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January – April 2019

Assignment W-1
Concepts and definitions


S. R. Kale
School of Engineering and Applied Science, Ahmedabad University
Department of Mechanical Engineering, I.I.T. Delhi

© Reserved.
NOC(Nov2018) Engg. Thermo. /Assgn W-1/ (v1)

1A-1 Consider the heating of water in a vessel, see typical photograph below. The
vessel is only the metal of the vessel. A thermodynamic analysis of the water
in the vessel is to be performed assuming that water is not evaporating. In this
respect answer the following questions.

Figure for problem 1A-1: Heating of water in a vessel.

(i) Make a neat sketch showing the vessel (its thickness) and the water in it.
(ii) Clearly show the system boundary which should be 3-dimensional and closed
volume. In a few words clarify what is included and what is not included, as well
as hypothetical surfaces if any.
(iii) Identify mass inflows and outflows (mass flowing across the system boundary,
i.e. from system to surroundings).
(iv) Identify heat and work transfers for the system.
(v) Is this system open, or closed or isolated, and why?
(vi) Which approach will you use to write the governing equations, the control
volume, CV or control mass CM, approach?
(vii) Is this system in equilibrium? If not, then can quasi-equilibrium be justified?
(viii) Is the system in steady state? If not, can quasi- steady state be justified?
(ix) Write one question that can be answered with such an analysis.

Now repeat the above for two different cases: (a) same as above but with water
evaporating, and (b) the system is the vessel only.

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1A-2 The picture of an aircraft engine (aero engine) is shown here. Consider its
exterior body as a system with hypothetical surfaces across the inlet and
exhaust faces. From the support, aviation turbine fuel (ATF) is supplied to the
engine’s combustor. Also, consider when the plane is in motion. A cut section
of the engine is also shown. The engine thermodynamics is to be analysed
when it is flight or idling on the ground.

(a) Aircraft engine.


(b) Cut section through an aircraft engine.


Figures for problem 1A-2: An aircraft engine.

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(i) Make a (neat) sketch of the engine.

(ii) Clearly show the system boundary, and write a few words to explain what is
included and what is not. Clearly identify the hypothetical surfaces.
(iii) Identify mass flows across the system boundary.
(iv) Identify work and heat (transfers) for this system.
(v) Classify the system as open, closed or isolated.
(vi) Would you select control volume or control mass approach?

1A-3 A gas in contained in a piston-cylinder arrangement. The piston can move in

the cylinder without allowing the gas to leak through the gap between the piston
and the cylinder bore. The piston moves to decrease the gas volume and the
cylinder is cooled by surrounding air. As a result of the compression, the gas
temperature rises. Make two sketches showing the system boundaries at the
initial state before compression, and a final state after compression. Identify
heat or work interactions for this process.

1A-4 A significant fraction of the thermal energy generated by the combustion of fuel
in an internal combustion (IC) engine is rejected to the ambient air via the
engine coolant and finally through the radiator.
(i) Study an IC engine of a car, bus, truck, earth-moving machine, or locomotive
near you, and attach a photograph of the engine.
(ii) Is the radiator open or closed system? Explain with a neat sketch and the
system boundary.
(iii) When the entire engine is the system, then is it open or closed?
(iv) Identify all mass inflows and outflows for the engine block as a system.

1A-5 Which of the following processes are reversible or irreversible. Under what
conditions could the process be considered to be approximated as quasi-
reversible? Under which conditions can the process be considered to be
internally reversible? In each part, make a sketch(s) and show the system.
(a) Compression of air in a bicycle pump. (system: volume enclosed below the
piston in the pump body).
(b) Cooling of a hot food item in a room (system: food item)
(c) Processes in a LED bulb (system: the bulb body exterior)
(d) A generator powered by a diesel engine producing electric power. (system: the
generator body)
(e) Water flowing in a pipe. (system: the volume inside the pipe over a certain pipe
(f) Inflation of a balloon. (system: air inside the balloon)
(g) Pressing atta/dough ball into a flat circular shape to make a chapati. (system:
the atta/dough)
(h) The supply of power by a battery. (system: the battery body)
(i) The solidification of a plastic after it is injected into a die. (system: plastic in the

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1A-6 The sketch of a burning candle (sketch (a)), and a cross-section through the
candle and wick (sketch (b)) are shown below.

(a) (b)
Figures for problem 1A-6: A burning candle.

(a) Consider a system as the candle and its wick at an instant of time, sketch (b).
The system boundary is shown here.
(i) Show all mass flows, and heat and work for this system.
(ii) Classify it as an open or closed or isolated system.
(iii) Does the system boundary change with time?

(b) Now consider another system which includes only the visible portion of the
flame. Do parts (i)-(iii) for this system.

1A-7 Make a sketch of the devices/equipment described below. Draw a system

boundary and identify if the system is (a) in equilibrium, and (b) in steady state.
Give brief justification for each case. Comment whether the quasi-equilibrium
or quasi-steady state assumptions are justifiable. The matter of interest is listed
in brackets.
1A-7.1 Air being compressed in a cylinder with no opening (air inside the cylinder)
1A-7.2 A closed room in which a window air-conditioner is operating. (air inside the
1A-7.3 A cup of hot tea placed on a table under a ceiling fan. (tea in the cup)
1A-7.4 A pipe in which water is flowing. (water in the pipe)
1A-7.5 Heat sink of a microprocessor. (the metal of the heat sink)

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1A-8 Answer the questions below.

1A-8.1 The gauge, marked in kg/cm2, is connected to a tank; an operator reads and
records it as “5.5”. Ambient pressure is 760 mm Hg. What is the absolute
pressure in the tank?


1A-8.2 A differential manometer is mounted in a vertical position and its appearance

is shown below. On an attached meter scale, left leg reads 12.4 cm and the
right leg reads 57.2 cm. Calculate the pressure difference in kPa. (Is this
gauge pressure or absolute pressure or neither?)

1A-8.3 A pressure cooker blows its whistle at 1.5 bar(g). At what pressure is food
being cooked inside it?

What will be the cooking pressure at an altitude of 5,000 m where ambient

pressure is about 54 kPa?

1A-8.4 The pressure in an air reservoir is 1.2 bar. The barometer reads 745 mm Hg.
What will be the corresponding reading from a pressure gauge (or pressure

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1A-8.5 The appearance of a vertical mercury manometer attached to a pipe is shown

below. What is the pressure in the pipe?




1A-9 Considering an underground space from which a well draws water. Consider
two states, viz., a summer day and another day at the end of the monsoon. The
water quantity in the reservoir is to be analysed. With a sketch show the system
boundary and show all mass and energy inflows and outflows. Should the
analysis be carried out with CM or CV approach?

1A-10 A gas expands inside a cylinder-piston arrangement. The initial state is (a) and
final state is (d). Two intermediate states are shown at (b) and (c). The piston
is pushing a load and the cylinder could be losing heat to the surroundings. The
expansion of the gas is to be studied. There is no leakage between the cylinder
and piston. There could be friction between the piston and cylinder inner walls.
(i) Show the system boundary in each case and mass flows, heat and work.
(ii) Is this an open or closed system? Which approach would you choose?
(iii) Would your decision at (i)-(ii) above change if there were no friction between
the piston and cylinder walls?
(iv) For states (b) and (c), is the gas in equilibrium?
(v) What can one say about intermediate states between the four shown here?
(vi) If the path from (a) to (d) were given by a mathematical relation, would it mean
that the system was in equilibrium at each and every time during the expansion

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(a) (b) (c) (d)

1A-11 Water flows through a set of tubes over which hot gases flow. The gases cool
down by transferring energy to the tube which in turn transfers the energy to the
water flowing inside it. The arrangement for one tube is shown below.

It is desired to study the water as it flows through the tubes. Which of the
following system boundaries is best suited for this purpose? Give supporting
reasons in each case.



(a) (b)



(c) (d)

1A-12 A flutist is playing a flute in an auditorium. Consider the flute to be the system.
Will the playing of the flute be an open or a closed system? Show the system
boundary with a clear diagram, and identify all mass and energy inflows and
outflows across this system boundary.


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