Ejemplo de aplicación de Ansys Fluent o CFX a un problema de Transferencia de Calor

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Ejemplo de aplicación de Ansys Fluent o CFX a un problema de Transferencia de Calor

© All Rights Reserved

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Creado por John Matthew Singleton Jr, modificado por última vez por Sebastien Lachance-Barrett el

ene 19, 2014

https://confluence.cornell.edu/display/SIMULATION/ANSYS+-+Heat+Conduction+in+a+Cylinder

Problem Specification

1. Pre-Analysis & Start-Up

2. Geometry

3. Mesh

4. Physics Setup

5. Numerical Solution

6. Numerical Results

7. Verification & Validation

Exercises

Comments

Problem Specification

Consider a hollow cylinder of inner radius, r_i=1.75 inches, and outer radius r_o=3.25 inches. The

length of the cylinder is 10 feet and the coefficient of heat transfer is 0.04Btu/(h.ftF). The temperature

of the the pipe at the inner radius is 400 degrees Fahrenheit and the temperature of the pipe at the

outer radius is 80 degrees Fahrenheit. This is illustrated in the figure below.

Using ANSYS find the temperature throughout the pipe, the total heat flux, and the directional heat

flux.

The governing equation for axisymmetric radial heat flow for a homogeneous cylinder with inner

radius r_i and outer radius r_o is displayed below. Note that the following equation assumes that the

cylinder is long enough for end effects to be ignored.

In the above equation k is the thermal conductivity, A is the surface area, T is the temperature, r is the

radial position and Q is the heat generation per unit area.

For the given problem there is no heat generation, thus the governing equation can be solved easily.

The solution for temperature as a function of radial position is displayed below.

Find where the ANSYS shortcut is located and launch ANSYS Workbench. Before starting, we need

to change the units from metric to standard: select Units > US Customary (lbm,in,s,F,A,lbf,V)

The problem at hand is a steady-state thermal problem so drag Steady-State Thermal (ANSYS)

over to the project schematic. Rename the stand alone system to "Cylindrical Heat Flow".

Engineering Data

In order to enter the thermal conductivity for Cornellium (Double Click) Engineering Data. Next,

click on the Click here to add a new material, then name it Cornellium and press enter. Now,

(Double Click) Isotropic Thermal Conductivity. Change, the Unit to BTU/(ft^2 hr(F/ft)). Then,

input 0.04 for Value and lastly (Click) Return to Project.

Save

Save your project as "Cylindrical Heat Flow" and don't forget that in order to open the project in the

future you will need both the "CylindricalHeatFlow.wbpj" file and the "CylindricalHeatFlow_files"

folder.

Geometry

For users of ANSYS 15.0, please check at the end for procedures for turning on the Auto Constraint

feature before creating sketches in DesignModeler.

2D Analysis Type

The default analysis type is 3D, so that must be changed. In order to make this change (Right Click)

Geometry > Properties then change Analysis Type to 2D.

In order to start the Design Modeler (Double Click) Geometry. After the Design Modeler opens,

select inch as the desired length unit.

Proper Orientation

The sketching will be done in the XY plane, so (Click) XY Plane , then click on the face plane button,

.

Line Sketching

The given problem is axisymmetric. That is, in terms of position, the results will only vary in the radial

direction. Thus, the problem will be modeled with a rectangle in the first quadrant of the XY plane.

First click on the Sketching Tab, , then click on the Rectangle button, . Next, draw a

rectangle in the first quadrant of the XY plane. Your screen should look comparable to the image

below.

Dimensioning

The dimensions of the rectangle will now be inputted into ANSYS. Dimension the rectangle as shown

in the image below.

Note, that the given length of the pipe is 10 feet: however, here the height has been specified to 3

inches. The height is arbitrary because the results only vary radially.

Surface Creation

Here, the rectangle will be turned into a surface. To do so (Click)Concept > Surface From Sketches

. Next, highlight all four edges of the rectangle and select Apply in the "Details of SurfaceSK1" table.

Now, click the generate button, , in order to create the surface.

At this point save the project and then exit the Design Modeler.

Mesh

Specify Axisymmetric

Make sure to do this step before doing anything else in the Mechanical window. Highlight Geometry

then expand Definition in the "Details of Geometry" table. Next, change 2D Behavior to

Axisymmetric.

For this problem a mapped face mesh will be created. First, (Right Click) Mesh > Insert > Mapped

Face Meshing. The mapped face mesh command needs to be applied to the Surface Body. Highlight

the area of the surface body and apply it as the geometry selection in the "Details of Mapped Face

Meshing" table.

Edge Sizing

This mesh will have two edge sizings, so carry out the following command twice (Right Click) Mesh

> Insert > Sizing. Next, highlight Sizing, then highlight the left vertical line of the rectangle and apply

it as the geometry selection in the "Details of Sizing" table. Change Type to Number of Divisions

and change Behavior to Hard. Then set the value for Number of Divisions to 1. At this point the

second edge sizing will be dealt with. To define the second edge sizing highlight Sizing 2 then

highlight the bottom horizontal line of the rectangle and apply it as the geometry selection in the

"Details of Sizing 2" table. Next, change Type to Number of Divisions. Now, set the value of

Number of Divisions to 10 divisions.

Mesh Generation

The mesh is now ready to be generated. To do so (Right Click) Mesh > Generate Mesh. At this

point you should have the mesh displayed in the image below.

Leave the Mechanical window open for the next step.

Physics Setup

Material Properties

At this point, the material, Cornellium, will be assigned to the geometry. To assign the material,

expand Geometry, , in the tree outline. Next, click on Surface Body, .

Then set Assignment to Cornellium in the "Details of Surface Body" table, as shown below.

Define Boundary Temperatures

The two boundary temperatures need to be inputted into ANSYS. To input a boundary temperature

(Right Click) Steady-State Thermal > Insert > Temperature. There are two boundary temperature

conditions so repeat the previous sequence of commands twice. Now, highlight Temperature, then

highlight the left vertical line (inner radius) and apply it as the geometry selection in the "Details of

Temperature" table. The default units are degrees Celsius; however, the problem gives temperatures

in degrees Fahrenheit. To change the default temperature units Units > U.S. Customary. Now,

change the magnitude of the temperature to 400 degrees Fahrenheit. This process needs to be

repeated for the right vertical line (outer radius), so highlight Temperature 2. Next, highlight the right

vertical line and apply it as the geometry selection in the "Details of Temperature 2". Lastly, set the

magnitude of the temperature to 80 degrees Fahrenheit.

Numerical Solution

Temperature

To specify the temperature as an output (Right Click) Solution > Insert > Thermal > Temperature

It is now desired to have ANSYS give values of temperature as a function of radial position for many

points spanning between the inner and outer radius. In order to carry out this task a Path needs to be

created. In order to create the Path first (Right Click) Model > Insert > Construction Geometry.

Next, (Right Click) Construction Geometry > Insert > Path. Now, select the bottom left corner of

the rectangle (using the vertex selection filter) and apply it as the Start point for the path. Then, select

the bottom right corner of the rectangle and apply it as the End point for the path. Change the

Number of Sampling Points to 60 and rename "Path" to "Radial Path". Next, (Right Click) Solution

> Insert > Thermal > Temperature. Now, change "Temperature 2" to "T(r)". Then, under "Details of

T(r)" change Scoping Method to Path then change Path to Radial Path

In order to have ANSYS solve for the Total Heat Flux (Right Click) Solution > Insert > Thermal >

Total Heat Flux. The following sequence will command ANSYS to solve for the Directional Heat Flux:

(Right Click) Solution > Insert > Thermal > Directional Heat Flux.

In order to have ANSYS solve for the previously defined results click Solve, .

Numerical Results

If you have followed this tutorial successfully, you should obtain the results that are displayed below.

Temperature

You can visualize the heat flux in vector form by click on the vector icon:

Radial Dependence of Temperature

High light T(r) and the following graph and tabular data will be displayed:

Note that the ANSYS result is obtained along the edge from the bottom left vertex to the bottom right

vertex of the 2D model. In other words, the ANSYS plot displays the temperature variation from

r=1.75 to r=3.25 inches.

ANSYS result can be exported and compared against the exact solution. The MATLAB code used to

generate the exact solution can be downloaded here.

Comparison of ANSYS Results to Theoretical Results

If the simulation has been successful then its results should closely match those of theory.

Furthermore, the results should converge to the solution as the mesh is refined. Here, the radial

dependence of the temperature found through ANSYS (with meshes of 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 10 elements)

and theory will be compared. The theoretical solution for temperature as a function of radial position

can be found in the Pre-Analysis Section. In order to make the figure below the ANSYS temperature

values T(r) were first exported into a text file and then transferred to EXCEL. As one can see from the

plot below, the theoretical and the FEA solutions match very closely. Additionally, the finite element

solution converges very quickly. In the figure below there are seven plotted lines; however, only one

is visible since the variation is very minute.

ANSYS 15 - Turning on Auto Contraints

Creado por Chiyu Jiang, modificado por última vez por Rajesh Bhaskaran el feb 11, 2015

It is very important to check that the Auto Constraints feature is turned on before creating any

sketches in DesignModeler. Otherwise, vertices and lines in your sketches will not be coincident with

the coordinate axes. This can cause problems in your solution later on. The Auto Constraint feature is

not turned on by default in ANSYS 15.0. This tip demonstrates how to turn on the Auto Constraint

feature in DesignModeler.

Procedure

Before creating a sketch, click on the "sketching" tab.

Next, click on Contraints and keep scrolling untill Auto Contraints appear.

Finally, click on Auto Contraints and check the boxes next to Global and Cursor.

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