposite directions while their axes are Shearing Action
parallel to each other.
• Powered blade that shears materials
• Hazard at point of operation
Tangential - Nip points are also
created between rotating and tangentially
moving parts such as belt and pulley and Bending Action
chains and sprocket. • Power applied to a slide to stamp/shape materials
• Hazard at point of operation
Rotating and Fixed Part - which Cutting Action
shear, crush, or abrade such as screw • Direct injury from cutting action
conveyor, flywheels, abrasive (grinding)
wheel. • Flying chips or sparks
• Saws, drills, lathes, mills

BD2 Machines Safety 1

Risk Assessment for Machine Operation

Risk Assessment for Machine Operation
• Identify the hazards
Step 1 Risk Assessment Matrix:
Rare Remote Occasional Frequent Almost
(1) (2) (3) (4) Certain
• Identify the existing controls (5)
Step 2
Negligible (1)
1 2 3 4 5
Low Low Low Medium Medium
• Assess the risk level based on the matrix 2 4 6 8 10
Step 3 Minor (2)
Low Medium Medium Medium Medium

• Identify the need for additional control Moderate (3)

3 6 9 12 15
Step 4 measures Low Medium Medium Medium High

Major (4)
4 8 12 16 20
Medium Medium Medium High High
• Assign the responsible persons
Step 5 Catastrophic (5) 5 10 15 20 25
Medium Medium High High High

Risk Assessment for Machine Operation

Risk Assessment for Machine Operation The Hierarchy of Controls

Risk Level Recommended Actions

•No additional risk control measures may be needed.

Low Acceptable •Frequent review and monitoring of hazards are required to ensure that the
risk level assigned is accurate and does not increase over time.
•A careful evaluation of the hazards should be carried out to ensure that the Controls
risk level is reduced to as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP) within a • Elimination
Medium Tolerable
defined time period. • Substitution
•Interim risk control measures, such as administrative controls or PPE, may
be implemented while longer term measures are being established.
•Management attention is required.

Administrative Controls
•High Risk level must be reduced to at least Medium Risk before work starts.
•There should not be any interim risk control measures. Risk control SAFE WORKER
High measures should not be overly dependent on PPE.
Acceptable •If practicable, the hazard should be eliminated before work starts.
•Management review is required before work starts. Personal Protective Equipment

Types of Machine Guarding

Machine Fixed Guard

Control Measures
Types of Hazards
Control Measures

BD2 Machines Safety 1

Types of Machine Guarding Types of Machine Guarding

Machine Interlocked Guards Machine Adjustable Guards

Bandsaw blade
adjustable guard

Interlocked guard on
revolving drum

Types of Machine Guarding Machine Safety Devices

Machine Self-Adjusting Guard Protective Shields

Circular table saw


Machine Safety Devices Machine Safety Devices

Pullback Devices

Restraint Devices

BD2 Machines Safety 1

Machine Safety Devices Machine Safety Devices

Safety Tripwire Cable & Emergency Stops
Two Hand Control

• Device located around the

perimeter of or near the
danger area
• Operator must be able to
Tripwire Cable reach the cable to stop the

Machine Safety Devices Machine Safety Devices


Presence Sensing Devices

Pressure Sensitive A safety device which is
Edges designed, constructed, and
arranged to create a sensing
Pressure Sensitive
Safety Mats
field, area, or plane that will
detect in its field the presence
of an opaque object.

Gate Open Gates Gate Closed

Machine Safety Alternatives Machine Safety Devices

Automatic Feed Machines & Robotics

Safeguard by

Automatic Feed Robotics

BD2 Machines Safety 1

Machine Safe Practices

The following practices must be observed at all
Use PPE if needed and ensure it is in good condition.

Always use the safety devices correctively;

Control Measures Do not wear loose clothing/ties when operating

Machine Safe machines with rotating parts;

Practices Tie up or cover up long hair;

Use devices to remove trapped materials from


Switch off the machine before retrieving dropped

material(s) from inside the machine.

Machine Safe Practices Machine Safe Practices

Lock Out/Tag Out/Test Out Procedure LO-TO-TO Devices

Electric motor control


Steam lines valves. Designated LO-TO-TO

Acid line valves

Valves on high pressure gas

or LPG lines.

Fuel line valve to boilers,

heater, etc. Wired Lockouts
Gate Valve Lockouts

Machine Safe Practices Safety Responsibilities

LO-TO-TO Devices

Ensure all
Management: machinery is
properly guarded

Ensure machine
Train employees Immediately
guards remain in
Supervisors: on specific guard
place and are
correct machine
rules in their areas functional guard deficiencies

Do not remove Report machine

Do not operate
guards unless guard problems to
Employees: machine is locked supervisors
equipment unless
guards are in place
and tagged immediately

Physical Lockout for Circuit Breaker

BD2 Machines Safety 1



Operators/Affected Personnel should receive training

• Hazards associated with particular machines
• How the safeguards provide protection and the hazards for
which they are intended
• How and why to use the safeguards
• How and when safeguards can be removed and by whom
• What to do if a safeguard is damaged, missing, or unable to
provide adequate protection