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# INTRODUCTION

STATISTICS 101
Paolo Victor T. Redondo
AY 2016-2017 1st Semester
“Statistics is the most important science in the whole world;
for upon it depends the practical application of every science
and of every art; the one science essential to all political and
social administration, all education, all organization based on
experience, for it only gives results of our experience.”
-
-Florence Nightingale

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Statistics
■ the science dealing with data about the condition of a state or
community.
■ is the branch of science that deals with the collection,
presentation, organization, analysis, and interpretation of data.
■ plays an important role in almost every field of interest.
– Medicine
– Economics
– Education
– Tourism
– Sports

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POPULATION VS.
SAMPLE
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■ The specification of the population of interest depends upon
the scope of the study.
■ The elements of the population can be individuals, objects,
animals, geographic areas, and so on.

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Variable of Interest
■ a characteristic or attribute of the elements in a collection
that can assume different values for the different elements.
■ Denoted by capital letters of the English alphabet.

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Observation
■ a realized value/realization of a variable

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Data
■ the collection of observations.

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Examples
■ The Office of Admissions is studying the relationship
between the score in the entrance examination during
application and the general weighted average (GWA) upon
2005
■ Population: collection of all graduates of the university from
the years 2000 to 2005
■ Variable of Interest: score in the entrance examination and
GWA

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Examples
■ The research division of a certain pharmaceutical company
is investigating the effectiveness of a new diet pill in
■ Population: set of all female adults who will use the diet pill
■ Variable of Interest: weight before taking the diet pill and
weight after taking the diet pill

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PARAMETER VS.
STATISTIC
Parameter
■ a summary measure describing a specific characteristic of
the population.

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Statistic
■ a summary measure describing a specific characteristic of
the sample.

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FIELDS OF STATISTICS
Applied Statistics
■ refers to procedures and techniques used in the collection,
presentation, analysis, and interpretation of data.
■ Descriptive Statistics
■ Inferential Statistics

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Theoretical or Mathematical Statistics
■ deals with the development and exposition of theories that
serve as bases of statistical methods

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DESCRIPTIVE VS.
INFERENTIAL
Descriptive Statistics
■ includes all the techniques used in organizing, summarizing,
and interpreting data on hand without drawing conclusions

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Inferential Statistics
■ includes all techniques used in analyzing the sample data
which the sample came from.

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Descriptive vs. Inferential
■ A bowler wants to find his ■ A bowler wants to estimate
bowling average for the past his chance of winning a game
12 games. based on his current season
averages and the averaged of
his opponents.
■ A politician would like to
■ A politician wants to know estimate, based on an
the exact number of votes he opinion poll, his chance of