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ARTICLE III, 1987 CONSTITUTION

BILL OF RIGHTS

- The series of prescriptions setting forth the


fundamental civil and political rights of the
individual, and imposing limitations on the
powers of government as a means of securing
the enjoyment of those rights.
- designed to preserve the ideals of liberty,
equality and security “against the assaults of
opportunism, the expediency of the passing
hour, the erosion of small encroachments, and
the scorn and the derision of those who have
no patience with general principles” (PBM
Employees Organization v. Philippine
Blooming Mills, G.R. No. L-31195, 5 June
1973)
- generally self-executing
- constitution of liberty

1. CIVIL RIGHTS
- those rights that belong to every citizen of
the state or country, or in a wider sense, to
all its inhabitants, and are not connected
with the organization or administration of
government
- rights appertaining to a person by virtue of
his citizenship in a state or community
- rights capable of being enforced or
redressed in a civil action

2. POLITICAL RIGHTS
- the right to participate, directly or
indirectly, in the establishment or
administration of government
- rights appurtenant to citizenship vis-à-vis
the management of government

Sec.1. No person shall be deprived of life,


liberty or property without due process of
law nor shall any person be denied the equal
protection of the laws.

 WHO ARE PROTECTED?


- Universal in application