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NO. MATRIKULASI : 770912087104001



INTRODUCTION ........................…………………………………………….. 3

MOBILE PHONE AND INFECTION...............................……………………..4

MOBILE PHNE AND EFFECT ON EYES..........................………………….. 5

MOBILE PHONE CAUSES DEPRESSION.......................……...…………….6

MOBILE PHONE CAUSES ANXIETY..................……………………………7





To : Director of Institute of Occupational Safety and Health.
From : Manager of Institute of Occupational Safety and Health.
Subject : Increase usage of mobile phone causes disadvantages among university students.
Scope : Disadvantages of mobile phone.
Purpose : To indicate health and social issue and recommendation to reduce the impact.
Date` : 3rd July 2018

REF: Report about impact of mobile phone usage which is causing health issues among university students

The purpose of this report is to inform and draw your kind attention referring to the matter above that
requires immediate control measures to be taken on mobile phone usage which is currently causing health
issues among university students. Mobile phones this days, goes beyond the usage of just voice
communication. It provides a multitude of other features and services that includes text messaging (SMS),
multimedia messaging (MMS), photo display and recording, video playback, recording, calendaring & etc.
It is estimated that there are approximately around five billion mobile phone users in recent studies. Mobile
phones may be categorized as common communication medium at current 21st century, therefore almost
31% of the global population uses mobile phones according to Motorola report studies in 2006. According
to Townsend (2002), diffusion of mobile phones was extremely fast and the growth of this technology was
booming rapidly. Apart from the business and technology advancement, there are concerns arising about the
possible health effects on mobile phone usage by medical researchers that is associated with health risk.
According to Weilenmann, A., & Larsson, C. (2001) conducted field studies of public use of mobile
phones among rose among teenagers in Sweden. Mobile phone enable us to store contacts and use its multi-
functional device beside communications. It makes lives easier, while mobile service providers promotes
mobile phone by launching new items like cool ring tones, games, screensavers, and email alerts cellular
companies have practically created a huge market among youth especially university students. The present
studies was sought to establish students to view on cell phones usage in university classrooms in an
educational district in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The findings of the study show that
students were motivated by the cell phone’s use in learning. Even though, cell phones when used rarely for
personnel use are causing distraction to the classmates, majority of the students believed that mobile phone
usage in learning is very effective. Recent research on communication technology (Internet seen as positive,

2015) reports that smart phones plays a significant role in all kinds of people in order to be online in the
internet instead of using old fashioned fixed landline connections and computers. Researches show that
mobile phones can be used in any places such as movie theatres, grocery stores, restaurants, buses and trains
to message someone, make a call, email, search information, take photos, use map etc. (Ling, 1997;
Murtagh, 2002; Campbell & Russo, 2003; Rice & Katz, 2003; Campbell, 2004) whenever you want and
wherever you need.

1. Mobile phone and infection

Mobile phone phones carry important data, but in contact with germs too when the mobile users use
cellphone in restroom. Recently, students of Environmental Health course at South University Columbia
found germs live on cell phones after swabbing 60 students mobile phone. It was contaminated with
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This causes skin infection into painful abscesses
where it causes life-threatening infections in bones, joints, surgical wounds, the bloodstream, heart valves
and lungs. It usually happens at hospitals when the patients exposed to the germs from visitors. Dangerous
bacteria like clostridium difficile (which can cause diarrhea or even inflammation of the colon) and flu
viruses. Studies concluded by Tatem, 2011 cell phones are transmitters of infectious disease. A 2013 project
at the University of Surrey tested a large sampling of smartphones and found fecal coliforms, Streptococcus,
Staphylococcus aureus and much more (Ulgar, 2009).

Recommendation for prevention.

Because mobile phone are constantly within our grubby grasp, they can get pretty gross. Regularly wiping
down mobile phone with moist microfiber cloth and using a sterilizer can eliminate the contact of germs and
bacteria. Using a washable screen protectors for touch screen phone can be advised but it’s costly. Hand
washing regularly will help us. The World Health Organization (WHO) (2009) has issued Guidelines on
Hand Hygiene in Health Care, offering a thorough review of evidence on hand hygiene in healthcare and
specific recommendations to improve hygiene practices and reduce transmission of pathogenic

2. Mobile phones and effect on eyes
Many students reported spending four to six hours with mobile phone which is designed for reading at close
range. They have to focus and position graphics, small texts on phones. It will cause potential vision
problem, red eye, dry eyes, and blurred vision including back pain, neck pain and headaches. Red eyes
usually are caused by allergy, eye fatigue, over-wearing contact lenses or common eye infections such as
pink eye (conjunctivitis)."Eye-genomics" while using mobile phone could be the reason you're experiencing
eye strain, neck and shoulder pain, dry eyes, or blurred vision. A German study suggests that regular use of
cellphones could lead to risk of contracting uveal melanoma, in which tumors form in the layer that makes
up the iris and base of the retina. Digital eye strain or computer vision syndrome is the physical discomfort
felt after long hours in front of a digital screen because of its blue violet light is potentially hazardous and
toxic to the back of eyes. This would include desktop and laptop computers, tablets, e-readers and cell
phones. Screen, blink the average person who does not sit in from of a digital screen will blink the eye about
18 times per minute. This natural blinking, lubricates the eyeball and prevents dry, itching or burning eyes.
However, research shows that those who spend 2 or more hours staring at a digital the eyes less often. This
can result in dry, itchy or burning eye.

Recommendation for Prevention

Cleaning mobile phone screen and making sure it’s been used in bright area can reduce glare on eyes.
Taking frequent breaks while glaring at mobile phone, modifying study room or study area will be a
solution. Lubricating eye drops also can help to keep your eyes moist and healthy and red-free. Hygiene
practices can reduce the risk. By buying an anti-reflective coating and coat it on mobile phone screen can
minimize the glare. Adjust your brightness. Having your screen adjusted to the rightness will prevent eye
problem. By holding mobile phone at least 16 to 18 inches away from eyes could give the eyes a break.
Lastly eyes to be tested regularly.

3. Mobile phone causes depression.

University students with depression are more likely to overuse their phones. Smartphone addiction can be a
major sleep disruptor and causes depression. A study of more than 300 college students found heavier
technology use was tied to greater risk for depression, particularly among those using mobile phone.
Adolescents are often reported with a higher incidence of depression from cell phone addiction. Complex
usage of mobile phone also causes depression. Experts considers that depression and cell phone use can
result to addictive behavior. Cellular devices always serve as an outlet for depression. Consequently,
excessive use of mobile phones can lead to addictive behavior and become dependent on it. Therefore,
proper handling of cellular devices is essential to prevent depression from cell phone addiction. Therefore
lack of sleep does play a role. Lack of sleep caused by another medical illness or by personal problems can
make depression worse. An inability to sleep that lasts over a long period of time is also an important clue
that someone may be depressed. Having a cellphone within reach will disrupt slumber, due to the late night
texts, emails or calls to attend. As a matter of fact, looking at a bright screen prior to bedtime because the
light emitted from mobile phone screens also can suppress release of the natural hormone melatonin, which
signals the brain to go to sleep.

Recommendation for prevention

Regular exercise can be as effective at treating depression as medication. Not only does exercise boost
serotonin, endorphins, and other feel-good brain chemicals, it triggers the growth of new brain cells and
connections, just like antidepressants do. Keeping in regular contact with friends and family by considering
joining a class or group will reduce the usage of mobile phone. Being a volunteer is a wonderful way to get
social support and help others while also helping yourself. Lastly the best way is to shut off mobile devices
two hours before sleeping will improve sleep cycle and allowing fewer disruptions. Students need eight to
10 hours of sleep for healthy development. Spending more time with friends can also the usage of mobile

4. Mobile usage causes symptoms of anxiety
Anxiety is a word we use for some types of fear that are usually to do with the thought of a threat or
something going wrong in the future, rather than right now. Excessive usage of mobile phone do cause
anxiety. It is a term for several disorders that cause nervousness, fear, apprehension, and worrying. The
research looked at people who were tied to their phone and the internet. It found that it appeared to be doing
damage to the way their brain works, causing chemical unbalances that could cause severe anxiety and
tiredness. Symptoms can be wide-ranging: the mind goes blank or other cognitive functions are lost,
obsessive thoughts, phobias, chronic worry, ongoing unease, sweaty palms, tension headaches, trembling,
difficulty breathing, dizziness, panic attacks, increased heart rate and palpitations. These disorders affect
how we feel and behave and can cause physical symptoms. Mild anxiety is vague and unsettling, while
severe anxiety can seriously affect day-to-day living.

Recommendation for prevention

Stress hormones decrease, energy level increases when on feels better. Students must take thigs positively
and have a quality of life and where the feeling of empowerment increases. Research has shown that
focusing on positive emotions like appreciation can greatly reduce the effects of stress and deliver a more
calm peaceful state. Reducing “overwhelm”, time pressure, information and stimulation overload, mentally
scattered feelings and impatience. They can do activities that will improve memory and cognitive functions.
By doing physical exercise you increasing concentration, and this can take your mind off your fear and
anxiety. They should shift the focus to in-person interaction. Lastly should be considerate with your phone

5. Mobile phone causes accidents

Overuse of mobile phone effects quality of sleep and general health among students. A study investigated
450 Occupational Health and Safety in five universities in North East of Iran in 2014. In this studies
Questionnaires, Cell Phone Overuse Scale, Pittsburghs’s Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and General Health
Questionnaire (GHQ) used to study the excessive use of phone. In 2016, it was reported the mobile phone
exploded and caused severe injuries to the owner. Besides that it increases stress level. Using phone while
driving creates accidents on road. According to a 2005 study by Insurance for Highway Safety. Risks of
using a cellular phone while driving, causes vehicle collisions that are harmful in many ways. These

collisions can result in minor, serious, crippling, and even fatal injuries. Collisions result in property damage
to vehicles that is often expensive to repair. There are also related health care costs, litigation expenses,
insurance administration, lost work time, and other adverse ramifications of collisions. In urban areas, each
collision occurring in rush hour can induce a cascade of traffic congestion, emergency response time, and
grief for those affected. Thus, if use of cellular phones while driving causes more collisions, motorists and
policymakers should be concerned. Businesses and insurers may also become concerned since these firms
bear a significant fraction of the monetary costs of motor vehicle collisions. For example, searching for a
phone in the vehicle, reaching for a phone to initiate or receive a call, dialing, holding a phone near the ear
while talking and driving, picking up a phone that has been dropped, and so forth. Even use of a hands-free
phone can be distracting to the driver.

Recommendation for prevention

A proper legislative frameworks done ,An EU project review indicates diversity in the approach to
regulation and legislation in the 27 EU Member States, Switzerland and Iceland (Janitsek et al, SMART,
2009; Avenoso, 2012). Most EU countries except Sweden have introduced legislation aimed at restricting
the use of car telephones and banning the use of hand-held phones. Australia and many US states also ban
the use of hand-held phones. Some countries address telephone use while driving in legislation through the
broader issue of driver distraction, careless or dangerous driving. Bans on text messaging while driving is a
must. Generally in Europe, text messaging is included in the general bans use on the use of a hand held
phone. In the US text messaging is specifically banned for all drivers in 10 states (Alaska, Arkansas,
California, Connecticut, Louisiana, Minnesota, New Jersey, Utah, Virginia and Washington) and the District
of Columbia. Raising awareness where, the dangers of using a hand-held or hands-free mobile phone while
driving. Drivers the need to go to voicemail, or to switch the phone off while driving, and to stop in a safe
place to check messages, or to allow a passenger to use the phone.

6. Mobile phone and social issue
In 2015, CNN reported that the academic skills of students have been risen up after banning cell
phones in schools. All schools that prohibited the students from carrying cell phones has assisted students to
achieve well on exams and decreased the enticements of students to use cell phones for the purposes which
are not related to academic (Kottasova, 2015). A study conducted in the US reveals that the tertiary students
play games on their cell phone while the lecture was going on (Gillroy, 2004). Wash (2009) finds that Mt.
Spokane High School in the state of Washington implemented a jammer to keep a barrier among students
from making calls and messaging Among these behaviours are health compromising behaviours which
result in individuals foregoing opportunities to engage in physical activity, anti-social behaviours which
result in spending less time with family and friends, neglect of important responsibilities such as academic
and career responsibilities and disordered eating behaviors. In some instances, addiction to sexting has been
reported (Weiss & Samenow, 2010). Most of student surf the Internet, use e-mail, social networks, play
online games, visiting chat rooms and Facebook. Usage of cell phones takes too much time which means
less interaction and less time available for studying. Bad behavior, ethical issues, lack of focus on health-
related activities and arguments with parents or family members also occurred as a result of their cell phone
use. According to research (e.g. Ha, Chin, Park, Ryu & Yu, 2008; Yen, Hsiao, Ko, Yen, Huang, Liu, &
Wang, 2010; Wang et al., 2011) has found that the technology is capable of contributing to changing
behavior of individuals. Chen, Hsieh & Kinshuk (2008) reported that the use of mobile phones resulted in
increased confidence and enjoyment among students. Hatch (2011), on the other hand, suggests that the
more students are engaged in communicating through electronic media and less face-to-face, the more they
begin to feel lonely, shy and depressed. Technological advances, labor-saving devices and passive forms of
electronic entertainment used during leisure time require less energy expenditure in the domestic and
occupational settings and have resulted in minimizing physical activity. Through other psychosocial aspects
of individuals such as their self-concepts, sense of mastery or self-efficacy over their lives. In some
instances mobile technology has been found to influence physical well-being associated with
musculoskeletal disorders resulting from sustained and awkward postures adopted by individuals while
using mobile technology (Pitman, 2008). Excessive usage of mobile phone lead to numerous family
problems, including excessive family conflict, ineffective problem solving, lack of intimacy, and weak
emotional bonding.

Recommendation for prevention.

Participation in day-to-day formal and informal activities is vital. Recognition of the importance of
involvement in activity centers on its positive influence on the development of skills and competences,
social relationships, and long-term mental and physical health (Werner 1989, Caldwell and Gilbert 1990,
Lyons 1993, Larson and Verma 1999, Simeonsson et al. 2001, Forsyth and Jarvis 2002). Participation on
physical and recreation activity can promote health and prevent the onset of disease including
cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis, forms of cancer, obesity and injury. ‘Physical
activity promotes wellbeing, physical and mental health, prevents disease, improves social connectedness
and quality of life, provides economic benefits and contributes to environmental sustainability. Effective
communication is an important characteristic of strong, healthy families. Research identifies communication
as an essential building block of strong marital, parent-child, and sibling relationships.


The increase of mobile phone do cause social problem among students. In my opinion it the disadvantages
are more than advantages. In this context, heavy or problem mobile phone use (overuse) has been associated
with somatic complaints, anxiety, and insomnia, depression, psychological distress and an unhealthy
lifestyle. Proper measures should be taken so it will reduce the risk of health hazards. Academic
performance as a progress made towards the goal of achieving educational skills, materials and
Information, usually spanning a discrepancy of disciplines decrease because of social and health problem by
the usage of mobile phone among university students. It could be negatively affect social and medical
problem. It is clear that this analysis shows that there are many disadvantages. In conclusion, we use mobile
phones on daily basis for our obvious advantages, but we also need to be aware of the disadvantages. All
round the world cell phone sales have exceeded the expectations. Some of the suggestion for the students
are to keep up with schedule, turning the phone to grayscale, turning of notification, proper time
management and having a time table enables the students to excel in everything.

Prepared by:
Manager of Institute of Occupational Safety and Health

(2972 WORDS)


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