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A

TECHNICAL SEMINAR REPORT


ON

MIXED REALITY
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement
for the award of the degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
By

ALLALA SAI KRISHNA (15P81A0562)

JAGRUTI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY


(APPROVED BY AICTE & PERMANENTLY AFFLIATED TO JNTUH)
KOHEDA ROAD, CHINTHAPALLIGUDA (V), IBRAHIMPATNAM (M),
R.R.DIST-501510, TELANGANA
APRIL, 2019.
JAGRUTI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
(APPROVED BY AICTE & PERMINENTLY AFFILIATED TO JNTUH)
KOHEDA ROAD, CHINTHAPALLIGUDA (V), IBRAHIMPATNAM (M),
R.R.DIST-501510
www.jagruti.ac.in
Department of Computer Science and Engineering

DECLARATION BY THE CANDIDATE

I, Mr. ALLALA SAI KRISHNA bearing H.T.No. 15P81A0562 hereby certify that the technical seminar
report entitled “MIXED REALITY” is submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award
of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Computer Science and Engineering.
This record is a bonafide work carried out by me under the guidance of Mrs. Soujanya , Assistant
Professor, Jagruti Institute of Engineering & Technology, Ibrahimpatnam, R.R. dist.

(Signature of the guide) (Signature of the student)


Mrs. D.SOUJANYA Mr. A.SAI KRISHNA
Assistant Professor 15P81A0562,
Dept. of CSE Dept. of CSE,
J. I. E. T J.I.E.T.,

Mr. Y.RAJU
Head of the Dept.
Dept. of CSE
ABSTRACT

Mixed reality ,sometimes referred to as hybrid reality,It is the merging of real and virtual worlds to
produce new environments and visualizations where physical and digital objects co-exist and interact in real
time. Mixed reality takes place not only in the physical world or the virtual world, but is a mix
of reality and virtual reality, encompassing both augmented reality and augmented reality via immersive
technology. The first immersive mixed reality system, providing enveloping sight, sound, and touch was
the Virtual Fixtures platform developed at the U.S. Air Force's Armstrong Laboratories in the early 1990s. In
a study published in 1992, the Virtual Fixtures project at the U.S. Air Force demonstrated for the first time
that human performance could be significantly amplified by the introduction of spatially registered virtual
objects overlaid on top of a person's direct view of a real physical environment.
INDEX
S.No CONTENTS PAGE NO

1. INTRODUCTION – 1
2. BACKGROUND – 2
3. LITERATURE REVIEW – 3
4. ARCHITECTURE – 5
5. WORKING PRINCIPLES – 6
6. APPLICATION – 7
7. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES – 9-10
8. CONCLUSION – 11
REFERENCES _ 12
MIXED REALITY

INTRODUCTION:

Mixed reality (MR) is also sometimes referred to as hybrid reality,It is the


merging of real and virtual worlds to produce new environments and visualizations
where physical and digital objects co-exist and interact in real time. Mixed reality
takes place not only in the physical world or the virtual world, but is a mix
of reality and virtual reality, encompassing both augmented reality and augmented
reality via immersive technology.

Mixed reality not just overlays but anchors virtual objects to the real world and
allows the user to interact with the virtual objects.Mixed Reality is defined as a
combination of Reality, Augmented Reality, Augmented Virtuality and Virtual Reality.
This innovative technology can aid with the transition between these stages. The
enhancement of reality with synthetic images allows us to perform tasks more easily,
such as the collaboration between people who are at different locations. Collaborative
manufacturing, assembly tasks or education can be conducted remotely, even if the
collaborators do not physically meet.

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TECHNOLOGY BACKGROUND

The first immersive mixed reality system, providing enveloping sight, sound, and
touch was the Virtual Fixtures platform developed at the U.S. Air Force's Armstrong
Laboratories in the early 1990s. In a study published in 1992, the Virtual Fixtures
project at the U.S. Air Force demonstrated for the first time that human performance
could be significantly amplified by the introduction of spatially registered virtual
objects overlaid on top of a person's direct view of a real physical environment.

In 1994 Paul Milgram and Fumio Kishino defined a mixed reality as


"...anywhere between the extrema of the virtuality continuum" (VC),where
the virtuality continuum extends from the completely real through to the completely
virtual environment with augmented reality and augmented virtuality ranging
between.

The conventionally held view of a Virtual Reality (VR) environment is one in


which the participant-observer is totally immersed in, and able to interact with, a
completely synthetic world. Such a world may mimic the properties of some real-
world environments, either existing or fictional; however, it can also exceed the
bounds of physical reality by creating a world in which the physical laws ordinarily
governing space, time, mechanics, material properties, etc. no longer hold. What may
be overlooked in this view, however, is that the VR label is also frequently used in
association with a variety of other environments, to which total immersion and
complete synthesis do not necessarily pertain, but which fall somewhere along a
virtuality continuum. In this paper we focus on a particular subclass of VR related
technologies that involve the merging of real and virtual worlds, which we refer to
generically as Mixed Reality (MR)."

LITERATURE SURVEY

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A LITERATURE REVIEW ON IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL REALITY IN
EDUCATION:STATE OF THE ART AND PERSPECTIVE.
AUTHORS: Laura Freina, Michela Ott

Since the first time the term "Virtual Reality" (VR) has been used back in the 60s,
VR has evolved in different manners becoming more and more similar to the real
world. Two different kinds of VR can be identified: non-immersive and immersive.
The former is a computer-based environment that can simulate places in the real or
imagined worlds; the latter takes the idea even further by giving the perception of
being physically present in the non-physical world. While non-immersive VR can be
based on a standard computer, immersive VR is still evolving as the needed devices
are becoming more user friendly and economically accessible. In the past, there was a
major difficulty about using equipment such as a helmet with goggles, while now new
devices are being developed to make usability better for the user. VR, which is based
on three basic principles: Immersion, Interaction, and User involvement with the
environment and narrative, offers a very high potential in education by making
learning more motivating and engaging. Up to now, the use of immersive-VR in
educational games has been limited due to high prices of the devices and their limited
usability. Now new tools like the commercial "Oculus Rift", make it possible to
access immersive-VR in lots of educational situations. This paper reports a survey on
the scientific literature on the advantages and potentials in the use of Immersive
Virtual Reality in Education in the last two years (2013-14). It shows how VR in
general, and immersive VR in particular, has been used mostly for adult training in
special situations or for university students. It then focuses on the possible advantages
and drawbacks of its use in education with reference to different classes of users like
children and some kinds of cognitive disabilities (with particular reference to the
Down syndrome). It concludes outlining strategies that could be carried out to verify
these ideas.

MIXED REALITY: A SURVEY


AUTHORS: Enrico Costanza, Andreas Kunz, and Morten Fjeld
This chapter presents an overview of the Mixed Reality (MR) paradigm, which
proposes to overlay our real-world environment with digital, computer-generated
objects. It presents example applications and outlines limitations and solutions for

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their technical implementation. In MR systems, users perceive both the physical
environment around them and digital elements presented through, for example, the
use of semitransparent displays. By its very nature, MR is a highly interdisciplinary
field engaging signal processing, computer vision, computer graphics, user interfaces,
human factors, wearable computing, mobile computing, information visualization,
and the design of displays and sensors. This chapter presents potential MR
applications, technical challenges in realizing MR systems, as well as issues related to
usability and collaboration in MR. It separately presents a section offering a selection
of MR projects which have either been partly or fully undertaken at Swiss universities
and rounds off with a section on current challenges and trends.

A LITERATURE REVIEW ON COLLABORATION IN MIXED


REALITY
AUTHORS: Philipp Ladwig and Christian Geiger
Mixed Reality is defined as a combination of Reality, Augmented Reality,
Augmented Virtuality and Virtual Reality. This innovative technology can aid with the
transition between these stages. The enhancement of reality with synthetic images
allows us to perform tasks more easily, such as the collaboration between people who
are at different locations. Collaborative manufacturing, assembly tasks or education
can be conducted remotely, even if the collaborators do not physically meet. This
paper reviews both past and recent research, identifies benefits and limitations, and
extracts design guidelines for the creation of collaborative Mixed Reality applications
in technical settings.

ARCHITECTURE

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WORKING PRINCIPLE

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INTERREALITY PHYSICS:

In a physics context, the term "interreality system" refers to a virtual reality


system coupled to its real-world counterpart. A paper in the May 2007 issue of
Physical Review E describes an interreality system comprising a real physical
pendulum coupled to a pendulum that only exists in virtual reality. This system
apparently has two stable states of motion: a "Dual Reality" state in which the motion
of the two pendula are uncorrelated and a "Mixed Reality" state in which the pendula
exhibit stable phase-locked motion which is highly correlated. The use of the terms
"mixed reality" and "interreality" in the context of physics is clearly defined but may
be slightly different in other fields.

AUGMENTED REALITY:
Augmented reality (AR) is an interactive experience of a real-world environment
where the objects that reside in the real-world are "augmented" by computer-
generated perceptual information, sometimes across multiple sensory modalities,
including visual, auditory, haptic, somatosensory, and olfactory.

VIRTUAL REALITY:

Virtual reality is an interactive computer-generated experience taking place within a


simulated environment. It incorporates mainly auditory and visual feedback, but may
also allow other types of sensory feedback like haptic.

APPLICATIONS

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A topic of much research, MR has found its way into a number of applications,
evident in the arts and entertainment industries. However, MR is also branching out
into the business, manufacturing and education worlds with systems such as these:

 IPCM – Interactive product content management

Moving from static product catalogs to interactive 3D smart digital replicas. Solution
consists of application software products with scalable license model.

 SBL – Simulation based learning

Moving from e-learning to s-learning—state of the art in knowledge transfer for


education. Simulation/VR based training, interactive experiential learning. Software
and display solutions with scalable licensed curriculum development model.

 Military training

Combat reality is simulated and represented in complex layered data through HMD.
One of the possible applications mixed realities is for training military soldiers.
Training solutions are often built on Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) technologies.
Examples of technologies used by the Army are Virtual Battlespace 3 and VirTra. As
of 2018, the VirTra technology is being purchased by both the civilian and military
law enforcement to train personnel in a variety of scenarios. These scenarios include
active shooter; domestic violence; military traffic stops, etc. Mixed reality
technologies have been used by U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists to study
how this stress affects decision making. With mixed reality, researchers may safely
study military service men and women in scenarios where soldiers would not likely
survive.
As of 2017, the U.S. Army was developing the Synthetic Training Environment
(STE). STE is a collection of technologies for training purposes that has been
estimated to include mixed reality. As of 2018, STE was still in development without
a projected completion date. Some recorded goals of the simulation were to increase
simulation training capabilities, and the availability of the environment to other
systems, and to enhance realism. It was claimed that training costs to be reduced with
mixed reality environments like STE.For example, using mixed environments could
reduce the amount of munition expended during training. It was reported in 2018 that
STE would include representation of any part of the world's terrain for training
purposes. STE would offer a variety of training opportunities for squad brigade and
combat teams, including, but not limited to Stryker, armory, and infantry. It is
estimated that STE will eventually replace the Army's Live, Virtual, Constructive –
Integrated Architecture (LVC-IA).

 Real Asset Virtualization Environment (RAVE)

3D Models of Manufacturing Assets (for example process manufacturing machinery)


are incorporated into a virtual environment and then linked to real-time data
associated with that asset. Avatars allow for multidisciplinary collaboration and
decision making based on the data presented in the virtual environment. This example
of Mixed Reality was pioneered and demonstrated by Kevyn Renner of Chevron

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Corporation for which a United States Patent 8,589,809, B2 "Methods and Systems
for Conducting a Meeting in a Virtual Environment" was granted November 19,
2013. One of the earliest patents describing mixed reality is shown by Michael
DeLuca in United States Patent 6,064,354 "Stereoscopic user interface method and
apparatus" granted May 16, 2000.

 Remote working

Mixed reality allows a global workforce of remote teams to work together and tackle
an organization's business challenges. No matter where they are physically located, an
employee can strap on their headset and noise-canceling headphones and enter a
collaborative, immersive virtual environment. Language barriers will become
irrelevant as AR applications are able to accurately translate in real time. It also means
a more flexible workforce. While many employers still use inflexible models of fixed
working time and location, there is evidence that employees are more productive if
they have greater autonomy over where, when and how they work. Some employees
prefer loud work spaces, others need silence. Some work best in the morning, others
at night. Employees also benefit from autonomy in how they work because everyone
processes information differently. The classic VAK model for learning styles
differentiates Visual, Auditory and Kinesthetic learners.
Machine maintenance is also a subject that can be executed with the help of mixed
reality. Larger companies that have multiple manufacturing locations with a lot of
machinery can use mixed reality to educate and instruct their employee. The machines
need regular checkups and have to be adjusted every now and then. These adjustments
are mostly done by humans, so these employees need to be informed about every
small adjustment that needs to be done. By using mixed reality, employees from
multiple locations can put on a headset, and get live instructions about the changes.
Instructors can operate the representation that every employee sees and can glide
through the production area, zooming in to technical details and explain every change
of a machine. It has shown that a five-minute training session with such a mixed
reality program has the same results as the employees reading a 50-page training
manual.[34]

 Functional mockup

Mixed reality is applied in the industrial field in order to build mockups that combine
physical and digital elements.

 Consciousness

It has been hypothesised that a hybrid of mixed and virtual reality could pave the way
for human consciousness to be transferred into digital form entirely - a concept known
as Virternity, which would leverage blockchain to create its main platform.

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ADVANTAGES
MANUFACTURING:
The industrial environment can greatly improve operational efficiencies from
assembly lines to supply chains using mixed reality head-worn display. With MR
devices, manufacturers can perform product designing, product maintenance, quality
inspection, and more by collaborating in real-time with different teams across the
organization. Even, the mixed reality solution is perfect for enabling rapid
prototyping, 3D model visualization, and quick decision-making.

HEALTHCARE:
MR has many wide applications and features to offer the healthcare industry such as
the 3D operating room with simulations, broadcasting options, virtual organ models
for complex surgeries and more. This is a powerful way of transforming knowledge
and skills with combined data analytics, sensors and artificial intelligence (AI), to
practice evidence-based medicine for delivering care.

RETAIL:
In retail, the stores that use MR are able to offer new features of real experience to
their clients such as checking out visual designs of items that mix and match, moving
around some of the objects superimposed in real time. One of the best examples is the
Lowe’s retailers, they used HoloLens headset to allow their clients build a kitchen of
their choice using generic showroom template.

REAL ESTATE:
Property builders and realtors can provide their clients immersive 360o virtual
walkthrough of the property under development or in the planning phase using mixed
reality. Moreover, clients can also decide on furniture designs, colors of the walls and
tiles and for more customization. This way MR can allow them to make a better
decision.

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DISADVANTAGES

TECHNOLOGY ADDICTION:

Mixed Reality is a technology with a lot of potential but games and applications
designed for this technology can be very addicitive as it provides a very unique
experience

EYE STRAIN:

While using MR headsets we are confined in a limited area from our environment.
And we see and focus on particular details for long due to which we may tend to blink
less compared to normal frequency of blinking. This results in drying of the front
surface of our eyes and strain on eyes.

INCREASES LAZINESS:

With application of MR in various fields, all the information is accessible right at your
fingertips with the help of gestures which results in humans becoming more lazy.

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CONCLUSION

To conclude, mixed reality technology is still new and emerging, and it is therefore
important for enterprises to consider primary advantages as of now. Many use cases,
interactive ways, applications and even hardware of mixed reality will continue to
evolve with the rise of this technology. This is hence the suitable opportunity for
enterprises to invest in this technology. MR has the potential to change how people
work, communicate and relate to the world.

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REFERENCES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mixed_reality#Augmented_virtuality

http://courses.cs.vt.edu/cs5754/lectures/AR-MR.pdf

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235966290_Mixed_Reality_A_Survey

http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/16045/

http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/16045/1/16045.pdf

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