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principal themes The Child’s Voice: Art, Poetry and Music from the Terezin Concentration Camp for the Music Classroom Kelly Bylica Abstracts The nse of music education and the arts ta discuss interdisciplnary subjects, particularly that of the Holocaust, i explored in this article, A brief historical contest is given and is followed by suggestions for exploring a several works connected to the ‘Terezin Concentration Camp. The use ofthe Facets Model Barrett, MeC ry & Veblen, 1997) is employed to demonstrate entry ac- tiviey possibilities for exploration in art, music, poctry and history. This information is aimed at Middle and High School students fea general music or choral classroom. ‘This will be owr reply to violence: to make music more intensely, more beaaifuly, more devotedly than ever befor Leonard Bernstein, 1963, The artis is able to separate the external situation from the creativity that belongs to the mined, to the hearts ‘The creative mind cannot be imprisoned, even in conditions of brutality. Francesco Lotoro Rationale Few students that attend school in the Chicago suburb where 1 teach are able ro comprehend the horror of the Holocaust. eis 1 world far removed from their lives. However, these students are ail able ro eel pain, understand grief, offer compassion and commiserate with others facing the challenges of coming of age While the subject of World War Il and the Holocaust are taught in both the seventh and eighth grade yeas, few experiences in theit English and Social Studies classes allow my students to connect with individual children tha are experiencing these his- torical events and using the creative arts as an outlet for their ‘own expression, An effective leson or unit that can be adapted to work with other world events will offer these students the ‘opportunity to give voice 10 these children, fel music ina new way, and may better equip them ro deal with emotional pain they may face in their own fucures Friedl Dicker-Brandeis and the Chien of Trezin ting Workl War H, from 1940-1944, 15,000 children passed through Tetezin Ghetto/Concentration Camp in Czechoslovae kia, Fewer than 100 survived. Most ofthe artifacts ofthe camp, were liquefied when the Nazi Regime closed the camp near the cad of the war. However, among the remnants, a selection of pootry and art created by the inmates was found, These aeifacs were saved by Willy Groag, a leader of one of the children’s homes a the camp. Much of this artwork, poctry and music ‘vas created by these children. The need fora ereative outlet per severed in the face of all that was faced by those brought ro Terezin, “Art created in the Holocaust was ereated on sites of horror an! acocity, places thar one would expect to destroy cre tivity” (Omnstein, 2006, p, 392). Bauhaus trained artist, Friedl 24| SPRING 2015 Dicker-Brandeis led the crusade of an education inthe arts and ‘humanities for these children prior to meeting her death at Ausehwite (Leshnoff, 2006, p92) “Tecezin existed as a "model ghetto” with the intention of deceiving members of the Red Cross who were tasked with the job of investigating Navi prisoner camp conditions, In choosing, to place members ofthe artistic class (professors, artists, musi= ans, writers) in eis ghetto, along wih thousands of children, the Navi unintentionally midst of the horrors of the Holocaust. To keep up the decep: tion, artists and musicians were allowed to bring their supplies, ruments ~ and were often given additional items = that theie creativity might continue and aid in the Nai fagade, “The surviving children from Terezin speak of classes with these artists and musicians, such as Dicker Brandeis as “liberation from fear" “meditation” and offering feelings of being alive [Leshnoff, 2006, p. 96). Her teaching methods, progressive for their time, encouraged the freedom of seltexpression, liberation ‘of sprit and natural development. She encouraged students to nor only see something as it was, but what it could become, ‘thereby urging children to use at to continue to find beauty in their own world, despite the atrocities surrounding them. This environment, wile unable to save the lives of many of these children, gave their souls and creaive selves a place to blossom, sted a haven for cultural ie inthe Creativity in Captivity Francesco Lotoro (nl) isan Kealian music teacher and m cologist. In 1982, after visit vo Auschwitz, he began a decades Jong crusade to resurrect and make public the compositions left behind during the Holocaust. He has found over 4000 pieces, all of varying styles. Some are solemn in nature, others are hawdy and Vaudevillin, and others drip with homonyms un- recognirable to the Nazi imprisons. ‘on manuscript papet, Many ate seratched into the margins of newspapers, on toiler paper, in notebooks and diaries. ‘This ins serves asa testament to the power and ability ofthe cr ative mind, despite the brutality oF the human world. Lororo’s work through the Creativity in Captivity project has brought much of the work ar Terezn and other camps into light nd has made projects like this possible. have brought together theee specific pieces chat derive from these original poms and artwork: Birdsong. a pee for 2 Few pieces are writen part Treble Chorus written by Paul Read with the text from one of the Terein poems; The Butterfly, a poem by 17-year-old in- mate Pavel Friedmann; and Flowers and Butterflies a painting by 10-year-old inmate Margit Koretzova, These three works were chosen because, rather than depicting the horrific seenes| around them, these children chose to find joy and celebrate life, proving that the human spirit is powerful enough to overcome anything. This project was originally dedicated to creating con- rections between these three works and I will present teaching strategies and assessments for each, In addition, students will, learn of Lotoro's work and what compelled him to embark on. his journey. Beyond the performance, students will be offered a final assessment where they will be challenged to demonsteate the breadth of chit abilty to make these connections. Poetry and Artin the Music Classroom: How to Move Beyond Preconceived By their eighth grade year, which is when I normally reach this ‘unit, many students have been introduced to poetry and have an ‘understanding, of preconceived notion, of what they believe po- letry mean 0 them. Dias (1996) emphasizes this in his struggle with teacher as ineerprete, rather than student as navigator. Sus dents are overly conceened with "getting the facts right” rather than erly considering the possible meanings of the poetry. Much of this problem is derived from 4 teacher-centric view of poetry in education when, in many cases, childeen are perfectly capable cof eading and interpreting poetry on their oven just as they do lit- erature when writen at an appropriate level, Cian (1975) ar tues forthe goal of nor defining words (ox inthis case, Iris oF pocty}, but instead of arviving at an experience, Using the “lan= [guage of experience” in onder to consider poetry. In this particu: lar instance, these students will not have experienced the horeors and experiences that the children from Terezin experienced, However, chey will understand pain, fear loneliness, a desite for someting better: these are al unifying emotions fele by every~ fone, even children. Similarly in art, students are often educated tobelieve that art comes from a specific time period, must be cre ated by a master artist and they often fil t simply consider the work itself and what it could mean, However inthe choral elas oom, discussion of both the art and the poetry need to be inter ‘wine with the music. Fach informs the other and cannot (and should not) simply be considered as separate entities. For that reason, I have chosen to focus on the Facets Model (Barret, ‘McCoy, 8 Veblen, 1997; revised in Barrett, 2013). This model allows for a variety of entry points into a work (as will be wit- esse inthe unit plans further along in this article} and allows for flexible lesson plan writing. This model allows fora far more or {ganic source for connections between these works and allows the student to flow more scamlessly between works, rather ply trying to answer a question or plug in the “right” answers Below you wil find sample lessons that I use with eighth-grade classes and can be modified for your own students than sim Sample Lesson 1 In lesson 1, we explore the painting Flowers and Butterflies (Margit Koreezova, 1943, age 10) as the students se it and he- fore knowing the artists age and background. sade Nagle "TT can msn ree ae 7S Ea Sess enecesmom fo Por] ol Baste ia odes EL aero Sp ie ety Wize eee, 1S secon er mretee teang of SLI” activa: see ae nemtate ene “Tatastes ‘Consider the colors she chose and then diseuss how our emo- tional response to the painting changes if we puta filter (offer suggestions and sliow them samples of black and white, neon, sepia toned and Instagram filters) over the paintings. Students contribute their own thoughts both aloud and in journals that ‘they create for this unit. ‘Sample Lesson 2 In lesson 2, students read through the poem The Butterfly. ‘The Butterfly (Pavel Friedmann) ‘The last, the very lst, So richly, brightly, dazalinly yellow. Perhaps if the sun's tears would sing against a white stone. Such, such a yellow Is carried lightly ‘way up high, Ie went away I'm sure because it wished to kiss the world good:-bye, For seven weeks I've lived in here, Penned up inside this ghetto, But [have found what I love here. “The dandelions call to me And the white chestnut branches in the court Only [never sa another buster “Thar hurerfly was the las one uterflies dons lve in here, inthe ghetto. [CANADIAN MUS EDUCATOR / MUSCIEN EDICATEUR AU CANADA | 25 ‘The following diagram shows many discussion points re. lating co this poem, and the symbolism of the butterfly juxta- posed against the ghetto. Pare Fieman (1921-1948) venom. wan Tran 948. Pee sec Some rye, may ner Sher te) Soa senna \\ pl resstes os he “eee a treet, 1 ney ter discussing the main words and phrases, the students are asked to match words to colours using coloured pencils, ceayons, highlighters, or markers. For example, if they see yel- low as a happy color, words such as pleasant, bright o eel coming might be words that say "yellow" o them. This can be {done in their journals, in small groups or asa class. Lam always, amazed by smident responses to this part of the project. They engage in heated discussions about their colour choices, learn to respect others’ thoughts, yet still retain their own belies At this point, Loften use an activity called a colour com: position in which students explore colour and music together, ‘This occurs before we look at the music we ae going ro exam- ine. Suudemts are assigned (or choose) a particular colour and. are asked to create a brief (60 second) composition that demon: strates their emotional response and feelings about that colour. “The compositions can be created electronically, vocally, or using simple classroom instruments depending upon what i available in your classroom notation, I focus more on what they are able to perform instead of what they are able to norte. Rather chan have the students use traditional Sample Lesson 3 “This lesson starts with a reflection on what the students previ= ously experienced with the painting and poem. What connee= tions stayed with them? Did any other thoughts arise abour the artwork andior the poem? ‘The following diagram depicts the many ways this inter disciplinary lesson may be implemented by using Paul Read's arrangement ofthe poem “Birdsong” as the central theme, Fd Head 1948) Lorvm a foro, cepa sttrmaton te bane Smeets 26| SPRING 2015 Birdsong (Anonymous Child, 1941) He doesn’t know the world aval, Who stay in his nest and doesn’t go out He doesn't know what birds know best Nor what Ising about, “That the world is Full of loveliness. When dewdrops sparkle in the grass And earths aflood with morning ight, A blacbied sings upon a bush fo greet the dawning after night hen I know hove fine itis to live. Hey; try t0 open up your heart “To beaury; go to the woods someday And weave a wreath of memory there. Ten ifthe tears obscure your way You'll know how wonderful itis To be alive Students then listen co Paul Read’ accompaniment of “Birdsong” before looking at the music or reading the words, again journaling throughout in order to continue making, con: nections to colours they hear in the music, Students then add the text by reading it aloud. [ask them to think about how the text changes the way they hear the harmonies, The students sing, theough the piece or Fisten to a recording. We then discuss hove they felt while singing or listening roche piece ‘This arrangement was composed by Paul Read in 1977 for SopranofAlto choir and uses the text of the poem “Birdsong” ‘Sample Lesson 4 1, Teacher led introduction to Friedl Dicker-Be ald Terezin was a concentration camp in Czechoslovakia that ‘operated between 1940-1944, Hundred of thousands of people passed through this camp. ‘The camp housed many artiss and musicians, including Friedl Dicker-Brandeis,an art teacher. “© Many of the artists, musicians and teachers in the camp taught ther skills 0 the children, encouraging chem t0 ‘use art, music and poetry to cape with their situation ‘The children hid their drawings and poems until they could be smuggled ont fom Terezin, 2. NPR (National Public Radio) “Honouring our will to live: ‘The lost music ofthe holocaust” (Poggili,2013). This podcast explores Lotoro’s work. 3, Student Journal Prompts (to be completed privately in their journals to ensure chat students fel comfortable. Alter viewing the painting: + Describe how this painting makes you fel ‘© What do you think che painting is about? ‘What are the butterflies doing ithe painting? ‘© What colours are asd in the painting? “IF the painter used different colors, would this picture make you feel differently? seis and he of Teri