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INTRODUCTION

STATISTICS 101
Paolo Victor T. Redondo
AY 2016-2017 1st Semester
“Statistics is the most important science in the whole world;
for upon it depends the practical application of every science
and of every art; the one science essential to all political and
social administration, all education, all organization based on
experience, for it only gives results of our experience.”
-
-Florence Nightingale

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Statistics
■ the science dealing with data about the condition of a state or
community.
■ is the branch of science that deals with the collection,
presentation, organization, analysis, and interpretation of data.
■ plays an important role in almost every field of interest.
– Medicine
– Economics
– Business
– Education
– Tourism
– Sports

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POPULATION VS.
SAMPLE
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Notes about Population
■ The specification of the population of interest depends upon
the scope of the study.
■ The elements of the population can be individuals, objects,
animals, geographic areas, and so on.

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Variable of Interest
■ a characteristic or attribute of the elements in a collection
that can assume different values for the different elements.
■ Denoted by capital letters of the English alphabet.

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Observation
■ a realized value/realization of a variable

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Data
■ the collection of observations.

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Examples
■ The Office of Admissions is studying the relationship
between the score in the entrance examination during
application and the general weighted average (GWA) upon
graduation among graduates of the university from 2000 to
2005
■ Population: collection of all graduates of the university from
the years 2000 to 2005
■ Variable of Interest: score in the entrance examination and
GWA

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Examples
■ The research division of a certain pharmaceutical company
is investigating the effectiveness of a new diet pill in
reducing weight on female adults.
■ Population: set of all female adults who will use the diet pill
■ Variable of Interest: weight before taking the diet pill and
weight after taking the diet pill

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PARAMETER VS.
STATISTIC
Parameter
■ a summary measure describing a specific characteristic of
the population.

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Statistic
■ a summary measure describing a specific characteristic of
the sample.

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FIELDS OF STATISTICS
Applied Statistics
■ refers to procedures and techniques used in the collection,
presentation, analysis, and interpretation of data.
■ Descriptive Statistics
■ Inferential Statistics

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Theoretical or Mathematical Statistics
■ deals with the development and exposition of theories that
serve as bases of statistical methods

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DESCRIPTIVE VS.
INFERENTIAL
Descriptive Statistics
■ includes all the techniques used in organizing, summarizing,
and interpreting data on hand without drawing conclusions
about a larger group.

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Inferential Statistics
■ includes all techniques used in analyzing the sample data
that will lead to generalizations about a population from
which the sample came from.

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Descriptive vs. Inferential
■ A bowler wants to find his ■ A bowler wants to estimate
bowling average for the past his chance of winning a game
12 games. based on his current season
averages and the averaged of
his opponents.
■ A politician would like to
■ A politician wants to know estimate, based on an
the exact number of votes he opinion poll, his chance of
received in the last election.
winning in the upcoming
election.

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