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com

Lecture

Image Enhancement in the

Frequency Domain

Cosimo Distante

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

Background

expressed as the sum of sines and/or cosines of

different frequencies, each multiplied by a

different coefficient (Fourier series).

• Even functions that are not periodic (but whose

area under the curve is finite) can be expressed as

the integral of sines and/or cosines multiplied by a

weighting function (Fourier transform).

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

Background

refers to the plane of the two

dimensional discrete Fourier

transform of an image.

• The purpose of the Fourier

transform is to represent a

signal as a linear combination

of sinusoidal signals of

various frequencies.

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

and the Frequency Domain

– Fourier transform (continuous case)

∞

F (u ) = ∫ f ( x)e − j 2πux dx where j = − 1

−∞

– Inverse Fourier transform: e jθ = cosθ + j sin θ

∞

f ( x) = ∫ F (u )e j 2πux du

−∞

• The two-dimensional Fourier transform and its inverse

– Fourier transform (continuous case)

∞ ∞

F (u, v) = ∫ ∫ f ( x, y)e − j 2π (ux+vy ) dxdy

−∞ −∞

– Inverse Fourier transform:

∞ ∞

f ( x, y ) = ∫ ∫ F (u, v)e j 2π (ux+vy ) dudv

−∞ −∞

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

and the Frequency Domain

– Fourier transform (discrete case) DCT

M −1

1 − j 2πux / M

F (u ) = ∑ f ( x )e for u = 0,1,2,..., M − 1

M x =0

M −1

f ( x) = ∑ F (u )e j 2πux / M for x = 0,1,2,..., M − 1

u =0

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

and the Frequency Domain

then discrete Fourier transform can be redefined

M −1

1

F (u ) = ∑ f ( x)[cos 2πux / M − j sin 2πux / M ]

M x =0

for u = 0,1,2,..., M − 1

which the values of F(u) range; because u determines the

frequency of the components of the transform.

– Frequency (time) component: each of the M terms of F(u).

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

and the Frequency Domain

F (u ) = F (u ) e jφ ( u )

1

[ 2

where F (u ) = R (u ) + I (u ) 2

]2 (magnitude or spectrum)

⎡ I (u ) ⎤

−1

φ (u ) = tan ⎢ ⎥ (phase angle or phase spectrum)

⎣ R(u ) ⎦

– R(u): the real part of F(u)

– I(u): the imaginary part of F(u)

• Power spectrum:

2

P(u) = F (u) = R2 (u) + I 2 (u)

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

Example

The One-Dimensional Fourier Transform

Some Examples

The One-Dimensional Fourier Transform

Some Examples

T is an infinite train of delta functions spaced by 1/T.

appropriate positive and negative frequency.

The One-Dimensional Fourier Transform

Some Examples

function at the appropriate positive frequency and a negative

complex delta at the appropriate negative frequency.

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

and the Frequency Domain

– Fourier transform (discrete case) DTC

1 M −1 N −1 − j 2π ( ux / M + vy / N )

F (u, v) = ∑∑ f ( x , y ) e

MN x =0 y =0

for u = 0,1,2,..., M − 1, v = 0,1,2,..., N − 1

– Inverse Fourier transform:

M −1 N −1

f ( x, y ) = ∑∑ F (u, v)e j 2π (ux / M + vy / N )

u =0 v =0

• x, y : the spatial or image variables

© 2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

and the Frequency Domain

spectrum as follows:

1

[ 2

F (u, v) = R (u, v) + I (u, v) 2

]2 ( spectrum)

⎡ I (u, v) ⎤

φ (u, v) = tan −1 ⎢ ⎥ (phase angle)

⎣ R(u, v) ⎦

2

P(u,v) = F (u, v) = R 2 (u, v) + I 2 (u, v) (power spectrum)

– I(u,v): the imaginary part of F(u,v)

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

and the Frequency Domain

M N

[

ℑ f ( x, y )(−1) x+ y

] = F (u − , v − ) (shift)

2 2

M −1 N −1

1

F (0,0) = ∑∑ f ( x, y) (average)

MN x =0 y =0

F (u, v) = F (−u,−v) (symmetric)

The Two-Dimensional DFT and Its Inverse

1. taking the 1D DFT of every row of image f(x,y), F(u,y),

2. taking the 1D DFT of every column of F(u,y)

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

shift

© 2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

The Two-Dimensional DFT and Its Inverse

The Property of Two-Dimensional DFT

Rotation

DFT

DFT

The Property of Two-Dimensional DFT

Linear Combination

A

DFT

B

DFT

0.25 * A

+ 0.75 * B

DFT

The Property of Two-Dimensional DFT

Expansion

A

DFT

B DFT

the empty new values with zeros, results in the same DFT.

Two-Dimensional DFT with Different Functions

Rectangle

Its DFT

Two-Dimensional DFT with Different Functions

function

Impulses

Its DFT

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

⎧ 0 if (u, v) = ( M / 2, N / 2)

H (u, v) = ⎨

⎩1 otherwise.

– All this filter would do is set F(0,0) to zero (force the average value of

an image to zero) and leave all frequency components of the Fourier

transform untouched.

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

Lowpass filter

Highpass filter

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

the Spatial and Frequency Domain

• Convolution theorem:

– The discrete convolution of two functions f(x,y) and h(x,y)

of size M×N is defined as

M −1 N −1

1

f ( x, y ) ∗ h ( x, y ) = ∑∑ f (m, n)h( x − m, y − n)

MN m =0 n =0

f(x,y) and h(x,y), then

f ( x, y ) ∗ h( x, y ) ⇔ F (u, v) H (u, v) Eq. (4.2-31)

f ( x, y )h( x, y ) ⇔ F (u, v) ∗ H (u, v) Eq. (4.2-32)

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

the Spatial and Frequency Domain

coordinates (x0,y0)

M −1 N −1

∑∑ s( x, y) Aδ ( x − x , y − y ) = As( x , y )

x =0 y =0

0 0 0 0

M −1 N −1

∑∑ s( x, y)δ ( x, y) = s(0,0)

x =0 y =0

where δ ( x, y) : a unit impulse located at the origin

• The Fourier transform of a unit impulse at the origin (Eq.

(4.2-35)) : 1 M −1 N −1 1− j 2π ( ux / M + vy / N )

F (u, v) = ∑∑ δ ( x, y )e =

MN x =0 y =0 MN

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

the Spatial and Frequency Domain

1 M −1 N −1

f ( x, y ) ∗ h ( x, y ) = ∑∑ δ (m, n)h( x − m, y − n)

MN m=0 n =0

1

= h ( x, y )

MN

• Combine Eqs. (4.2-35) (4.2-36) with Eq. (4.2-31), we obtain

f ( x, y ) ∗ h( x, y ) ⇔ F (u, v) H (u, v)

δ ( x, y ) ∗ h( x, y ) ⇔ ℑ[δ ( x, y )]H (u, v)

1 1

h ( x, y ) H (u, v)

MN MN

h( x, y ) ⇔ H (u, v)

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

the Spatial and Frequency Domain

given the equation

−u 2 / 2σ 2

H (u) = Ae

where σ : the standard deviation of the Gaussian curve.

• The corresponding filter in the spatial domain is

−2π 2σ 2 x 2

h( x) = 2π σAe

Gaussian function are real Gaussian functions.

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

the Spatial and Frequency Domain

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

the Spatial and Frequency Domain

• One very useful property of the Gaussian function is that both it and its

Fourier transform are real valued; there are no complex values associated

with them.

• In addition, the values are always positive. So, if we convolve an image

with a Gaussian function, there will never be any negative output values to

deal with.

• There is also an important relationship between the widths of a Gaussian

function and its Fourier transform. If we make the width of the function

smaller, the width of the Fourier transform gets larger. This is controlled

by the variance parameter σ2 in the equations.

• These properties make the Gaussian filter very useful for lowpass filtering

an image. The amount of blur is controlled by σ2. It can be implemented

in either the spatial or frequency domain.

• Other filters besides lowpass can also be implemented by using two

different sized Gaussian functions.

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

G(u, v) = H (u, v) F (u, v)

where F(u,v): the Fourier transform of the image to be smoothed

H(u,v): a filter transfer function

frequency domain.

• There are several standard forms of lowpass filters (LPF).

– Ideal lowpass filter

– Butterworth lowpass filter

– Gaussian lowpass filter

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

• The simplest lowpass filter is a filter that “cuts off” all high-

frequency components of the Fourier transform that are at a

distance greater than a specified distance D0 from the origin of

the transform.

• The transfer function of an ideal lowpass filter

⎧1 if D(u, v) ≤ D0

H (u, v) = ⎨

⎩0 if D(u, v) > D0

where D(u,v) : the distance from point (u,v) to the center of ther

frequency rectangle

1

[

D(u, v) = (u − M / 2) 2 + (v − N / 2) ]

2 2

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

With order n

1

H (u, v) = 2n

1 + [D(u, v) / D0 ]

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

Butterworth Lowpass

Filters (BLPFs)

n=2

D0=5,15,30,80,and 230

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

Spatial Representation

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

− D 2 ( u ,v ) / 2 D02

H (u, v) = e

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

Gaussian Lowpass

Filters (FLPFs)

D0=5,15,30,80,and 230

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

H hp (u , v) = H lp (u , v)

Ideal highpass filter

⎧0 if D(u, v) ≤ D0

H (u, v) = ⎨

⎩1 if D(u, v) > D0

1

H (u, v) = 2n

1 + [D0 / D(u, v)]

− D 2 ( u ,v ) / 2 D02

H (u, v) = 1 − e

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

Highpass Filters

Spatial Representations

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

⎧0 if D(u, v) ≤ D0

H (u, v) = ⎨

⎩1 if D(u, v) > D0

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

1

H (u, v) = 2n

1 + [D0 / D(u, v)]

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

− D 2 ( u ,v ) / 2 D02

H (u, v) = 1 − e

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

H (u, v) = −(u 2 + v 2 )

• Shift the center:

⎡ M N ⎤

H (u, v) = − ⎢(u − ) 2 + (v − ) 2 ⎥

⎣ 2 2 ⎦ Frequency

domain

Spatial domain

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

g ( x, y ) = f ( x, y ) − ∇ 2 f ( x , y )

where

∇ 2 f ( x, y ) : the Laplacian - filtered

image in the spatial domain

For display

purposes only

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

Implementation

Some Additional Properties of the 2D Fourier Transform

shift

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

Implementation

Some Additional Properties of the 2D Fourier Transform

• Separability

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

of the 2-D Fourier Transform

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

of the 2-D Fourier Transform

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

of the 2-D Fourier Transform

Image Processing www.imageprocessingbook.com

of the 2-D Fourier Transform

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