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REVIEW ON EFFECT OF PLANTING DENSITY ON GROWTH

AND YIELD OF CHICKPEA (Cicer arietinum L.) IN ETHIOPIA

BY: - Demeku Azene


ID Number: - 1897/09

A Senior Seminar Submitted to the Department of Plant Science

College of Agriculture and Natural Resources


DEBRE BERHAN UNIVERSITY

Advisor: Betelhiem B. (MSc.)

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the Bachelor of Sciences in


Plant Science

January 2018

DBU, Ethiopia
Tables of Contents

ACKNOLOGEMENT ................................................................................. iii


LIST OF ABBREVIATION ....................................................................... iv
1. INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................1
2. LITERATURE REVEIEW ......................................................................3
2.1. Origin and Distribution ......................................................................................... 3
2.2 Botanic Distribution ................................................................................................ 3
2.3. Production of Chickpea in Ethiopia ..................................................................... 3
2.4. Economic Importance of Chickpea ...................................................................... 4
2.5. Seed Production of Chickpea ................................................................................ 4
2.6. Constraints of Chickpea Production in Ethiopia ................................................ 5
2.7. Effect of Plant Density on Chickpea ..................................................................... 6
2.7.1. Growth and Yield ............................................................................................ 6
2.7.2. Root Parameters ............................................................................................. 7
2.7.3. Plant Height at Maturity ................................................................................. 8
2.7.4. Number of Pods per Plant............................................................................... 8
2.7.5. Nutrient uptake and soil nutrient status........................................................ 8
2.7.6. Protein content ................................................................................................. 9
3. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSSIONS....................................................10
4. REFERENCES ........................................................................................11

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ACKNOLOGEMENT
First of all we would like to thank our almighty god for giving skills and knowledge for all
aspects of our educational carrier, secondly I would like to thank my advisor Bethlehem, for her

advice in every step of review .

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LIST OF ABBREVIATION

CSA Central Statistics Agency

FAO STA T Food and Agricultural Organization Statistics

ICRISAT International Crop Research Institute for Semi Arid Tropics

MOA Ministry of Agriculture

NARS National Agricultural Research

OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

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1. INTRODUCTION

Chickpea (cicer arietinum L.) the third most important pulse crop in the world after dry
bean and field pea (FAOSTAT, 2013). The crop accounts for 12% of the world pluses
bally the desi and kabuli types the total yield production is quite low in most chickpea
growing countries and a wide gap exists between the potential of (5ton/ ha) and total
(o.96 ton-1) yields (FAOSTAT, 2013). The desi type of chickpea is the most common
Chickpea grains are consumed in different forms such as kollo (roasted seed), thihko
(boiled seeds), akich (sauce made out of chickpea ground flour and bukulti (sprouts),
seeds are also consumed during the green pod stage as a vegetable (MOA, 2011).

Chickpea is one of the important cool season food legume crops of Ethiopia which is
mainly grown in the central, northern and eastern highland areas of the country where the
mean annual rainfall and altitude, respectively, range from 700-2000 mm and 1400-2300
meter above sea level (Geletu, 1994). It fetches good price when sold in local market and
hence generates cash to farmers. Moreover, the crop is being exported to Asia and Europe
contributing positively to the country’s foreign exchange earnings. For instance, in 2008
only Ethiopia had exported 39,993 metric t of chickpea crop to different parts of the
world (Menale et al., 2009).

Chickpea has a major role in the daily diet of the rural community and poor sectors of
urban population and its straw is used for animal feed. It is a multi-purpose crop grown
for dry seeds as pulse green pods as vegetable source of food for livestock due to its high
protein, vitamin, minerals and fiber contents. Chickpea seeds contain potassium ,
calcium ,sodium ,magnesium , iron ,copper and zinc which make it nutritionally the best
edible pulse(feicrial and Esmat, 2011). The crop enhances intensive utilization of land in
areas where land is limited and it can be grown as a second crop using residual moisture.
This crop, as a legume, improves soil fertility by fixing atmospheric nitrogen, meeting up
to 80 % of its nitrogen requirement from symbiotic nitrogen fixation (Gaur et al., 2012).
Chickpea-specific miso-rhizobia is present in soils where chickpea has been traditionally
grown but seed inoculation is required in the new chickpea-cultivated lands or in
marginal soils. Better N2 fixation can be achieved by selecting rhizobia strains of superior
N2-fixing capacity but also depends on chickpea cultivars (Kantar et al. 2007).

Despite these facts, the yield of chickpea in Ethiopia under farmers condition is low
(1.73 t ha-1)( CSA 2012) as compared to the potential yield of the crop under improved
management conditions (3.5 t ha-1). A number of limiting factors contribute to its low
productivity such as water deficit, diseases, insects, and weeds infestations and poor
agronomic practices (ICRISAT 2005. Lack of variety- and location-specific plant
density recommendation is also the major limitations of cultural practices for chickpea
production in Ethiopia. In general production and productivity of the crop is
governed by environmental conditions, genotypic trait and management of the crop.

Determining appropriate crop density is therefore the management activities which


improves the performance and productivity of plants. However, plant density of chickpea
depends on variety and plant habit. Compact, upright-growing plants responded better to
increased plant density than the spreading type. compared the results of plant density
experiments involving two varieties, one desi (BDN 9) and another kabuli (L 550) and
concluded that a spacing of 30 cm x 10 cm for desi type and 45 cm x 15 cm for
kabuli type was optimum. The optimum plant population depends also on the
environmental conditions under which the crop is grown. The establishment of
adequate plant population is most important to realize the full yield potential of a
genotype. Many researchers reported the effect of plant population on grain yield and
some of agronomic characteristics of chickpea (Mansur et al., 2003, Valimohammadi et
al., 2007 and Kashfi et al., 2010). Planting density depends on environmental conditions,
seed size, plant type and way of sowing Yigitoglu, 2006). Therefore the objective of this
seminar is to review effect of panting density on growth and yield of chickpea in
Ethiopia.

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2. LITERATURE REVEIEW
2.1. Origin and Distribution

Chickpea is one of the first pulse crops domesticated and most probably originated in
an area of south eastern turkey a dioining Syria (toker, 2009). The crop is how
cultivated throughout arid and semi-arid regions of the world that characterized by
moisture stress and low soil fertility (Gaur et al., 2008 ). Chickpea growing areas are
almost completely in the arid and semi-arid zones of the world. Globally it is grown in
more than 52 countries and in an area of 13. 2 million hectares with 11.6 million tons of
production (FAOSTAT, 2012). About 97% of chickpea cultivation is in developing
countries, where the crop is largely grown under marginal areas with moisture stress
conditions. India is the largest chickpea producer in the world. Other chickpea producing
regions are Eastern Africa, North Africa, and Mediterranean near –East regions,
Australia, South Europe and South America (upadhyaya et al., 2007).

2.2 Botanic Distribution

Cultivated chickpea is a self-pollinated, diploid (2n=16) annual pulse crop with a


relatively small genome of 740 Mb (Arumganathan &Earle, 1991). Chickpea belongs to
genus Cicer, family fabaceae. The crop is herbaceous, a small bush with diffused
spreading branches from the base, which reach a height of 20-150 cm depending on
cultivar and growing conditions. It is stem is mostly erect. Branched and solid and has
strong deep tap root system which makes it relatively drought tolerant. The crop has an
intermediate growth habit which continues to produce vegetative growth whenever soil
moisture ,temperature and Chickpea has pinnate type of compounds leaves in which the
leaf lets are generally odd in number and born directly on the rachis.

2.3. Production of Chickpea in Ethiopia

The main contribution (almost 86.73 %) of the world production of chickpea is from

Asia. With only 5% coming from Africa according FAOSATAT (2011) the world are

under chickpea cultivation is 13.2 million hectares, with a total production of 11.6

million tons. the main chickpea producing countries are India, according for

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67.68 (7.5 million hectares ). And 66.91%(6.54 million ton) of production followed by

Pakistan with 9.75%(1.08 million hectares and 0.74 million (FAOSTAT,2009)

other chickpea producing countries are Iran ,Turkey ,Myanmar ,Australia ,Ethiopia ,

Canada , Mexico ,Syria , USA Spain ,Tanzania and Eritrea.

2.4. Economic Importance of Chickpea

Chickpea is a valued crop and provides nutritious food for an expanding world
population and will become increasingly important with climate change. Production
ranks third after beans with a mean annual production of over 10 million tons with most
of the production centered in India. Land area devoted to chickpea has increased in recent
years and now stands at an estimated 13.5 million hectares. Production per unit area has
slowly but steadily increased since 1961 at about 6 kg/ha per annum. Over 1.3 million
tons of chickpea enter world markets annually to supplement the needs of countries
unable to meet demand through domestic production. India, Australia, and Mexico are
leading exporters. Chickpea is comprised of Desi and Kabuli types. The Desi type is
characterized by relatively small angular seeds with various coloring and sometimes
spotted. The Kabuli type is characterized by larger seed sizes that are smoother and
generally light colour ICRISAT (2011).

2.5. Seed Production of Chickpea

In the past years, new successful chickpea varieties have been originated over the world
mainly by international or national research institutions or growers associations. The
profit margin from chickpea seeds is low and, generally, does not attract private sector
investment because chickpea is highly self-pollinated and many farmers use their own
seeds stored on farm (Van Gastel et al. 2007). This is the common situation for small
farmers in developing countries, where food legumes are very important in family
nutrition, but, generally, they do not have access to seeds from improved food legume
varieties. In contrast, developed countries such as the USA, Canada or Australia, mainly
exporters, require high-quality seeds to be able to provide homogeneous raw material to
be processed by the industry. Typically, seed quality parameters in chickpea were

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focused on seed size, shape and seed coat colour, but nowadays the demand of new
varieties suitable for pre-cooked or processed chickpea seeds is increasing.

Careful crop management practices such as sowing in uniform fields should be applied.
In addition, requirements for previous cropping in the seed field should specify the crops
that should not be grown for a limited time preceding the production of the seed crop. In
chickpea, the land selected to produce seeds should be free of any other chickpea variety
for at least 2 years for pre-basic and basic seeds. For certified seeds, only 1 year between
two crops of different varieties is required (Van Gastel et al. 2007). A minimum isolation
distance of 1–2 m between two fields is considered to be enough. However, slightly
longer isolation distances are recommended for pre-basic seed and 3 m for basic and
certified seeds. It is also suggested to use a relatively high plant population density to
improve the competitive ability of chickpea plants to weed (Van Gastel et al. 2007).

2.6. Constraints of Chickpea Production in Ethiopia

The major bottlenecks limiting chickpea and causing wide yield gap globally include
biotic (pod borer, fusarium wilt, and Ascochyta blight )and a biotic (drought , heat ,cold
,salinity ) stresses (millan et al., 2006, adhyaya et al., 2008). Ryan (1997) reported that
estimated collective yield losses due to abiotic stresses were 6.4 million ton, where higher
than those biotic stresses (4.8 million ton). Which to gather cause annual yield losses of
us $ 4.4 billion. In chickpea biotic and abiotic constraints could be estimated by yield gap
between the potential and actual yield. Among the abiotic factors, drought stands to be
the number one problem in major chickpea growing regions for more than 50% yield
reduction globally (Gaur et al., 2012), because the crop is grown on residual moisture and
the crop is eventually exposed to terminal drought (Johansen et al., 1994). In west Asia
and North African countries, low temperature causing freezing injury or death or delayed
onset of padding reduces yield tremendously (Singh, 1987). Heat and salinity problems
are relatively important following drought and cold stresses (Singh et al., 1994).

The biotic factors include the main fungi that affect chickpea Fusarium oxysporum
Schlechtend.Fr. f. sp. ciceris (Padwick) Matuo & K. Sato, causing the plant to wilt and
Ascochyta blight caused by Ascochyta rabiei. Ascochyta blight is the most serious

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disease in North India, Pakistan, the U.S. and the Middle East (sometimes causing l00%
losses) (Smithson et al., 1985). Blight causes brown spots on leaves, stems, pods and
seeds (Kaiser, 1992). Viruses isolated from chickpea include alfalfa mosaic, pea enation
mosaic, pea leaf roll, pea streak, bean yellow mosaic, and cucumber mosaic (Duke, 1981;
Kaiser, 1988; Smithson et al., 1985; van Emden et al., 1994). Pod borer (Helicoverpa
armigera), the most important pest, and feeds on leaves and developing seeds (Smithson
et al., 1985). Cutworms (Agrotis sp.), lesser armyworms (Spodoptera exigua) and leaf
minor. Groundnut aphid (Aphis craccivora), pea aphid (Acyrthsosiphon pisum), cowpea
bean seed beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus), and Adzuki bean seed beetle (C. chinensis)
are also important.

Many storage insects specifically Bruchid sp. is a serious pest of stored chickpea.
Chickpeas stored as dhal harbor fewer bruchids. Callosobruchus chinensis lowers seed
viability. For control of bruchids, dusting with BHC, DDT, derris, lindane, or pyrethrum
or fumigation with methyl bromide, have been recommended" (Duke, 1981). In general,
estimates of yield losses by individual pests, diseases or weeds range from 5-10 % in
temperate % in tropical regions (van Emden, 1988).

2.7. Effect of Plant Density on Chickpea

2.7.1. Growth and Yield

Chickpea like many other crops has the ability to make adjustment to the available space.
Wider spacing (low plant population density) allows the plants to be profusely branched
and too narrow spacing makes the plants sparsely branched. The optimum
spacing/density for a crop depends on crop species, growth habit and duration and
moisture availability. A tall/erect variety produced 60 per cent more yield at higher plant
population density (5.0 lakh ha-1) than lower density (1.67 lakh ha-1), while a local bushy
cultivar showed little response to higher density (Byth et al., 1979). Chickpea is generally
planted at a density of 33 plants m-2 (30 cm row to row spacing and 10 cm plant to plant
spacing). However, Jeswani (1986) stressed the need to define ideotypes in pulses to
improve the harvest index for major breakthrough changes in plant type by reducing their
spreading, indeterminate and bushy habit.

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Siddique et al. (1984) proposed chickpea ideotype for enhancement of yield comprising
not more than two branches when sown at high plant density. Similar ideotype approach
was suggested to overcome the genetic limits of chickpea productivity by introduction of
major morpho physiological changes such as compact and erect plant habit, open and
Upright canopy, responsiveness to higher density planting, better management and input
conditions (Dahiya et al., 1990). The number of plants required per unit area is one of the
prime considerations for higher biomass production which depends upon the nature of the
crop, growth habit, branching and environment. This number can neither be too small, so
that all the production potential will not be utilized, nor can it be too large so that
excessive plant competition will reduce the overall efficiency of the crop. Manipulation
of seed rate and spacing are the important factors in achieving required level of plant
density, so that; plant makes efficient use of the resources.

2.7.2. Root Parameters

Singh and Singh (1989) reported that more number of nodules in 45 cm row spacing at
flowering when compared with 30 cm and 60 cm row spacing in chickpea under sandy
loam soils of Bulandshar (U. P.). Mane and Jadhav (1991) noticed more number of
nodules per plant and higher nodule dry weight in chickpea at the lower planting density
of 3.0 lakh plants ha-1 when compared to the higher plant densities of 4.5 and 6.5 lakh
plants ha-1 under clay soil of Pune (Maharashtra). Increase in nodule dry weight per plant
of chickpea was observed with decreased seed rates from 80 kg to 60 kg ha-1 under sandy
loam soils (Jat and Mali, 1992). The number of nodules per plant decreased with increase
in plants per unit area as per seed rate in chickpea. The highest number of nodules per
plant (74) were recorded in plots planted at 40 kg ha-1 seed rate, while the number of
nodules per plant were significantly lower in plots planted at 80 or 120 kg ha-1 seed rate
as result of higher plant density (Khalid Ali et al., 2010) in Pakistan. This results are in
agreement with those of Vaishya et al. (1995) who reported that nodulation decreases
with increase in seed rates which might be due to the competition between the roots for
phosphorous for nodulation. Bejandi et al. (2012) observed that increase in planting
density of chickpea had not influenced any variation in nodule number, active nodule,
nodule fresh and dry weight in North West of Iran.

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2.7.3. Plant Height at Maturity

The interaction of 20cm inter- and 5cm intra- row spacing resulted in significantly taller
plants (34.7cm) while the plants in 50cm inter- and 15cm intra- row spacing were the
shortest in height (31.7cm) (Bejandi et al., 2012). This result might be due to the fact that
as the spacing among plants decreased the interplant competition for light increased while
sparsely populated plants intercepted sufficient sunlight that enhanced the lateral growth.
In agreement with this, it was reported that plant height of chickpea and green bean was
taller in higher plant population treatments due to more competition for light). Similarly,
others indicated that plant height significantly increased with the increase in plant density
primarily because of lower amount of light intercepted by a single plant resulting into
increased inter node length (Singh N. P, and R. A. Singh. 2002). More competition for
light in narrow spacing resulted in taller plants while at wider spacing light distribution
was normal (Tuba Biçer, B. 2008). Moreover, spacing experiment on soybean observed
that increasing the density of plants led to significant increases in plant height (Shamsi,
K. and S. Kobraee. 2009).

2.7.4. Number of Pods per Plant

The main effects of inter- and intra- row spacing and their interactions were not
significant on percent of final stand count of chickpea as compared to the initial count.
This showed that the competition among the plants grown under arying plant
population/densities had no remarkable effect grown at wider spacing to utilize its energy
for more branching and subsequently, the greater number of pods plant-1. In agreement
to the present result, higher number of pods plant–1(41.47) was reported in the wider
inter row spacing (45cm) of chickpea (A. Hussain. 2010). Similarly, researches worked
on faba bean reported that the development of more and vigorous leaves on low plant
density helped to improve the photosynthetic efficiency of the crop and supported higher
number of pods (Al-Aduselam, M. A. and K. S. Abdai. 1995).

2.7.5. Nutrient uptake and soil nutrient status

Gupta and Singh (1982) observed that higher plant density of 6.6 lakh plants ha-1
depleted more amounts of nutrients (25 kg N + 80 kg P2O5 ha-1) compared to 4.4 lakh

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plants ha-1 in chickpea under sandy soils of Uttar Pradesh. Similarly, Mane and Jadav
(1991) also reported higher plant density (4.5 lakh plants ha-1) depleted more amounts of
nutrients (25 kg N + 50 P2O5 ha-1) compared to 3.0 lakh plants ha-1 in chickpea. Mansur
et al. (2009) reported that the nitrogen (68.28 kg ha-1) and phosphorus uptake (20.55 kg
ha-1) was significantly more under higher plant densities of 4.44 lakh ha-1 due to
significant increase in seed and bhusa yield. While nitrogen (53.35 kg ha-1) and
phosphorus uptake (11.57 kg ha-1) was lowest under the low plant density of 2.22 lakh ha-
1
owing to low biological productivity.

2.7.6. Protein content

Badshah et al. (2003) reported that seed protein content of chickpea was negatively
correlated to seed size, volume and density. Valimohammadi et al. (2007) found that seed
protein Content was significantly affected by planting density of chickpea under the
condition of Uremia, Iran. The highest seed protein content was recorded with the higher
planting density of 45 plants m-2. These results clearly indicate that there was negative
relation between protein content and number pods per plant. In higher planting density
pods per plant decreased but seed protein content was highest. Similarly, Bahr (2007)
reported in Egypt that chickpea seeds sown by high density contain higher N per cent,
protein per cent than low density.

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3. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSSIONS

Chickpea is a valued crop and provides nutritious food for an expanding world
population and will become increasingly important with climate change. Production
ranks third after beans with a mean annual production of over 10 million tons with most
of the production entered in India. Land area devoted to chickpea has increased in recent
years and now stands at an estimated 13.5 million hectares. Production per unit area has
slowly but steadily increased since 1961 at about 6 kg/ha per annum. Over 1.3 million
tons of chickpea enter world markets annually to supplement the needs of countries
unable to meet demand through domestic production. India, Australia, and Mexico are
leading exporters. Chickpea is comprised of Desi and Kabuli types. The Desi type is
characterized by relatively small angular seeds with various coloring and sometimes
spotted. The Kabuli type is characterized by larger seed sizes that are smoother and
generally light colored. Dal is a major use for chickpea in South Asia while hummus is
widely popular in many parts of the world.

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4. REFERENCES

Al-Aduselam, M. A. and K. S. Abdai. 1995. Effect of plant density and certain pesticides
on growth, yield and rhizobial nodulation of faba bean. King Saudi University,
Agricultural Science Journal, 7: 249-2.
Badshah, A., Khan, M., Bibi, N., Khan, M., Ali, S., Chaudry, M. A. and Khattak, M. S.,
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Bahr, A. A., 2007, Effect of plant density and urea foliar application on yield and yield
components of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Res. J. Agric. Biol. Sci., 3(4) : 220-223.
Bejandi, T. K., Sharifii, R. S., Sedghi, M. and Namvar, A., 2012, Effects of plant density,
Rhizobium inoculation and microelements on nodulation, chlorophyll content and yield
of chickpea (Cicer arietinumL.). Ann. Biol. Res., 3(2) : 951-958
CSA (Central Statistics Agency). Agricultural Sample Survey Report on Land
Utilization, Statistical Bulletin 302. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2012
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FAOSTAT (2013) FAO Statistics Division , various biotic (Aschochyta blight ,
fusarium wilt ,pod borer ,dry root rot etc. . ) And biotic a (drought, extreme
temperatures, salinity) stresses.
Ferial & Esmat, (2011). . Chickpea seeds contain potassium, calcium, sodium,
magnesium, iron, copper and zinc which make it nutritionally the best edible pulse crops
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Jat, M. R. and Mali, A. L., 1992, Effect of phosphorus and seeding rate on physiological
parameters and yield of chickpea. Indian J. Agron., 37 : 189-190.
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