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CHE 485





1.2 Raw data

Students must submit their raw data to the instructor, graph or drawing at the end of
each experiment. Raw data should be a table contains all the measurements
performed according to instruction, written on A4 paper. Particular such as:

 Name of experiment

 Name of present students in the group

 Date experiment performed

 A short comment is expected on whether the results substantiated the theory

and factors which contribute to discrepancies. A full report must be
submitted within two weeks after the completion of the experiment.

1.3 Full report

The general order of the various sections of full report is set as below:

 Front cover

 Table of content

 Abstract/summary

 Introduction

 Aims/objectives

 Theory

 Procedures

 Apparatus

 Result

 Sample of calculations

 Sample of calculations of errors

 Discussions

 Conclusions

 Recommendations

 References

 Appendices

1.4 Summary

The summary is important because it provides information to persons not wanting to

read the whole report. The summary should also contain the general conclusions of
any experimental work under the test conditions and recommendations (if any). It
should not discuss the reasoning or detailed evidence that is contained in the body of
the report. Most important, the summary must be brief.

1.5 Equipment description and experimental technique

Enough should be said of the equipment and technique so that the reader could
operate the equipment if necessary.

1.6 Calculated results

A summary of the calculated results should be clearly tabulated. Related variables

should be represented graphically where dependence needs to be shown.

1.7 Sample of calculation

A sample of calculation from a set of raw data obtained must be presented in the
report using all formulae used in obtain the final calculated result

1.8 Calculation of errors

It is important to show the calculation of errors as the reader will know how efficient
the experiment has been carried out. The experimental error calculation can be carried
out by comparing it with the expected theoretical values.

1.9 Discussions

In this section, the results or the experiments are presented as a fulfillment of the aim.
It is coordinated analysis of what the data and calculated results mean. From the
analysis, should come the overall impression of the meaning of the experiment and its
significance in the light of published work or established theory.

The material should be presented logically. Even the most complicated explanation or
theory can be conveyed easily to the reader if broken down and presented in logical
sequence. If the discussion is long, its organization should be facilitated by the used
of subdivisions and headings.

“Summary” will be more detailed that it will include the opinion reasoning of the
author about various aspects of the experiment. The limitation of the experiment must
be discussed and the accuracy of the result noted.

This section must show the significance of the experimental findings has been
appreciated. Recommended journals, textbooks or lecture note will provide an aid to
such an understanding.

1.10 Conclusions

The analysis must be objective, keeping in mind experimental problems or deviations

from conditions reported in published work and making a conclusion, if possible, in
the light of this.

1.11 Recommendations

The recommendations could indicate how experimental technique or apparatus should

be improved, considering what conclusions were arrived at and what consistency with
expected performance the experimental results showed. It is also wise to include the
observations that cause errors occurred during the experiment.

1.12 Reference

Reference provides the reader with the sources of information that were used during
the writing of the experimental report. Thus reported data or formulae checked for
validity etc.

Book and journal references must follow a standard format that includes the author,
titles journal, volume, ages date and publisher.

1.13 Appendices

Appendices contain material that is not an integral part of the report or cannot be
included conveniently in the body of the report.

These should include material such as supporting information, mathematical

derivations, answer to question included on the typed experimental sheet or similar
material that would overload the body of the report without contributing significantly
to the immediate line of thought.


1.14 General Laboratory Rules

Always wear the lab coat before performing any experiments and a
suitable protective gear to ensure your safety in the laboratory. Students
are not allowed to perform the experiments without wearing the lab coat.

Always wear appropriate shoes, never wear sandals or shorts, exposures

of legs and feet to spilled chemical in the main cause of chemical burns.

Do not eat, smoke or chew gum or tobacco in the laboratory or chemical

storage areas, do not use laboratory glassware for food or beverages
including in refrigerators.

Never work alone in the chemical laboratory and storage area.

Do not fool around in the lab. Horseplay and pranks can be dangerous.

Students are not allowed to use hand phone in the lab.

Observe good housekeeping in the lab.

Never pipette with your mouth.

Report any accidents or near miss to the lab technician.

Always wash your hand before and after the experiments

Never leave heat sources unattended.

Never lean into the fume hood.

Do no perform unauthorized experiments

Read all procedures and anticipate for possible hazards.

In case of any emergencies please call these numbers for help: 03-
55436306/6304 (FKK general Office)

1.15 Lab Attendance

Attendance to the lab is compulsory to each student and for all lab
sessions. Students who do not attend any of the lab sessions without a
valid reason will not be allowed to do replacement labs. In other words,
the submission of lab report will not be allowed without the attendance to
the lab.

1.16 Experimental data

Students must verify the experimental data with the respective lecturer at
the end of experiment. The experimental data sheet must be signed by the
respective lecturer before leaving the lab session.

1.17 Submission of Lab reports

The lab reports should be submitted within two weeks after the date of
concluded experiments to the respective lecturer. Marks will be penalized
for late submission. Individual evaluation will be done to each student.

Please identify your group’s lecturer. Submission of lab report to the

wrong lecturer will affect your grade. Lecturer will not responsible for
mission lab reports by the students.

Do not submit the lab report to the FKK general office.

Do not submit the lab report in the lecturer pigeon holes in the FKK
general office.

Do not submit the lab reports in technician office.

Students shall submit the lab reports directly to the lecturer during the
following lab session or in the respective lecturer office 2 weeks after the
experiment had been performed before 5pm.


Strictly no plagiarism in the lab reports. Students who are caught cheating
or who plagiarized in the lab report will be penalized without any notice
or warning. And marks will be divided among the plagiarized number of