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Foreign Literature

One of the most well-known alcohol and biofuel that can be produced from corn, potatoes,

wheat sugar cane, cornstalks and some vegetable wastes is Bioethanol. It is an ethanol that is

produced using familiar methods, such as fermentation and a biofuel for providing enough energy

as an alternative fuel for vehicles used in transportation. Ethanol is a clear, colorless liquid. They

are also biodegradable, and toxicity is low which causes a little less pollution in the environment

if it is split. Fuel and energy crops are the major sources of sugar that are needed to produce

ethanol. These energy crops are developed for using energy and include maize and wheat crop,

corn, waste straw, willow, sawdust, and many more. There is still some ongoing research on how

to produce ethanol fuel by municipal solid wastes. Ethanol can produce carbon dioxide and water

by means of burning. It will burn more completely and reduces polluting emissions if they

oxygenate the fuel mixture by blending ethanol with gasoline. It is also a high-octane fuel and is

an octane enhancer that replaced lead in petrol (Oligae, 2017).

Cellulose is abundant on Earth and is composed of glucose or sugar, which can be broken

down and convert into ethanol and other biofuels. These are connected into long chains located

inside the cell wall of a plant. These chains of glucose are found in a complicated network of

supplementary sugars such as hemicellulose. Lignin protects this web and provides sugars

containing high energy (GLBioenergy, 2011).

Ethanol can also be used in fireplaces for heating homes or for decorating purposes

(Immergut, 2016).

Production of ethanol can be from any harvest or any plant which comprises of large

amount of sugar or substances such as cellulose or starch. that is possible for it to turn into sugar

and be fermented into ethanol (West, 2017).

Hemicellulose, also called polyose, is a medium of polysaccharides for instance

arabinoxylans, that can survive in nearly all the cell walls of different plants. It is a polysaccharide

which is present in most plants’ biomasses: roughly 20%-30% dry weight plants. This compound,

if linked with cellulose, gives strength to the cell wall’s structure and its physique. Other than

glucose, other components present in hemicellusoses are galactose, rhamnose, xylose, and

arabinose. This substance also has a smaller quantity of chains of about 500 and 3000 units of

sugar with a divided arrangement (Abey S.D, 2016).

Cellulose material and wood are composed of cellulose, lignin, hemi-cellulose and other

compunds. Not like traditional techniques which uses cellulose only, the continuous utilization of

hemi-cellulose and cellulose improves the amount of ethanol being produced by roughly 10% (A.

Tanimura, 2015).

Lignin is one of the most abundant polymer on Earth. Lignin is found in the cell wall of

plants. Lignin can produce fire effectively (Anonymous, 2015).

To provide a structural function to plants, Lignin and cellulose work together. The

cellulose, also known as glass fibres, are the fibrous components that are the primary load-

bearing elements of plants. On the other hand, lignin or epoxy resin provides the plants’ stiffness

and rigidity (Lignoworks 2016).

Lignin can be used commercially, industrial related, agricultural purposes related, many

more. Lignin present in plants can be an alternative to fuel (Anonymous, 2015).

Carbohydrate is a common compound present in plants especially when plants grow.

Carbohydrate can be in the form of sugars that are found in fruits, starch on potatoes and other

starchy foods, and cellulose which can be found in all parts of plants (GLBioenergy, 2011).

To create cellulosic ethanol, the plant’s material is sliced into fine pieces. Tangles are

removed using the pretreatment process. During the pretreatment, lignin and cellulose became
loose from the hemicellulose due to chemicals and heat. After the pretreatment of the plant

material, enzymes are utilized for dividing the glucose chains and is converted into individual

sugars. The sugars will be placed in a large tank and there the sugars will be fermented by the

microorganisms like yeast. The microorganisms will absorb the sugars and will release ethanol

as the product (GLBioenergy, 2011).

Cell walls of plants are made of lignocellulose that has three components which are

hemicellulose and cellulose combined by lignin. In biofuel production, pretreatments are done to

lignocellulose, then is hydrolyzed and are exposed to enzymes. Exposure to enzymes aids in

breaking down the lignocellulose into sugars like glucose, then are distilled and fermented so

ethanol is produced. One process is gasifying the cellulose found in lignocellulose to turn into

hydrogen and carbon monoxide, these gases are then converted to ethanol by the process of

fermentation or catalysis of chemicals. Even if hemicellulose is a type of sugar, conventional

enzymes cannot ferment its monosaccharides and convert into ethanol. As an alternative, the

hemicelluloses are turned into lactic acid throughout the fermentation process (Hughes, 2015).

Lignin consists of three units of aromatic polymer which are the sinapyl, coniferyl, and the

coumaryl alcohols. Coniferyl alcohol, which can be found in any plant species, is mostly abundant

in softwoods, and conifers. Coumaryl alcohol can also be found on crops and grasses (Hughes,


Glycolysis is a process where the glucose is split into two pyruvate molecules with each

having three carbon atoms. After glycolysis, there is a process called as ethanol or alcohol

fermentation. It is the process where ethanol or alcohol is produced by fermenting. the pyruvate

left behind after glycolysis is the loss of their carboxyl group by the pyruvate decarboxylase. When

a carboxyl group is removed, that group is going to be carbon dioxide and it will be released. The

part that remained is going to be acetaldehyde. That acetaldehyde can be reduced and one way

it is reduced is by the NADH. Once it is reduced, it will turn into ethanol (Khan Academy, 2015).
Ethanol fermentation or alcohol fermentation is where simple sugars are turned into

ethanol and carbon dioxide by yeast. Alcohol fermentation occurs in the cytosol of yeast cells

where oxygen is not present. Ethanol fermentation is divided into two parts. The first part is the

glycolysis or when the yeast breaks down the glucose and converted into pyruvate. The second

part is fermentation or when the pyruvate is transformed into carbon dioxide and ethanol (Mikell,


Denatured alcohol is a type of ethanol that has the presence of additives to prevent people

to consume the product. Denatured alcohol can be used for various ways such as for cleaning,

an additive in fuels, and a solvent. Different types of additives can be used with 10% of methyl

alcohol being a usual decision in producing denatured alcohol. The purpose of the additive used

is to make the ethanol not pure so that it is inedible, and the additive does not affect the ethanol.

Denatured alcohol is a good solvent to obtain since it is cheap and miscible with water. Denatured

alcohol can be ignited very easily or sensitive to flames. Denatured alcohol can cause dizziness

when it is inhaled. Don’t make skin contact or eye contact because denatured alcohol is toxic

(Industrial Degreasers, 2013)