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REVIEW ON THE EFFECT OF DODDER WEED ON FIELD CROPS AND ITS MANAGEMENT

PRACTICES IN ETHIOPIA

BY: SINIDU MOLLA

ID NO. DBUR/1945/09

ASENIOR SEMINAR PEPER SUBMITTED TO DEPARTMENT PLANT SCIENCES, COLLEGE OF


AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCE SCIENCE, DEBRE BERHAN UNIVERSITY

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF


SCIENCE IN PLANT SCIENCE

ADVISOR; DR. ESTIFANOS TEGAYE (PHD)

JANUARY 2019

DEBRE BERHAN UNIVERSITY, ETHIOPIA

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Acknowledgements
All above, I would like to thank my god a depth of praise for his presence with me in all ups and downs.
It feels a pleasure to extend my sincere thanks to my advisors Dr. Estifanos for his advice and help
throughout the writing of these seminar papers. I would also like to express my gratitude to Debere
berhan University College of agriculture and computer center for their help when I find the materials for
this seminar paper
Table of contents

Table of Contents
List of table.................................................................................................................................................... 2
1. INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................ 1
Objectives ................................................................................................................................................. 2
2. LITRATURE REVIEW ................................................................................................................................... 3
2.1. Effect of dodder weed on field crops in Ethiopia .............................................................................. 4
2.1.1 Parasitic effect of dodder weed on crops .................................................................................. 10
2.1.2 .Potential as a disease vector..................................................................................................... 11
2.2 Economic significance of dodder ...................................................................................................... 11
2.3. Management practice of dodder weed .............................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.3. Management practice of dodder weed ............................................................................................... 11
2.3.1 Cultural controls......................................................................................................................... 12
2. 3.2 Cutting and burning .................................................................................................................. 12
2.3.3 Crop rotation .............................................................................................................................. 12
2.3.4. Biological control ...................................................................................................................... 13
2.3.5 Chemical controls....................................................................................................................... 14
2. 3.6 resistant varieties ...................................................................................................................... 15
3. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION .................................................................................................................. 8
4. REFERENCE .............................................................................................................................................. 15

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List of table
Table 1, Insect that inflict heavy damage on cuscuta species……………………………….7

Table2, chemical used to control cuscuta and its concentration and rate of application…….8
1. INTRODUCTION
Dodder is a parasite plant classified in the family cuscutaceae. it is genus of about 100-170 species of
yellow, orange or red (rarely green) parasite plant., resent it is genetic research by the angiosperm
phylogeny group has shown that it is correctly placed in the family convolvulaceous.Welsh et al (1986)
report twelve species of Cucuta in Utah while Weber (1986) separate these family in to two genera with
one species in Cucuta and five species in the genus grammica. Most of the damage caused by these
parasitic flowering plants results from the fact that parasitism is the most acute form of negative
interaction between vascular plants in which one of the partners becomes a heterotrophy living at the
expense of the other, its host Plants infested with field dodder gradually weaken, their lush growth
dwindles and they have very small vegetative and generative yield (Koskela et al., 2001;Fathoulla &
Duhoky, 2008).Weber sep ion is based on shape of stigma. The genus is found throughout the temperate
to tropical region of the world, with the greatest species diversity in sub-tropical and tropical
region. Cucuta is an annual stem parasite. It reproduces by seed and emerges along with the
germinating crop seedling and parasitizes it by attaching itself to the host plant and remains
parasite until harvest. Dodder is said to contain some chlorophyll in the bud, fruit and stem but
the amount food manufactured in this tissue is of little significance to the survival of the plant
(V.S Rao, 1983) Dodder is the stem parasite of wide range of herbaceous plants but is most
important as a pest of Lucerne and other legumes (especially the most important parasite of nug
plant in Ethiopia). It is native to North America, but has become a wide spread weed in many
country. Problem caused by these weed are aggravated by lack of seed legislation in Ethiopia. Large area
of cereal crops and vegetable has had to be abandoned every year in the Ethiopia mainly because of heavy
cuscuta infestation (parker and fessehaie, 1988).); they are primarily dispersed by humans (Dawson et al.
1994). Seeds are also easily dispersed through contaminated crop seed and travels by water along
irrigation ditches, moist soil and sun light is required for germination, its seed can germinate with the host
plants unlike the seeds of the most parasite plants. The most rapid form of spread occurs as a result of the
movement of seed in water. Mature dodder seed does not float and cannot be transported over a long
distance, but seeds is often carried on trash or in the seed cases that can float in running water (Dawson et
al. 1984).
The seed can also be spread in fodder and pastured seed and can survive the digestive track of birds,
cows, sheep and goats. It can also be spread when stem fragment are moved on farm machinery (such as
hay making equipments), on live stock or in water. It contact with host plant by false roots, called
haustoria’s. Stems are twine around the host, branching to form a tangled mass which can spread from the
initial host to adjacent plant. The haustoria’s penetrate the tissue of the host plant and remove nutrient,
thereby reducing crop or pasture yield, preventing host development and even killing it. Dodder grows
rapidly and can flower with two week of germination (BOB, 2010).
Objectives
The main objective of this seminar paper is to review on the effect dodder weed on field crops and its
management practices in Ethiopia
2. LITRATURE REVIEW
2.1. Effect of dodder weed on field crops in Ethiopia
Dodder is a threat to Lucerne, vegetable, many broad leaf crop, and pasture and seed crops. Seed fodder
or hay contaminated with dodder seed is banned from in north south western. Nug is the largest host crops
for dodder in Ethiopia. Dodder with spread quickly through the Lucerne crops as a result of a regular
cutting and bating operation. It is parasitic and damaging to leguminous crop, especially alfalfa and clover
.it also impacts vegetable and forage crops, ornamentals, native plant and weed. Dodder can suppress or
kill the host plants (et al McCormick, 2010).
According to parker (1985), species of genus Cucuta are widely spread in the several parts of Wollega,
Illubabor, Gojam, in the field of crops like nug. In most area survey observation indicates that the
twinning vines of this parasite not only deprive the host plant of nutrient but also inhibit growth and root
formation. It is evident that cuscuta is a new weed in most farmer field in which most farmer reported
seeing it for the time only 10 -15 years ago. In Wollega and illubabor, cuscuta may have come either
from the western low land, or small pocket of this parasite may have existed for a long time (parker and
fessehaie, 1988). Problem caused by this weed are aggravate by lack of seed legislation in Ethiopia. Large
area of cereal crops and vegetable has had to be abandoned every year in the Ethiopia mainly because of
heavy cuscuta infestation. Dodder range in severity based on its species and the species of the host, the
time of attack, and whether only any viruses are also present in a host plant (parker and fessehaie, 1988).
2.1.1 Parasitic effect of dodder weed on crops
Dodder is a parasitic flowering plants on a very wide variety of plants, including the number of
agriculturalandhorticulturalspeices,alfalfa,lespedeza,flax,clover,potatoes,chrysanthemum,dahlia,helenium,
ivy,and petunias , among others (vs. Rao,1983).dodder is a unique plant because it is a true obligate
parasite. That is, dodder host receives no benefit what so ever from dodder and dodder must have its host
to survives .It does not have any leaf of any chroloplly to produce its own food. It leaves by attaching to
the host with in small appendage (called “haustoria’s”) and extracting the host plant carbohydrate.
Although neither toxic nor unpalatable to some livestock, dodder can weaken host plant enough to reduce
yield, quality and stands. A parasite receives no advantage from a dead host, thus dodder generally will
not kill its host. But its infestation are severing enough, dodder may kill host plants. A study in south
California found that alfalfa yield dropped from 2,235 Ibs/A to 1,576Ibs /A when un treated for dodder
.the same study also found that alfalfa stand was reduced from five plant per squares feet to two plant per
square feet.(cudney et al.,1992).
Dodder range in severity based on its species and species of the host, the time of attack, and whether any
viruses are also present in a host plant. By debilitating the host plant, dodder decreases the ability of the
plants to resist virus disease, and dodder can also spreads plant disease from one host to another if it is

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attached to more than one plants. After dodder can contact with host plant by false root called historian,
the dodder stem twine around the host, branching to form a tangled mass which can spread from a initial
host to adjacent plant .the haustoria’s penetrates the tissue of the host plants and remove nutrients, there
by reducing crops or pasture yield, preventing host development and even kill it. Dodder grows rapidly
and can flower with two week of germinations (et al Mc Cormick, 2010).
2.1.2 .Potential as a disease vector
Phytoplasma, the cause of more than 200 so called yellow diseases (previously thought to be caused by
viruses) are spread by several different vectors to include leaf hopper and dodder. Dodder have shown to
spread the yellow disease pear declines, aster yellow ,tomato big bud, Inca virescence and elm phloem
necrosis. In addition, phloem, in habiting rickettsia like bacteria has been found to be present in dodder
(mount and lacy, 1987).Allowing dodder to spread in a field or garden area is asking for an increase in the
plant disease this parasite is capable of spreading. By debilitating the host plant, dodder decrease the
ability of the plant to resist virus disease and dodder can also spread plant disease from one host to other
if it is attaches to more than one plant. Cuscuta species can transmit some photogenic virus such as leaf
roll and fleck virus of grape vine, rickettsia, and mycoplasma like pathogen from the pollen of one host to
other host (Cooke and black, 1987).Generally, dodder infestation can cause several yield reduction by
parasite on host plant.
2.2 Economic significance of dodder
In agriculture dodder cause considerable economic damage in pasture farming with alfalfa and clover.
Dodder parasitization leads to large losses in soybean yield. They wanted to know whether the parasite is
not only tapping the plants supply system but also playing a role in plant plant communication through
volatile causes an underground mycorrhizal network. We therefore were to know whether dodder can
transmit insect feeding induce signals among different hosts and can even activate defense against insect.
(Christian Hetthausen, et al. (2017).

2.3. Management practice of dodder weed


The most successful control of dodder involves a systematic approach that combines several methods;
dodder usually cannot be eliminated with a single treatment or in a single year. When dodder is detected
infesting land escape and garden plant, immediate action is needed to eliminate or reduce the infestation
in this locations. Effective management requires control of the current population, the prevention of
dodder seed production and suppression of new seedling in subsequent years. Where extensive infestation
exists, remove the infected host plant and replant with non host crops for several years. Once a host crop
is planted again, a new dodder plants must be removed as soon as possible. The use of dodder free
planting seed are long been a primary way of preventing the spread of dodder infestation. Clean and
inspect clothing and equipment before moving from infected to clean area. Once you know an area is
infected, you must it to prevent the further production of dodder weed seed. Isolate small infestation and
remove them by hands before plant produce seed. Monitoring large infestation and mow, prune, burn or
spray herbicide to prevent seed production .Control of Cuscuta spp. is very difficult, with the best
method being exclusion ,i.e., not to introduce it into a farm or field. Mechanical removal by seed
machines is an option, but these devices are often slow and they do not always remove all of the Cuscuta
spp. seed and sometimes remove the crop seed. Tillage can be useful because the seedlings are easily
dislodged from the soil or die when buried, but if they are not buried completely, they can resurface.
Physically removing Cuscuta spp. by hand is time consuming and although Cuscuta spp. generally grow
as annuals, they can survive in the tissue of perennial host plants under some conditions (Dawson et al.
1984).Crop rotations with cereal grains or forage grasses for two or more years can significantly decrease
Cuscuta spp. seed banks (Dawson et al. 1984). Seedlings emerge and die because they rarely will
parasitize plants in the family Gramineae. Another cultural method that can be used to control Cuscuta
spp. is shade. Formation of a canopy from heavy crop cover can suppress seedling emergence (Dawson
1966).
2.3.1 Cultural controls
Planting non host plant can be an effective means of managing the dodder infestation. Plant that is not
host of dodder includes grass and many other monocots including lilies. Plant that grown primary during
winter such as crucifers and legumes and transplanted tree and shrubs usually are good alternative. In
agricultural setting, cultivate dodder before it attaches to a host plant, since cultivation done after dodder
are attached it self to a host is no benefit. Hand pulling, cutting or mowing also can reduce dodder
infestation. Be sure to break off cut or mow the host plant just below the point of dodder attachment
(about 1/8 to ¼ inches) for these methods to be effective. Close mowing is an effective management tool
for dodder in alfalfa. Burning reduce a dodders infestation as long as you destroy the invaded tissue of
host plants along with the dodder to prevent regeneration of dodder from embedded haustoria’s.
2. 3.2 Cutting and burning
Slashing promote the spread of dodder. Do not cut or slash dodder and leave the cut materials in the crop
as it will reattach itself to new host. Cut the host plant as close as possible to the ground level and burn it.
Burning can be carried out after cutting and drying, using flames throwers or other combustible materials
to ignite the vegetation. Burning is more effective following the application of a desiccant herbicide (Bob
Trounce, Lester McCormick, 2010).
2.3.3 Crop rotation
Cereal crop such as wheat, barley, oats, triticale and cereal rye are less susceptible to dodder, along with
summer grain crops such as maize and sorghum .While dodder cannot complete its life cycle on cereal
crops, it may do so on the broad leaf weed that invade these crops .The advantages of crop rotation for
dodder control then becomes an essential part of crop management. Where crop or pastures are used in
rotation to control dodder, Lucerne or susceptible legume should not be sown for at least five years (et al
Mc CORMICK, 2010).
2.3.4. Biological control
The use of herbicides to control and manage weed populations may not be conducive to all situations.
Therefore, other means of control are necessary, such as biological control. Biological control is grouped
into three strategies: the classical approach, the augmentative approach, and the inundative approach
(Rosskopf et al.1999). The classical approach or inoculative method involves applying small doses of 18
inoculum over a large weed population to produce a spreading epidemic (Charudattan1988). This
approach is beneficial when exotic plants become problematic due to the absence of natural enemies and
herbicide usage is not cost effective (Rosskopf et al.1999). In the augmentative approach, a small amount
of inoculum is released to initiate an epidemic (Charudattan 1988). In the inundative or bioherbicide
approach, inoculum is applied in massive doses to the weed population to stimulate epidemic conditions
(Harley and Forno 1992; Scheepens et al. 2001). Bioherbicides are based on fungi, bacteria, or viruses
that are industrially developed and registered through the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to
manage or reduce weed populations. The mycoherbicide (a fungus used as a herbicide) approach can be
successful when substantial quantities of inoculum are used to help compensate for natural restrictions to
disease development (Bewick et al.1987; Charudattan 1988). Through manipulation, some fungi that
normally cause sporadic or endemic disease levels on their hosts can be developed into effective
bioherbicides. (Charudattan 1988; Rosskopf et al. 1999.Several disease organisms are known to infect
dodder including fusarium tricintum and alternaria species, which attack swamp dodder (C. gronovii)
and (A.alternata) and Geotrichum candidum, which attack field dodder (C.pentagona). Research in china
has found that the suspension of colletotrichum gloeosporioides can selectively control the dodder species
C.chineses and C.australias in soy bean. Difficult in culturing and Appling these organisms has limited
their commercialized use (Bob Trounce Mc Cormicks, 2010)

Table 1.Insect that inflict heavy damage on cuscuta species

Family Species Damaging stage Nature of damage


Olethreutidea Acroclita species All stage Boring vines

Phaloniidea Lobesiaseran gotee All stage Boring vines

Curculionidea Eupocilia ambiguella Egg, grubs, adult Grubs cause vine gall

Smieronyx cuscuta

Agromyziadea Malangromzya All stage Boring vines and


cuscuta flower

Source parker and fessehaie (1988)


2.3.5 Chemical controls
Generally chemical control is not necessary in the home garden and land escape; dodder can control for
the most part with cultivation (seedling), hand removal or pruning. If cultivating seedling is not possible,
the dodder seedling can be sprayed. In the home garden house hold vinegar (acetic acid) can be used.
Commercial preparation of pelargonic acid (scythe) is also effective. In commercial managed land
escapes or in agricultural crop situation, only commercial products can be used. Acetic acid and
pelargonic acid act as contact herbicide that kill plant tissue they contact; consequently good coverage
and careful spraying (so that desirable plant are not damaged) are not important. Where dodder has been a
persistence problem in certain commercial agricultural fields or in land escapes pre-emergent herbicide
(eg.triflurian) can be applied before the dodder seed germinate, and where practical followed with close
mowed ,burning or spot removal of parasitized host plant to control dodder plant that escapes the
herbicide application (Bob Trounce ,Mc Cormick,2010). Cuscuta can be controlled by pre-emergence and
post emergence herbicide. Tosh et al, (1977) found that pre-emergence application of chlorprophan
applied ay 4kg/hectar to moist soil six day after sowing niger (guizotia abyssinica L) control cuscuta most
effectively without any injury to the germinating Niger seedling. They also found that pronamide at 1.5
kg/hectare applied 15 days after germination of cuscuta or 2kg/hectar at 20 days controlled cuscuta
without any phytotoxicity on niger (vs. Rao,1983)

Table 2. Chemical used to control cuscuta and its concentration and rate of application
Chemical and concentration Rate Comments

Diquat 200 g/L 1 mL per 1 L of water 1.5–3.0 Spot spray. Spray at least 1 m
L/ha radius around infestation. Boom
spray.

Glyphosate 360 g/L 10 mL per 10 L of water Spot spray. Spray at least 1 m


radius around infestation.
0.5–9.0 L/ha
Boom spray. Non-selective.
Will damage other desirable
plants. Re-treat as required.

Metsulfuron-methyl 600 g/L 1Kg per 100 L of water Apply as a spot spray to point
of run before flowering.

Source noxious and environmental weed control hand book, 2004-2005


2. 3.6 resistant varieties
Breeding program aimed at developing dodder resistant variety are not known to exist, however, some
variety of normally susceptible species have been reported to have some resistance. For example, several
variety of processing tomatoes, a plant that is generally susceptible to dodder parasitizes, have been
observed to be either totally resistant or tolerate to dodder attack. All grass, cool season vegetable and
many monocot plants are resistant to dodder (Bob Trounce, Mc Cormick, 2010
3. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The parasitic weed species of the genus cuscuta that belongs to the family of convolvulaceae are widely
spreads in several parts of the worlds, particularly in our country. It causes the parasitic effect on a very
wide variety of plants. It is problem may be due to the lack of seed legislation in Ethiopia. In most area in
addition to deprive the host plant nutrient, the dodder weed can reduce and frusit formation of plant, not
only this but also the parasite can serve as a poisons plant and disease vector. Since this parasite can cause
the loss of agricultural products, the control measure must be used before flowering. It is necessary to
carefully separate the seed of the main culture from the dodder weed. The most successful control of
dodder involves systematic approach that combines several methods. Effective management requires
control of the current population, the prevention of dodder seed population and suppression of new
seedling in subsequent year. These managements can be done by cultural control, biological control,
chemical control and use of resistance variety. Since dodder germinate irrespective of whether a host is
near or not a increase or decrease of crop on the land is believed to be have insignificant effect on
germination of dodder and consequently on the level of infestation Removal of dodder a long or together
with non-parasitic weed has shown a reduce level of dodder infestation

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4. REFERENCE
Anon.1986. Integrated Pest management for Potatoes in the Western United States University of
California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 33316BobTrounce,
LesterMcCormick,(2010),dodder and golden dodder: identification and Control, second edition. New
south whale.http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/ Agriculture/pest-weeds/weeds/profiles/dodder.

Charudattan, R. 1988. Inundative control of weeds with indigenous fungal pathogens Christian
Hetthausen.C.. Li.j,Zhuang.H,Xu,Y.,Qi, j., Zhang., Lei, Y,, Qin, Y., Sun, G., Wang, L., Baldwin, l.T.,
Wu, j.(2017) .economic significance of dodder.

control. In T. W. Fisher, T. S. Bellows, L. E. Caltagirone, D. L. Dahlsten, C. Huffaker,and G. Gordh, eds.


Handbook of Biological Control. Academic Press. San Diego, CA.Pp. 891-918.

Dawson, J. H., F. M. Ashton, W. V. Welker, J. R. Frank, and G. A. Buchanan. 1984.

Dawson, J. H., L. J. Musselman, P. Wolswinkel, and I. Dörr. 1994. Biology and control Dodder and its
control. U. S. Dept. Agric. Farmers’ Bull. 2276. Pp. 24.

Fathoulla, C.N., & Duhoky, M.M.S. (2008). Biological and anatomical study of different Cuscuta species
(Kurdistan 1st Conference on Biological Sciences). Journal of Dohuk University, 11(1), 22-39
http://www.cdms.net/LD at/1d4HM.

Koskela, T., Salonen, V., & Mutikainen, P. (2001). Interaction of a host plant and its holoparasite: effects
of previous selection by the parasite. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 14(6), 910-917

Mount.M.SandG.H.lacy,1982.phytopathogenic prokaryotes.Volume1.accademicpress.New Delhi .page


346.of Cuscuta. Rev. Weed Sci. 6:265-317.

Parsons, W.T. and Cuthbertson, E.G. (2000) Noxious Weeds of Australia 2nd ed. CSIRO Publishing
Practices. Fourth edition. Page 414.Press, Boulder, CO

Rezene Fessehaie and Chris parker, 1988.problem and control of parasitic weed in Ethiopia. Second
edition. Weed science work shop. Page 70-72

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Rod Ensbey, Tony Cook, Mark Scott, Stephen Johnson and Elissa van Oosterhout.Edited by Elissa
vanOoster.Noxious and environmental weed control handbook .a guide of weed control non crop, aquatic
and bush land situation.5th edition

Rosskopf, E. N., R. Charudattan, and J. B. Kadir. 1999. Use of plant pathogens in weed

Thomas J. Manoca.Stephen C.Welther,Floyd M. Ashton,2002.weed science principle and

VS.Rao, 1983, principle of weed science (A reference –cum-text book).

Weber, W.A. 1987. Colorado Flora: Western Slope. Colorado Associated University

Welsh.SL. N.D.Atwood, S.Goodrich, L.c.Higgins, 1962.A Utah Flora, second edition .Brigham Young
University, Provo UT.

Wilson.CL.W.E.Loomis and H.T.Croasdale, 1962.Botany, third edition.Hol And Winston

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