You are on page 1of 68

MHR 405

find more resources at oneclass.com

MHR 405 LECTURE 1 NOTES

Introduction to the Field of Organization Behaviour


Organizational Behaviour (OB) is the study of what people think, feel, and do in and around
organizations.

Organizations are groups of people who work interdependently toward some purpose

- Collective entities → people interact with each other in an organized way


- Organizations have a collective sense of purpose -- e.g. Developing internet products or
designing better aircraft

Historical Foundations of Organizational Behaviour


- Organizational Behaviour emerged as a distinct field around the early 1940s

Organizations have been studied longer

- Plato –Leadership
- Confucius – Ethics, leadership
- Elton Mayo – hu a relatio s s hool

Why Study OB?


- It helps us make sense of and predict our world
- Questions personal beliefs/assumptions
- Adopt more accurate models of workplace behavior
- Provides the knowledge/tools to work with others
- ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR IS FOR EVERYONE
- It helps everyone, not just managers
- Organizational Behaviour practices affe t orga izatio ’s sur i al a d su ess

Organizational Effectiveness
Organizational Effectiveness is the ultimate dependent variable in OB.

Problem with goal attainment:

- Could set easy goals


- Company might achieve wrong goals

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

Four perspectives of Organizational effectiveness

1) Open Systems Perspective


2) Organizational Learning Perspective
3) High-Performance WP Perspective
4) Stakeholder Perspective
NOTE: Need to o side all fou pe spe ti es he assessi g a o pa y’s
effectiveness.
Open System Perspective
- Organizations – o ple s ste s that li e ithi , depe d o , e ter al e iro e t
- Organizations have subsystems→ transform inputs to outputs
- Effective organizations; ai tai a lose fit ith ha gi g o ditio s
- Transform inputs to outputs efficiently and flexibly.
- Foundation for the other three organizational perspectives

Organizational Learning Perspective


A o ga izatio ’s apa ity to a ui e, sha e, use, a d sto e alua le k o ledge
- Consider both stock and flow of knowledge
-Stock: intellectual capital
- Flow: org learning processes of acquisition, sharing, use and storage.

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

Intellectual Capital
I. Human Capital is the knowledge that people possess and generate
II. Structural Capital is the knowledge embedded in systems and structures
III. Relationship Capital is the value derived from relationships with customers,
suppliers, etc.

Organizational Learning Process


- Knowledge Acquisition: Learning, Scanning, Grafting, Experimenting
- Knowledge Sharing: Communicating, Info systems, Internal learning (training &
observing)
- Knowledge Use: Awareness of knowledge, sense making (local knowledge), autonomy
to apply knowledge
- Knowledge storage: human memory, documentation, practices/habits, databases.
Organizational Memory
Organizational Memory is the storage and preservation of intellectual capital
Retain intellectual capital by:
- Keeping knowledgeable employees
- Transferring knowledge to others
- Transferring human capital to structural capital
Successful companies also unlearn

High-Performance Work Practices


HPWP is workplace practices that leverage the potential human capital
Four HPWPS (likely others):
1. Employee involvement
2. Job autonomy
3. Development competencies (training, selection)
4. Performance-based rewards
Need to u dle all fou of these o k p a ti es, they o k est togethe .

Stakeholder Perspective
Stakeholders: e tities ho affe t or are affe ted the fir ’s o je ti es a d a tio s.
- Personalizes the open systems perspective
- Challenges with stakeholder perspective:
- Stakeholders have conflicting interests
- Firms have limited resources to satisfy all stakeholder needs

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

Stakeholders: Values and Ethics


Values and ethics prioritize stakeholder interests
- Values: stable, evaluative beliefs, guide preferences for outcomes or courses of actions
in various situations
- Ethics: moral principles/values, determine whether actions are right/wrong and
outcomes are good or bad.

Stakeholder perspectives includes corporate social responsibility (CSR)


- Benefit society and enviro e t e o d the fir ’s i ediate fi a ial i terests or legal
obligations.
- Orga izatio ’s o tra t ith so iet
- Triple Bottom Line: Economy, society, environment

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

Globalization
Globalization is the economic, social, and cultural connectivity with people in other
parts of the world.
Due to better communication and transportation systems
Effects of globalization on organizations:
- Larger markets, lower costs, more innovation
- Increasing diversity
- Increasing work intensification, less work-life balance (24/7 schedule)

Increasing Workforce Diversity


Surface- level vs. deep-level diversity
Opportunities/challenges:
-Better knowledge, decisions, representation, and financial returns
- Challenges of team development, conflict
- Surface-level diversity is an ethical imperative.

Emerging Employment Relationships


Work/life balance:
- Minimizing conflict between work and nonwork demands

Virtual Work:

- Usi g i for atio te h olog to perfor o e’s a a fro the traditio al ph si al


workplace.
- Telecommuting→ issues of social isolation, emphasis on face time, employee self-
motivation

Organizational Behaviour Anchors


Systematic Research Anchor:
- OB knowledge is built on systematic research
- Evidence-based management relies on research evidence, not fads, untested
assumptions
Multidisciplinary Anchor:
- Many OB concepts adopted from other disciplines
- OB develops its own theories, but scans other fields.
Contingency Anchor:
- A particular action may have different consequences in different situations

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

- Need to diagnose the situation and select best strategy under those conditions
Multiple levels of analysis anchor:
- Individual, team, organizational level of analysis
- OB topics usually relevant at all three levels of analysis.

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

MHR405 LECTURE 2 NOTES


Individual Behaviour, Personality, and Values

SNC-Lavalin (SNCL)

- Motivation, role perceptions, and misguided personal values explain the alleged bribery, money
laundering, and other illegal activities by several SNC-Lavalin executives and employees

- Employee Motivation is the i ter al for es that affe t a perso ’s olu tar hoi e of eha ior
o Direction
o Intensity
o Persistence
- Employee ability is the aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a
task
o Person – job matching;
o Selecting applicants
o Developing employees
o Redesigning jobs
- Role Perceptions is the understanding of the job duties expected of us
- Clearer role perceptions (role clarity) when we:
o Understand our tasks or accountable consequences
o Understand tasks/performance priorities
o Understand the preferred behaviours/procedures
o Benefits of clear role perceptions: more accurate/efficient job performance, better
coordination with others, higher motivation.
- Situational Factors are enviromental conditions e o d the i di idual’s short-term control that
constrain or facilitate behaviour
o Constraints: time, budget, facilities, etc

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

o Cues: e.g. signs of nearby hazards

Types of Individual Behaviour

- Task performance are goal directed behaviours under the i di idual’s o trol that support
organizational objectives
o Working with people, date, things and ideas
o Performance = proficiency, adaptability, proactivity
- Organizational citizenship is cooperation and helpfulness to coworkers and organizations that
support the work context
o some OCBS may be employment requirement (not at all discretionary)
- Counterproductive work behaviours are voluntary behaviours that have the potential to
directly or indirectly harm the organization
- Joining & staying with the organization is forming the employment relationship and staying
with the organization
- Maintaining work attendance consists of absences due to situation (weather), motivation
(avoiding stressful workplace)
o Presenteeism: atte di g s heduled ork he o e’s apa it to perform is significantly
diminished by illness or other factors
- Defining Personality is relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, emotions, and behaviours that
characterize a person, along with the psychological processes behind those characteristics
o External traits and internal states
o Personality Traits :
▪ Clusters of internally-caused behavior tendencies
▪ Traits apparent across situations, but situation may suppress behavior
tendencies

Nature vs. Nurture of Personality

- Influenced by nature
o Heredity explains about 50 percent of behavioural tendencies and 30 percent of
temperament
- Influenced by nurture
o Socialization
o Learning
- Personality stabilizes in young adulthood
o Executive function steers behavior guided by our self-concept

Five-Factor Personality Model (CANOE)

- Conscientiousness: organized, dependable


o Strongest personality predictors of performance
- Agreeableness: trusting, helpful, flexible
o Effective in jobs requiring cooperation and helpfulness

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

- Neuroticism: anxious, self-conscious


- Openness to experience: creative, nonconforming
o Linked to higher creativity and adaptability to change
- Extraversion: outgoing, talkative, energetic
o Higher performance in sales and mgt performance
o Related to social interaction and persuasion

Jungian Personality Theory


- Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung
- The Jungian Personality Theory Identifies preference for perceiving the environment and
obtaining/processing information
- Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
o Measures Jungian types
o Most widely used personality test in business
o Good for self and other awareness
o Poor predictor of performance, leadership, team development
- Extroversion versus introversion (E/I)
o Similar to five-factor dimension
- Perceiving information (S/N)
o Sensing – factual, quantitative
o Intuition – insight, subjective experience
- Judging (making decisions) (T/F)
o Thinking – rational logic, systematic data collection
o Feeling – influenced by emotions, how choices affect others
- Orientation to external world (P/J)
o Perceiving – flexible, spontaneous, keeps options open
o Judging – order and structure

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

- Values in the workplace are stable, evaluative beliefs that guide our preferences
o Define right/wrong, good/bad – hat e ought to do i a situatio
o Direct our motivation, potentially decisions and behaviour
o Value system – hierarchy of values
o Compared with personality, values are:
▪ Evaluative (not descriptive)
▪ May conflict strongly with each other
▪ Affected more by nurture than nature

“ h artz’s Values Model


- Openness to change: motivation to pursue innovative ways
- Conservation: motivation to preserve the status quo
- Self-enhancement: motivated by self-interest
- Self-transcendence: motivation to promote welfare of others and nature

Personal Values and Behaviour

- Values motivate: guide decisions, behaviour, and performance


- Values- eha iour dis o e t e ause:
o Situation – interferes with values-consistent behaviour
o Awareness (salience) – alues are a stra t, rele a e is ’t o ious
- To increase values-consistent behaviour:
o Keep workplace conditions (e.g. rewards) consistent with desired values
o Remind employees of important values
o Help employees be more sensitive to relevance of values in daily work

Values Congruence at VanCity

- Va ou er Cit “a i gs Credit U io (Va Cit is o e of Ca ada’s trul alues-driven


orga izatio s. It hires staff hose perso al alues are alig ed ith fi a ial i stitutio ’s alues
a d offers a pa out to e staff ho dis o er their alues differ fro Va Cit ’s
- Values Congruence is the si ilarit of a perso ’s alues hierar h to another source
o person-organization values congruence
o espoused-enacted values congruence
o organization-community values congruence
- Three Ethical Principles:
o Utilitarianism: greatest good for the greatest number of people
o Individual Rights: fundamental entitlements in society
o Distributive Justice: people who are similar should receive similar benefits.

Influences on Ethical Conduct

- Moral Intensity: degree that issue demands the application of ethical principles
- Moral Sensitivity: Perso ’s ability to recognize presence/importance of an ethical issue

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

o I reases ith perso ’s e path , e pertise, e perie e ith dile as, i dful ess
o Mindfulness – receptive/impartial awareness of present situation and own
thoughts/emotion in that moment
- Situational Influences: competitive pressures and other external factors
- Supporting Ethical Behaviour
o Corporate code of ethics
o Training employees – knowledge of guidelines, ethics dilemmas
o Systems for communication/investigating wrongdoing
▪ Anonymous reporting (hotlines, websites)
▪ Impartial investigation – ombuds officers
o Ethical Leadership and shared values
- Individualism: The degree to which people value personal freedom, self-sufficiency, control over
themselves, being appreciated for unique qualities
- Collectivism: The degree to which people value their group membership and harmonious
relationships within the group
- Power Distance:
o High Power Distance –
▪ Value obedience to authority
▪ Comfortable receiving commands from superiors
▪ Prefer formal rules and authority to resolve conflicts
o Lower Power Distance –
▪ Expect relatively equal power sharing
▪ View relationship with boss as interdependence, not dependence
- Uncertainty Avoidance:
o High Uncertainty avoidance –
▪ Feel threatened by ambiguity and uncertainty
▪ Value structured situations and direct communication
o Low uncertainty avoidance –
▪ Tolerate ambiguity and uncertainty
- Achievement – Nurturing
o High achievement orientation –
▪ Assertiveness
▪ Competitiveness
▪ Materialism
o High nurturing orientation
▪ Relationships
▪ Other’s well-being

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

Diversity of Canadian Values

- Francophone vs Anglophone values


o Francophones tend to be more liberal and permissive than Anglophones – reverse of a
few decades ago
- First Nation Values
o High collectivism
o Low power distance
o Low uncertainty avoidance
o Moderately nurturing orientation

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

MHR405 LECTURE 3 NOTES


Self-Concept Defined

- A i di idual’s self-beliefs and self-evaluations


o ho a i? a d Ho do I feel a out yself?
- Compared perceived job with our perceived and ideal selves
- Include three self-concept characteristics and four sel es p o esses

-
Self- o ept Cha a te isti s 3 C’s
- Complexity
o Our self-view has many distinct, important roles/identities
o High complexity: many identities but little overlap/connection
- Consistency
o Multiple selves have compatible personality, values
- Clarity
o Self-concept is clear, confidently described, internally consistent, and stable across time.
- People have better well-being with:
o Multiple selves (complexity)
o Well established selves (clarity)
o Selves are similar and compatible with traits (consistency)
- Four selves of self-concept
o self-enhancement: promoting and protecting our positive self-view
o self-verification: affirming and maintain our existing self-concept
o self-evaluation: evaluating ourselves through self-esteem, self-efficacy, and locus of
control
o social self: defining ourselves by our group membership
- Self-concept: self-enhancement
o Drive to promote/protect a positive self-view
▪ Competent, attractive, lucky, ethical, valued
o Self-enhancement outcomes:
▪ Better personal adjustment and mental/physical health

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

▪ Highe a -do attitude


▪ Inflates perceived personal causation and chances of success
- Self-concept: self-verification
o Motivation to verify/maintain our self-concept
o Stabilizes our self-concept
o Prefer feedback consistent with self-concept
o Self-verification causes us to:
▪ Remember information consistent with our self-concept
▪ Ignore/oppose feedback to contrary to our self-concept
▪ Associate with those who affirm/reflect our self-concept
- Self-concept: self-evaluation
o Self-esteem
▪ To like and respect oneself
▪ High self-esteem: less influenced by others, more persistent, more logical
thinking
o Self-efficacy
▪ Belief that we can successfully perform a task
▪ General self-efficacy – a -do elief a oss situatio s
o Locus of control
▪ General belief about personal control over life events
▪ Higher self-evaluation with internal locus of control

as ’t posted, k o the otto defi itio s

- Self Esteem: the extend one likes and is satisfied with oneself
- High self-esteem: less influenced by others, more persistent
- Self-efficacy: belief that we can successfully perform a task
- General self-efficacy: a -do elief a oss situatio s

Self-concept: Social self

- We identify ourselves by our uniqueness and our association with others. It is easier to define
ourselves in terms of groups which we belong or have an emotional attachment to.
- Personal Identity: the unique & independent attributes that make us distinct from the social
groups we are connected to
- But we are also social animals
o Inherent drive to be a part of social communities
- Social identity
o Identify ourselves by our relationships; the groups we belong to.
o Our need to belong and affiliate drives our social identity.
- Social identity: defining ourselves in terms of groups to which we belong or have an emotional
attachment.
- Several factors influence social identity importance:

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

o How easily others identify you with a social group (gender, race, etc.)
o Your minority status in a social setting
o Social group status—we identify with groups that make us feel better about ourselves –
self enhancement (high status groups; doctor)
- Those more defined by social identities
o More motivated by team norms and more influenced by peer pressure
- Those more defined by personal identities
o “peak out o e f e ue tly agai st the ajo ity a d less oti ated to follo tea ’s
wishes.
- Perception defined:
o The process of receiving information about and making sense of the world around us
▪ What gets noticed
▪ How information is categorized
▪ How information is interpreted within our existing knowledge
- Perceptions: e do ’t see reality, we interpret what we see and call it reality
- The attribution process guides our behaviour, regardless of the truth of the attribution.
- Factors influencing/distorting perceptions:
o The perceiver (how you see things/people; police)
o The target (novelty, motion, sound, size)
o The situation (context; heat driving)

- Selective attention:
o Selecting vs. ignoring sensory information
o Affected by pe so /o je t’s featu es size, otio
o Affe ted y the pe ei e ’s ha a te isti s – assumptions, expectations, needs
▪ Emotional markers are assigned non-consciously to information
- Perceptual organization/interpretation
Categorical thinking:
o We make sense of information even before we are consciously aware of it
o Mostly non-conscious process of organizing people/things into categories
- Perceptual grouping principles
o Similarity or proximity
o Cognitive closure – filling in missing pieces
o Perceiving trends – seeing patterns when they might not even be there
o Interpreting incoming information: emotional markers automatically evaluate
information.
- Making sense of the world is both organizing and interpreting incoming information
- Takes 1/20th of a second to make a judgment of others.

- Mental models in perceptions:


o Knowledge structures we create to describe, explain, and predict the external world.
o Help make sense of situations

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

▪ Fill in missing pieces


▪ How a classroom works
▪ Why business succeed (marketing, innovation, product) – mental models can
narrow perspective
▪ Help to predict events
- Problems with mental models:
o May block recognition of new opportunities/perspectives
- we don’t see the world as it is, we see it as we are – By Anais Nin
- Confirmation bias
o Pay attention to information that is consistent and supports what we already believe
o Screening out information contrary to our beliefs/values/opinions
o Employment interviews (form impressions within tenth of a second; 5 sec. professor
evaluation)
- Stereotyping
o Assign characteristics to an identifiable group and then automatically transfer those
perceived attributes to individuals believed to be members of that group
- Why people stereotype:
o Categorical thinking
▪ Energy saving approach to understanding our world
o Drive to comprehend and predict others behaviour
o Supports self-enhancement and social identity
- Stereotyping applies three activities derived from social identity and self-enhancement:
o Categorization process—social identity is a comparative process and it begins by
categorizing people into groups
▪ Allows distinction between us and them
o Homogenization process
▪ Tendency to view everyone in a perceived group as similar to each other
▪ Assign similar traits within a group; different traits to other groups
o Differentiation process (social comparison)
▪ Tendency to assign more favourable characteristics to people in our groups than
to people in other groups
▪ Fulfills inherent need to have a distinct and positive self-concept
▪ Generates negative stereotypes of people outside our social identity groups.
- Problem with stereotyping:
o Overgeneralizes – does ’t ep ese t e e yo e i the atego y
o Basis of systemic and intentional discrimination
o Overcoming stereotype biases
▪ Difficult to prevent stereotype activation
▪ Possible to minimize stereotype application

- Attribution Process:
- Internal attribution: pe eptio that eha iou is aused y pe so ’s o oti atio o a ility

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

- External attribution: pe eptio that aused eha iou is aused y fa to s eyo d pe so ’s


control
- Attribution is made up of consistency, distinctiveness, consensus

-
- Fundamental attribution error:
o Te de y to o e e phasize i te al auses of a othe pe so ’s eha iou , he eas e
recognize external influences on our own behaviour
- Self-serving bias: tendency to attribute our successes to internal factors and our failures to
external factors.

- Self-fulfilling prophe y effe t is the st o gest …


o At the beginning of the relationship (e,g. employee joins the team)
o When several people have similar expectations about the person
o When the employee has low rather than high past achievement

- Other perceptual effects


o Halo effect
▪ Form a general impression of others from one trait/behaviour
▪ Disto ts ou pe eptio of pe so ’s othe t aits/ eha iours

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

▪ Employee late sometimes – supervisors forms a holistic negative opinion of all


work traits
o False consensus effect (similar-to-me effect)
▪ Overestimate how many others have similar beliefs or traits like ours
(particularly negative ones)
• Everyone does it (defensive mechanism)
• Interact more with people who are similar – thus assume majority is
o Primacy effect
▪ Forming perception of others (categorization) based on first information we
receive about them
▪ First impressions are difficult to change.
- Primacy effect background knowledge & examples;
o Solomon Asch (1946)
o John is envious, stubborn, critical, impulsive, industrious and intelligent
o John is intelligent, industrious, impulsive, critical, stubborn and envious.

- Receny effect
o Most recent information dominates perceptions
- Contrast effects
o A pe so ’s e aluatio is affe ted y o pa iso s ith othe ’s i di iduals e e tly
encountered.
- Improving Perceptions
o Awareness of perceptual biases
o Improving self-awareness
▪ Increase awareness of our beliefs, values, attitudes
▪ Test for biases and use for Johari Window
o Meaningful interaction
▪ Based on contact hypothesis
▪ Close, frequent interaction toward a shared goal
▪ Engaged in a meaningful task
▪ Equal status
- Know Yourself (Johari Window)

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

- Global mindset abilities


o ability to understand and respect other views/practices around the world
o ability to empathize and act effectively across cultures
o ability to process complex information about novel environments
o ability to comprehend and reconcile intercultural matters with multiple levels of
thinking
- Developing a global mindset
o improve self-awareness
o compare mental models with those of people in other cultures
o develop better knowledge of people and cultures—especially through immersion

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

MHR405 LECTURE 4 NOTES

- Emotions Defined
o Psychological, behavioural, and physiological episodes that create a state of readiness
o Most emotions occur without our awareness
o Two features of all emotions:
▪ Evaluation (core affect) – evaluate that something is good/bad;approach/avoid
▪ Activation – generate internal energy/effort
▪ Readiness to act
▪ Negative emotions (anger, fear) generate stronger levels of activation; survival.

Attitudes versus Emotions

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

- Traditional Model: how attitudes influence behaviour


o Cognitive process
▪ Beliefs: your perception of the attitude object (e.g. This firm provides learning
opportunities)
▪ Feelings: your judgment of the attitude object (e.g. This firm is a good/bad place
to work)
▪ Behavioural intentions : your intentions of the attitude object(e.g I intend to
stay with this firm)
▪ Behaviour: your behaviour toward the attitude object (e.g. Peron stays with the
firm)
- Emotions and Attitudes
o What comes first?
o Automatic and unconscious process
o Gut versus logic
o So eti es a ’t fi d logi for gut feeling

- Emotions influence Attitudes


o Cognitive Process;
▪ Beliefs → feelings → behavioural intentions → behaviour = emotions episodes
- Cognitive Dissonance
o Emotional experience caused by a perception that our beliefs, feelings, and behaviour
are different.
o Inconsistency generates emotions that motivate us to increase consistency
o Difficult to undo/change behaviour
o Instead, we reduce dissonance by changing our beliefs/feelings about the attitude
object
- Emotional Labour
o Effort, planning and control needed to express organizationally desired emotions during
interpersonal transactions
o Higher jobs in requiring:
▪ Frequent/lengthy emotion display
▪ Variety of emotions display
▪ Intense emotions display
o Emotion display norms vary across cultures
▪ Expressed emotions discouraged: Ethiopia, Japan
▪ Expressed emotions allowed/expected: Kuwait, Spain
- Emotional Labour Challenges
o Difficult to accurately display expected emotions
o Difficult to hide true emotions
o Emotional dissonance: conflict between true and required emotions
o Emotional labour solutions
▪ perceive emotional labour as professional skill

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

▪ Engage in deep acting, not surface acting.

- Emotional Intelligence Outcomes and Development


o EI (emotional intelligence) is associated with better relations, emotional labour,
leadership, social decisions, job interviews, knowledge sharing
o EI can be learned
▪ Training, coaching, practice, feedback

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

o EI increases with age (maturity process)


- Job Satisfaction
o A perso ’s e aluatio of his or her jo a d ork o text
o An appraisal of the perceived job characteristics, work environment, and emotional
experience at work.
- EVLN: Responses to Dissatisfaction
o Exit:
▪ Leaving the situation
▪ Quitting, transferring
o Voice:
▪ Changing the situation
▪ Problem solving, complaining
o Loyalty:
▪ Patiently waiting for the situation to improve
o Neglect:
▪ Reducing work effort/quality
▪ Increasing absenteeism
- Job Satisfaction and Performance
o Happy workers are somewhat more productive workers
o But relatio ships is ’t stronger because:
▪ General attitude vs. specific behaviours
▪ Low employee control over work output job
▪ Jo perfor a e is ’t re arded
- Service Profit Chain Model
o Job satisfaction increases customer satisfaction and profitability because:
▪ Job satisfaction affects mood, leading to positive behaviours toward customers
▪ Job satisfaction reduces employee turnover, resulting in more consistent and
familiar service
- Organizational Commitment
o Affective commitment
▪ Emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in an
organization
▪ Lower turnover, higher motivation and org citizenship
o Continuance commitment
▪ Calculative attachment
▪ Employees stays because (a ) no choice (alternative), or (b) too costly to quit
▪ Lower turnover, performance, org citizenship, cooperation
- Building Affective Commitment
o Justice/support:
▪ Apply humanitarian values
▪ Support employee wellbeing

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

o Shared Values:
▪ Values congruence/similarity
o Trust:
▪ Employees trust org leaders
▪ Job security supports trust
o Organizational Comprehension:
▪ K o fir ’s past/prese t/future
▪ Open and rapid communication
o Employee involvement:
▪ Employees feel part of company
▪ Involvement demonstrates trust
- What is Stress?
o Adaptive response to situations perceived as challenging or threatening to well-being
o Prepares us to adapt to hostile or noxious environmental conditions
o Eustress vs. distress

- Workplace Stressors
o Stressors are the causes of stress
▪ Environmental conditions that place a physical or emotional demand on the
person
o Some common workplace stressors include:
▪ Harassment an incivility
▪ Work overload
▪ Low task control
- Individual Differences in Stress
o People experience less stress and/or negative outcomes when they have:

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

▪ Better physical health – exercise, lifestyle


▪ Appropriate stress coping strategies
▪ Personality: lower neuroticism and higher extraversion
▪ Positive self-concept
▪ Lower workaholism
- Managing Work-Related Stress
o Remove the stressor
▪ Minimize/remove stressors
▪ Work/life balance initiatives
o Withdraw from the stressor
▪ Vacation, rest breaks
o Change stress perceptions
▪ Positive self-concept, humour
o Control stress consequences
▪ Healthy lifestyle
▪ Fitness
▪ Wellness
o Receive social support

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

Foundations of Employee Motivation -- Chapter 5

Motivation Defined:
- The forces within a person that affect the direction, intensity, and persistence of
voluntary behavior
- Intensity -- level of effort
- Persistence -- amount of time effort is exerted
- Direction -- goal towards effort is directed

Employee engagement
- Both emotional and cognitive motivation
- Focused, intense, persistent, purposive effort toward work-related goals
- High level of absorption (focus)
- High self-efficacy

Theory X and Theory Y


Theory X assumptions:
- Employees dislike work
- Employees attempt to avoid work
- Employee must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment if they are to
perform
Theory Y assumptions:
- Employees like to work
- Employees are creative, and seek responsibility
- Employees can exercise self-direction and self-control
Intrinsic Motivators
- A person’s internal desire to do something
- Interest, challenge, and personal satisfaction
- Theory Y believes this is main motivator for people
Extrinsic Motivators
- Motivation that comes from outside the person
- Pay, bonuses, and other tangible rewards
- Theory X believes this is main motivator for people

Drivers and Needs


- Drives (primary needs)
- Hardwired brain activity (neural states) that energize individuals through
generation of emotions to correct deficiencies and maintain equilibrium
- Prime movers of behaviour-- produce emotions that energize us to act
Drive for:
- Social interaction
- Status
- Comprehension of what is going on around us
- Defend ourselves against harm

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

- Needs:
- Goal-directed forces that people experience
- We channel emotional forces toward specific goals
- Goals formed by self-concept, social norms and experience

Maslow’s Contribution to Motivation


- Holistic perspective:
- Study multiple needs together
- Humanistic perspective:
- Influence of social dynamics, not just instinct
- Positive perspective:
- Self-actualization (growth needs)
- Foundation of positive OB

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

Learned Needs Theory:


- Needs are amplified or suppressed through self-concept, social norms, and past
experience
- Therefore, needs can be “learned”
- Strengthened through reinforcement, learning and social conditions
Three Learned Needs:
- Need for achievement (nAch)
- Want to accomplish reasonably challenging goals
- Desire to clear feedback, moderate risk tasks
- Need for affiliation (nAff)
- Seek approval from others, conform to other’s wishes, avoid conflict
- Effective decision makers have low nAff
- Need for power (nPow)
- Desire to control one’s environment
- Personalized versus socialized power
Four Drive Theory:
- Drive to acquire: seek, acquire, control, retain objects or experiences
- Drive to bond: form social relationships and develop mutual caring commitments with
others
- Drive to comprehend: satisfy our curiosity, know and understand ourselves and the
environment
- Drive to defend: protect ourselves physically and socially.

How Four Drives Motivate:


- Four drives determine which emotions are automatically tagged to incoming sensory
information
- Emotions are usually nonconscious, but become conscious experiences when
sufficiently strong or conflict with each other
- Mental skill set relies on social norms, personal values, and experience to transform
drive-based emotions into goal-directed choice and effort.

Four Drive Theory Implications


- Provide a balanced opportunity for employees to fulfill all four drives
- Employees continually seek fulfillment of drives
- Keep fulfillment of all four drives in balance
- Avoid conditions supporting one drive more than the others

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

Expectancy Theory in Practice


- Increasing E-to-P expectancies
- Hire, train, and match people to job requirements
- Provide role clarity and sufficient resources
- Provide behavioral modelling and coaching
- increasing P-to-O expectancies
- measures performance accurately
- explain how rewards are linked to performance
- explain how rewards are caused by past performance
- increasing outcome valences
- ensure that rewards are valued
- individualize rewards
- minimize countervalent outcome

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

Four OB Mod Consequences:


- positive reinforcement:
- when reinforcer (consequence) is introduced, the behaviour is
increased/maintained
- punishment:
- when introduce, the frequency or probability of the behaviour decreases
- Negative reinforcement:
- When tis consequence is removed, behaviour is increased/maintained
- Extinction:
- Behaviour decreases when no consequence occurs

Social Cognitive Theory:


- Learning behaviour outcomes:
- Observing consequences that others experience
- Anticipate consequences in other situations
- Behaviour modelling:
- Observing and modelling behaviour of others
- Self-regulation:
- We engage in intentional, purposive action
- We set goals, set standards, anticipate consequences
- We reinforce our own behaviour (self-reinforcement)

Balanced Scorecard
- Organizational-level goal setting and feedback
- Usually financial, customer, internal, and learning/growth process goals
- Several goals within each process

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

- Characteristics of effective feedback


- Specific: connected to goal details
- Relevant: relates to person’s behaviour
- Timely: links actions to outcomes
- Credible: trustworthy source
- Sufficiently frequent: employee’s knowledge/experience, task cycle
Strengths-Based Coaching:
- Builds on employee’s strengths rather than trying to correct weaknesses
- Motivational because:
- People inherently seek feedback about their strengths, not their flaws
- Person’s interests, preferences and competencies stabilize over time,
Sources of Feedback:
- Social sources: feedback directly from others
- E.g., boss, customers, multisource
- Nonsocial sources: feedback not conveyed directly by people
- E.g., electronic displays, customer survey results
- Preferred feedback source:
- Nonsocial feedback for goal progress feedback:
- Considered more accurate
- Negative feedback less damaging to self-esteem
- Social sources for conveying positive feedback
- Enhances employee’s self-esteem
Organizational Justice
- Distributive justice:
- Perceived fairness in outcomes we receive relative to our contributions and the
outcomes and contributions of others
- Procedural justice:
- Perceived fairness of the procedures used to decide the distribution of resources

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

Elements of Equity Theory


- Outcome/input ratio
- Inputs—what employee contributes (e.g, skill)
- Outcomes – what employee receives (e.g., pay)
- Comparison other
- Person/people whom we compare our ratio
- Not easily identifiable
- Equity evaluation
- Compare ratio with the comparison other

Procedural Justice
- Perceived fairness of procedures used to decide the distribution of resources
- Higher procedural fairness with:
- Voice
- Unbiased decision maker
- Decision based on all information
- Existing policies consistently
- Decision maker listened to all sides
- Those who complain are treated respectfully
- Those who complain are given full explanation.

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

Decision Making and Creativity -- Chapter 7

Decisions: the choice made from two or more alternatives


- Is there a right way to make decisions?
Rational Choice Program:
- The view in decision making that people should, and typically do, use logic and all
available information to choose the alternative with the highest value
- Six step decision-making process
- Describes how individuals should behave in order to maximize some outcome
- How you choose your major, career, university, restaurant, mate?
- Two key elements of rational choice
- 1) subjective expected utility- expectancy of satisfaction resulting from choosing
a specific alternative – determines choice with highest value (maximization)
- 2) Decision making process – systematic stages of decision making
Rational Choice Decision-making Process:
- Identify problem or opportunity
- Choose the best decision process
- Discover or develop alternatives
- Select choice with the highest value
- Implement the selected choice
- Evaluate the selected choice
-
Assumptions of the Rational Decision-Making Model
- Complete information
- The problem is clear and unambiguous
- Know Options
- the decision maker is able to identify all relevant options in an unbiased manner
- Clear Preferences
- rationally assumes that the criteria and alternatives can be ranked and weighted
- Constant Preferences
- Specific decisions criteria are constant and the weights assigned to them are
stable over time
- No Time or Cost constraints
- Full information is available because there are no time or cost constraints
- Maximum Payoff
- The choice alternative will yield the highest perceived value

- Bounded rationality
○ Limitations on one’s ability to interpret, process, and act on information
○ We construct simplified models that extract the essential features, but may miss
the complexity
○ We may then behave rationally but within the limits of a simplified and potentially
inaccurate model
“Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler”

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

Making Choices: Rational vs. OB Observations

Problems with problem identification:


- Problems/opportunities are constructed from ambiguous information, not “given to us”
- Influenced by cognitive and emotional biases

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

Five problem identification challenges:


- Stakeholder framing (employees, customers, suppliers)
- Decisive leadership (motivates to appear more confident than is reasonable- and take
quicker action)
- Perceptual defense (protect self-estem; fail to admit/become aware of problems)
- Solution-focused problems (the solution is a rephrased version of the actual problem-
without the adequate diagnosis/cause required in a solution empty solutions “improve
customer satisfaction”)
- Mental models (rigid views- lead us to reject unfamiliar ideas as unworkable)
- Missed Opportunity:
- Preconceived mental models of business success prevented from Yahoo!
Executives, from recognizing the potential of Google’s search engine.

Identifying problems effectively:


- Be aware of perceptual and diagnostic limitations
- Fight against pressure to look decisive
- Maintain “divine discontent” (aversion to complacency)
- Discuss the situation with colleagues-- see different perspectives.

Problem with information processing:


- People do not equally and thoroughly process all alternatives and their consequences
- Examine only a few alternatives
- Exam them sequentially
- Generally, in comparison to an implicit favourite

Biased Decision Heuristics


- Anchoring and adjustment:
- we are anchored by and don't move far from an initial anchor point
- Availability heuristic:
- we estimate probabilities by how easy we can recall the event, even though other
factors influence ease of recall (vivid, recent, emotional, extraordinary)
- Representativeness heuristic:
- we estimate probability of something by its similarity to something known rather
than by more precise statistics
- Overconfidence Bias:
- Believing too much in our own ability to make good decisions, especially when
outside of own expertise
- No problem in judgement and decision making is more prevalent and more
potentially catastrophic than overconfidence
- Unskilled and unaware
- Individuals whose intellectual and interpersonal abilities are weakest and most
likely to overestimate their performance and ability

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

- When people were 90% confident that they were correct- they were only correct
50% of the time
Problems with Maximization:
- People don’t try to select choice with highest value (maximization) because:
- Alternatives appear sequentially, not all at once
- People lack motivation/ability to process volumes of information
- How decision makers respond to maximization problems:
- Satisficing: choose first “good enough” alternative
- Oversimplifying decision calculations (e.g. few evaluation criteria)
- Avoiding the decision

Emotions and Making Choices


- Emotions form preferences before we consciously evaluate those choices
- Emotions often precedes logic and then we adjust logic to fit emotions
- If logic analysis comes first it is tagged with emotional markers that then influence us
- Our brain very quickly attaches specific emotions to each alternative
- These emotional markers lead us to choose or avoid alternatives.
- Moods and emotions influence how well we follow the decision evaluation process
- We “listen in” on our emotions and use that information to make choices

Emotions change the evaluation process


- Mood affects hat and how people think when making decisions
- We pay more attention to details when in a negative mood
- May explain why executives in successful times are less vigilant about competitors
- Mood has the greatest impact on uncertain, ambiguous decisions of the type that are
especially crucial for organizations

Intuitive Decision Making


- Ability to know when a problem or opportunity exists and selects the best course of
action without conscious reasoning
- Intuition as emotional experience
- Gut feelings are emotional signals
- Not all emotional signals are intuition
- Intuition as rapid nonconscious analysis
- Uses action scripts

Making choices more effectively:


- Systematically evaluate alternatives against relevant factors
- Be aware of effects of emotions on decision preferences and evaluation process
- Scenario planning

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

Decision Evaluation Problems


- Confirmation Bias
- Selecting and using only facts that support our decision or previously held beliefs
- We don't gather information objectively
- Too much weight to supporting information- too little to contradictory
- Inflate quality of the selected option; forget or downplay rejected alternatives;
toasters; join groups.
• Escalation of commitment
- Increasing commitment to a decision in spite of evidence that is wrong-especially
if responsible for the decision
- Throw good money after bad- demonstrate initial decision was not wrong caused
by:
- Self-justification effect:
- want to convey a positive public image of themselves, that they are
competent, rational-esteem on line
- Self-enhancement effect:
- People who want to feel good about themselves
- Feel more competent, more successful than average person
- Believe our ability to rescue project is above average
- Mostly unconscious
- Distorts negative information and our ability to recognize flaws
- Prospect theory effect:
- Natural tendency to experience stronger negative emotions when losing
something of value than the positive emotions.
- Sunk costs effect:
- The tendency for humans to continue investing in something that clearly
isn’t working because it is human nature to avoid failure.
- People will often continue spending time, effort, or money to try to fix what
isn’t working instead of cutting their losses and moving on.

Evaluating Decisions Better


• Separate decision choosers from evaluators
• Establish a preset level to abandon the project
• Find sources of systematic and clear feedback
• Involve several people in the evaluation process

Creative Process Model:


• Preparation → incubation → illumination → verification

Characteristics of creative people: independent imagination includes:


- Higher openness to experience
- Lower need for affiliation motivation
- Higher self-direction/stimulation values

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

Creative work environments


• Learning orientation:
- Encourage experimentation
- Tolerate mistakes
• Intrinsically motivating work:
- Task significance, autonomy, feedback
• Open communication and sufficient resources
• Unclear/complex effects of a team competition and time pressure on creativity

Creative Activities
• Redefine the problem:
- Revisit abandoned projects
- Explore issue with other people
• Associative play:
- Storytelling
- Artistic activities
- Morphological analysis
• Cross-Pollination
- Diverse teams
- Information sessions
- Internal tradeshows
Levels of Employee Involvement
• High:
- Employees responsible for entire decision-making process
• Medium-High:
- Employees hear problem, then collectively develop recommendations
• Medium-Low:
- employees hear problem individually or collectively, then asked for information
relating to that problem.
• Low:
- Employees individually asked for specific information, but the problem is not
described to them
Employee Involvement Model:
Employee involvement → contingencies of involvement → potential involvement outcomes:
• Better problem identification
• Synergy produces more/better solutions
• Better at selecting the best choice
• Higher decision commitment
Contingencies of Involvement-- higher employee involvement is better when:
- Decision structure: problem is new & complex (i.e. nonprogrammer decision)
- Knowledge structure: employees have relevant knowledge beyond leader
- Decision commitment: employees would lack commitment unless involved
- Risk of conflict: norms support firm’s goals, employee agreement likely.

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

MHR405 CHAPTER 8 NOTES


Team Dynamics
- What Are Teams?
o Groups of two or more people
o Exist to fulfill a purpose
o Interdependent – interact and collaborate
o Mutually accountable for achieving common goals – influence each other
o Perceive themselves to be a team
- Many Types of Teams
o Permanence
▪ How long that type of team usually exists
o Skill differentiation
▪ Degree of skill/knowledge diversity in the team
o Authority differentiation
▪ Degree that decision-making responsibility is distributed throughout the
team or centralized
- Informal Groups:
o Groups that exist primarily for the benefit of their members
o Reasons why informal groups exist:
▪ Innate drive to bond
▪ Social identity – we define ourselves by group memberships
▪ Goal accomplishment
▪ Emotional support
- Team Advantages/Challenges
o Advantages:
▪ Make better decisions, product/services
▪ Better information sharing
▪ Increase employee motivation/engagement
o Challenges
▪ Process losses – resource needed for team maintenance
▪ Social loafing – members potentially exert less effort in teams than alone
▪ Brook’s La – adding more people to a late software project only makes
it later
- Organization/Team Environment
o Reward systems
o Communication systems
o Organizational structure
o Organizational leadership
o Physical space
- Best Tasks for Teams
o Complex tasks divisible into specialized roles
o Well-structured tasks – easier to coordinate
o Higher task interdependence:

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

▪ Team members must share materials, information or expertise to


perform their jobs
▪ Teams are usually better because high interdependence
• Requires better communication/coordination
• Motivates team membership
▪ but teams less effective if task goals differ (e.g. serving different clients) –
use other coordinating mechanisms
- Team Size
o Smaller teams are better because:
▪ Less process los – need less time to coordinate roles and resolve
differences
▪ Require less time to develop
▪ More engaged with team – know members, more influence on the team
▪ Feel ore respo si le for tea ’s su ess
o but team must be large enough to accomplish task

- Team Composition: Diversity


o Team members have diverse knowledge, skills, perspectives, values and etc.
o Advantages:
▪ View problems/alternatives from different perspectives
▪ Broader knowledge base
▪ Better represe tatio of tea ’s o stitue ts

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

o Disadvantages:
▪ Take longer to become a high-performing team
▪ “us epti le to faulti ess – less motivation to coordinate
- Team Roles & Transactive Memory
o Role: a set of behaviours that people expected to perform because they hold
certain positions in a team and organization
o Formal team roles and informal team roles
o Transactive Memory system describes how task-relevant knowledge is
distributed within a team and the collective awareness of who knows what.
▪ Clearly defined and complementary strengths make for a stronger team
but unless team members know who has what skill those skills might get
wasted and lead to processes
▪ Teams with more well-developed Transactive memory systems
outperform teams with less well-developed systems
- Team Norms
o Informal rules and shared expectations team establishes to regulate member
behaviors
o Norms develop through:
▪ initial team experiences
▪ riti al e e ts i tea ’s history
▪ experience/values member bring to the team
o Preventing. Changing Dysfunctional Team Norms
▪ State desired norms when forming teams
▪ Select members with preferred values
▪ Discuss counter-productive norms
▪ Introduce team-based rewards that counter dysfunctional norms
▪ Disband teams with dysfunctional norms
- Team Cohesion
o The degree of attraction people feel toward the team and their motivation to
remain members
o Team cohesion is stronger/occurs faster with:
▪ Higher member similarity
▪ Smaller team size
▪ Regular/frequent member interaction
▪ Somewhat difficult team entry (membership)
▪ Higher team success
▪ More external competition/challenges
- Team Cohesion and Performance:
o High cohesion teams usually perform better because:
▪ Motivated to maintain membership and achieve team objectives
▪ Share information more frequently
▪ Higher coworker satisfaction
▪ Better social support (minimize stress)
▪ Resolve conflict more swiftly and effectively

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

- Contingencies of cohesion and performance


o Task interdependence:
▪ Cohesion motivates cooperation; less important with low
interdependence
o team norms consistent with organizational objectives
▪ cohesion motivates conformity to team norms
▪ cohesion motivates lower performance if norms oppose company
objectives
- Team Efficacy
o The olle ti e elief a o g tea e ers if the tea ’s apa ility to
successfully completing a task is team team efficacy
o Teams with high level of efficacy outperform teams with lower level of efficacy
▪ High efficacy leads to team members setting ambitious goals, put forth
greater effort, persist longer when faced with a challenge and view
negative feedback as an opportunity
▪ Low team efficacy leads to team members feeling apathy, uncertainty
and a lack of direction
o in teams with high efficacy, individual team members are more likely to display
coordination and cooperative type behavior

- Team Processes:
o Team processes refers to the interactions and activities that occur within a team
as it works towards it goals
o Internal team processes:
▪ Teamwork: activities that are devoted to enhancing the quality of
interactions, interdependencies, cooperation, and coordination of teams.

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

▪ Taskwork: efforts devoted to understanding the task requirements,


discovering the rules, establishing patterns of interaction, exchanging
task-related information, developing solutions to problems and so forth
o External team processes:
▪ Team boundary spanning: team actions that establish or enhance
linkages and manage interactions with parties in the external
environment
- Stages of Team Development
o Forming:
▪ Learn about each other; evaluate membership
o Storming:
▪ Conflict, members proactive, compete for roles
o Norming:
▪ Role established; consensus around team objectives and team mental
model
o Performing:
▪ Efficient coordination; highly cooperative; high trust; commitment to
team objectives; identify with the team
o Adjourning:
▪ Disbanding; shit from task to relationship focus
- Team Development: Forming Identities and Mental Models
o Developing team identity:
▪ Vie i g tea as us rather tha the
▪ Tea e o es part of the perso ’s so ial ide tity
o Developing team mental models and coordinating routines
▪ Forming habitual routines with team members
▪ Forming shared/complementary mental models
- Team Building:
o For al a ti ities i te ded to i pro e the tea ’s de elop e t a d fu tio i g
o Types of team building:
▪ Clarify tea ’s perfor a e goals
▪ I pro e tea ’s pro le -solving skills
▪ Improve role definitions
▪ Improve relations
- Self-Directed Teams
o Self-directed teams defined
▪ Cross-functional groups
▪ Organized around work processes
▪ Complete an entire piece of work requiring several interdependent tasks
▪ Have substantial autonomy over task decisions
o Success Factors
▪ Responsible for entire work process
▪ High interdependence within the team
▪ Low interdependence with other teams

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

▪ Autonomy to organize and coordinate work


▪ Work site/technology support team communication/coordination
- Virtual Teams:
o Members operate across space, time and organizational boundaries – linked
through information technologies
o Virtual team success factors
▪ Virtual team member of characteristics
▪ Toolkit of communication channels and freedom to choose channels that
work best for them
▪ Fairly high task structure
▪ Opportunities to meet face-to-face
- Team Decision Making Constraints
o Time constraints
▪ Time to organize/coordinate
▪ Production blocking
o Evaluation apprehension
▪ Reluctance to mention ideas that seem silly because of belief of
evaluation by other team members
o Peer pressure to conform
▪ Suppressing opinions that oppose team norms
o Overconfidence (inflated team efficacy)
▪ Team efficacy usually beneficial (motivates performance)
▪ Inflated team efficacy
• Outcomes: false sense of invulnerability, less vigilant decisions,
less talk conflict
• Caused by: collective self-enhancement, high cohesion, external
threats
- General Guidelines for Team Decisions
o Team Norms should encourage critical thinking
o Sufficient team diversity
o Checks/balances to avoid dominant participants
o Maintain optimal team size
o Introduce effective team structures
- Brainstorming
o Participants think up as many ideas as possible
o Four brainstorming rules:
▪ Speak freely
▪ Do ’t riti ize
▪ Provide as many ideas as possible
▪ Build o other’s ideas
o Dismissed by lab research, but support in field research and by leading creative
firms
o Brain storming limitations
▪ Production blocking, conformity effect (fixation)

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

- Other Team Structures for Creative Decision Making


o Brainwriting – brainstorming without conversation
▪ Individuals write down/distribute their ideas to others, who develop
further ideas
▪ Less production blocking than brain storming
o Electronic Brainstorming – Variation of Brainwriting
▪ Relies on computer technology
▪ Document/distribute ideas anonymously to other participants
▪ Anonymously vote on ideas, followed by discussion
▪ Strengths: less production blocking, evaluation apprehension, conformity
▪ Limitations: considered too structured and technology-bound
o Nominal Group Technique – variation of brainwriting:
▪ Problem is described, than participants privately written down solutions
▪ Participants describe their solutions – no criticism or debate
▪ Participants privately rank-order or vote on solutions
▪ Problems of production blocking and evaluation apprehension

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

MHR405 CHAPTER 9 NOTES


Communicating Organizations

- Communication: Definition and Importance


o Process by which information is transmitted and understood between people
▪ Transmitting intended meaning (not just symbols)
o Importance of communication:
▪ Coordinating work activities
▪ Organizational learning
▪ Better decision making
▪ Cha gi g others’ eha ior
▪ Employee well-being

- Improving Communication Coding/Decoding


o Sender/receiver have similar codebooks
o Sender is experienced encoding that message
o Sender/receiver are motivated and able to use the selected channel
o Sender/receiver have shared mental models of the communication context
- Communication Channels:
o Verbal
▪ Verbal communication uses words, so it includes spoken or written
channels
▪ Spoken and written channels are very different from each other and have
different strengths and weaknesses

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

▪ Written mail has generally been a slower medium however, transmitting


messages through email, tweets etc. has improved written
communication efficiency
o Non-verbal
▪ Non-verbal communication is any part of communication that does not
use words. It includes facial gestures, voice intonation, physical distance,
and even silence.
- How Email Has Altered Communication:
o Preferred channel for coordinating work
o Tends to increase communication volume
o Significantly alters communication flow
o Somewhat reduces status differences and stereotyping
- Problems with Email:
o Communicates emotions poorly
o Reduces politeness and respect (flaming)
o Inefficient for ambiguous, complex, novel situations
o Increases information overload
- Communicating Through Social Media:
o Internet/mobile-based channels with user-generated, interactive content
▪ Blogs, wikis, tweets, personal sites (e.g. Facebook)
▪ More conversational and interactive
▪ Most can develop a public identity
▪ Encourage communities – links, interactivity, feedback
o Serves diverse functions
▪ Presenting identity, enabling conversations, etc.
- Nonverbal Communication
o Influences meaning of verbal symbols
o Less rule bound than verbal communication
o Most is automatic and nonconscious
- Emotional Contagion:
o the auto ati pro ess of shari g a other perso ’s e otio s i i ki g their
facial expressions and other nonverbal behavior
o serves three purposes:
▪ provides continuous feedback to speaker
▪ increases emotional u dersta di g of the other perso ’s e perie e
▪ communicates a collective sentiment – sharing the experience as part of
drive to bond
- Choosing Channels: Social Acceptance
o Do others support use of that communication channel for that purpose?
o Depends on:
▪ Firm/team norms for using the channel
▪ Individual preferences for using the channel
▪ Symbolic meaning of the channel

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

- Choosing Channels: Media Richness


o The ha el’s data-carrying capacity needs to be aligned with the
communication activity
o High richness when channel:
▪ Convey multiple cues
▪ Allows timely feedback
▪ Allows customized message
▪ Permits complex symbols

- Exceptions to Media Richness:


o Media ri h ess theor does ’t appl as ell to ele tro i ha els e ause:
▪ Able to multi-communicate through lean channels
▪ More varied proficiency levels
▪ Lean channels have less social distraction than do media rich channels
- Persuasive Communication
o Cha gi g a other perso ’s elief a d attitudes
o Spoken communication is more persuasive because:
▪ Accompanied by nonverbal communication
▪ Has high quality immediate feedback
▪ Has high social presence
o Written communication can also persuade to some extent
▪ Written messages have the advantage of presenting more technical detail
than can occur through conversation

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

- Communication Barriers
o Perceptions
o Filtering
o Language
▪ Jargon
▪ Ambiguity
o Information overload
- Information Overload:
o Jo ’s i for atio load e eeds perso ’s apa it to pro ess it
▪ Information gets overlooked or misinterpreted
o Two sets of solutions:
▪ Increase information processing capacity
• Examples: learn to read faster, remove distractions
▪ Reduce information load
• Examples: buffering, omitting, summarizing
- Cross-Cultural Communication:
o Verbal differences
▪ Language
▪ Voice intonation
▪ Silence/conversational overlaps
o Nonverbal differences
▪ Some nonverbal gestures are universal, but others vary across cultures
- Gender Communication Differences:
o Men view conversations more as power, status, functionality
▪ Report talk
▪ Give advice quickly
▪ Dominate conversation
▪ Apologize less often
▪ Less sensitive to verbal cues
o Women consider more interpersonal relations
▪ Rapport talk
▪ Indirect advice/requests
▪ Sensitive to nonverbal cues
▪ Flexible conversation style
▪ Apologize more often
- Getting your message across:
o Empathize
o Repeat the message
o Use timing effectively
o Focus on the problem, not the person

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

- Communicating in Hierarchies:
o Workspace design
▪ Open offices- consider noise, distractions
▪ Clustering people in teams
o Internet-based organizational communication
▪ Wikis – collaborative document creation
▪ E-zines – rapid distribution of company news
o Direct communication with management
▪ Management by walking around (MBWA)
▪ Town hall meetings
- Organizational Grapevine
o Early research findings
▪ Transmit information rapidly in all directions
▪ Follows a cluster chain pattern
▪ More active in homogenous groups
▪ Transmit some degree of truth
o changes due to internet
▪ emerging grapevines channels: email, tweets, etc.
▪ social networks are now global, extends grapevine
- Grapevine Benefits/Limitations
o Benefits
▪ Fills in missing information from formal sources
▪ Strengthens corporate culture
▪ Relieves anxiety
▪ Associated with the drive to bond
o Limitations
▪ Distortions might escalate anxiety
▪ Perceived lack of concern for employees when company info is slower
than grapevine

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

MHR405 CHAPTER 10 NOTES


Power and Influence in the Workplace

- The Meaning of Power:


o The capacity of a person, team, or organization to influence others
▪ Potential to change attitudes and behaviour (not actual change)
▪ People may be unaware of their power
▪ Perception – target perceives powerholder controls a valuable resource
▪ Power involves unequal dependence
o Countervailing Power:
▪ The capacity of a person, team or organization to keep a more powerful
person or group in the exchange relationship.

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

- Legitimate Power:
o Agreement that people in certain roles can request certain behaviours of others
- Zone of indifference:
o range of behaviours for deference to authority
- Norm of reciprocity:
o Felt obligation to help someone who has helped you
- Information control:
o Right to distribute information to others
▪ Creates dependence
▪ Frames situation

- Other Sources of Power


o Reward power:
▪ Control rewards valued by others, remove negative sanctions
o Coercive power:
▪ Ability to apply punishment
o Referent Power:
▪ Capacity to influence others through identification with and respect for
the power holder
▪ Associated with charisma
- Expert Power:
o Capacity to influence others by possessing knowledge or skills that they value
o Coping with uncertainty:
▪ Organizations operate better in predictable environments
▪ People gain power by using their expertise to:
• Prevent environmental changes
• Forecast environmental changes
• Absorb environmental changes

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

- Increasing Nonsubstitutability
o Substitutability: availability of alternatives
▪ More power when few/no alternatives
o Reduce substitutability through:
▪ Monopoly over resource
▪ Controlling access to the resource
▪ Differentiating the resource
- Other Contingencies of Power:
o Centrality:
▪ Degree and nature of interdependence with powerholder
▪ Higher centrality when (a) many people affected and (b) quickly affected
o Visibility:
▪ You are known as holder of valued resource
▪ Increases with face time, display of power symbols
o Discretion:
▪ The freedom to exercise judgment
▪ Rules limit discretion
▪ Discretion is perceived by others
- Power of Social Networks:
o Social Networks:
▪ People connected to each other through forms of interdependence
o Generate power through social capital:
▪ Goodwill and resulting resources shared among members in a social
network
o Three power resources through networks:
▪ Information
▪ Visibility
▪ Referent power
- Social Network Ties:
o Strong Ties:
▪ Close-knit relationships (frequent interaction, high sharing, multiple
roles)
▪ Offer resources more quickly/plentifully, but less unique
o Weak Ties:
▪ Acquaintances
▪ Offer unique resources not held by us or people in other networks
o Many Ties:
▪ Resources increase with number of ties
▪ Limited capacity to form weak/strong ties
- Social Network Centrality:
o Perso ’s i porta e i a et ork
o Three factors in centrality:
▪ Betweenness- extent you are located between others in the network
▪ Degree centrality – number of people connected to you

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

▪ Closeness- stronger relationships


o E a ple: A has highest e tralit due to all three fa tors; B has lo est
centrality
- Structural Hole and the Dark Side of Social Networks
o Structural Hole:
▪ An area between two or more dense social network areas that lacks
network ties
o Social networks are natural elements of all organizations, yet they can create a
formal barrier to those who are not actively connected to it.
- Consequences of Power
o Empowerment tends to increase:
▪ Motivation
▪ Job satisfaction
▪ Organizational commitment
▪ Job performance
o People who feel powerful:
▪ Are more likely to rely on stereotypes
▪ Have difficulty empathizing
▪ Have less accurate perceptions
o When an individual has power over others:
▪ It produces a sense of duty or responsibility for the people over whom
she/he has the power. These individuals tend to be more mindful of their
actions and engage in less stereotyping.

- Influencing Others
o Influence is a eha iour that atte pts to alter so eo e’s attitudes or
behavior
o Applies one or more power bases
o Essential activity in organizations
▪ Coordinate with others
▪ Part of leadership definition
▪ Everyone engages in influence

- Types of Influence:
o Silent Authority:
▪ Following requests without overt influence
▪ Based on legitimate power, role modelling
▪ Common in high power distance cultures
o Assertiveness:
▪ A ti el appl i g legiti ate a d oer i e po er o al authorit
▪ Reminding, confronting, checking, threatening
o Information Control:
▪ Ma ipulati g others’ a ess to i for atio
▪ Withholding, filtering, re-arranging information

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

o Coalition Formation:
▪ Group forms to gain more power than individuals alone
• Pools resources/power
• Legitimizes the issue
• Power through social identity
o Upward Appeal:
▪ Appealing to higher authority
▪ I ludes appeali g to fir ’s goals
▪ Alliance or perceived alliance with higher status person
o Persuasion:
▪ Logic, facts, emotional appeals
▪ Depends on persuader, message content, message medium, audience
▪ Inoculation Effect: a persuasive communication strategy of warning
listeners that others will try to influence them.
o Impression Management:
▪ Actively shaping or public image
▪ Self-presentation
▪ Ingratiation
o Exchange:
▪ Promising or reminding of past benefits in exchange for compliance
▪ Negotiation, reciprocity, networking.

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

- Contingencies of Influence:
o soft ta ti s ge erall ore a epta le tha hard ta ti s
o Appropriate influence tactic depends on:
▪ I flue er’s po er ase
▪ Organizational position
▪ Cultural values and expectations
- Organizational Politics:
o Behaviors that others perceive as self-serving tactics for personal gain at the
expense of other people and possibly the organization.
o Employees who experience organizational politics have lower:
▪ Job satisfaction
▪ Organizational commitment
▪ Organizational citizenship
▪ Task performance
- Minimizing Organizational Politics:
o Need to minimize scarce resources
o Resource allocation decisions are clear and simplified
o Need to diagnose and alter systems and role modeling that support self-serving
behaviour.
o Machiavellian Values:
▪ The belief that deceit is a natural and acceptable way to influence others
and that getting more than one deserves is acceptable.

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

MHR405 CHAPTER 11 NOTES


Conflict and Negotiation in the Workplace

- Is Conflict Good or Bad?


o Conflict is a process in which one part perceives that its interests are being
opposed or negatively affected by another party
o Negative Outcomes:
▪ Wastes time, energy, resources
▪ Less information sharing, productivity
▪ More organizational politics
▪ More job dissatisfaction, turnover, stress
▪ Weakens team cohesion (when conflict is within team)
o Positive Outcomes:
▪ Fuller debate of decision choices
▪ Decision assumptions are questioned
▪ Potentially generates more creative ideas
▪ Improves responsiveness to external environment
▪ Increases team cohesion (conflict with other teams)
- Emerging View: Task Vs. Relationship conflict
o Task (constructive) conflict:
▪ Parties focus on the issue, respect people with other points of view
▪ Try to understand logic/assumptions of each position
o Relationship Conflict:
▪ Focus on personal characteristics (not issues) as the source of conflict
▪ Tr to u der i e ea h other’s orth/ o pete e
▪ Accompanied by strong negative emotions
- Minimizing Relationship Conflict:
o Goal: encourage task conflict, minimize relationship conflict
o Problem: relationship conflict often develops when engaging in task conflict
o Three conditions that minimize relationship conflict during task conflict:
▪ Emotional intelligence
▪ Cohesive team
▪ Supportive team norms

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

- Structural Sources of Conflict:


o Incompatible goals:
▪ O e’s part goals per ei ed to i terfere ith other’s goals
o Differentiation:
▪ Different values/beliefs
▪ Explains cross-cultural, generational, merger conflict
o Interdependence:
▪ Conflict increases with interdependence
▪ Parties more likely to interfere with each other
o Scarce Resources:
▪ motivates competition for the resource
o Ambiguous Rules:
▪ Creates uncertainty, threatens goals
▪ Encourages political behaviour
o Communication Problems:
▪ Rely on stereotypes
▪ Less motivation to communicate
▪ Arrogant language escalates conflict
- Five Conflict Handling Styles:
o Forcing
o Problem-solving
o Compromising
o Avoiding
o Yielding
- Conflict Handling Contingencies:
o Problem solving (win-win orientation)
▪ Best when:
• Interests are not perfectly opposing
• Parties have trust/openness
• Issues are complex
▪ Problem: other party may use information to its advantage
o Forcing (win-lose orientation)
▪ Best when:
• You have a deep conviction about your position
• Quick resolution required
• Other party would take advantage of cooperation
▪ Problems: relationship conflict, long-term relations
o Avoiding:
▪ Best when:
• Conflict is emotionally-charged (relationship conflict)
• Conflict resolution cost is higher than benefits
▪ Pro le s: does ’t resol e o fli t, auses frustratio .

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

o Yielding:
▪ Best when:
• Other party has much more power
• Issue is much less important to you than other party
• Value/logic of your position is imperfect
▪ Problems: increase other’s e pe tatio s; i perfe t solutio
o Compromising:
▪ Best when:
• Parties have equal power
• Quick solution is required
• Parties lack trust/openness
▪ Problem: sub-optimal solution where mutual gains are possible.
- Cultural and Gender Differences in Conflict Handling Styles
o Research suggests that people from collective cultures – where group goals are
valued more than individual goals- are motivated to maintain harmonious
relations
o Cultural values and norms influence the conflict handling style used most often
in a society, but they also represent an important contingency when outsiders
choose the preferred conflict handling approach.
o Gender:
▪ Compared to men, women pay more attention to the relationship
between the two parties. Women tend to adopt a compromising or
problem-solving style and are more likely to use the avoiding style
▪ Men tend to be more competitive and take a short-term orientation to
the relationship.
- Structural Approaches to Conflict Management:
o Emphasize superordinate goals (goals that the conflicting parties value and
whose attainment requires the joint resources and effort of those parties)
▪ Emphasize common objective not conflicting sub-goals
▪ Reduces goal incompatibility and differentiation
o Reduce differentiation:
▪ Reduce differences in values, attitudes and experiences
▪ E.g. Move employees around to different jobs
o Improve communication/understanding
▪ Use dialogue to improve mutual understanding
▪ Contact hypothesis, Johari Window
▪ Warning: Apply Communication and understanding after reducing
differentiation.
o Reduce Interdependence
▪ Create buffers
▪ Use integrators
▪ Combine jobs

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

o Increase Resources
▪ Increase amount of resources available
o Clarify rules and procedures
▪ Establish rules and procedures
▪ Clarify roles and responsibilities
- Types of Third Party Intervention
o Mediation, Inquisition, Arbitration
o Third party conflict resolution is any attempt by a relatively neutral person to
help conflicting parties resolve their difference
o Arbitration:
▪ Arbitrators have high control over the final decision but low control over
the process
o Inquisition:
▪ Inquisitors control tall discussion about the conflict. They have high
decision control because they choose the form of conflict resolution and
they also have high process control.
o Mediation:
▪ Mediators have high control over the intervention process. Their main
purpose is to manage the process and context of interaction between the
disputing parties. The final decision is made by the parties.
o Mediation-Arbitration:
▪ It is a hybrid dispute resolution process
• Positive: parties enter the process with certainty that the dispute
will be resolved either as a settlement or as part of the binding
decision.
• Negative: while parties control the flow of information for
negotiation purposes, deciding what they choose to revel in
mediation, parties may feel compelled to answer corollary
questions that arise from previously disclosed information.

- Choosing the Best 3rd Party Intervention Strategy


o Managers prefer inquisitional strategy, but not usually best approach
o Mediation potentially offers highest satisfaction with process and outcomes
o Use arbitration when mediation fails

- Resolving Conflict through Negotiation


o Negotiation refers to the decision-making situations in which two or more
interdependent parties attempt to reach an agreement
o Distributive is when the goals of two or more people are zero-sum so that one
a gai o l at the other’s e pe se
o Integrative is he parties’ goals are li ked, ut ot zero-sum, so that one
perso ’s goal a hie e e t does ot lo k the goal a hie e e t of a other.

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

- Strategies for Claiming Value


o Claiming Value: aiming for the best possible outcomes for yourself and
constituents.
▪ Prepare and set goals
▪ Know your BATNA
▪ Know your limits
o Distributive Strategies that work:
▪ Manage first offers and concessions
▪ Manage time
- Strategies for Creating Value
o Creating value: use problem solving to help both parties reach the best
outcomes
▪ Gather information
▪ Discover priorities through offers and concessions
▪ Build the relationship (trustworthiness)
- Situational Influences on Negotiations
o Location: easier to negotiate on your own turn
o Physical setting: seating arrangements, etc
o Audience: negotiators are more competitive, make fewer concessions when
audience is watching.

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

MHR405 CHAPTER 12 NOTES


Leadership in Organizational Settings

- Leadership Defined
o Leadership is the ability to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute
toward the effectiveness of the organizations of which they are members
- Shared Leadership
o The view that leadership is a role, not a position assigned to one person
▪ Employees lead each other – e.g., champion ideas
o Shared leadership flourishes where:
▪ Formal leaders are willing to delegate power
▪ Collaborative (not competitive) culture
▪ Employees develop effective influence skills

- Features of a Strategic Vision


o Definition: Vision is an idealized future state with a higher purpose
o Features of an effective vision
▪ Linked to personal values
▪ Fulfills multiple stakeholder needs
▪ Challenging objective
▪ Abstract future state
• A future has ’t et ee e perie ed
• B) enables vision to remain stable over time
▪ A unifying deal
- Transformational Leadership Elements
o 1) Develop/Communicate the vision
▪ Frame the vision
▪ Communicate the vision with sincerity and passion

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

▪ Use symbols, metaphors, symbols


o 2) Model the vision
▪ E a t the isio alk the talk
▪ Symbolize and demonstrate the vision through their own behaviour
▪ Builds employee trust in the leader
o 3) Encourage experimentation
▪ Encourage questioning current practices
▪ Encourage discovering/trying out new practices (learning orientation)
o 4) Build commitment to the vision
▪ Strengthened through communicating and modelling the vision
▪ Increased through experimentation
▪ Also through rewards, recognition, celebrations
- Evaluating Transformational Leadership
o Transformational leadership is important
▪ Higher satisfaction, performance, OCBS, creativity.
o Transformational leadership limitations
▪ Circular logic
▪ Mixed models (behaviour and competencies)
▪ Universal theory
- Managerial Leadership
o Definition: daily activities that support and guide performance/well-being of
individual employees and work unit to support current objectives/practices
o Managerial leadership differs from transformational leadership
▪ Assumes environment is stable (vs) dynamic
▪ Micro-focused (vs macro-focused)
o Transformational and Managerial Leadership are interdependent
- Task vs People Leadership Styles
o Task-oriented behaviors
▪ Assign work, clarify responsibilities
▪ Set goals/deadlines, provide feedback
▪ Establish procedures, plan future work
o People-oriented behaviours
▪ Concern for employee needs
▪ Make workplace pleasant
▪ Recognize employee contributions
▪ Listen to employees
o Both styles necessary, but different effects.
- Servant Leadership
o Leaders serve followers toward their need fulfillment, development, growth
o Described as selfless, egalitarian, humble, nurturing, empathetic, and ethical
coaches
o Servant leader characteristics:
▪ Natural calling to serve others
▪ Humble, egalitarian, accepting relationship

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

▪ Ethical decisions and actions


- Path-Goal Leadership
o Influence employee expectations so they achieving desired performance and
satisfaction with performance outcomes
o Best leader style depends on employee and situation
o Four main pat goal leadership styles

- Path-Goal Contingencies
o Skill and experience
▪ Low: directive and supportive leadership
o Locus of control
▪ Internal: participative and achievement leadership
▪ External: directive and supportive leadership
o Task structure
▪ Nonroutine: directive and/or participative leadership
o Team Dynamics
▪ Low cohesion: supportive leadership
▪ Dysfunctional norms: directive leadership
- Other Managerial Leadership Theories
o Situational Leadership Model
▪ Four styles: telling, selling, participating, delegating
▪ Best style depends on follower ability/motivation
▪ Popular model, but lacks research support
- Fiedler’s Contingency Model
o Leadership style is stable – based on personality
o Best style depends on situational control (power)
o Theory has problems, but uniquely points out that leaders have a preferred style,
not very flexible

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

- Leadership Substitutes
o Co ti ge ies that li it a leader’s i flue e or ake a parti ular leadership st le
unnecessary
▪ Example 1: Training and experience reduce need for task-oriented
leadership
▪ Example 2: Team cohesion reduces need for supportive leadership
o Research Evidence
▪ “u stitutes help, ut do ’t o pletel su stitute for real leadership
- Implicit Leadership Perspective
o Follower perceptions of characteristics of effective leaders
o 1) Leadership prototypes
▪ Preconceived beliefs about the features and behaviours of effective
leaders
▪ Favourable evaluation to leaders who fit the prototype
o 2) Romance of Leadership Effect
▪ A plif leader’s per ei ed effe t o fir ’s su ess
▪ Due to need to simplify explanations
▪ Due to need for situational control
- Personal Attributes of Leadership
o Personality
▪ Extroversion, conscientiousness (and other personality dimensions)
o Self-Concept
▪ Complex, Consistent, clear self-view, positive self-evaluation
o Leadership Motivation
▪ Motivation to lead others
▪ High need for socialized power
o Drive
▪ Inner motivation to pursue goals, inquisitiveness, action-oriented
o Integrity
▪ Truthfulness, consistency in words and actions
o Knowledge of the Business
▪ U dersta ds orga izatio ’s e iro e t
o Cognitive/Practical Intelligence
▪ Above average cognitive ability
▪ Able to solve real-world problems
o Emotional Intelligence
▪ Recognizing and regulating emotions in self and others
- Authentic Leadership
o Know Yourself
▪ Engage in self-reflection, feedback from trusted sources, know your life
story.
o Be Yourself
▪ Develop your own style, apply your values, maintain a positive core in
self-evaluation.

find more resources at oneclass.com


find more resources at oneclass.com

- Limitations of the Leader Attributes Perspective


o Universal Approach
o Views in leadership within person, but leadership is relational
o Attributes indicate leadership potential, not performance.

- Cultural Issues in Leadership


o Societal Cultural values and practices:
▪ “hape leader’s alues/ or s
▪ I flue e Leader’s de isio s a d a tio s
▪ Shape follower prototype of effective leaders
o Some leadership styles are universal, others differ across cultures
▪ Charis ati isio ar see s to e u i ersal
▪ Participative leadership works better in some cultures than others
- Gender Issues in Leadership
o Male/female leaders have similar task- and people-oriented leadership
o Female leaders use more participative leadership
o Women rated higher on emerging leadership styles.

find more resources at oneclass.com