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hole Frmation Exercise 2 ‘The fling i gue Beween spears and B fom dra Sana Tangy wie thse ses f phonology, nda ha sigue roms ene, Eg Pe sane, ht {ind of poole cangs ave cured in Engh wor? Ho fine nd pes eens comveyed? (Duh lawors in ah) Ac Mafia pkin for N o du dese dan? ut how the child af ecleN do die then ‘acho did Uncle N's eid acl i, hen” ‘Be Ayia man moira, noh, Wel, mi ben dea Nova ‘Yes, cov one ice question, Ta, Wel, I vast be ic Noar ‘Mi dea Novar mode manga wan man ben) aio ange nan man The toc Nover, Ibe with one man, PAST IMP tk stay with “Yew, if god question, no? Wel, was at Novara at [Novae mas witha guy, Twas talking to 2g.” Dan wan man 977 Kon manga wan brome, maa mandi oon aia, ‘Then one man Fide come wih oe bike, but the man a. come tate me ‘anes den sua dat no de bun. Da 4 ma ot sa, ‘he and the peopl att ca good. Then the mans Loc in ae bari kari mi “D, D, Oom N, Oo N, Oo N" then he shou call me “D, D uncle N. ance N nee N> “Then guy came on moped, ur the uy who came to pick me ‘up, he andthe people (Uma talking f) were not on speaking terms. So the guy stayed inthe sree, then he called me"D, D, ‘Uncle N, Uncle N, Uncle N") Dan i ¢ tai taki mano ab mi fnowdh, san 2 man no € ho. "Then tlk con the man have me need why the ma ‘ser come ‘Mino ego, Olay, dana man, a man dim nang ene ai, ‘suc go, Olay, then the man, the man wand he alk ‘mano tai, yu Lan go want man noc kon. noo on dy, ‘the man say, you can go because the man Si come, He sur come here rae Praia Dini pam otaig mili ali Ooms, go tbeman tt me) “Une Oo naka bi fey." Mio taki “aloo oak ‘Ga it the boy of you." ‘he, Oday enough..." 9.6 Some Aspects of Creole Grammar “Given the wide iferences crs eels ts dct generis hi rural charactervice Thr chef we iit ou ateton he ne q faa roo, However, certain general eure canbe eid. 961 Cree pmlgy In eer, ccle phonology appears to be the rest of waving ders reterprtaion of supersrate phoney in tems of sabre photic ‘ican phnoloia ues: Relatively ite esech hase ne 08 thse of erele tracture, fr eset sources Hence weve ony a ase treo the substrate conibution. ald appear ta roles general reserve sous that resin he ‘npr lnguages Among the consnans, tee nlx arty of tp ch Tt dg and asl Ue /m n/- Where tees misma ewsen superstar subst wand, the ome ar genera ubtited by h ‘lost equivalents inthe ner. This ing of 1 inflans of euechare Tei ofscond language sisi in genera It hp xpi rinses, ‘eatin of 76 Fr 107, Fr 7B for fe fd om Some acl creole sch asthe Surinamese crs and Kr (Sk Lee) rr | 20 role Formation preserve West Afican words containing coarculted and prensa stp, Teas Jab kp, mb, ec) which are fis common in ther subst Un 1988: 127-30) owcnr it alo kar tat cele ome certain aspects of ths phn to the spertate sources to. For instance, sever dtintve fares of CCaitean Eagleson creoles can be traced back 10 regional Engh {Gale Ths include os of iil /4/ in words ike pial, the plata G7 in words ike gai ar,” eee, insertion ofthe die fm i wads ke hw "os," eine “ping” ee. Even features sch he ‘Root of 767 fr 7 i words ke hey very" fr 107, a er 1787 wer als typical of sme regina kts of English, and of manta Eng- Tho (alla and D'Cats 19. 51-60, 100). Using contemporry Standard engl phonology as pint of comparison wth Pnglh-lexcin rene phono logy woul verefre be quite misating with regard the superstate sores ofthe be. Crake wel silat tend wo be those cmon to thr source lng, though some vowel systems are more complex than others are. Praca al ‘Ges have at est the five vowels, 4/ though some hae and Yan adn, Holm (1988: 114) sages tha “the seven vows system fot throughout much of West Af abo the base system ofthe Alani re.” ‘gsm, however, some spect of creole vowel systems appear to derive fm ‘aperurte sources, With ference to Eagleson cress, Lal and Ca ((990: 60-4, 107) mention such features athe wse of /a/ for />/ in wale Tie dp, i! fo Fin word ike game, si for Ji in words he i. "Theres evidence of substrate nene on creo phonotactics to. A gee feature isthe simplification ofboth nia pd final consnan haters, nse FEnglisleion roles, ini i loti lst s/t, ad, siding for nstance, ua "spoan,” en tan” and kin” Ineresigy, rencvescon roles generally prescr such nial caster (Parka 20052) Something we might not expe, ten the strong tendency fr soch chars tobe implied in roksan ears 1.2 varieties. Similarly, / atin Fina ctr ke /tsh/, and, yielding la las,” “li,” ds ds,” ‘te This phenomenon sao common in French craks The sinpiaon fina cnsonant caster bo has models in English ronal nets (Lala and ‘Gents 190-100, 107, loti of many Atlantic roles is the use of paragre (the ation owe, specially to Europe tems tha end in consonant) This yds words in Sanam ie ak “oy” Ht Ml”, containing a CVE sable patre typi of many West Aca languages. Lal and D’Costa (199%: 65) suet that sabe trate i xl JC Jamaican Croke] mas West Afi,” ting ‘ow obsolete wor ike whara “wh.” ill, peachy, foun in carer J ek erie ‘a ses re gin, they suggest hat this pater might have Been ifr by vee mle uote ound in outhwes ductal agi wr ach Litera” core “care,” aly, erin soprascemenal features fund in some Aico sempbve tvs source substrate inence It has been ciel tht some lhnan Enlnt-levcon cues preserve vets of Wet Alan tone Though the ae nt tone Inu in the ict eae (Car 1 ‘Ean, Devenish 199), Aso of interest the appara cea nme ‘Manis cede of tne- 0 ptch-Sae disinions Between tens” and more” redupiions. Thus in Jamaican we Sd sal mal (oe avery sal eras al sal lig pic “sais Caer 1987, (ese 201. Taree, much more cscurch needs to be dane ere weve an agete ndemoningo rake phonology an its ois 962 Croke kein ‘ee a three major sources of rene lesen: apt frum the supestate, ‘ahwpptic the bul ofthe vocabulary, retention fo sara nue, {aie anovations ‘Many supertrat ters have their phonolgial shapes nd meaning iy shored in role. Monto these come om the regina dc ine Usd ccs and servant in the at period of exon. Bat asi rnonr of tems ao came fom soca aul” map, a el by ‘Soman er seafrer In Jmsican cre, rinse, we find wc i tok bce” (rigs "osama dy mes”, “any horned tt eh macet,” ap lop “hk al” (Laan Cat 190 10) ‘hates fom English alec nctade hus is” mang “hn” (meg tad ene ar, exelent,” the pouible source ofthe pps Rafa ‘mie [a “excelent, very ne” (i: 220, Many JC compounds de fem Egish dtl sours, cling mrsin-ime ame “etic” soem “hqur and oer. Several such items are fon in Susie SSpsing a silarautal or daectl English source. They ica her, to mah very,” fre Hine “on” e ‘Sipe derived excl ems often undergo semantic and vn eel ‘ngs sometimes under subst nflaence For inane nC (0) tame mean “ws an turn [the his] proveaine” wile ets = ‘ating “pcs reat.” Inthe Surinamese rede, nai preps fd ad pare reanalyzed the verb fmt So ond” and of “A ‘psn, The Aan role copa of ft al Aad ref 0 he i ir a2 ral Formation limb, incating ar” and “ee” respectively, not jus 1 the extrem. Thee ins of semantic reali are alo found in extended pidgin. Thar Tak Pin 1 (¢ Engl are) means not jus “tok,” bt ako “cae, furan,” Sin ty fe means moj bells,” bo eat ofthe meio.” These a the ange of meaning expres by equivalent words inthe substrate Crake aso derive a significa numberof words fom th sb and toa ler extent fom other angus, usu via pin varieties fhe er, “The tend tobe ot oer time 0 ere cre texts provide a ar ps oF the corrbuton foe thee source. Lala and D'Cata (198 7) el approximately 250 words in eater (seventeenth to ineeeth-