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Electromagnetic Forming Sealing ting 1 | 7 Fletashoper a - Ceramic tube (a) (b) Figure 2 Presting on the end cap of high-voltage fe: (8) Before forming: () ale forming tion of capacitor energy makes it a simple matter to bend the edge of the cap without damaging the cer- amic tube. Figure 3 shows another application of electro- magnetic forming. The stator laminations of a de ‘motor are held by an assembly mandrel. An alumi- ‘num tube is positioned over them and compressed over its whole length. The laminations are held together in this way. Seats for the two endshields are also produced by compressing the tube ends to the size of the mandrel. Further applications of electromagnetic forming include the production of electrical connections, and Table 1 ‘Advantages and limitations of electromagnetic forming (a) Adoaniages {Low costs per forming operation ‘Contatiest forming (also through protective coverings) Forming pressure acts equally on all sides ‘A controlled pressure ean be directed to definite zones of the workpiece High forming rate and extremely short forming times Easy adaptation to diferent workpieces by suitably formed feldshapers No moving pars inthe electromagnetic forming machine Production ean be easly automated ‘Assemblies and equipment can be joined without close tol rances being required a the joints Pipes can be compressed or widened (sheet metal canbe deep ‘rawn, but this proces is rarely used in practice) (6) Limitations The materials to be formed must have a relatively high elee- teal conductivity (copper, aluminum, and their alloys) ‘The materials should be highly ductile Wall thicknesses are limited to a few millimeters The forming distances must be only a few milimeters 1444 i i | Figure 3 Contactless assembly of a de motor stator the assembly of maintenance-free ball joints and shock absorbers. The advantages and limitations of electromagnetic forming are summarized in Table 1. ‘See also: High-Energy-Rate Forming Bibliography , Brower DF 1963 Metalforming with pulsed magnetic lds. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. Control Insirum. 10: 77-82 Dietz H, Lippmann HJ, Schenk H 1969 Metallumformang mit hohen gepulsten Magnetteldern. Schweiz. Teck, Z 66: 500-10 Jones F W 1965 An Investigation of the Mognete-Pulse Forming Process, AEC Research and Development Report Y-1483. Union Carbide, Oak Ridge, Tennessee Noland MC, Gadberry H M, Loser JB, Sneegas E'C 1967 High-Velocity Metalworking: A Suraey, NASA SP-5062 National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Wash ington, DC, Chap. 2 H. Schenk Electrometallurgy Electrochemical processing is wsed both inthe pri tary extraction ‘of metals from thir ores (ele: {Hovinning) and inthe subsequent refining of metals to high pany (cleetrorefining). Both operations are accomplished in an electrolytic cell, deviee that permits electrical energy to perform chemical work. Tis occurs by the transfer of electrical charge between two electrodes immersed in an foniclly conducting liquid (electrolyte) containing metal dis- solved as positive fons. At the negatively changed Cathode the metal cations acquire electrons (ae reduced), and deposit as netral metal atoms At the positively charged anode there are two posible reactions, depending upon the type of ell. In an Gleotrowinning cell, ‘nonmetal anions generally tndergo oxidation a the anode to give gaseous prod Us, whereas inn eletrorefning cell the dsoltion af the anode metal itself oocus. ‘The more noble metals such as copper and zine are electrolyzed from aqueous electrolytes, whereas reactive metals such as aluminum and magnesium are electrolyzed from electrolytes of thet fused salt Electrometallurgy 1. Aqueous or Hydrometallurgical Processes 11 Electrowinning Although it is possible to extract the more noble metals by electrolysis of aqueous solutions of their salts, chemical reduction methods such as smelting are aso feasible, The choice of process depends upon site conditions such as the composition of the ore and the relative costs of electrical energy versus other forms of energy. Copper and zine are the main metals extracted by electrowinning from aqueous solutions (Gee Copper Production; Zine Production), Before electrolysis can take place there are many processing steps. Briefly, the concentrated ore is first converted to an acisoluble form, followed by leaching in acid, commonly sulfuric, to produce an acidic solution of metal salts. This solution is purified to remove the more noble metal ions, which will electrodeposit more readily than the metal of inter- est, Purification techniques include cementation and solvent extraction or ion exchange. The purified solu- tion is then fed to electrolysis celis. ‘The electrolysis cells are open conerete tanks lined with plastic oF rubber, approximately 1m across, Im deep and S-15m long. Electrodes measuring somewhat less than 1m x 1m hang vertically at intervals of about Sem in diaphragmless cells and about 10-15 em when diaphragms are employed. The electrodes are arranged so that they are alternately anodic and cathodic, and all anodes and eathodes in ‘single tank are usually connected in parallel. The anodes are made ofa lead alloy; the cathodes consist of the metal being produced and are prepared by Prior electrolysis onto titanium or aluminum starter Sheets. The cells operate at current densities of 100 500m, During electrolysis the electrolyte is made to circulate slowly between tanks Table 1 shows the particulars for the main aqueous electrowinning operations. 1.2 Electrorefining In contrast to electrowinning, which faces com- petition from other primary extraction processes, electrorefining is virtually unrivalled in its capability to produce metal ofthe highest purity. Copper is the predominant metal to be electrorefined, as ths isthe oly process for preparing metal pure enough for electrical applications. Electrorefining is also becom ing increasingly popular for recyeling metals. Table 2 summarizes the operating conditions for electro- refining. In the electrorefining of copper, nickel and lead, itis also possible to recover silver and gold from the anode slimes by first dissolving the less noble anode Impurities in acid and then Casting the remaining noble metals into anodes for subsequent electro- refining. In many cases the value ofthe noble metals 0 recovered exceeds the cost of the entire base- metal refining operation 2. Fused-Salt Processes 2.1 Blectrowinning (@) Aluminum, Al primary aluminum extraction is performed by fusedsalt electrolysis (see Aluminum Production). In the Hall-Héroult process, alumina ‘which has been converted fom bauxite by the Bayer process is dissolved in molten cryolite (Na,AlF.). The electrolyte also contains CaF, and lk, The electrolysis cell consists of a steel shell lined with refractory insulating bricks covered with graphite The cathode is a pool of molten aluminum on the bottom of the cell. ‘The anode is a carbon block Table 1 Production of metals by electrolysis of aqueous solutions (after Robertson 1978) Cathode cell current Energy ‘Temperature voltage density, requirement Metal Anode Cathode Electrolyte 0) (WY) Am) (Whig!) Zn POAR AL 100-2081 Zn 35 35 03 33 as slate Co PE ISH)SHOIN)AR Cu TORT, was 22 oa 22. Hs, Mn Po-I%Ag Hastelloy Mn 1 0.406 89 316 as slate, stainless 125-1507 feel ammoniam ort sulfate, O.1ar soy Co PH SHAR stainless 15-50 g1"' Co 50-65 5. 035-008 4S ‘eel 1 Added to prevent MnO; depostion 1445 Electrometalturgy Table 2 Parameters for electrorefning processes (after Pletcher 1982) Impurity metals Current density Cell Temperature Current Metal Electrolyte (gI"*) (Am) voltage (V)—(C)efclency Slime Solution Cu CuSO, (100-140), 0102 015030 95 Ag,AUNiPDSb NiAS.Fe,Co HO, (180-250) Ni NSO, (140-160), o1s02 1530 © 98 AgAuPe NaCl (60), HBO, (10-20) Co CoO, (150-160), 018021830 o 75-85 Ni Na$O, (120-140), NaCl (15-20), HBO, (10-26) Po PO (60-80), o1s02s 0306 = 30.80 95 Bi,Ag.Au.Sb Sa 005-015 0306 = 20-60 6 Pose immersed in the electrolyte from the top of the cell Molten aluminum is produced at the cathode; the ‘anode, which is consumed in the process, produces carbon dioxide. The overall cell reaction is 2AhO, +3C—> 4Al + 3C0, ‘Ata typical cell operating temperature of 960°C the thermodynamic minimum decomposition voltage is 1.18V. To compensate for the resistances of the ‘anode, cathode and electrolyte, as well asthe anodie overvoltage, cells operate at the much higher applied Potential of 4.0-4.5V. Other cell performance characteristics are given in Table 3. ‘Aluminum is also produced industrially by the electrolysis of AICI, ina solution of NaCl and LiCl. ‘At 727°C the thermodynamic voltage requirement is 1,75 V, compared to the operating voltage of 3.3 V. ‘The electrolysis cells employ bipolar carbon elec trodes charged so that chlorine is evolved on the bottom surface and aluminum is deposited on the top surface of each electrode. This improves the space time yield over that of the Hall-Héroult cell. Fur- thermore, the higher electrical conductance of the chloride electrolyte, the smaller anode-cathode separation, and the lower voltage drop across the electrodes’ make the electrolysis of AICI, more energy-efficient than the Hall-Héroult process, (b) Magnesium. Electrolytic magnesium is produced at 700°C by the electrolysis of MgCl, dissolved in CaCl-NaCl-KCI (see Magnesium Production). In the IG Farben process the cell feed is anhydrous ‘MgCl, and in the Dow seawater process the cel feed, is MgCl. 1.7H,0. The cells are made of steel and may be lined with refractory brick. At the steel Table 3 Production of metas by electrolysis of fused salts (after Robertson 1978) Cathode cen “Current Energy Metal Met Temperature voltage consumption process ‘Anode Cathode) tw) awake) ‘Al Gall-Héroul) prebaked graphite Al’) Cryalite (60-65), ° ptatct ga GES), AIR 7) wos 41 sas BS Soderbers graphite al J ALG, @-8) ‘AI (Aleos) raphe aephite Necr mw 33 8s 89 Lic Gs), AIG G) Na sxapite steel CaCl (38), smeto 57797 Naa) iss Ms raphe steel MgC), 70-720 ach (), acl (60) 1446