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# Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM

Introduction to Geophysics

## Seismic Reflection 3: Acquisiton, Processing,

and Waveform Analysis
Ali Oncel
oncel@kfupm.edu.sa
Department of Earth Sciences
KFUPM
Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM Previous Lecture

## Example:  Data Acquisition in Shaybah Field (Alfaraj et al.,

1998, GeoArabia, Vol. 3, No 2)
Over 120 million seismic traces and over 100,000 shot
points, covering an area of about 1,100 sq km.
Primary Reflection
Multiples
NMO – Normal Moveout Correction
Velocity Analysis
Example: Gathers and NMO Corrected CMP
Mute
Static Corrections
Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM Average Velocity

j
Vav= average velocity above the interface ∑i Viti
Vaverage( j) = j
Z= depth from the surface to the interface
t= one-way travel from surface to interface
∑i ti
Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM Root Mean Square (RMS) Velocity

1/2

 j 
VRMS= root mean square velocity 
 ∑Vi2t 

Vrms( j) =  1 
Vi= seismic velocity of the i layer
th  j 

∑ti
 
 
ti= two-way travel time within the i layer
th 
 1 

Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM Interval Velocity (Vint)

Vint=ΔZ/ Δt

## Vint= average velocity between two interfaces

ΔZ= thickness of layer between the two interfaces
Δt= one-way travel time between the two interfaces
1
V t − V t
2 2
 2
Vinterval = n n n −1 n −1
 Dix, 1955 (p.130 of Sheriff and
 tn − tn−1  Geldart, 1995)

For n=2
V1= Stacking velocity for reflection from upper interface [VRMS(1)]
V = Stacking velocity for reflection from lower interface [V (2)]
Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM

Mid-Term Exam
12.10 AM- 13.00 AM
May 3

## Field-Trip April 26, 12.30 PM

Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
The quiz of the week
• What does fold mean in the CMP method? Give an
example.
• What are the two advantages of the CMP method
over previous methods?