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AGA3

AGA3 American Gas Association Report No. 3 Module

The AGA3 Module performs the gas flow calculations specified by the
American Gas Association, Report No.3 (AGA-3) ANSI/API 2530,
1985 edition.1 The output of this module is the rate of flow of a gas
through an orifice plate in thousands of cubic feet per hour (MSCFH).

POINT
ORIF_DIAM
PIPE_DIAM
ORIF_CONST

ADJ _PRESS OUTPUT


DIFF_ PRESS 3
STAT_ PRESS
FLOW_TEMP
SPEC_GRAV TRACK
FPV_IN
BASE _TEMP
BASE _PRESS

Module Terminals
DIFF_PRESS Default: None, entry required
(hw) Format: Analog signal or constant
Input/Output: Input

is the differential pressure across an orifice in inches/water at 60o F.

STAT_PRESS Default: None, entry required


Format: Analog signal, constant
Input/Output: Input

is the static pressure of the flowing gas in psig.

1. In general, it is recommended that AGA3TERM be used instead of AGA3 because it


provides greater flexibility of use. Users requiring AGA3 calculations based on the Nov.,
92 (2nd edition) of the AGA3 report should use the AGA3ITER module.

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ADJ_PRESS Default: 14.73 psia


Format: Analog signal or constant
Input/Output: Input

is the average barometric pressure in psia. In the AGA3 Module, the


value entered as STAT_PRESS is added to ADJ_PRESS to obtain
absolute pressure.

ORIF_DIAM Default: None; entry is mandatory


Format: Analog signal or constant
Input/Output: Input

is the orifice diameter in inches.

PIPE_DIAM Default: None; entry is mandatory


Format: Analog signal or constant
Input/Output: Input

is the inside diameter of the pipe in inches.

ORIF_CONST Default: 1
(K = Fa Fm Fl) Format: Analog signal or constant
Input/Output: Input

This constant is obtained from the multiplication of three factors. The


thermal expansion factor corrects for the change in the physical size
of the orifice plate bore due to the flowing temperature effects of the
gas. Where a mercury manometer is used, manometer and latitude
factors must also be calculated. (See Combined Orifice Constant in
this section for more details.)

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BASE_PRESS Default: 14.73 psia


(Pb) Format: Analog signal or constant
Input/Output: Input

is the base or contract pressure of the gas in psia. The base pressure
specified here will be used to calculate Fpb which equals 14.73/Pb.

BASE_TEMP Default: 600F


(Tb) Format: Analog signal or constant
Input/Output: Input

is the required (contract) base temperature of the flowing gas in


degrees Fahrenheit. Tb is used to calculate the factor Ftb.

FLOW_TEMP Default: 600F


(Tf) Format: Analog signal or constant
Input/Output: Input

is the flowing temperature of the gas in degrees F. It is used to com-


pute Ftf.

FPV_IN Default: 1
Format: Analog signal or constant
Input/Output: Input

is the supercomcompressibility factor of the gas. This signal can be


obtained from the FPV Module.

POINT Default: 1
Format: Analog signal or constant
Input/Output: Input

is a construction code. This entry applies to the pipe tap and flange

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tap construction described under Base Orifice Factor in this section.

In order to change the value of this terminal while the unit is on


line, use the following procedure. Change either the PIPE_DIAM or
ORIF_DIAM value to zero. Enter the new construction code on the
POINT terminal and wait for the task to execute at least once. Set the
PIPE_DIAM or ORIF_DIAM back to the original value.

If the value of the POINT terminal is changed off line, manipulation of


the DIAM terminals as described above is not necessary.

SPEC_GRAV Default: 0.6


(SG) Format: Analog signal or constant
Input/Output: Input

is the specific gravity of the flowing gas. This is defined as the ratio of
the density of the gas to that of dry air at standard conditions.

TRACK Default: None, entry is optional


Format: Analog or logical signal
Input/Output: Input

is used to force the gas flow output to zero under certain measurement
conditions. It could be used to close a block valve and stop the flow.

If TRACK is an analog value, it will be compared to the value of the


differential pressure (DIFF_PRESS). As long as TRACK is below
differential pressure, the flow-computed output will be furnished to
the OUTPUT terminal. Should the track value exceed the differential
pressure value, the OUTPUT will be set to zero percent of scale. In
this way, the TRACK signal acts as a cut off limit.

If the TRACK signal is a logical variable, the ON state will allow the
flow-computed output to be furnished to the OUTPUT terminal. If the

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TRACK signal is in an OFF state, the module output will be set to


zero percent of scale.

OUTPUT Default: None


(Qh) Format: Analog signal
Input/Output: Output

represents the corrected gas flow rate in MSCFH (thousands of


standard cubic feet per hour).

Gas Flow Equation


The general form of the AGA-3 equation is:

Qh = C’ h w pf

where:

Qh = Quantity rate of flow at base conditions, standard cubic feet


per hour (SCFH)
C’ = Orifice flow constant
hw = Differential pressure, inches of water at 60oF
pf = Absolute static pressure, psia

The orifice flow constant, C’, is composed of various factors, some are
fixed by the physical equipment and others vary with the state of the
flowing gas. The orifice flow constant is defined as follows:

C’ = Fb Fr Y Fpb Ftb Ftf Fg Fpv K

where:

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Fb = Basic orifice factor for a given orifice size and pipe diameter
Fr = Reynolds number factor
Y = Expansion factor
Fpb = Pressure base factor
Ftb = Temperature base factor
Ftf = Flowing temperature factor
Fg = Specific gravity factor
Fpv = Supercompressibility factor
K = Combined orifice constant

Fb is computed using the equations contained in Appendix B of the


AGA-3 report.

The term Fr, the Reynolds number correction factor, is calculated


from:
b
Fr = 1 +
hw Pf

where b is a constant for a given orifice size and pipe diameter. It is


computed using equations in Appendix B of the AGA-3 report and is
combined with the linear interpolation of Table 18.

K, the combined orifice constant, is obtained from the expression:

K = Fm F a F l

where:

Fm = Manometer factor for mercury-type flowmeters only


Fa = Orifice thermal expansion factor
Fl = Gravitational correction for mercury manometer factor
Y, = the expansion factor, is calculated using the equations
described in Appendix B, Section 8 of the AGA-3 report.

These equations are broken up into two factors, one of which depends
on the physical equipment, and the other which depends on the state
of the gas.

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The other factors are calculated as follows:

14.73
Fpb =
Pb

where Pb = contract base pressure

Tb + 459.67
Ftb =
519.67

where Tb is the base temperature in degrees F

519.67
Ftf =
Tf + 459.67

Fg is defined by the following expression:

1
Fg =
SG

where SG is the specific gravity of the gas.

Combining the various expressions, the basic equation solved by the


gas flow block is:

b 14.73 Tb + 459.67
Qh = KFb * 1+ * Y * *
hw Pf Pb 519.67

519.67 h w Pf
* Fpv * *
Tf + 459.67 SG

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Combined Orifice Constant


The combined orifice constant is applied to the ORIF CONST terminal
to correct for local conditions. For example, it could be calculated from
the formula:

K = Fm Fa Fl
where:

Fl = latitude factor for mercury manometer/transducers. Specify


latitude in degrees and elevation in feet.

980.665 + ( 0.087*(latitude-45) ) - (9.4x10-5 * elevation)


=
980.665

Fm = Manometer factor for mercury manometer/transducers

SG * Fpv2 * Pf
= 1 - 2.699 *
844.132 * Ta

where: Ta = ambient temperature, 0F + 460


SG = specific gravity of the flowing gas
Fpv = supercompressibility of the flowing gas
Pf = absolute pressure of the flowing gas

When mercury manometers are not used, Fl and Fm = 1.

Fa = thermal expansion factor of orifice plate due to the temperature of


the flowing gas.

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For 304 or 316 stainless steel:


Fa = 1 + [ 1.85 x 10-5 * (Tf - 68) ]

For SAE carbon steel:


Fa = 1 + [ 1.3793 x 10-5 * (Tf - 68) ]

For 430 stainless steel:


Fa = 1 + [ 1.1364 x 10-5 * (Tf - 68) ]

(Tf is the temperature of the flowing gas in degrees Fahrenheit.)

Usually these correction factors have minimal effect on the output


signal. As a result, three different approaches can be taken with
respect to this input of the module:

1. Leave this input signal unwired in which case the calculation


operates as though a default value of 1.0 were used.

2. Compute the value manually and wire a signal with the value to the
input.

3. Compute the value in a Calculator Module and apply that output to


the ORIF_CONST terminal.

Basic Orifice Factor


The AGA3 Module computes a value for the basic orifice factor inter-
nally using the orifice diameter, pipe diameter, and a code that
indicates whether pipe or flange taps are used. The pipe diameter and
orifice diameter are input signals to the AGA3 Module. Both are
specified in inches. These inputs must be wired to produce a gas flow
result. An integer code value is used at the POINT terminal to
indicate the meter construction. The following table shows the code to
be used to indicate tap type and location.

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Static Pressure Pipe Flange


Measured Taps Taps

Upstream 4 2
Downstream 3 1

This code affects the calculation of the expansion factor (Y). The basic
orifice factor is obtained using a linear interpolation technique based
on the AGA3 tables.

In order to save execution time, parts of the AGA-3 equation affected


by the POINT code, PIPE_DIAM or ORIF_DIAM, are not calculated
every time the task executes. PIPE_DIAM or ORIF_DIAM values can
be changed on-line and automatic recalculation of the affected param-
eters will take place. If the POINT terminal value is the only value
being changed you must also change the PIPE_DIAM or ORIF_DIAM
values as follows:

1. Disable the AGA3 Module OUTPUT via the TRACK signal to


prevent erroneous flow rates.

2. Enter the new value on the POINT terminal.

3. Set either the PIPE_DIAM or ORIF_DIAM value to zero.

4. Wait for the task to execute at least once and then set the
PIPE_DIAM or ORIF_DIAM back to the original value.

5. Re-enable the module OUTPUT via the TRACK signal.

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